A pyrimidine inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase, it is an antibacterial related to PYRIMETHAMINE. It is potentiated by SULFONAMIDES and the TRIMETHOPRIM, SULFAMETHOXAZOLE DRUG COMBINATION is the form most often used. It is sometimes used alone as an antimalarial. TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE has been reported.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TRIMETHOPRIM.
A bacteriostatic antibacterial agent that interferes with folic acid synthesis in susceptible bacteria. Its broad spectrum of activity has been limited by the development of resistance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p208)
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.
Inhibitors of the enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE), which converts dihydrofolate (FH2) to tetrahydrofolate (FH4). They are frequently used in cancer chemotherapy. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction 7,8-dihyrofolate and NADPH to yield 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate and NADPH+, producing reduced folate for amino acid metabolism, purine ring synthesis, and the formation of deoxythymidine monophosphate. Methotrexate and other folic acid antagonists used as chemotherapeutic drugs act by inhibiting this enzyme. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 1.5.1.3.
One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A short-acting sulfonamide antibacterial with activity against a wide range of gram- negative and gram-positive organisms.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.
A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A urinary anti-infective agent effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Although sulfonamides and antibiotics are usually the agents of choice for urinary tract infections, nitrofurantoin is widely used for prophylaxis and long-term suppression.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, as well as in manure, soil, and polluted waters. Its species are pathogenic, causing urinary tract infections and are also considered secondary invaders, causing septic lesions at other sites of the body.
One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A hydroxynaphthoquinone that has antimicrobial activity and is being used in antimalarial protocols.

Susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex to lipophilic deazapteridine derivatives, inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase. (1/770)

Twelve lipophilic 2,4-diamino-5-methyl-5-deazapteridine derivatives and trimethoprim were evaluated for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium in vitro. Six of the compounds had MICs of < or =12.8 mg/L and < or =1.28 mg/L against M. tuberculosis and M. avium, respectively; trimethoprim MICs were >128 mg/L and >12.8 but < or =128 mg/L, respectively. Two compounds, with either a 2-methyl-5-methoxy phenyl or 2-methoxy-5-trifluoromethyl phenyl linked at the 6-position of the deazapteridine moiety by a CH2NH bridge, had MICs of < or =0.13 mg/L against M. avium; the two compounds also had apparent I50 values for dihydrofolate reductase of 2 and 8 nM, respectively, compared with an I50 of 400 nM with trimethoprim. Four of the compounds were selectively toxic to mycobacteria as compared with Vero cells. These results demonstrated that lipophilic antifolates can be synthesized which are more active against mycobacteria than trimethoprim and which possess selective toxicity.  (+info)

Renal stones and urinary infection: a study of antibiotic treatment. (2/770)

Twenty-two patients in whom renal calculi and urinary infection were closely associated were studied over two to five years. Four patients had previously had stones surgically removed, and five underwent pyelolithotomy during the course of the study. Urinary infection was treated with an appropriate antibacterial agent, and treatment was followed by long-term prophylaxis, usually with cotrimoxazole. A sterile urine was maintained for long periods in all these patients. In four patients, however, apparent stone growth occurred while the urine was sterile. On entering the study 21 of the 22 patients complained of symptoms. After treatment 19 of the 20 patients who were still attending were symptom-free. Six of the 22 patients entered the study with raised levels of serum creatinine; levels fell in four and remained raised in two. This antibacterial regimen, either alone or after surgery, will usually relieve symptoms and may prevent deterioration of renal function.  (+info)

The pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir in combination with trimethoprim in HIV- and CMV-seropositive patients. (3/770)

AIMS: We investigated the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of oral ganciclovir coadministered with trimethoprim in HIV-and CMV-seropositive patients. METHODS: In an open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover study, 12 adult males received oral ganciclovir 1000 mg every 8h, oral trimethoprim 200 mg once daily, or both drugs concomitantly in a sequence of three 7-day treatment periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined and adverse events recorded for each treatment. RESULTS: The presence of trimethoprim significantly decreased CLr (12.9%, P=0.0068) and increased t1/2 (18.1%, P=0.0378) of ganciclovir. However, these changes are unlikely to be clinically meaningful. There were no statistically significant changes in trimethoprim pharmacokinetic parameters in the presence of ganciclovir, with the exception of a 12.7% increase in Cmin. Ganciclovir was well tolerated when administered alone or in combination with trimethoprin. CONCLUSIONS: There was no clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction between oral ganciclovir and trimethoprim when coadministered.  (+info)

Risk of resistance related to antibiotic use before admission in patients with community-acquired bacteraemia. (4/770)

We analysed the association of antibiotic therapy before admission and antibiotic resistance of blood isolates in a total of 1717 community-acquired bacteraemias in the County of Northern Jutland during 1992-96. Antibiotics had been prescribed to 14% of the patients during the 30 days before admission and to 37% during the 6 months. The most frequently prescribed antibiotics within 30 days were ampicillin (28%), penicillin G (27%), sulphonamides and/or trimethoprim (16%) and macrolides (14%). The most frequent blood isolates were Escherichia coli (33%), other Enterobacteriaceae (8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (23%) and Staphylococcus aureus (10%). Of the 575 isolates of E. coli, 425 (74%), 432 (75%) and 518 (90%) were susceptible to ampicillin, sulphonamides and trimethoprim, respectively. Previous antibiotic prescriptions were strongly associated with resistance to ampicillin, sulphonamides and trimethoprim in E. coli. The association was less pronounced for S. aureus and enteric rods other than E. coli. Antibiotic prescriptions within the last 3 months predicted antibiotic resistance, and this should be taken into account when selecting empirical antibiotic therapy of severe community-acquired infections.  (+info)

Atovaquone suspension compared with aerosolized pentamidine for prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects intolerant of trimethoprim or sulfonamides. (5/770)

Atovaquone suspensions (750 mg and 1500 mg once a day) were compared with aerosolized pentamidine (300 mg once a month) for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who were intolerant to trimethoprim or sulfonamides (or both). Median time using the assigned therapy was 6.6 months, and the median follow-up was 11.3 months. Intent-to-treat analyses (n=549) showed no statistically significant differences among subjects with regard to the incidence of PCP (26%, 22%, and 17%, respectively) or mortality (20%, 13%, and 18%, respectively). The incidence of treatment-limiting adverse events with atovaquone was significantly higher (P<.01). There was, however, no significant difference in the time using therapy. Incidences of PCP and death were higher in subjects receiving 750 mg of atovaquone than in subjects receiving 1500 mg. Atovaquone suspension at 1500 mg once a day has an efficacy similar to that of aerosolized pentamidine for prevention of PCP in HIV-infected subjects and is a safe, effective alternative in those who are intolerant to trimethoprim or sulfonamides.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of gastroenteritis in children. (6/770)

In vitro studies indicates that the constitutents of the drug combination co-trimoxazole are synergistic against Salmonella and effective against shigella isolated from children ill with gastroenteritis. The drug is well absorbed in children with gastroenteritis due to a variety of causes and is distributed, excreted and metabolized in a manner similar to that seen in normal adult volunteers. The drug is tolerated well by children with gastroenteritis even in very high dosages. Despite its in vitro and pharmacokinetic advantages, co-trimoxazole was not any more efficient than any other durg or no therapy in the treatment of salmonella gastroenteritis; it seems to have a role, however, in the treatment of typhoid fever and may be life-saving in patients infected with ampicillin- and chloramphenical-resistant strains. It is also effective in the treatment of shigella gastroenteritis and is recommended where ampicillin-resistant strains are encountered. Its potential usefulenss for the treatment of other bacterial causes of gastroenteritis in children must be evaluated by further controlled therapeutic trials.  (+info)

Metabolism of trimethoprim to a reactive iminoquinone methide by activated human neutrophils and hepatic microsomes. (7/770)

The antibacterial agent, trimethoprim, is normally used synergistically with sulfonamides. Its use is associated with idiosyncratic reactions including liver toxicity and agranulocytosis. In this study, we demonstrated that trimethoprim was oxidized by activated human neutrophils, as well as a combination of myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/chloride or hypochlorous acid, to a reactive pyrimidine iminoquinone methide intermediate with a protonated molecular ion of m/z 289 as detected by mass spectrometry. In the presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the pyrimidine iminoquinone methide could be trapped as three NAC adducts. The three NAC adducts were separable on HPLC, but showed the same protonated molecular ion of m/z 452. The proton NMR spectrum of the major adduct showed that the NAC group was at the 6 position of the pyrimidine ring. The mass spectra of the two minor NAC adducts indicated that they were the two diastereomers in which NAC was attached to the exo-cyclic prechiral carbon of the pyrimidine iminoquinone methide. Incubation of trimethoprim with isolated hepatic microsomes, both human and rat, in presence of NAC gave the same set of trimethoprim-NAC adducts. We propose that the formation of this pyrimidine iminoquinone methide by both hepatic microsomes and neutrophils may be responsible for trimethoprim-induced idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and agranulocytosis.  (+info)

Characterization of MexT, the regulator of the MexE-MexF-OprN multidrug efflux system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (8/770)

We investigated the regulation of the MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is overexpressed in nfxC-type mutants and confers resistance to quinolones, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim. Sequencing of the DNA region upstream of the mexEF-oprN operon revealed the presence of an open reading frame (ORF) of 304 amino acids encoding a LysR-type transcriptional activator, termed MexT. By using T7-polymerase, a 34-kDa protein was expressed in Escherichia coli from a plasmid carrying the mexT gene. Expression of a mexE::lacZ fusion was 10-fold higher in nfxC-type mutants than in the wild-type strain; however, transcription of mexT as well as the mexT DNA region was unchanged. Located adjacent to mexT but transcribed in opposite direction, the beginning of an ORF termed qrh (quinone oxidoreductase homologue) was identified. Expression of a qrh::lacZ fusion was also found to be activated by MexT. Further, we present evidence for coregulation at the transcriptional and the posttranscriptional level between the MexEF-OprN efflux system and the OprD porin responsible for cross-resistance of nfxC-type mutants to carbapenem antibiotics.  (+info)

Trimethoprim is an antibiotic medication that is primarily used to treat bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which is necessary for the synthesis of DNA and protein. This leads to bacterial cell death. Trimethoprim is often combined with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic) to create a more effective antibacterial therapy known as co-trimoxazole or TMP-SMX.

Medical Definition:
Trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial drug that selectively inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate, a cofactor involved in the biosynthesis of thymidine and purines. By blocking this essential pathway, trimethoprim disrupts bacterial DNA and protein synthesis, leading to bacteriostatic activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Trimethoprim is often combined with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic) to create a more effective antibacterial therapy known as co-trimoxazole or TMP-SMX, which inhibits two consecutive steps in the bacterial folate synthesis pathway.

Trimethoprim resistance refers to the ability of certain bacteria to survive and grow in the presence of trimethoprim, a synthetic antibiotic that inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis. This occurs due to genetic changes in the bacteria that make them resistant to the effects of trimethoprim. These genetic changes can include mutations in the target site of the drug or the acquisition of genes that encode for enzymes capable of modifying or degrading the antibiotic.

Trimethoprim resistance is often associated with resistance to sulfamethoxazole, another antibiotic that targets bacterial folate synthesis, as these two drugs are commonly used together in clinical practice. The development and spread of trimethoprim resistance can significantly limit the effectiveness of this antibiotic combination therapy and pose a challenge in the treatment of various bacterial infections.

Sulfamethoxazole is a type of antibiotic known as a sulfonamide. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce folic acid, which is necessary for their growth and survival. Sulfamethoxazole is often combined with trimethoprim (another antibiotic) in a single medication called co-trimoxazole, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections.

The medical definition of Sulfamethoxazole can be found in various pharmaceutical and medical resources, here are some examples:

* According to the Merck Manual, Sulfamethoxazole is a "synthetic antibacterial drug that inhibits bacterial synthesis of folic acid by competing with para-aminobenzoic acid for the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase."
* According to the British National Formulary (BNF), Sulfamethoxazole is a "sulfonamide antibacterial agent, active against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is often combined with trimethoprim in a 5:1 ratio as co-trimoxazole."
* According to the National Library of Medicine (NLM), Sulfamethoxazole is a "synthetic antibacterial agent that is used in combination with trimethoprim for the treatment of various bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of folic acid."

It's important to note that, as any other medication, Sulfamethoxazole should be taken under medical supervision and following the instructions of a healthcare professional, as it can cause side effects and interact with other medications.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination is an antibiotic medication used to treat various bacterial infections. It contains two active ingredients: trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, which work together to inhibit the growth of bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, a vital component for their survival.

Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic agent that inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme needed for bacterial growth, while sulfamethoxazole is a bacteriostatic sulfonamide that inhibits the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate by blocking the action of the enzyme bacterial dihydropteroate synthase. The combination of these two agents produces a synergistic effect, increasing the overall antibacterial activity of the medication.

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, and pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a severe lung infection that can occur in people with weakened immune systems. It is also used as a prophylactic treatment to prevent PCP in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that compromise the immune system.

As with any medication, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination can have side effects and potential risks, including allergic reactions, skin rashes, gastrointestinal symptoms, and blood disorders. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Anti-infective agents for the urinary tract are medications used to prevent or treat infections caused by microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses) in the urinary system. These agents can be administered locally (for example, via catheter instillation) or systemically (orally or intravenously).

Common classes of anti-infective agents used for urinary tract infections include:

1. Antibiotics: These are the most commonly prescribed class of anti-infectives for urinary tract infections. They target and kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria responsible for the infection. Common antibiotics used for this purpose include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, and fosfomycin.
2. Antifungals: These medications are used to treat fungal urinary tract infections (UTIs). Common antifungal agents include fluconazole, amphotericin B, and nystatin.
3. Antivirals: Although rare, viral UTIs can occur, and antiviral medications may be prescribed to treat them. Examples of antiviral agents used for urinary tract infections include acyclovir and valacyclovir.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment for any suspected urinary tract infection. Improper use or misuse of anti-infective agents can lead to antibiotic resistance, making future treatments more challenging.

Folic acid antagonists are a class of medications that work by inhibiting the action of folic acid or its metabolic pathways. These drugs are commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer and certain other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. They include drugs such as methotrexate, pemetrexed, and trimetrexate.

Folic acid is a type of B vitamin that is essential for the production of DNA and RNA, the genetic material found in cells. Folic acid antagonists work by interfering with the enzyme responsible for converting folic acid into its active form, tetrahydrofolate. This interference prevents the formation of new DNA and RNA, which is necessary for cell division and growth. As a result, these drugs can inhibit the proliferation of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

It's important to note that folic acid antagonists can also affect normal, non-cancerous cells in the body, particularly those that divide quickly, such as cells in the bone marrow and digestive tract. This can lead to side effects such as anemia, mouth sores, and diarrhea. Therefore, these drugs must be used carefully and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.1.20) is an enzyme involved in folate metabolism. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of tetrahydrofolate (THF) to dihydrofolate (DHF), while simultaneously reducing NADP+ to NADPH.

The reaction can be summarized as follows:

THF + NADP+ -> DHF + NADPH + H+

This enzyme plays a crucial role in the synthesis of purines and thymidylate, which are essential components of DNA and RNA. Therefore, any defects or deficiencies in tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase can lead to various medical conditions, including megaloblastic anemia and neural tube defects during fetal development.

Sulfadiazine is an antibacterial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is chemically described as 4-amino-N-(2-pyrimidinyl)benzenesulfonamide. Sulfadiazine works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid, which is essential for bacterial growth and reproduction.

It is used to treat a wide range of infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and certain types of meningitis. Sulfadiazine is often combined with other antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, to increase its effectiveness against certain bacteria.

Like all sulfonamides, sulfadiazine can cause side effects, including skin rashes, allergic reactions, and stomach upset. It should be used with caution in people who are allergic to sulfa drugs or have kidney or liver disease. Additionally, it is important to note that the use of sulfonamides during pregnancy, especially during the third trimester, should be avoided due to the risk of kernicterus in the newborn.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

In the context of medical laboratory reporting, "R factors" refer to a set of values that describe the resistance of certain bacteria to different antibiotics. These factors are typically reported as R1, R2, R3, and so on, where each R factor corresponds to a specific antibiotic or class of antibiotics.

An R factor value of "1" indicates susceptibility to the corresponding antibiotic, while an R factor value of "R" (or "R-", depending on the laboratory's reporting practices) indicates resistance. An intermediate category may also be reported as "I" or "I-", indicating that the bacterium is intermediately sensitive to the antibiotic in question.

It's important to note that R factors are just one piece of information used to guide clinical decision-making around antibiotic therapy, and should be interpreted in conjunction with other factors such as the patient's clinical presentation, the severity of their infection, and any relevant guidelines or recommendations from infectious disease specialists.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are defined as the presence of pathogenic microorganisms, typically bacteria, in any part of the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, resulting in infection and inflammation. The majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, but other organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus can also cause UTIs.

UTIs can be classified into two types based on the location of the infection:

1. Lower UTI or bladder infection (cystitis): This type of UTI affects the bladder and urethra. Symptoms may include a frequent and urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, and discomfort in the lower abdomen or back.

2. Upper UTI or kidney infection (pyelonephritis): This type of UTI affects the kidneys and can be more severe than a bladder infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the flanks or back.

UTIs are more common in women than men due to their shorter urethra, which makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder. Other risk factors for UTIs include sexual activity, use of diaphragms or spermicides, urinary catheterization, diabetes, and weakened immune systems.

UTIs are typically diagnosed through a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. In some cases, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan may be necessary to evaluate for any underlying abnormalities in the urinary tract.

Integrons are genetic elements that can capture, integrate and express mobile gene cassettes, which are circular DNA molecules containing one or more antibiotic resistance genes. Integrons consist of an integrase gene (intI), a recombination site (attI), and a promoter region that drives the expression of integrated gene cassettes. They play a significant role in the spread and dissemination of antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations, as they can facilitate the acquisition and exchange of resistance genes between different bacteria. Integrons are commonly found on plasmids and transposons, which are mobile genetic elements that can move between different bacterial species, further contributing to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Sulfisoxazole is an antibacterial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is defined as a synthetic, short-acting, bacteriostatic antibiotic that inhibits the growth of certain bacteria by interfering with their ability to synthesize folic acid, an essential component for their survival. Sulfisoxazole is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.

It's important to note that the use of sulfonamides like sulfisoxazole has declined over time due to the emergence of bacterial resistance and the availability of alternative antibiotics with better safety profiles. Additionally, adverse reactions such as rashes, allergies, and blood disorders have been associated with their use, so they should be prescribed with caution and only when necessary.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Multiple bacterial drug resistance (MDR) is a medical term that refers to the resistance of multiple strains of bacteria to several antibiotics or antimicrobial agents. This means that these bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive and multiply despite being exposed to drugs that were previously effective in treating infections caused by them.

MDR is a significant public health concern because it limits the treatment options available for bacterial infections, making them more difficult and expensive to treat. In some cases, MDR bacteria may cause severe or life-threatening infections that are resistant to all available antibiotics, leaving doctors with few or no effective therapeutic options.

MDR can arise due to various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, changes in bacterial cell membrane permeability that prevent antibiotics from entering the bacteria, and the development of efflux pumps that expel antibiotics out of the bacteria. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics is a significant contributor to the emergence and spread of MDR bacteria.

Preventing and controlling the spread of MDR bacteria requires a multifaceted approach, including the judicious use of antibiotics, infection control measures, surveillance, and research into new antimicrobial agents.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

"Pneumonia, Pneumocystis" is more commonly referred to as "Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)." It is a type of pneumonia caused by the microorganism Pneumocystis jirovecii. This organism was previously classified as a protozoan but is now considered a fungus.

PCP is an opportunistic infection, which means that it mainly affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, transplant recipients, or people taking immunosuppressive medications. The symptoms of PCP can include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and difficulty exercising. It is a serious infection that requires prompt medical treatment, typically with antibiotics.

It's important to note that PCP is not the same as pneumococcal pneumonia, which is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. While both conditions are types of pneumonia, they are caused by different organisms and require different treatments.

"Pneumocystis jirovecii" is a species of fungus that commonly infects the lungs of humans, leading to a serious respiratory infection known as Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). This fungal infection primarily affects individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The organism was previously classified as a protozoan but has since been reclassified as a fungus based on genetic analysis. It is typically acquired through inhalation of airborne spores and can cause severe illness if left untreated.

Dapsone is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called sulfones. It is primarily used to treat bacterial skin infections such as leprosy and dermatitis herpetiformis (a skin condition associated with coeliac disease). Dapsone works by killing the bacteria responsible for these infections.

In addition, dapsone has anti-inflammatory properties and is sometimes used off-label to manage inflammatory conditions such as vasculitis, bullous pemphigoid, and chronic urticaria. It is available in oral tablet form and topical cream or gel form.

Like all medications, dapsone can cause side effects, which may include nausea, loss of appetite, and headache. More serious side effects, such as methemoglobinemia (a blood disorder that affects the body's ability to transport oxygen), peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage that causes pain, numbness, or weakness in the hands and feet), and liver damage, can occur but are less common.

It is important for patients taking dapsone to be monitored by a healthcare provider to ensure safe and effective use of the medication.

Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by preventing the growth and multiplication of bacteria. It is a part of the tetracycline class of antibiotics, which also includes doxycycline, minocycline, and others.

Tetracycline is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as some atypical organisms such as rickettsia, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and spirochetes. It is commonly used to treat respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and other bacterial infections.

Tetracycline is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions. It should be taken orally with a full glass of water, and it is recommended to take it on an empty stomach, at least one hour before or two hours after meals. The drug can cause tooth discoloration in children under the age of 8, so it is generally not recommended for use in this population.

Like all antibiotics, tetracycline should be used only to treat bacterial infections and not viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which makes it harder to treat infections in the future.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily responsible for causing shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery. These pathogens are highly infectious and can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces.

There are four main species of Shigella: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Each species has distinct serotypes that differ in their epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The severity of shigellosis can range from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery with abdominal cramps, fever, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to defecate). In some cases, Shigella infections may lead to complications such as bacteremia, seizures, or hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, proper food handling and preparation, access to clean water, and adequate sanitation facilities. Antibiotic treatment is generally recommended for severe cases of shigellosis, but the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has become a growing concern in recent years.

Bacteriuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine. The condition can be asymptomatic or symptomatic, and it can occur in various populations, including hospitalized patients, pregnant women, and individuals with underlying urologic abnormalities.

There are different types of bacteriuria, including:

1. Significant bacteriuria: This refers to the presence of a large number of bacteria in the urine (usually greater than 100,000 colony-forming units per milliliter or CFU/mL) and is often associated with urinary tract infection (UTI).
2. Contaminant bacteriuria: This occurs when bacteria from the skin or external environment enter the urine sample during collection, leading to a small number of bacteria present in the urine.
3. Asymptomatic bacteriuria: This refers to the presence of bacteria in the urine without any symptoms of UTI. It is more common in older adults, pregnant women, and individuals with diabetes or other underlying medical conditions.

The diagnosis of bacteriuria typically involves a urinalysis and urine culture to identify the type and quantity of bacteria present in the urine. Treatment depends on the type and severity of bacteriuria and may involve antibiotics to eliminate the infection. However, asymptomatic bacteriuria often does not require treatment unless it occurs in pregnant women or individuals undergoing urologic procedures.

Ampicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form cell walls, which are essential for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

The medical definition of Ampicillin is:

"A semi-synthetic penicillin antibiotic, derived from the Penicillium mold. It is used to treat a variety of infections caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Ampicillin is effective against both aerobic and anaerobic organisms. It is commonly used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, and endocarditis."

It's important to note that Ampicillin is not effective against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or other bacteria that have developed resistance to penicillins. Additionally, overuse of antibiotics like Ampicillin can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which is a significant public health concern.

Pentamidine is an antimicrobial drug that is primarily used to treat and prevent certain types of pneumonia caused by the parasitic organisms Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as P. carinii) and Leishmania donovani. It can also be used for the treatment of some fungal infections caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Pentamidine works by interfering with the DNA replication and protein synthesis of these microorganisms, which ultimately leads to their death. It is available as an injection or inhaled powder for medical use. Common side effects of pentamidine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and changes in blood sugar levels. More serious side effects can include kidney damage, hearing loss, and heart rhythm disturbances.

It is important to note that the use of pentamidine should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential for serious side effects and drug interactions.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium E. coli, which can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific strain and site of infection. The majority of E. coli strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, some strains, particularly those that produce Shiga toxins, can cause severe illness.

E. coli infections can occur through various routes, including contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, or direct contact with animals or their environments. Common symptoms of E. coli infections include diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur, which may lead to kidney failure and other long-term health problems.

Preventing E. coli infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meats thoroughly, avoiding cross-contamination of food during preparation, washing fruits and vegetables before eating, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and juices. Prompt medical attention is necessary if symptoms of an E. coli infection are suspected to prevent potential complications.

Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug derived from the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseus. It belongs to the class of aminoglycosides and works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial death.

Streptomycin is primarily used to treat a variety of infections caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including tuberculosis, brucellosis, plague, tularemia, and certain types of bacterial endocarditis. It is also used as part of combination therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Like other aminoglycosides, streptomycin has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, its use is typically limited to cases where other antibiotics are ineffective or contraindicated.

It's important to note that the use of streptomycin requires careful monitoring of drug levels and kidney function, as well as regular audiometric testing to detect any potential hearing loss.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the ability of bacteria to synthesize proteins, which essential for their growth and survival. This helps to stop the spread of the infection and allows the body's immune system to clear the bacteria from the body.

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which means that it is effective against many different types of bacteria. It is often used to treat serious infections that have not responded to other antibiotics. However, because of its potential for serious side effects, including bone marrow suppression and gray baby syndrome, chloramphenicol is usually reserved for use in cases where other antibiotics are not effective or are contraindicated.

Chloramphenicol can be given by mouth, injection, or applied directly to the skin in the form of an ointment or cream. It is important to take or use chloramphenicol exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, and to complete the full course of treatment even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken. This helps to ensure that the infection is fully treated and reduces the risk of antibiotic resistance.

"Shigella sonnei" is a medically recognized term that refers to a specific species of bacteria that can cause human illness. It's one of the four main species in the genus Shigella, and it's responsible for a significant portion of shigellosis cases worldwide.

Shigella sonnei is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-spore forming, rod-shaped bacterium that can be transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water. Once ingested, it can invade and infect the epithelial cells of the colon, leading to inflammation and diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe.

The infection caused by Shigella sonnei is known as shigellosis, and its symptoms may include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, and watery or bloody diarrhea. In some cases, it can lead to more serious complications such as dehydration, seizures, or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a type of kidney failure.

It's worth noting that Shigella sonnei is particularly concerning because it has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics, making treatment more challenging in some cases. Proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, are crucial in preventing the spread of this bacterium.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Drug synergism is a pharmacological concept that refers to the interaction between two or more drugs, where the combined effect of the drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects. This means that when these drugs are administered together, they produce an enhanced therapeutic response compared to when they are given separately.

Drug synergism can occur through various mechanisms, such as:

1. Pharmacodynamic synergism - When two or more drugs interact with the same target site in the body and enhance each other's effects.
2. Pharmacokinetic synergism - When one drug affects the metabolism, absorption, distribution, or excretion of another drug, leading to an increased concentration of the second drug in the body and enhanced therapeutic effect.
3. Physiochemical synergism - When two drugs interact physically, such as when one drug enhances the solubility or permeability of another drug, leading to improved absorption and bioavailability.

It is important to note that while drug synergism can result in enhanced therapeutic effects, it can also increase the risk of adverse reactions and toxicity. Therefore, healthcare providers must carefully consider the potential benefits and risks when prescribing combinations of drugs with known or potential synergistic effects.

Chloramphenicol resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance in which bacteria have developed the ability to survive and grow in the presence of the antibiotic Chloramphenicol. This can occur due to genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria through horizontal gene transfer.

There are several mechanisms by which bacteria can become resistant to Chloramphenicol, including:

1. Enzymatic inactivation: Some bacteria produce enzymes that can modify or degrade Chloramphenicol, rendering it ineffective.
2. Efflux pumps: Bacteria may develop efflux pumps that can actively pump Chloramphenicol out of the cell, reducing its intracellular concentration and preventing it from reaching its target site.
3. Target site alteration: Some bacteria may undergo mutations in their ribosomal RNA or proteins, which can prevent Chloramphenicol from binding to its target site and inhibiting protein synthesis.

Chloramphenicol resistance is a significant public health concern because it can limit the effectiveness of this important antibiotic in treating bacterial infections. It is essential to use Chloramphenicol judiciously and follow proper infection control practices to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria.

Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut and surrounding environment. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can occur when these bacteria enter parts of the body where they are not normally present, such as the bloodstream, urinary tract, or abdominal cavity.

Enterobacteriaceae infections can cause a range of symptoms depending on the site of infection. For example:

* Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause symptoms such as frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and lower abdominal pain.
* Bloodstream infections (bacteremia) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause fever, chills, and sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory response to infection.
* Pneumonia caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Intra-abdominal infections (such as appendicitis or diverticulitis) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel habits.

Enterobacteriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of these bacteria has made treatment more challenging in recent years. Preventing the spread of Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare settings and promoting good hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of infection.

Sulfonamides are a group of synthetic antibacterial drugs that contain the sulfonamide group (SO2NH2) in their chemical structure. They are bacteriostatic agents, meaning they inhibit bacterial growth rather than killing them outright. Sulfonamides work by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, which is essential for their survival.

The first sulfonamide drug was introduced in the 1930s and since then, many different sulfonamides have been developed with varying chemical structures and pharmacological properties. They are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and ear infections.

Some common sulfonamide drugs include sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (a combination of a sulfonamide and another antibiotic called trimethoprim). While sulfonamides are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can cause side effects such as rash, nausea, and allergic reactions. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Nitrofurantoin is an antibacterial medication used to treat urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of bacteria. According to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the National Library of Medicine, its medical definition is: "Antibacterial agent with nitrofuran ring and furazan moiety. It is used to treat urinary tract infections and is also used for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections."

Nitrofurantoin works by inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, leading to bacterial death. It is typically administered orally and is available under various brand names, such as Macrobid® and Furadantin®. The medication is generally well-tolerated; however, potential side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain), headaches, dizziness, and pulmonary reactions. Rare but severe adverse events include peripheral neuropathy and hepatotoxicity.

It is essential to note that nitrofurantoin's effectiveness depends on the susceptibility of the infecting bacteria, and resistance has been reported in some cases. Therefore, it is crucial to consider local resistance patterns when prescribing this antibiotic.

'Proteus' doesn't have a specific medical definition itself, but it is related to a syndrome in medicine. Proteus syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overgrowth of various tissues and organs in the body. The name "Proteus" comes from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his form at will, reflecting the diverse and ever-changing nature of this condition's symptoms.

People with Proteus syndrome experience asymmetric overgrowth of bones, skin, and other tissues, leading to abnormalities in body shape and function. The disorder can also affect blood vessels, causing benign tumors called hamartomas to develop. Additionally, individuals with Proteus syndrome are at an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer.

The genetic mutation responsible for Proteus syndrome is found in the AKT1 gene, which plays a crucial role in cell growth and division. This disorder is typically not inherited but instead arises spontaneously as a new mutation in the affected individual. Early diagnosis and management of Proteus syndrome can help improve patients' quality of life and reduce complications associated with the condition.

Shigella boydii is a subgroup or species of the genus Shigella, which are gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. The illness caused by S. boydii, as well as other Shigella species, is known as shigellosis or bacillary dysentery.

S. boydii is further divided into several subgroups or serotypes based on their surface antigens. This bacterium is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water, and can cause symptoms such as diarrhea (often with blood and mucus), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting.

Shigellosis caused by S. boydii tends to be less common compared to other Shigella species like S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, and S. sonnei. However, the severity of the illness can vary widely, with some individuals experiencing mild symptoms while others may develop severe, life-threatening complications, particularly in young children, the elderly, and those with weakened immune systems.

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an enzyme necessary for bacterial replication and transcription. This leads to bacterial cell death. Ciprofloxacin is available in oral and injectable forms and is usually prescribed to be taken twice a day. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause serious adverse reactions such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. It is important to note that ciprofloxacin should not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones and should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures, brain injury, or other neurological conditions.

Atovaquone is an antiprotozoal medication used for the treatment and prevention of certain parasitic infections. It works by inhibiting the mitochondria of the parasites, disrupting their energy production and ultimately leading to their death. Atovaquone is available as a oral suspension or coated tablets and is often prescribed for conditions such as Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis, and babesiosis. It is also used for the prevention of PCP in people with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS or other causes.

The medical definition of Atovaquone can be stated as:

"Atovaquone is an antiprotozoal medication (synthetic hydroxynaphthoquinone) that exhibits activity against a variety of protozoa, including Plasmodium falciparum (the parasite responsible for malaria), Pneumocystis jirovecii (the causative agent of PCP), Toxoplasma gondii, and Babesia microti. It is used primarily for the treatment and prevention of PCP in individuals with compromised immune systems, as well as for the treatment of babesiosis and toxoplasmosis."

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It is now mostly used in combination with trimethoprim (abbreviated SMX-TMP). The SMX-TMP combination is on the WHO Model List ... Sulfamethoxazole is contraindicated in people with a known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or sulfonamides. Sulfamethoxazole, ... Kemnic TR, Coleman M (November 2022). "Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole.". StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls ...
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Chetchotisakd P, Chierakul W, Chaowagul W, Anunnatsiri S (1 March 2014). "Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus trimethoprim- ... The dosing regimen for co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) in eradication phase is 6/30 mg/kg, up to maximum 240/ ... Majoni SW, Hughes JT, Heron B, Currie BJ (January 2018). "Trimethoprim+Sulfamethoxazole Reduces Rates of Melioidosis in High- ... Dance DA, Davong V, Soeng S, Phetsouvanh R, Newton PN, Turner P (October 2014). "Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance in ...
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... is a structural derivative of trimethoprim. In brodimoprim, the 4-methoxy group of trimethoprim is replaced with a ... As trimethoprim, brodimoprim is a selective inhibitor of bacterial dihydrofolate reductase. Thomson CJ (December 1993). " ... "Trimethoprim and brodimoprim resistance of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria". Journal of Chemotherapy. 5 (6): 458-64. ...
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Common choices include nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.[citation needed] Das KV (2017). Textbook of Medicine: ...
Antifolates such as trimethoprim, methotrexate, pemetrexed and raltitrexed. Hypoglycemics, acetazolamide can both increase or ...
In Burkholderia species, certain antibiotics such as trimethoprim has been shown to induce and upregulate a large amount of the ... Okada BK, Wu Y, Mao D, Bushin LB, Seyedsayamdost MR (August 2016). "Mapping the Trimethoprim-Induced Secondary Metabolome of ... It has been shown that closely related cystic fibrosis-associated Burkholderia species respond to trimethoprim with differing ... Bacteria Metabolomes after Exposure to the Antibiotic Trimethoprim". ACS Infectious Diseases. 6 (5): 1154-1168. doi:10.1021/ ...
Trimethoprim alone is deemed to be equivalent to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in some countries. For simple UTIs, children ... Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or amoxicillin/clavulanate orally for 14 days is another reasonable option. In those who exhibit ... In uncomplicated cases, UTIs are treated with a short course of antibiotics such as nitrofurantoin or trimethoprim/ ... Antibiotics taken by mouth such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, or fosfomycin are typically first line. ...
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin are ineffective against Campylobacter.[citation needed] In the past, poultry ...
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) may be used in those with allergies to first-line agents or in infants who have a risk ... Antibiotics used include erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Evidence to support ...
Drug of choice is trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, pentamidine, or dapsone. In HIV patients, most cases occur when the CD4 count ...
Al-Jasser AM (September 2006). "Stenotrophomonas maltophilia resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: an increasing problem ...
Resistance to trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), clindamycin, and tetracycline have been reported. It is ... they were also resistant to trimethoprim. M. catarrhalis resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, such as ampicillin and ... antibiotic susceptibility with special reference to trimethoprim". The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 18 (3): 425-6. ...
2005). "Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance in clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei". J Antimicrob Chemother. 55 ... 2000). "Comparison between the antimicrobial susceptibility of Burkholderia pseudomallei to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole by ...
Antibiotics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ciprofloxacin may be used. Leonor Michaelis and Carl Gutmann first ...
... trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin. Mortality related to C. tertium bacteremia treated appropriately appears to ...
The treatment of choice is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim). While isosporiasis occurs throughout the world, it is more ...
"Gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-induced vitamin K deficiency". BMJ Case Reports. 2016: ...
"TRIMETHOPRIM- trimethoprim tablet". DailyMed. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2015-09-30. ... Trimethoprim has been used in trials to treat retinitis. Resistance to trimethoprim is increasing, but it is still a first line ... Trimethoprim was first used in 1962. It is on the World Health Organizations List of Essential Medicines. It is available as a ... Trimethoprim was first used in 1962. In 1972, it was used as a prophylactic treatment for urinary tract infections in Finland. ...
Trimethoprim: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Trimethoprim comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It usually is taken one or two times a day. Trimethoprim may be taken with or ... Before taking trimethoprim,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to trimethoprim, sulfa drugs, diuretics ( ... Take trimethoprim exactly as directed. Do not take more or less of it or take it more often than prescribed by your doctor. ...
... were assessed alone and in combination with trimethoprim. Eight healthy men received oral sustained-release procainamide, 500 ... mg every 6 hours for 3 days, alone and with oral trimethoprim … ... Trimethoprim alters the disposition of procainamide and N- ... alone and with oral trimethoprim, 200 mg daily for 4 days. Concomitant trimethoprim significantly increased the plasma AUC(0-12 ... which increased further with trimethoprim coadministration. We conclude that trimethoprim increases the plasma concentrations ...
Trimethoprim and Polymyxin B - Last updated on December 12, 2022. All rights owned and reserved by Memorial Sloan Kettering ...
Concrete proposal for trimethoprim. *Trimethoprim is recommended in Wise list after urinary cultivation if the bacterium is ... Bioaccumulation. Trimethoprim has low potential for bioaccumulation.. Toxicity. Trimethoprim has moderate chronic toxicity.. ... Fass environmental information for trimethoprim, Bactrim (sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim) from Roche (downloaded 2020-11-16). ... Trimethoprim is recommended in the Wise list. The Wise list is the drug formulary of essential medicines for common diseases in ...
J01EE01 - Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim. Pharmaceutical companies: manufacturers, researchers, developers, local ...
Trimethoprim sulfate , C28H38N8O10S , CID 64936 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, ...
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole-Induced Exacerbation of Anxiety and Depression. To the Editor: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is a ... Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole-Induced Exacerbation of Anxiety and Depression. Sadiq Naveed, MD; Anusha Chidharla, MD; and Kapil ... Adverse reactions to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in AIDS. Ann Pharmacother. 2003;37(12):1810-1813. PubMed CrossRef ... Probable trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-induced higher-level gait disorder and nocturnal delirium in an elderly man. Ann ...
Determine the susceptibility of microorganisms using manual AST methods and a full range of high-quality, easy-to-use antimicrobial susceptibility testing discs.
Sulfamethoxazole USP 400mg/Trimethoprim 80mg. Sulfamethoxazole USP 800mg/Trimethoprim 160mg. Trimethoprim is a potential sulfa ... Are sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim safe for dogs?. Answer Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are commonly used antibiotics in ... What are the side effects of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim in dogs?. Answer Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim is generally a safe ... When used in combination with trimethoprim, it is commonly referred to as sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or SMZ-TMP. ...
Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - ... Trimethoprim is available as a single drug or in combination with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic Sulfonamides ... Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is available as a fixed combination consisting of a 1:5 ratio (80 mg TMP plus 400 mg ...
Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim , C24H29N7O6S , CID 358641 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
The adverse effects encountered most often with trimethoprim were rash and pruritus. Dermatologic:. Rash, pruritus, and ...
... Journal Article ... Mothers with first-trimester trimethoprim-sulfonamide (TMP-SUL) exposures were randomly matched 1:1 to (i) a primary comparison ...
Buy Trimethoprim online at low price guarantee from CanadaPharmacyOnline.com. Get your prescription medication delivered to ... Trimethoprim Information. Trimethoprim is a form of antibiotic which is able to fight certain types of bacteria found within ... Trimethoprim Side Effects. Pale skin, fever, chills, sore throat, flu symptoms, severe blistering or easy bleeding are all side ... Whilst taking this medication it is advised that you avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight as Trimethoprim can make your skin ...
Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the Merck Manuals - ... Trimethoprim is available as a single drug or in combination with sulfamethoxazole (a sulfonamide antibiotic Sulfonamides ... Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is available as a fixed combination consisting of a 1:5 ratio (80 mg TMP plus 400 mg ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim Oral Suspension prescription and dosage sizes information for physicians and healthcare ... Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim Oral Suspension Boxed Warnings. Not Applicable. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim Oral Suspension ... Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim Oral Suspension Clinical Trials. See Literature. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim Oral Suspension ... Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim Oral Suspension Pharmacokinetics. See Literature. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim Oral Suspension ...
Get up-to-date information on Trimethoprim side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... Trimethoprim is a prescription medication used to treat bacterial infections. Trimethoprim belongs to a group of drugs called ... How was your experience with Trimethoprim?. First, a little about yourself. Male Female ... Trimethoprim treats urinary tract infections. Finish all your medication even if you start to feel better. Take it with a full ...
Solar photocatalytic treatment of trimethoprim in four environmental matrices at a pilot scale: transformation products and ... Anti-Bacterial AgentsHydrogen PeroxideIronOxidation-ReductionPhotolysisPilot ProjectsSunlightTrimethoprimWater Pollutants, ... TY - JOUR T1 - Solar photocatalytic treatment of trimethoprim in four environmental matrices at a pilot scale: transformation ... The pilot-scale solar degradation of trimethoprim (TMP) in different water matrices (demineralized water: DW, simulated natural ...
... trimethoprim), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules ... trimethoprim oral TRIMETHOPRIM - ORAL (try-METH-oh-prim) COMMON BRAND NAME(S): Primsol, Proloprim, Trimpex USES: Trimethoprim ... iloperidone and trimethoprim both increase QTc interval. Use Caution/Monitor.. iloperidone increases levels of trimethoprim by ... encoded search term (trimethoprim (Primsol%2C Proloprim)) and trimethoprim (Primsol, Proloprim) What to Read Next on Medscape ...
3 1/2 week postpartum client dx with MRSA...taking sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. for 2 weeks. She was told she cannot ... Yes, the only complication to using sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim in a mother with a breastfeeding infant is a syndrome G6PD, ... The doctors changed her antibiotics from Cephilex to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Our daughter (full term natural delivered ... KellyO started a topic 3 1/2 week postpartum client dx with MRSA...taking sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim ...
Comparing the cost-effectiveness of linezolid to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin for the treatment of MRSA ... We performed a stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis comparing two treatment strategies -- linezolid versus trimethoprim- ... Comparing the cost-effectiveness of linezolid to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin for the treatment of MRSA ...
R-factor mediated trimethoprim resistance: result of two three-month clinical surveys. ... R-factor mediated trimethoprim resistance: result of two three-month clinical surveys. ...
Cephalexin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was not superior to cephalexin alone for the treatment of outpatient non-purulent ... Cephalexin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was not superior to cephalexin alone for the treatment of outpatient non-purulent ... Cephalexin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was not superior to cephalexin alone for the treatment of outpatient non-purulent ...
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole monotherapy should not be used for treatment of severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ... Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole monotherapy should not be used for treatment of severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ... Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus vancomycin for severe infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: ... Most MRSA strains remain susceptible to older antimicrobial agents such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX);1 however, ...
The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the ... The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the ... Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated ... Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated ...
Trimethoprim produced by the company Farmak. The leader in the production of medicinal products in Ukraine and the leading ...
A combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with linezolid is useful for actinomycotic mycetoma: A summary of the existing ... How to cite this article: Sardana K, Sachdeva S. A combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with linezolid is useful for ... A combination of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole with linezolid is useful for actinomycotic mycetoma: A summary of the existing ... We found the need to synergise the use of trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole (TMP/SMX) and linezolid as the existing data in this ...
  • Septra DS (sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim) is a combination antibiotic used to treat ear infections, urinary tract infections, bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, shigellosis, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. (bookriff.com)
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  • The Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim combination is an antibiotic that works by eliminating the bacteria caused by many types of infections. (countrysidepet.com)
  • Trimethoprim belongs to a group of drugs called antibiotics, which help to stop the growth of bacteria in the body. (rxwiki.com)
  • The doctors changed her antibiotics from Cephilex to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. (infantrisk.com)
  • Trimethoprim belongs to a class of medications known as antibiotics . (pushhealth.com)
  • leucovorin decreases effects of trimethoprim by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the application of two advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems in secondary treated domestic effluents. (iwaponline.com)
  • Known hypersensitivity to trimethoprim History of megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency It may be involved in a reaction similar to disulfiram when alcohol is consumed after it is used, in particular when used in combination with sulfamethoxazole. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with a hypersensitivity to trimethoprim or similar medications should not use trimethoprim prescription medication. (pushhealth.com)
  • TRIMETHOPRIM or SMX-TMP is a combination of a sulfonamide antibiotic and a second antibiotic, trimethoprim. (bookriff.com)
  • Bacteria Metabolomes after Exposure to the Antibiotic Trimethoprim. (bvsalud.org)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to trimethoprim, sulfa drugs, diuretics ('water pills', oral diabetes medications, or any other drugs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mothers with first-trimester trimethoprim-sulfonamide (TMP-SUL) exposures were randomly matched 1:1 to (i) a primary comparison group (mothers exposed to penicillins and/or cephalosporins) and (ii) a secondary comparison group (mothers with no dispensing of an antibacterial, antiprotozoal, or antimalarial medication during the same time period). (healthpartners.com)
  • Is it safe to take sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim? (bookriff.com)
  • Take Sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim dose by mouth, as directed by your doctor with a full glass of water (8 ounces / 240 milliliters). (canadadrugs.co)
  • If a sensitivity reaction to Polymyxin B Sulfate and Trimethoprim Ophthalmic Solution occurs, discontinue use. (recallguide.org)
  • Polymyxin B Sulfate and Trimethoprim Ophthalmic Solution is not indicated for the prophylaxis or treatment of ophthalmia neonatorum. (recallguide.org)
  • Polymyxin B Sulfate and Trimethoprim Ophthalmic Solution is a sterile antimicrobial solution for topical ophthalmic use. (recallguide.org)
  • trimethoprim sulfate equivalent to trimethoprim 1mg/mL. (recallguide.org)
  • Request Trimethoprim Online Prescription And Get Trimethoprim Sulfate Medication Near You. (pushhealth.com)
  • Trimethoprim is a type of antibiotic medication used in treating infections known or suspected to be caused by bacteria which are susceptible to trimethoprim sulfate treatment. (pushhealth.com)
  • People who might need a trimethoprim prescription can use Push Health to connect with an online medical provider who can prescribe trimethoprim sulfate, including trimethoprim tablets and trimethoprim combination medications, when appropriate to do so. (pushhealth.com)
  • 2023. https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540565/8/Trimethoprim_+_Sulfamethoxazole. (hopkinsguides.com)
  • in tablets, each containing 400 mg sulfamethoxazole and 80 mg trimethoprim for oral administration. (bookriff.com)
  • For treatment of bronchitis: Adults-1 tablet (DS tablet) of 800 milligrams (mg) of sulfamethoxazole and 160 mg of trimethoprim, 2 tablets of 400 mg of sulfamethoxazole and 80 mg of trimethoprim, or 4 teaspoonfuls or 20 milliliters (mL) of oral liquid every 12 hours for 14 days. (bookriff.com)
  • When prescribed as tablets, trimethoprim is sometimes prescribed as trimethoprim 100 mg twice per day for a period of time in adults. (pushhealth.com)
  • Trimethoprim is a prescription medication used to treat bacterial infections. (rxwiki.com)
  • Whilst taking this medication it is advised that you avoid prolonged exposure to sunlight as Trimethoprim can make your skin more sensitive to sunlight as a result of prolonged use. (canadapharmacyonline.com)
  • Trimethoprim prescription medication is often prescribed as a combination medication to be used in ophthalmic solutions and suspensions. (pushhealth.com)
  • People with insurance may want to check with their insurance plan to see if costs associated with trimethoprim medication prescriptions are partially or fully covered. (pushhealth.com)
  • Trimethoprim is a prescription medication meaning that one needs to consult a medical provider and get a trimethoprim prescription before being able to obtain it in the United States. (pushhealth.com)
  • Trimethoprim medication can cause side effects and concerns should be discussed with a qualified medical provider prior to using trimethoprim medication. (pushhealth.com)
  • Resistance to trimethoprim is increasing, but it is still a first line antibiotic in many countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole are commonly used in combination due to possible synergistic effects, and reduced development of resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concentrations of trimethoprim in Swedish wastewater treatment plants is likely to select for bacterial resistance. (janusinfo.se)
  • Comparative assessment of environmental risk and risk of resistance selection in the environment using trimethoprim and pivmecillinam in Sweden. (janusinfo.se)
  • From a resistance-selection-risk perspective in wastewater treatment plants, pivmecillinam appears to be a slightly better alternative than trimethoprim. (janusinfo.se)
  • R-factor mediated trimethoprim resistance: result of two three-month clinical surveys. (bmj.com)
  • Resistance to furazolidone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin was 100%, 98% and 62% respectively. (who.int)
  • Before using the Sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim dose, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history. (canadadrugs.co)
  • 2 months: 8mg/kg per day trimethoprim (40mg/kg per day of sulfamethoxazole) in 2 divided doses at 12-hour intervals for 5 days (shigellosis) or 10 days (otitis media, UTIs). (empr.com)
  • Based on the studies that show that trimethoprim crosses the placenta and can affect folate metabolism, there has been growing evidence of the risk of structural birth defects associated with trimethoprim, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study has found a doubling in the risk of miscarriage in women exposed to trimethoprim in the early pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is in pregnancy category C. TMP-SMX should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. (cdc.gov)
  • To estimate the rate of prescription trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole use in pregnancy, and to analyse the association between maternal characteristics and use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in pregnancy. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim dose may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition (Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea) due to a type of resistant bacteria. (canadadrugs.co)
  • Trimethoprim is frequently used as part of a treatment strategy for urinary tract infections , eye infections, outer ear infections and some types of diarrhea. (pushhealth.com)
  • History of drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia with use of trimethoprim and/or sulfonamides. (empr.com)
  • Active substance : Co-trimoxazole - a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole and is in a class of medications called sulfonamides. (extrapharmacy.ru)
  • Trimethoprim eliminates bacteria that cause urinary tract infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Concomitant trimethoprim significantly increased the plasma AUC(0-12) of both procainamide and NAPA (63% and 52%, respectively), with concurrent decreases in their renal clearances (47% and 13%, respectively) and a 39% increase in the mean urinary recovery of NAPA (as percentage of procainamide and NAPA recovery). (nih.gov)
  • Trimethoprim is recommended in Wise list after urinary cultivation if the bacterium is sensitive. (janusinfo.se)
  • Trimethoprim treats urinary tract infections. (rxwiki.com)
  • The infection led to urinary retention and was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (lu.se)
  • The steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of procainamide and its active N-acetyl metabolite (NAPA) were assessed alone and in combination with trimethoprim. (nih.gov)
  • Trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is available as a fixed combination consisting of a 1:5 ratio (80 mg TMP plus 400 mg SMX or a double-strength tablet of 160 mg TMP plus 800 mg SMX). (merckmanuals.com)
  • It is an aqueous solution comprising a synergistic combination of trimethoprim and sulfadiazine. (petmedsmex.com)
  • We performed a stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis comparing two treatment strategies -- linezolid versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus rifampicin -- for the treatment of MRSA infection. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Trimethoprim is frequently combined with other drugs, including sulfamethoxazole to make Bactrim and polymyxin B to make Polytrim, due to theoretical synergistic effects between the medications. (pushhealth.com)
  • Trimethoprim binds to dihydrofolate reductase and inhibits the reduction of dihydrofolic acid (DHF) to tetrahydrofolic acid (THF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Trimethoprim (TMP) prevents reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate. (merckmanuals.com)
  • However, if you experience nausea, you may take trimethoprim with food. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Trimethoprim and alcohol should not be used concomitantly. (pushhealth.com)
  • apalutamide will decrease the level or effect of trimethoprim by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • trimethoprim will increase the level or effect of erdafitinib by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP2C9/10 metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • idelalisib will increase the level or effect of trimethoprim by affecting hepatic/intestinal enzyme CYP3A4 metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • PubChem Compound Summary for CID 5578, Trimethoprim. (vibratist.com)
  • https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Trimethoprim. (vibratist.com)
  • Buller, G. K. / Hyperkalemia and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole . (elsevierpure.com)
  • We report a case of a 28-year-old man with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and Pneumocystis pneumonia who developed hyponatremia while receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX). (elsevierpure.com)
  • The adverse effects encountered most often with trimethoprim were rash and pruritus. (druglib.com)
  • Trimethoprim may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Serious side effects have been reported with trimethoprim. (rxwiki.com)
  • This is not a complete list of trimethoprim side effects. (rxwiki.com)
  • Sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim dose should not be used in children less than 2 months of age due to the risk of serious side effects. (canadadrugs.co)
  • The data on persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity for trimethoprim are from fass.se. (janusinfo.se)
  • Trimethoprim has moderate chronic toxicity. (janusinfo.se)
  • We conclude that trimethoprim increases the plasma concentrations of procainamide and NAPA by decreasing their renal clearances and allowing more conversion of procainamide to NAPA. (nih.gov)
  • Applications: For use with trimethoprim resistant strains. (crystalgen.com)
  • This graph shows volume of adverse events submitted to the FDA by quarter for Trimethoprim, as well as related generic and/or brandname drugs containing the same primary active ingredients . (drugcite.com)
  • This graph shows the top adverse events submitted to the FDA for Trimethoprim, as well as related generic and/or brandname drugs containing the same primary active ingredients , from Q1 2004 to Q3 2012. (drugcite.com)
  • Eight healthy men received oral sustained-release procainamide, 500 mg every 6 hours for 3 days, alone and with oral trimethoprim, 200 mg daily for 4 days. (nih.gov)
  • Following oral administration, the half life of trimethoprim is ten hours in healthy people and excretion occurs primarily in the urine. (pushhealth.com)
  • Ultimately, the trimethoprim dosing regimen prescribed depends on the health needs of the patient and the judgement of the prescribing medical provider. (pushhealth.com)
  • Trimethoprim can interact with other medications and care should be taken when prescribed as part of a larger drug regimen. (pushhealth.com)
  • Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic used mainly in the treatment of bladder infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Which is the generic name for sulfonamide and trimethoprim? (bookriff.com)