Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Thiamine Triphosphate: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium hydroxide, inner salt, P,P',P''-trioxide. The triphosphate ester of thiamine. In Leigh's disease, this compound is present in decreased amounts in the brain due to a metabolic block in its formation.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Uridine Triphosphate: Uridine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A uracil nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Cytidine Triphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Inosine Triphosphate: Inosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). An inosine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonym: IRPPP.Deoxyribonucleotides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.Thymine Nucleotides: Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Deoxyadenine Nucleotides: Adenine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Nucleoside-Triphosphatase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates to nucleoside diphosphates. It may also catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotide triphosphates, diphosphates, thiamine diphosphates and FAD. The nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolases I and II are subtypes of the enzyme which are found mostly in viruses.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pyrophosphatases: A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.Adenine NucleotidesEthenoadenosine Triphosphate: 1,N-6-Ethenoadenosine triphosphate. A fluorescent analog of adenosine triphosphate.Ribonucleotides: Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.Guanine NucleotidesDeoxyguanine Nucleotides: Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Deoxycytosine Nucleotides: Cytosine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Arabinofuranosylcytosine Triphosphate: A triphosphate nucleotide analog which is the biologically active form of CYTARABINE. It inhibits nuclear DNA synthesis.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Thionucleotides: Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.Polyphosphates: Linear polymers in which orthophosphate residues are linked with energy-rich phosphoanhydride bonds. They are found in plants, animals, and microorganisms.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Cytosine NucleotidesGuanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Deoxyuracil Nucleotides: Uracil nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.Uracil NucleotidesGuanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Arabinonucleotides: Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Acid Anhydride Hydrolases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds in compounds such as nucleoside di- and tri-phosphates, and sulfonyl-containing anhydrides such as adenylylsulfate. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.6.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate: Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases: A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Deoxyribonucleosides: A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors: Intracellular receptors that bind to INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE and play an important role in its intracellular signaling. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are calcium channels that release CALCIUM in response to increased levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the CYTOPLASM.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Pyrimidine Nucleotides: Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.Inosine NucleotidesDiphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Cytidine: A pyrimidine nucleoside that is composed of the base CYTOSINE linked to the five-carbon sugar D-RIBOSE.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Purine Nucleotides: Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.GTP Cyclohydrolase: (GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).Vidarabine Phosphate: An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.Arabinonucleosides: Nucleosides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Receptors, Purinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Deoxycytidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of deoxycytidine with the formation of a nucleoside diphosphate and deoxycytidine monophosphate. Cytosine arabinoside can also act as an acceptor. All natural nucleoside triphosphates, except deoxycytidine triphosphate, can act as donors. The enzyme is induced by some viruses, particularly the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS). EC 2.7.1.74.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phosphorus Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Neopterin: A pteridine derivative present in body fluids; elevated levels result from immune system activation, malignant disease, allograft rejection, and viral infections. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Neopterin also serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of biopterin.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y2: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and UTP. The activated P2Y2 receptor acts through a G-PROTEIN-coupled PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and intracellular CALCIUM SIGNALING pathway.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.ThymidineReverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Ribonucleotide ReductasesNucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.DNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Deoxyadenosines: Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.TritiumCoformycin: A ribonucleoside antibiotic synergist and adenosine deaminase inhibitor isolated from Nocardia interforma and Streptomyces kaniharaensis. It is proposed as an antineoplastic synergist and immunosuppressant.Acyclovir: A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Sugar PhosphatesFormycins: Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.Nucleotide Deaminases: Catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleotides with the elimination of ammonia.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Pterins: Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.5'-Nucleotidase: A glycoprotein enzyme present in various organs and in many cells. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a 5'-ribonucleotide to a ribonucleoside and orthophosphate in the presence of water. It is cation-dependent and exists in a membrane-bound and soluble form. EC 3.1.3.5.AminohydrolasesAntiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Cytidine Diphosphate: Cytidine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. Synonyms: CRPP; cytidine pyrophosphate.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).ATP Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway for histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. ATP reacts reversibly with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield N-1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-ATP and pyrophosphate. EC 2.4.2.17.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.UridineMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Phosphonoacetic Acid: A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.3-Deazauridine: 4-Hydroxy-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)-2-pyridinone. Analog of uridine lacking a ring-nitrogen in the 3-position. Functions as an antineoplastic agent.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Floxuridine: An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.GuanineProtein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Thymidine Monophosphate: 5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Guanosine Monophosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Purinergic P2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Transducin: A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Nucleotidases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 2.7.7.7.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-: An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleotide used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often called the "molecular unit of currency": ... Walker for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the other ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Adenosine_triphosphate&oldid=6562245" ...
Anderson, E.P.; Brockman, R.W. "Feedback onhibition of uridine kinase by cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate". ... This is the first step in the production of the pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates required for RNA and DNA synthesis. In ... "Cyclopentenylcytosine triphosphate. Formation and inhibition of CTP synthetase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (2): ...
Nave, C.R. (2005). "Adenosine Triphosphate". Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. Georgia State University. Douglass, JG; ...
ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate ... ISBN 0-7167-7108-X. Nave, C.R. (2005). "Adenosine Triphosphate". Hyper Physics [serial on the Internet]. Georgia State ...
Pyrimidine biosynthesis Lieberman I (1956). "Enzymatic amination of uridine triphosphate to cytidine triphosphate". The Journal ... The triphosphate binding site overlaps with that of UTP, but the nucleoside moiety of CTP binds in an alternative pocket ... CTP (cytidine triphosphate) synthetase catalyzes the last committed step in pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis: ATP + UTP + ... Kassel KM, Au da R, Higgins MJ, Hines n M, Graves LM (2010). "Regulation of human cytidine triphosphate synthetase 2 by ...
Pieringer R.A.; Hokin L.E.; adenosine triphosphate (1962). "Biosynthesis of lysophosphatdic acid from monoglyceride". J. Biol. ...
The cofactors S-Adenosyl methionine (AdoMet), hydrolyzed adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and magnesium (Mg2+) ions, are required ... ISBN 978-0-470-08766-4. Dryden DT, Murray NE, Rao DN (Sep 2001). "Nucleoside triphosphate-dependent restriction enzymes". ...
Other names in common use include deoxyuridine-triphosphatase, dUTPase, dUTP pyrophosphatase, desoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate ... Grindey GR, Nichol CA (1971). "Mammalian deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphatase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 240 (2): 180-3 ...
... adenosine triphosphate, the energy molecule; and oxygen. It occurs in modified excretory organs known as Malpighian tubules in ...
"Figure 3". from Dryden, D. T. F.; Murray, NE; Rao, DN (2001). "Nucleoside triphosphate-dependent restriction enzymes". Nucleic ...
ADA Adenosine triphosphate, elevated, of erythrocytes; 102900; PKLR Adenylosuccinase deficiency; 103050; ADSL Adiponectin ...
Ashcroft, F. M. (1988). "Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate-Sensitive Potassium Channels". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 11: 97-118. ...
Stryer, Biochemistry Atkinson DE, Walton GM (1967). "Adenosine triphosphate conservation in metabolic regulation. Rat liver ...
Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (gene: ENTPD1; protein: NTPDase1) also known as CD39 (Cluster of ... ENTPD1 Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1". Sévigny J, Levesque FP, Grondin G, Beaudoin AR (Feb 1997). " ... "Differential catalytic properties and vascular topography of murine nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (NTPDase1) and ...
ATP: adenosine triphosphate. • AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase. • PGC‐1α: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ...
The ATP test is a process of rapidly measuring actively growing microorganisms through detection of adenosine triphosphate, or ...
Adenosine triphosphate. ATP. P2Y receptors. P2X receptors. PP: Galanins. Galanin. GALR1, GALR2, GALR3. -. ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) driven proton pumps (also referred to as proton ATPases or H+ -ATPases) are proton pumps driven by ... or adenosine triphosphate (ATP; proton ATPases). Complex I (EC 1.6.5.3) (also referred to as NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or ... the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Three classes of proton ATPases are found in nature. In a single cell (for ...
Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENTPD2 gene. The protein encoded ... "Entrez Gene: ENTPD2 ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2". Javed R, Yarimizu K, Pelletier N, et al. (2007). " ... triphosphates. This ecto-ATPase is an integral membrane protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple ... "Regulation of P2Y1 receptor-mediated signaling by the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase isozymes NTPDase1 and ...
Its systematic name is thiamine triphosphate phosphohydrolase. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this ... It catalyzes the chemical reaction thiamine triphosphate + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } thiamine diphosphate + ...
Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENTPD3 gene. ENTPD3 is similar ... Yang F, Hicks-Berger CA, Smith TM, Kirley TL (2001). "Site-directed mutagenesis of human nucleoside triphosphate ... "Entrez Gene: ENTPD3 ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3". Munkonda MN, Kauffenstein G, Kukulski F, et al. (2007 ... Ivanenkov VV, Meller J, Kirley TL (2005). "Characterization of disulfide bonds in human nucleoside triphosphate ...
Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ENTPD5 gene. ENTPD5 is similar ... "Entrez Gene: ENTPD5 ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5". Mulero JJ, Yeung G, Nelken ST, Ford JE (1999). "CD39-L4 ...
A typical water softener is sodium triphosphate. For ferrous metals, the cleaners contain chelating agents, abrasives, and ...
The catalytic conversion of uridine triphosphate (UTP) to cytidine triphosphate (CTP) is accomplished by the enzyme cytidine-5- ... 1999). "Cytidine triphosphate synthase activity and mRNA expression in normal human blood cells". Biol. Chem. 380 (1): 41-6. ... Thomas PE, Lamb BJ, Chu EH (1988). "Purification of cytidine-triphosphate synthetase from rat liver, and demonstration of ... 1991). "Chromosome mapping of the human cytidine-5'-triphosphate synthetase (CTPS) gene to band 1p34.1-p34.3 by fluorescence in ...
DNA Guanosine triphosphate Nucleoside Nucleotide Oligonucleotide RNA. ...
... Identifiers CAS number MeSH adenosine+thiamine+triphosphate ... Adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP), or thiaminylated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide ... Jordan F (2007). "Adenosine triphosphate and thiamine cross paths". Nat. Chem. Biol. 3 (4): 202-3. doi:10.1038/nchembio0407-202 ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Adenosine_thiamine_triphosphate". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
... ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... protein binding ATP binding plasma membrane nucleoside diphosphate catabolic process nucleoside triphosphate catabolic process ... protein binding ATP binding plasma membrane nucleoside diphosphate catabolic process nucleoside triphosphate catabolic process ...
More ELISA Kits for Ectonucleoside Triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 Interaction Partners. Human Ectonucleoside Triphosphate ... ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 (ENTPD5) antibody * ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 (entpd5) ... ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 (LOC100220000) antibody * ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 ( ... ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 , NTPDase5 , ecto-nucleosidase triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5 , CD39 ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine 5-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate (AMP-PNP) binding at the ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) attenuates the copper phenanthroline (CuPhen)-induced decrease in nucleoside triphosphate ... Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3. TM. Transmembrane. TMD. Transmembrane domain. CuPhen. Copper phenanthroline. NEM ... The nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) are a family of nucleotidases, some of which regulate purinergic ...
Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase I Deficiency (GTPCH) deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder which produces a lack of the ... What is Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase I Deficiency (GCH I, GTP Cyclohydrolase, GTPCH)?. Home , Diseases ... PDF/Printable Guide to Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase I Deficiency(GCH I, GTP Cyclohydrolase, GTPCH) ... Guanosine Triphosphate Cyclohydrolase I Deficiency. Key Words: "GTP Cyclohydrolase". Access Listing: 600225. http://www.ncbi. ...
Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 modulates local ATP-induced calcium signaling in human HaCaT keratinocytes ... Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 modulates local ATP-induced calcium signaling in human HaCaT keratinocytes. ... Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 2 modulates local ATP-induced calcium signaling in human HaCaT keratinocytes. ... Pharmacological inhibition by ARL 67156 or gene silencing of the endogenous ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase ( ...
... ethenoadenosine triphosphate (ATP), a fluorescent analogue of ATP: Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. ... [email protected]: Enzymatic studies on the interaction of myosin and heavy meromyosin with 1,N 6- ethenoadenosine triphosphate (ATP), a ... Enzymatic studies on the interaction of myosin and heavy meromyosin with 1,N 6- ethenoadenosine triphosphate (ATP), a ... Enzymatic studies on the interaction of myosin and heavy meromyosin with 1,N 6- ethenoadenosine triphosphate (ATP), a ...
FHIT protein is also known as bis(5-adenosyl)-triphosphatase, diadenosine 5,5-P1,P3-triphosphate hydrolase, AP3A hydrolase ... bis(5-adenosyl)-triphosphatase, diadenosine 5,5-P1,P3-triphosphate hydrolase, AP3A hydrolase, AP3Aase, ...
Acyclovir triphosphate is both an inhibitor of, and a substrate for, herpesvirus-specified DNA polymerase. Although the ... this occurs only at concentrations of acyclovir triphosphate which are higher than those which inhibit the herpesvirus- ... its monophosphate which is then transformed by a number of cellular enzymes to acyclovir diphosphate and acyclovir triphosphate ... cellular a-DNA polymerase in infected cells may also be inhibited by acyclovir triphosphate, ...
... 2007 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical compounds. Adenosine 5-triphosphate. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP), discovered in 1929 by Karl Lohmann, is a multifunctional nucleotide primarily known in ... phosphate groups (triphosphate). The phosphoryl groups, starting with the group closest to the ribose, are referred to as the ... guanosine triphosphate (GTP) through substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl CoA synthetase, three molecules of ...
... is conjugate acid of 7,8-dihydromonapterin 3-triphosphate(4−) (CHEBI:61186) ... 7,8-dihydromonapterin 3-triphosphate (CHEBI:61191) is a neopterins (CHEBI:25500) 7,8-dihydromonapterin 3-triphosphate (CHEBI: ... 7,8-dihydromonapterin 3-triphosphate(4−) (CHEBI:61186) is conjugate base of 7,8-dihydromonapterin 3-triphosphate (CHEBI:61191) ... CHEBI:61191 - 7,8-dihydromonapterin 3-triphosphate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
guanosine 3-diphosphate 5-triphosphate (CHEBI:16690) is conjugate acid of guanosine 3-diphosphate 5-triphosphate(6−) (CHEBI ... guanosine 3-diphosphate 5-triphosphate(6−) (CHEBI:60028) is conjugate base of guanosine 3-diphosphate 5-triphosphate (CHEBI ... guanosine 3-diphosphate 5-triphosphate (CHEBI:16690) is conjugate acid of guanosine 3-diphosphate 5-triphosphate hexaanion ... guanosine 3-diphosphate 5-triphosphate hexaanion (CHEBI:142410) is conjugate base of guanosine 3-diphosphate 5-triphosphate ...
Arabinofuranosylcytosine triphosphate is a nucleotide that inhibits the synthesis of DNA by acting as an antimetabolic agent ...
Nucleoside triphosphates cannot be absorbed well, so all nucleoside triphosphates are typically made de novo. The synthesis of ... A nucleoside triphosphate is a molecule containing a nitrogenous base bound to a 5-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose ... Nucleoside triphosphates also serve as a source of energy for cellular reactions and are involved in signalling pathways. ... Thus, nucleoside triphosphates are a type of nucleotide. Nucleotides are commonly abbreviated with 3 letters. The first letter ...
... seawater or wastewater samples using bioluminescent technology to measure adenosine triphosphate. ...
Triphosphate) can be used in place of dTTP in PCR and RT-PCR to prevent carryover from previous amplifications. ... High-quality deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) are critical for the success of many key procedures such as cDNA synthesis, ... dUTP (2´-Deoxyuridine, 5´-Triphosphate) can be used in place of dTTP in PCR and RT-PCR protocols to prevent carryover from ... Promega dNTPs have greater than 99% triphosphate content and are provided at a concentration of 100mM in water at pH 7.5. ...
... triphosphate. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions. ... adenosine 5′-triphosphate. Pronunciation: ă-den′ō-sēn trī-fos′fāt. Definition: Adenosine with triphosphoric acid esterified at ... Synonym(s): adenosine triphosphate. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information ...
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine, with colleagues at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the University of Manitoba and St. Boniface Hospital Albrechtsen Research Centre in Canada, have identified a molecular signaling pathway that, when blocked, promotes sensory neuron growth and prevents or reverses peripheral neuropathy in cell and rodent models of type 1 and 2 diabetes, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy and HIV.. ...
And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images that features Adenosine Triphosphate photos available for ...
An international team of researchers have designed and built a model biological supercomputer powered by adenosine triphosphate ... An international team of researchers have designed and built a model biological supercomputer powered by adenosine triphosphate ...
Azidothymidine-triphosphate impairs mitochondrial dynamics by disrupting the quality control system. *Nomura R ... Nomura, R., Sato, T., Sato, Y., Medin, J. A., Kushimoto, S., & Yanagisawa, T. (2017). Azidothymidine-triphosphate impairs ... its active metabolite AZT-triphosphate (AZT-TP), caused mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to induction of cell death in H9c2 ...
Adenosine triphosphate. ATP. The three linked phosphoryl groups, starting with that on AMP, are referred to as the alpha (α), ... Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the chemical compound known in biochemistry as the "molecular currency" of intracellular energy ... History of "Adenosine triphosphate". Note: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately ... ATP consists of adenosine and three attached phosphate groups (triphosphate). Adenosine itself is composed of two major ...
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes. Found in all forms of life, ATP ... From the perspective of biochemistry, ATP is classified as a nucleoside triphosphate, which indicates that it consists of three ... In its many reactions related to metabolism, the adenine and sugar groups remain unchanged, but the triphosphate is converted ... Walker for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the other ...
Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is also known as guanosine-5-triphosphate, G3P, and 9-ß-D-ribofuranosylguanine-5-triphosphate ( ... Guanosine triphosphate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is also known as guanosine-5- ... MSN Encarta - Search Results - guanosine triphosphate. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), molecule found in all living organisms ... This process requires adenosine triphosphate, amino acid activating enzymes, and guanosine triphosphate. ...
Get Adenosine Triphosphate pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. Find high-quality stock photos that you wont find ... Adenosine Triphosphate Pictures, Images and Stock Photos. {{query.routeData[artist]}}. *. Related searches:. ...
  • Acyclovir triphosphate is both an inhibitor of, and a substrate for, herpesvirus-specified DNA polymerase. (rxmed.com)
  • Combination therapy using nebulized amiloride hydrochloride and uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) trisodium salt aerosols has been investigated for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). Amiloride in aqueous solution precipitates in the presence of UTP, reducing drug concentrations. (rti.org)
  • Substrate specificity of RdgB protein, a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase. (nih.gov)
  • Inosine 5'-triphosphate (ITP) also functions as an alternative substrate for ATPases and GTPases and has been used to study activation and binding kinetics of nucleoside interaction with various ATPases and GTPases. (trilinkbiotech.com)
  • 1) the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) + adenosine monophosphate (AMP) swab test, which incorporates a luciferase assay and (2) a bacteria count using the dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM) method. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast, pleckstrin homology (PH) domain-containing proteins that bind phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PtdInsP 3 ), including cytosolic regulator of adenylyl cyclase (CRAC), AKT/protein kinase B (PKB), and PH domain-containing protein A (PhdA) in Dictyostelium as well as PKB/AKT in mammalian neutrophils and fibroblasts ( 5 ), are highly localized at the front of chemotaxing cells. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that the RdgB protein is active on 2'-deoxy-N-6-hydroxylaminopurine triphosphate (dHAPTP) as well as deoxyinosine triphosphate. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that RdgB protein and RdgB homologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mouse, and human all possess deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase activity and that all four RdgB homologs have high specificity for dHAPTP and deoxyinosine triphosphate compared with the four canonical dNTPs and several other noncanonical (d)NTPs. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrated that the 5′-triphosphate end of RNA generated by viral polymerases is responsible for retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I)-mediated detection of RNA molecules. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that a key component of HAART, 3ꞌ-azido-3ꞌ-deoxythymidine (AZT), particularly, its active metabolite AZT-triphosphate (AZT-TP), caused mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to induction of cell death in H9c2 cells derived from rat embryonic myoblasts, which serve as a model for cardiomyopathy. (mendeley.com)
  • ECHA organiseert raadplegingen om van alle geïnteresseerde partijen feedback te krijgen en om zo breed mogelijke wetenschappelijke informatie te verzamelen voor de regelgevingsprocedures. (europa.eu)
  • dUTP (2′-Deoxyuridine, 5′-Triphosphate) can be used in place of dTTP in PCR and RT-PCR to prevent carryover from previous amplifications. (fishersci.ca)
  • MONTREAL, Feb. 26 (UPI) -- An international team of researchers have designed and built a model biological supercomputer powered by adenosine triphosphate, or ATP -- a biochemical sometimes called a "molecular unit of currency" because it enables the transfer of energy inside cells. (upi.com)
  • 5′-triphosphate RNA directly binds to RIG-I. Thus, uncapped 5′-triphosphate RNA (now termed 3pRNA) present in viruses known to be recognized by RIG-I, but absent in viruses known to be detected by MDA-5 such as the picornaviruses, serves as the molecular signature for the detection of viral infection by RIG-I. (sciencemag.org)