TriglyceridesLipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 220.127.116.11.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 18.104.22.168.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Apolipoprotein C-III: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Apolipoproteins C: A group of apolipoproteins that can readily exchange among the various classes of lipoproteins (HDL; VLDL; CHYLOMICRONS). After lipolysis of TRIGLYCERIDES on VLDL and chylomicrons, Apo-C proteins are normally transferred to HDL. The subtypes can modulate remnant binding to receptors, LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, or LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Apolipoprotein B-100: A 513-kDa protein synthesized in the LIVER. It serves as the major structural protein of low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). It is the ligand for the LDL receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL) that promotes cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined: A type of familial lipid metabolism disorder characterized by a variable pattern of elevated plasma CHOLESTEROL and/or TRIGLYCERIDES. Multiple genes on different chromosomes may be involved, such as the major late transcription factor (UPSTREAM STIMULATORY FACTORS) on CHROMOSOME 1.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 22.214.171.124.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV: A hypertriglyceridemia disorder, often with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the persistent elevations of plasma TRIGLYCERIDES, endogenously synthesized and contained predominantly in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins). In contrast, the plasma CHOLESTEROL and PHOSPHOLIPIDS usually remain within normal limits.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Fenofibrate: An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Triacetin: A triglyceride that is used as an antifungal agent.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Apolipoprotein B-48: A 241-kDa protein synthesized only in the INTESTINES. It serves as a structural protein of CHYLOMICRONS. Its exclusive association with chylomicron particles provides an indicator of intestinally derived lipoproteins in circulation. Apo B-48 is a shortened form of apo B-100 and lacks the LDL-receptor region.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Mice, Inbred C57BLLipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Bezafibrate: An antilipemic agent that lowers CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES. It decreases LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and increases HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Gemfibrozil: A lipid-regulating agent that lowers elevated serum lipids primarily by decreasing serum triglycerides with a variable reduction in total cholesterol.EstersCarbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Apolipoprotein C-II: A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Abetalipoproteinemia: An autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is caused by mutation of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein that catalyzes the transport of lipids (TRIGLYCERIDES; CHOLESTEROL ESTERS; PHOSPHOLIPIDS) and is required in the secretion of BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low density lipoproteins or LDL). Features include defective intestinal lipid absorption, very low serum cholesterol level, and near absent LDL.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Colipases: Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.DiglyceridesSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lipoproteins, IDL: A mixture of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), particularly the triglyceride-poor VLDL, with slow diffuse electrophoretic mobilities in the beta and alpha2 regions which are similar to that of beta-lipoproteins (LDL) or alpha-lipoproteins (HDL). They can be intermediate (remnant) lipoproteins in the de-lipidation process, or remnants of mutant CHYLOMICRONS and VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS which cannot be metabolized completely as seen in FAMILIAL DYSBETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL or broad-beta-lipoprotein). IDL has a CHOLESTEROL to TRIGLYCERIDES ratio greater than that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. This disorder is due to mutation of APOLIPOPROTEINS E, a receptor-binding component of VLDL and CHYLOMICRONS, resulting in their reduced clearance and high plasma levels of both cholesterol and triglycerides.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.TritiumGene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
... triglycerides). After assaying each lipid class for total radioactivity, gas-liquid chromatography was employed to measure the ... This aggregation of triglycerides occurs through the increase in the synthesis of triglyceride production. SREBPs have been ... Triglycerides and cholesterol esters". The Journal of Lipid Research. 4: 312-321. PMID 14168169. Retrieved 24 August 2013. ... The inhibition of lipogenesis occurs through the down regulation of fatty acid and triglyceride gene expression. Through the ...
Lipid lowering drugs Lipid-lowering agents such as fibrates and omega-3-fatty acids can be used to lower TG levels in LPLD, ... Medium-chain triglycerides can be used for cooking, because they are absorbed into the portal vein without becoming ... In this instance besides LPL also other loss-of-function mutations in genes that regulate catabolism of triglyceride-rich ... Treatment is mainly based on medical nutrition therapy to maintain plasma triglyceride concentration below 11,3 mmol/L (1000 mg ...
... that hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoproteins, leads to elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood. Lysosomal acid lipase ... "Screening for Lipid Disorders in Children and Adolescents". JAMA. August 9, 2016. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.9852. Nordestgaard, BG ... The normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Once diagnosed, other blood tests are usually required to determine ... Very high triglyceride levels also increase the risk of acute pancreatitis. Hypertriglyceridemia itself is usually symptomless ...
Genetic Code of Dandruff Cracked - BBC News Lowe ME (2002). "The triglyceride lipases of the pancreas". J Lipid Res. 43 (12): ... Lipases perform essential roles in the digestion, transport and processing of dietary lipids (e.g. triglycerides, fats, oils) ... Most lipases act at a specific position on the glycerol backbone of a lipid substrate (A1, A2 or A3)(small intestine). For ... A lipase (/ˈlaɪpeɪs/, /ˈlɪpeɪs/, /-peɪz/) is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids). Lipases are a subclass ...
Lipids. 39 (4): 383-7. doi:10.1007/s11745-004-1242-2. PMID 15357026. V. I. Deineka & L. A. Deineka (March 2003). "Triglyceride ... According to a study by Lipid Nutrition, the pinolenic acid contained in Korean pine nut oil can help curb appetite by ... One analysis of the triglyceride composition of Siberian pine nut oil showed the following composition: Food portal ...
On one hand, lipids in the form of triglycerides are released from the liver. However, on the other hand, glyceroneogenesis ... Over expressing PEPC-K in liver will eventually result in over production of triglycerides which can elevate the lipid level in ... Not only it produces lipids for the organism but it also regulates lipid levels in the cell. Glyceroneogenesis involves re- ... triglycerides are being synthesized for lipid distribution. White adipose tissue, also known as white fat, is one of the 2 ...
... s and oils are lipid materials derived from animals. Physically, oils are liquid at room temperature, and fats are ... Chemically, both fats and oils are composed of triglycerides. Although many animal parts and secretions may yield oil, in ... Vegetable fats and oils Kitchen rendering Liquid Triglyceride Suet Tallow National Research Council. (1976). Fat Content and ...
Rosiglitazone was observed to alter lipid composition in different organs. It increased triglycerides accumulation in the liver ... Lipidomics refers to the analysis of lipids. Since lipids have unique physical properties, they have been traditionally ... Lipidomic profiling was also used to study the effect of rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, on lipid metabolism on mice. ... However, improvements in new analytical platforms have made it possible to identify and to quantify most of lipids metabolites ...
Reddit-Capsule results: Testosterone up 20% with a peak increase of 77% . White blood counts up 16% with a peak of 40%. Lipid ... profile improved: HDLs up to 76, a rise of 20%. LDL down 20%. Triglycerides down 50%, with a low being down 60%. Healing time ...
... intracellular triglycerides are stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. When lipases are phosphorylated, they access lipid ... This lipid droplet-associated protein, when deactivated, will prevent the interaction of lipases with triglycerides in the ... Lipolysis /lɪˈpɒlɪsɪs/ is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. ... While lipolysis is triglyceride hydrolysis (the process by which triglycerides are broken down), esterification is the process ...
Triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol, and phospholipids are the major lipids in the body. They are transported as complexes of ... The lipids carried include cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides; amounts of each are quite variable. Increasing ... The triglycerides are not stable in HDL, but are degraded by hepatic lipase so that, finally, small HDL particles are left, ... Fasting serum lipids have been associated with short term verbal memory. In a large sample of middle aged adults, low HDL ...
Cholesterol and triglycerides are lipids. lipoprotein a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids, bound to ... lipid a substance that is insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Lipids are an important component ... The proteins serve to emulsify the lipid molecules. Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also ... bile A dark green to yellowish-brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, which aids the digestion of lipids in ...
June 1998). "Regulation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA expression by endotoxin and cytokines". J. Lipid Res. ...
Specifically, HDL decreases, while LDL, triglycerides and lipoprotein a increase. Supplemental estrogen improves the lipid ... On a molecular level, HRT at the time of menopause has effects on the lipid profile. ...
Lipids (fats) are degraded into fatty acids and glycerol. Pancreatic lipase breaks down triglycerides into free fatty acids and ... Water and lipids are absorbed by passive diffusion throughout the small intestine. Sodium bicarbonate is absorbed by active ... This occurs because the lipase is water-soluble but the fatty triglycerides are hydrophobic and tend to orient towards each ... The bile salts emulsify the triglycerides in the watery surroundings until the lipase can break them into the smaller ...
Serum lipids (including triglyceride and total cholesterol) may be measured. In patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0, ...
Recently both the lipid composition and protein composition of this lipoprotein were characterised in great detail. Very low- ... The other 50% of IDL lose apoE; when their cholesterol content becomes greater than the content of triglyceride, they become ... Combined hyperlipidemia Lipid profile Gibbons GF, Wiggins D, Brown AM, Hebbachi AM (2004). "Synthesis and function of hepatic ... It functions as the body's internal transport mechanism for lipids. In addition it serves for long-range transport of ...
2007). The Lipid Handbook with CD-ROM, Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-9688-3, p. 86 Culp, T. W.; Harlow, R. D.; Litchfield ... Carter; Reiser, Raymond (1965). "Analysis of triglycerides by consecutive chromatographic techniques. II. Ucuhuba kernel fat". ...
... can serve as substrates for the synthesis of various kinds of lipids, including phospholipids, triglycerides, and can also be ... Activation of SREBP-1c results in upregulated synthesis of MUFAs and liver triglycerides. SCD-1 knockout mice did not increase ... Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Genes in Lipid Metabolism. Springer New York. pp. 85-101. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-7969-7_8/fulltext.html ... One proposed mechanism is that an increase in cell membrane fluidity, consisting largely of lipid, activates the insulin ...
The lipids in the melon cannot be digested by the animal as they are metabolically toxic. A starving dolphin will have a robust ... The melon is a mixture of triglycerides and wax esters. The exact composition varies throughout the melon. Typically, the inner ... The lipids in the melon tend to be of lower molecular weight and more saturated than the blubber. The melons of Delphinidae ( ... Litchfield, Carter; Ackman, R. G.; Sipos, J. C.; Eaton, C. A. (September 1971). "Isovaleroyl triglycerides from the blubber and ...
... has no negative impact on serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides). No HDL decrease has been observed. In this ...
2006). "Expression, regulation, and triglyceride hydrolase activity of Adiponutrin family members". J. Lipid Res. 46 (11): 2477 ... J Lipid Res. 47 (9): 1940-9. doi:10.1194/jlr.M600185-JLR200. PMID 16799181. Kienesberger PC, Oberer M, Lass A, Zechner R (Apr ... J Lipid Res. 50 Suppl: S63-8. doi:10.1194/jlr.R800082-JLR200. PMC 2674697 . PMID 19029121. "Entrez Gene: PNPLA3 patatin-like ...
Dyslipidemia (or dyslipidaemia) Abnormal lipid levels in the blood. Includes levels that are too high (triglycerides, LDLs) and ... Lipid Fat / oil. Usually, used in reference to fat in the human body. Lipoatrophy Small dents in the skin that form when a ... Trauma Triglyceride Twenty-four hour urine The total amount of a person's urine for a 24-hour period. Diabetes mellitus type 1 ... It is also involved in the transport of fat (i.e., lipids) in the blood. The transport mechanism (Low Density Cholesterol or ...
For some women, tamoxifen can cause a rapid increase in triglyceride concentration in the blood. In addition ... Tamoxifen treatment of postmenopausal women is associated with beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles. However, long-term ... Esteva FJ, Hortobagyi GN (Jun 2006). "Comparative assessment of lipid effects of endocrine therapy for breast cancer: ...
Its accuracy is unaffected by triglycerides and can be performed in a non-fasting state. The VAP test has a unique ability to ... The vertical auto profile (VAP) test is a cholesterol, lipid and lipoprotein test. The name "VAP test" uses a technology, the ... Studies report that this comprehensive test is able to identify more than twice the number of patients with lipid abnormalities ... than the standard lipid panel (cholesterol and triglyceride test). The VAP test directly measures and routinely reports all ...
Omega-3 supplements taken at high doses can reduce levels of triglycerides. They are associated with a very modest increase ... lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia). They are called lipid-lowering drugs. These are drugs which lower ... Fibrates typically lower triglycerides by 20% to 50%. Level of the good cholesterol HDL is also increased. Fibrates may ... It decreases LDL by 15-30% and raises HDL by 3-5%, with little effect on triglycerides, but can cause a slight increase. Bile ...
Hormone that acts as a blood lipid regulator by regulating serum triglyceride levels .. Below are the list of possible ... Also acts as a blood lipid regulator by regulating serum triglyceride levels; possibly by promoting ANGPTL3 cleavage. In ... Biological Process: cell maturation; cellular lipid metabolic process; fat cell differentiation; glucose metabolic process; ... negative regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity; regulation of lipid metabolic process; regulation of lipoprotein metabolic ...
9] Johnson R.C. and Cotter R(.1996).Metabolism of medium chain triglyceride lipid emulsion.Nutri.Int 2:150-158. Lim ...
... blood lipids and lipoproteins including fatty acids, tryglycerides and phospholipids that play a role in the circulatory system ... The triglycerides When you get your cholesterol numbers checked, one of the values will refer to your triglyceride level. Learn ... What are the blood lipids? Most people know about cholesterol, an important type of fat (lipid) in the blood. But there are ... Learn more about cholesterol and blood lipids including fatty acids, tryglycerides, phospholipids and lipoproteins that ...
Triglycerides are how the body stores energy. A triglyceride is a lipid formed from three fatty acids attached to a glycerol ... Lipid is a basic term representing a molecule that is fat soluble (vs. water soluble). Fatty acids, sterols and triglycerides ... A variety of healthy foods will provide you with the lipids including fatty acids, sterols and triglycerides you need for ... Broadly, the term lipid is encompasses fats (including saturated, monoglyceride, diglyceride and triglyceride), waxes, sterols ...
Existing research suggests that triglyceride lowering may reduce cardiovascular event rates in patients with high triglyceride ... This trial, focusing specifically on high triglyceride patients with diabetes, will definitively test whether triglyceride ... many patients remain at high risk due to increased triglycerides and triglyceride rich lipoproteins. ... Previous trials may have missed the mark by failing to focus on those with high triglyceride levels, the very patients most ...
The Lipid Profile includes all three measurements as well as triglycerides. ... Retrieved from "http://drmyhill.co.uk/drmyhill/index.php?title=Lipid_profile_-_cholesterol_and_triglycerides_in_the_blood&oldid ... Patients are now frequently offered a test of blood cholesterol level and triglycerides. This normally just measures total ...
Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Regulates Lipid Metabolism via Adipose Triglyceride Lipase. Melissa L. Borg, Zane B. Andrews ... Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Regulates Lipid Metabolism via Adipose Triglyceride Lipase. Melissa L. Borg, Zane B. Andrews ... Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Regulates Lipid Metabolism via Adipose Triglyceride Lipase. Melissa L. Borg, Zane B. Andrews ... Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor Regulates Lipid Metabolism via Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Insulin regulates hepatic triglyceride secretion and lipid content via signaling in the brain ... Insulin regulates hepatic triglyceride secretion and lipid content via signaling in the brain ... Insulin regulates hepatic triglyceride secretion and lipid content via signaling in the brain ... Insulin regulates hepatic triglyceride secretion and lipid content via signaling in the brain ...
DUBLIN, August 25, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- The Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) Market Analysis By Application (Personal Care & ... Key industry participants include BASF, Wilmar International Ltd, Stepan Company, Sternchemie Lipid Technology, Jarrow formulas ... 3. Medium Chain Triglycerides Market Variables, Trends, and Scope. 4. Medium Chain Triglycerides: Application Outlook. 5. ... Aktien»Nachrichten»BASF AKTIE»Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) Market 2014-2017 & 2025 - Key Players are BASF, Wilmar ...
Vascular and Lipid Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in People With Moderately Elevated Triglycerides (OMEGA). The safety and ... Lipid Profile [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]. Plasma/serum samples were analyzed at baseline and at the end of each 8-week treatment ... triglycerides. hypertriglyceridemia. omega-3. n-3. eicosapentaenoic acid. EPA. docosahexaenoic acid. DHA. flow mediated ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cardiovascular and lipid effects of two doses of an omega-3 fatty acid concentrate ...
Lipid-lowering activity of atorvastatin and lovastatin in rodent species: triglyceride-lowering in rats correlates with ... Since inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase lower plasma triglycerides rather than cholesterol in rats, we compared the triglyceride- ... The inactive enantiomer of atorvastatin did not lower plasma triglycerides. Thus, triglyceride-lowering was dependent upon ... but in chow-fed rabbits neither drug had an effect on the in vivo rate of VLDL-lipid secretion, suggesting that efficacy was ...
PRNewswire/ -- The Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) Market Analysis By Application (Personal Care & Cosmetics, Pharmaceuticals ... Key industry participants include BASF, Wilmar International Ltd, Stepan Company, Sternchemie Lipid Technology, Jarrow formulas ... 3. Medium Chain Triglycerides Market Variables, Trends, and Scope. 4. Medium Chain Triglycerides: Application Outlook. 5. ... The global medium chain triglycerides demand was 271 kilo tons in 2016 and is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 6.1% to reach a ...
Changes in Triglyceride and Other Lipids (Levels of Fats Found in Blood) When Taking Darunavir Compared to Atazanavir in HIV- ... The study hypothesis is the change in triglycerides and other lipids from baseline to week 12 will be similar in the DRV/r arm ... The purpose of this research study is to compare changes in triglyceride and other lipids (levels of fats found in the blood) ... Change From Baseline in Fasting Triglyceride (TG) Levels in the Lipid Evaluable (LE) Set at Week12 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week ...
International Registry Study of Neutral Lipid Storage Disease (NLSD) / Triglyceride Deposit Cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) and ... International Registry Study of Neutral Lipid Storage Disease (NLSD) / Triglyceride Deposit Cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) and ... Clinical trial for Neutral Lipid Storage Disease , ...
... Essentialis, Inc ... Home , Phase 2b Trial Shows Unique Lipid Efficacy Profile of Novel Compound to Reduce Elevated Triglyceride Levels ... www.mdtmag.com/news/2012/02/phase-2b-trial-shows-unique-lipid-efficacy-profile-novel-compound-reduce-elevated-triglyceride- ... www.mdtmag.com/news/2012/02/phase-2b-trial-shows-unique-lipid-efficacy-profile-novel-compound-reduce-elevated-triglyceride- ...
Apart from other emulsion constituents, triglyceride chain length might therefore be a key feature in the interaction of lipid ... Medium-chain, Triglyceride-Containing Lipid Emulsions Increase Human Neutrophil beta2 Integrin Expression, Adhesion, and ... Apart from other emulsion constituents, triglyceride chain length might therefore be a key feature in the interaction of lipid ... Background: To test the hypothesis that lipid emulsions with different triglyceride structures have distinct immunomodulatory ...
... our data uncover HILPDA as a novel PPAR target that raises hepatic triglyceride storage via regulation of triglyceride ... Hypoxia-inducible Lipid Droplet-associated (HILPDA) Is a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR) Target ... Hepatic overexpression of HILPDA in mice via adeno-associated virus led to a 4-fold increase in liver triglyceride storage, ... Here we identify hypoxia-inducible lipid droplet-associated (Hilpda/Hig2) as a novel PPAR target gene and demonstrate its ...
Triglyceride- and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins have a differential effect on mild/moderate and severe lesion progression as ... Relations between plasma lipids and postheparin plasma lipases and VLDL and LDL subfraction patterns in normolipemic men and ... Differences in LDL subspecies involve alterations in lipid composition and conformational changes in apolipoprotein B MCNAMARA ... Change in LDL particle size is associated with change in plasma triglyceride concentration MCNAMARA JR ...
It does not include triglycerides and may be best used in patients for whom fasting is difficult Patient preparation: The assay ... This lipid panel includes Total Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol and calculated non-HDL Cholesterol. ...
Genomic study in Mexicans identifies a new locus for triglycerides and refines European lipid loci ... Genomic study in Mexicans identifies a new locus for triglycerides and refines European lipid loci ... Conclusions This first Mexican GWA study of lipids identified a novel GWA locus for high TG levels; used the interpopulation ... Overall, 52 of the 100 reported associations from European lipid GWA meta-analysis generalised to Mexicans. However, in 82 of ...
... gymnema and bitter melon support healthy blood glucose levels and blood lipid levels including triglycerides. Also helps to ...
... diacylglyceride ratio in rat at 0.03 mg/kg by oral lipid tolerance test relative to vehicle-treated control. ...
Reduction in plasma triglyceride level in rat at 3 mg/kg by oral lipid tolerance test relative to vehicle-treated control. ...
Abstract 4: Apolipoprotein A-iv Enhances Triglyceride Secretion and Reduces Hepatic Lipid Content by Promoting Apob Containing- ... Abstract 4: Apolipoprotein A-iv Enhances Triglyceride Secretion and Reduces Hepatic Lipid Content by Promoting Apob Containing- ... Abstract 4: Apolipoprotein A-iv Enhances Triglyceride Secretion and Reduces Hepatic Lipid Content by Promoting Apob Containing- ... Abstract 4: Apolipoprotein A-iv Enhances Triglyceride Secretion and Reduces Hepatic Lipid Content by Promoting Apob Containing- ...
Lipid transport rates decreased in order of triglyceride , cholesteryl ester , diglyceride , cholesterol , phosphatidylcholine ... The ability of MTP to transport lipids is strongly correlated to the binding of these lipids to MTP. Thus, MTP has a specific ... In contrast, the lipid transport rate was insensitive to the changes in the structure or charge of the polar head group on ... To further elucidate the nature of the lipid molecule binding and transport site on MTP, we have studied the relative rates at ...
MetabolismLipoproteinsElevated Triglyceride LevelsLipaseUnsaturated fatsInsulinTotal cholesterolLevel of triglyceridesSerum triglycerideLong-chain triglyceridesPhospholipidsHypertriglyceridemiaReduce triglyceride levelsBloodNext Big Lipid TargetCoronaryType of lipidTypes of lipidsMedium Chain TriglycLipoprotein cholesterolObesityFatty acidDiabetesPlasma triglycerideMilligrams per deciliterNormal triglyceride levelsATGLHelp lower your triglyceridesCauses high triglyceridesHigh levels of triglyceridesSubstancesMetabolicRaise triglyceride levelsMoleculesLevels of lipidsCertain lipid-lowerForm of a lipidMarkersStatinsCardiovascular risk
- Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play major roles in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism through the control of numerous genes involved in processes such as lipid uptake and fatty acid oxidation. (wur.nl)
- Here we identify hypoxia-inducible lipid droplet-associated (Hilpda/Hig2) as a novel PPAR target gene and demonstrate its involvement in hepatic lipid metabolism. (wur.nl)
- Effect of dietary choline levels on growth performance, lipid deposition and metabolism in juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. (semanticscholar.org)
- Explore and explain the main features involved in the anabolic metabolism of carbohydrate (glycogenisis), lipid metabolism (triglyceride storage, transport and ketosis) and protein metabolism (transamination and deamination). (markedbyteachers.com)
- Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. (le.ac.uk)
- Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of lipid metabolism, which have been shown to be altered in LOAD. (ox.ac.uk)
- Lipoprotein lipase transporter GPIHBP1 and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. (nih.gov)
- Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which hydrolyzes circulating triglyceride, plays a crucial role in normal lipid metabolism and energy balance. (nih.gov)
- Numerous lines of evidence indicate that GPIHBP1 exerts distinct functions and plays diverse roles in human triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism. (nih.gov)
- The central nervous system (CNS), particularly the hypothalamus, regulates hepatic lipid metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
- In addition to the array of circulating factors that directly regulate hepatic lipid metabolism, the hypothalamic region of the brain senses circulating nutrients and hormones to regulate peripheral lipid homeostasis 6 - 10 and blood pressure. (ahajournals.org)
- In spite of the fact that the hypothalamus regulates peripheral lipid metabolism, it is currently unknown whether other brain regions are sufficient to regulate hepatic lipid metabolism. (ahajournals.org)
- However, it is currently unknown whether hepatic lipid metabolism is regulated by neuronal transmission in the DVC. (ahajournals.org)
- In this article, we review the processes of muscle glycogen and triglyceride storage and metabolism. (springer.com)
- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) phosphorylation is crucial for proper regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver. (frontiersin.org)
- Astragaloside IV (AST-IV) was found to decrease lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by activating AMPK, which is required to regulate lipid metabolism in liver tissue by inducing SREBP-1c phosphorylation. (frontiersin.org)
- Disorders of lipid metabolism. (ucsfhealth.org)
- 2 The metabolism of VLDL involves regulatory processes governing the turnover of triglycerides and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB). (ahajournals.org)
- Apolipoprotein (apo)C-III, a glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and intestine, plays a central role in regulating the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) including VLDL and their remnants in plasma. (ahajournals.org)
- Summarizes the structure and synthesis of this specific lipid, as well as their role in metabolism. (ck12.org)
- The main function of triglycerides is to store fat and to provide living organisms with the energy for metabolism. (reachingfordreams.com)
- These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking. (plos.org)
- Consequently, we systematically identified and reviewed the relevant evidence comparing STG-based lipid emulsions with physical MCT/LCT mixtures in patients with liver cancer who had undergone hepatectomy and we conducted a meta-analysis to identify potential differences between the two types of PN in terms of liver function, protein metabolism, and immune function. (hindawi.com)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- We used a cell culture model (murine AML12 loaded with oleic acid) and small interfering RNA to directly assess the impact of PAT proteins on LD accumulation, lipid metabolism, and insulin action. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Modelling lipid metabolism in plants: a slippery problem? (portlandpress.com)
- Residual cardiovascular risk: triglyceride metabolism and genetics provide a key Read more. (r3i.org)
- Learn more about cholesterol and blood lipids including fatty acids, tryglycerides, phospholipids and lipoproteins that transport biological compounds between tissues. (health24.com)
- While statin therapy has proven highly effective in lowering cardiovascular risk among patients with elevated cholesterol, many patients remain at high risk due to increased triglycerides and triglyceride rich lipoproteins. (healthcanal.com)
- Epidemiologic, genetic, and mechanistic data all support a role for triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as important contributors to atherosclerosis. (healthcanal.com)
- A key mechanism to prevent steatosis is to increase secretion of triglycerides (TG) packaged as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Since inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase lower plasma triglycerides rather than cholesterol in rats, we compared the triglyceride-lowering activity of lovastatin in rats to that of atorvastatin, a more potent synthetic inhibitor, prior to evaluating these drugs in established animal models in which low density lipoproteins (LDL) rather than high density lipoproteins (HDL) are the major transporters of plasma cholesterol. (nih.gov)
- Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a lipid transfer protein that is required for the assembly and secretion of very low density lipoproteins by the liver and chylomicrons by the intestine. (semanticscholar.org)
- Dysregulation of hepatic triglyceride (TG)-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG) in obesity and type 2 diabetes contributes to the dyslipidemia that leads to cardiovascular morbidity. (ahajournals.org)
- A, Schematic representation of working hypothesis: glycine, a coagonist of the NR1 subunit of the N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor, potentiates the activation of NMDA receptors in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and lowers the secretion of hepatic triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG). (ahajournals.org)
- Other mechanisms, including impaired clearance of lipid and lipoproteins may also be involved. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) carry triglycerides through your blood. (healthline.com)
- Most triglycerides are carried in the blood by lipoproteins called very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) . (labtestsonline.org)
- The resulting TAG is used in several metabolic processes, including synthesis of very-low-density lipoproteins in the liver and chylomicrons in the intestine, energy storage as lipid droplets in adipocytes, and milk production in mammary epithelial cells. (physiology.org)
- There is a third type of cholesterol called VLDL (very-low-density lipoproteins), which is another type of "bad" cholesterol produced in the liver, and contains a high amount of triglycerides. (medicinenet.com)
- Effect of heparin on the utilization in vitro of labelled glycerides from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in rat adipose tissue. (biomedsearch.com)
- Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from adult rat plasma were labelled in vivo with 3H in the esterified fatty acids and 14C in the labelled glyceride glycerol of neutral lipids by injecting i.v. sodium 9-10 (n)-[3H] palmitate and [U-14C] glycerol, after which the prelabelled lipoproteins were purified by ultracentrifugation and dialysis. (biomedsearch.com)
- BACKGROUND Most patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are treated with statins, which reduce atherogenic triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. (diva-portal.org)
- Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may be an important additional target for therapy. (diva-portal.org)
- Triglyceride-rich remnant lipoproteins: a new therapeutic target in aortic valve stenosis? (r3i.org)
- Targeting triglycerides as a vascular risk factor is justified because of the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in atherogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Overall, the treatment of elevated triglyceride levels focuses on increased exercise and changes in the diet. (ucsfhealth.org)
- Elevated triglyceride levels can be seen in type 2 diabetes that is not in good control and can be seen in hypothyroidism, certain genetic lipid conditions, and kidney disease or liver disease. (healthadvisorycenter.com)
- These lead to the breakdown of triglycerides in a stepwise manner releasing a free fatty acid at each step, from a triglyceride to a diglyceride(by ATGL), then to a monoglyceride(by HSL) and finally to glycerol and a free fatty acid by monoacylglycerol lipase(MGL). (livestrong.com)
- These findings are in agreement with the recognized influence of heparin on the release of lipoprotein lipase and show the direct relationship between heparin action and tissue ability to take up products of lipoprotein triglyceride breakdown. (biomedsearch.com)
- The second reaction is driven by the reagents from bottle 1, with lipase added in reagent 2 to convert triglycerides to glycerol, and 4-aminophenzone added to react with the hydrogen peroxide produced in the last reaction. (cdc.gov)
- Adipose triglyceride lipase also known as patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PNPLA2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
- Further, the lipolytic rate increased by ∼2- to 2.5-fold in association with increased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) at the LD surface. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Fatty acids are simply chains of carbon and hydrogen that can join together to form larger molecules such as triglycerides, sterols, saturated and unsaturated fats which will interact in our bodies. (fitday.com)
- Unsaturated fats , especially polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs), can help lower triglyceride levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Chronic infusion of insulin into the CNS via osmotic minipumps reduced the hepatic lipid content as assessed by non-invasive 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and lipid profiling independent of changes in hepatic de novo lipogenesis and food intake. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Weight loss in intra-abdominally obese men is accompanied by reduced AEA and 2-AG levels, and the decrease of the latter correlates with weight loss-induced amelioration of high triglycerides, insulin resistance and HDL-cholesterol levels [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Low blood sugar lowers insulin and removes the inhibition of triglyceride breakdown, leading to the mobilization of fat stores. (livestrong.com)
- 9 Central neuropeptide Y signaling also negates the ability of circulating insulin to inhibit VLDL-TG secretion, 6 whereas hormones such as insulin, 8 ghrelin, 7 melanocortins, 14 , 15 and leptin 16 , 17 trigger hypothalamic signaling cascades to modulate peripheral lipid profiles. (ahajournals.org)
- In contrast, nonfasting TG levels were associated with incident cardiovascular events, independent of traditional risk factors, levels of other lipids, and markers of insulin resistance ( 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- OBJECTIVE- Accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) in non-adipose tissues is recognized as a strong prognostic factor for the development of insulin resistance in obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS- These data establish an important role for PAT proteins as surfactant at the LD surface, packaging lipids in smaller units and restricting access of lipases and thus preventing insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Although ectopic fat correlates with systemic and tissue insulin resistance ( 4 - 6 ), a number of circumstances are known in which high tissue lipid stores are not associated with insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Endurance-trained athletes have high intramyocellular lipids yet are highly insulin sensitive. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Importantly, the size and intracellular distribution of lipid droplets (LDs) differs in muscle from insulin-sensitive athletes compared with insulin-resistant patients ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Having too many triglycerides in the blood can raise your risk of heart disease and insulin resistance, [ 2 ] especially if you also have high blood pressure or high cholesterol. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Evidence supports a potential role for both fasting and non-fasting triglycerides as vascular risk factors, owing in part to the accompanying burden of atherogenic remnant particles, small dense LDL, reduced HDL-C and a high frequency of accompanying insulin resistance. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Although hesperidin lowers serum total cholesterol (TC) or triglyceride (TG) in animal models, its effect in humans remains unclear. (nii.ac.jp)
- This lipid panel includes Total Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol and calculated non-HDL Cholesterol. (specialtylabs.com)
- We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs) for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol) using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013). (ox.ac.uk)
- Usually, triglycerides are tested in the form of a lipid panel that includes total cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels. (livestrong.com)
- This fingerstick sample is typically used when a lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG) is being measured on a portable testing device, for example, at a health fair. (labtestsonline.org)
- LDL and HDL are the two main types of cholesterol (blood fats, or lipids) that make up your total cholesterol. (medicinenet.com)
- LDL, HDL, and one fifth of the triglyceride value (see below) makes up the total cholesterol value. (johnmuirhealth.com)
- https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/healthy_heart/know_your_risks/calculating-your-cholesterol Lipid Profile: At a glance at Labtestsonline.org Total Cholesterol - What Are Total Cholesterol Levels? (wikipedia.org)
- Since triglycerides are not actually cholesterol, your triglyceride value is not directly related to your Total Cholesterol in a 1:1 relationship, as HDL and LDL are. (bellaonline.com)
- So some of the ways you can help lower your triglycerides are very similar to some of the ways that you can also help lower your total cholesterol and your LDL or bad cholesterol. (sharecare.com)
- Analysis of blood lipids should be repeated routinely in many patients, and limiting testing to total cholesterol may eliminate the need for fasting prior to sampling, thereby saving time and money. (edu.au)
- [ 3 ] To assess triglyceride levels, doctors typically do a standard cholesterol blood test, which includes your triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or "good") cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or "bad") cholesterol. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- After a person eats, an increased level of triglycerides is found in the blood as the body converts the energy not needed right away into fat. (labtestsonline.org)
- If you eat too many calories than your body can use, especially calories you take in from fat and carbohydrates, your level of triglycerides goes up and you can develop a condition known as "hypertriglyceridemia. (healthadvisorycenter.com)
- Studies have shown that as the level of triglycerides rise, so does the risk of heart disease. (johnmuirhealth.com)
- For men, the hazard ratio at that level of triglycerides also was 1.2 (95% CI 0.8 to 1.7). (medpagetoday.com)
- Having a high level of triglycerides can raise your risk of heart diseases , such as coronary artery disease . (medlineplus.gov)
- According to The Journal of Nutrition, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) have six to 12 carbon fatty acids, while long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) have more than a dozen carbon fatty acids. (mercola.com)
- The production process involves heating the starting materials (medium-chain triglycerides [MCTs] and long-chain triglycerides [LCTs]) in the presence of enzyme catalysts to bring about restructuring. (hindawi.com)
- Flash chromatography with solvent of increasing polarity yielded 83.42% neutral lipids, 1.56% glycolipids and 2.09% phospholipids. (iospress.com)
- Phospholipids are an one of the main types of lipids and major constituents of the plasma membrane. (reachingfordreams.com)
- In contrast to the phospholipids and triglycerides, steroids have a fused ring structure. (reachingfordreams.com)
- Nerves are protected by a sheath (myelin) that contains cholesterol, phospholipids, and other lipids.The animal organism carries a number of essential substances that catalyze chemical reactions in cells. (encyclopedia.com)
- Methods and findings We performed a two-stage GWA study for hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in Mexicans (n=4361), and identified a novel Mexican-specific genome-wide significant locus for serum triglycerides (TGs) near the Niemann-Pick type C1 protein gene (p=2.43×10 −08 ). (bmj.com)
- A retrospective cohort of 132 consecutive non-hypertriglyceridemia (HTG)-induced SAP patients with triglyceride (TG) elevation and pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid (PAAF) was recruited from May 2010 to May 2015 and included in this study. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Conventional medicine has led many to believe that increased fat intake is a precursor for high triglyceride levels 16 or hypertriglyceridemia. (mercola.com)
- The study met its primary objective showing CaPre to be safe and effective in reducing triglycerides in patients with mild to severe hypertriglyceridemia. (thefreedictionary.com)
- When triglyceride levels in the blood exceeds the upper normal limit of 150mg/dl or 1.7mmol/l, the patient is at risk of hypertriglyceridemia. (healthadvisorycenter.com)
- According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 21.5 percent of all adults have above-normal triglyceride levels, also called hypertriglyceridemia or dyslipidemia. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- There are few medications available to reduce triglyceride levels. (healthadvisorycenter.com)
- The best choices are changing lifestyle choices in order to reduce triglyceride levels. (healthadvisorycenter.com)
- There are many ways to reduce triglyceride levels safely. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Choosing healthful fats may help reduce triglyceride levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Most people know about cholesterol, an important type of fat (lipid) in the blood. (health24.com)
- A doctor can test the triglyceride levels in your blood to be sure they are at healthy levels. (fitday.com)
- Patients are now frequently offered a test of blood cholesterol level and triglycerides. (drmyhill.co.uk)
- The purpose of this research study is to compare changes in triglyceride and other lipids (levels of fats found in the blood) from Baseline (Day 1) to Week 12 for darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily versus atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg once daily in combination with a fixed-dose background regimen consisting of emtricitabine [FTC]/tenofovir [TDF] 200/300 mg once daily). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Neutrophils, isolated from the blood of 10 healthy volunteers, were incubated in medium or physiologic (2.5 mmol/L) emulsions containing long-chain (LCT), medium-chain (MCT), mixed LCT/MCT, or structured (SL) triglycerides. (nih.gov)
- Supports healthy blood lipid levels, including triglycerides. (drvitaminsolutions.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. (ox.ac.uk)
- We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m 2 , age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os ) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. (biomedcentral.com)
- Testing for triglycerides is done with a fasting blood test. (livestrong.com)
- The Cleveland Clinic says 9 to 12 hours of fasting beforehand is necessary to obtain the most accurate blood lipid levels, as eating beforehand can lead to higher circulating levels of lipids in the blood. (livestrong.com)
- Fenofibrate, an antihypertriglyceridemic agent acts in much the same way in lowering blood triglyceride levels. (livestrong.com)
- The most notable blood chemistry changes were in triglyceride levels in patients taking GS-0976. (medscape.com)
- Triglycerides are glycerol molecules found in your blood, with three fatty acids bound to them, 3 and are considered the most common type of body fat. (mercola.com)
- To check if you have normal triglyceride levels or not, you'll need to take a blood test. (mercola.com)
- New drugs that lower levels of triglycerides (a type of fat) in blood could further reduce the risk of heart attack when added to statins. (medicalxpress.com)
- Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States, and high triglyceride levels in the blood are cited as just one of several risk factors. (medicalxpress.com)
- Triglycerides, a type of fat in the blood, are important for good health. (medicalxpress.com)
- The triglyceride level test helps measure the amount of triglycerides in your blood. (healthline.com)
- Triglycerides are a type of fat, or lipid, found in the blood. (healthline.com)
- These triglycerides circulate in the blood to provide energy for your muscles to work. (healthline.com)
- Extra triglycerides enter your blood after you eat. (healthline.com)
- If you have prediabetes or diabetes, it's important to monitor your triglyceride level regularly because triglycerides will increase when you aren't properly maintaining your blood sugar levels. (healthline.com)
- The machine collects a very small sample of blood from a finger stick and analyzes your triglycerides as part of a lipid panel. (healthline.com)
- Another way to monitor your triglycerides at home is to mail a sample of blood to a laboratory using a prepared kit. (healthline.com)
- The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the amount of triglycerides in your blood. (ucsfhealth.org)
- Triglycerides are usually measured together with other blood fats. (ucsfhealth.org)
- This test measures the amount of triglycerides in the blood. (labtestsonline.org)
- Most triglycerides are found in fat (adipose) tissue, but some triglycerides circulate in the blood to provide fuel for muscles to work. (labtestsonline.org)
- Triglycerides move via the blood from the gut to adipose tissue for storage. (labtestsonline.org)
- High levels of triglycerides in the blood are associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) , although the reason for this is not well understood. (labtestsonline.org)
- Elevated levels of triglycerides often mean you have other risk factors for heart disease, such as being overweight and suffering from metabolic syndrome, which is a heart-damaging disease in which you have high blood pressure, excess belly fat, diabetes, and high triglyceride levels. (healthadvisorycenter.com)
- High levels of triglycerides are related to a higher risk of heart and blood vessel disease. (clevelandclinic.org)
- Because cholesterol is a fat (medically referred to as lipid ), elevated blood cholesterol is sometimes referred to as hyperlipidemia . (medicinenet.com)
- Triglycerides are another form of fat that circulate in the blood. (johnmuirhealth.com)
- A fast of 12 hours and no alcohol for 24 hours is required to get an accurate triglyceride blood value. (johnmuirhealth.com)
- Lipid profile or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial broad medical screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides. (wikipedia.org)
- Lipid panels are commonly ordered as part of a physical exam, along with other panels such as the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP). (wikipedia.org)
- Triglycerides are the least understood of the blood lipid components. (bellaonline.com)
- To learn more about triglycerides and how they work with your blood system, follow the links at the bottom of this article. (bellaonline.com)
- Although the naturopathic products are effective dietary supplements for promoting blood lipid health and healing, they are not a replacement for conventional medical treatment. (uribiotic.com)
- Research indicates that omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of sudden death from heart attacks, reduce triglycerides in the blood, lower blood pressure, and prevent thrombosis by inhibiting blood clotting. (reachingfordreams.com)
- CardioChek Triglycerides Test Strips (PTS-1716) quickly and accurately measure triglycerides when used in conjunction with CardioChek brand blood analyzers. (e-medtek.com)
- There is a blood test that measures your triglycerides, along with your cholesterol. (medlineplus.gov)
- The main element of the cardiovascular disease laboratory component in NHANES is blood lipid levels. (cdc.gov)
- They are transported in lipids in the blood and stored in fat in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
- The primary aim was to investigate the sufficiency of S‐cholesterol analysis (TC) in monitoring all blood lipids. (edu.au)
- The results of blood lipid measurement in blood samples taken at a primary care unit over a 10‐year period were studied retrospectively, and the probability of TC predicting acceptable levels of LDL, HDL and TG was calculated. (edu.au)
- Blood lipid levels from two samples in 518 patients taken within an interval of 0.5 to 3 years were accessible for study. (edu.au)
- In patients requiring blood lipid monitoring, it may be concluded that if TC, LDL, HDL and TG levels are acceptable in one blood sample, this is sufficient to monitor TC levels. (edu.au)
- These fats and cholesterol are called blood lipids, and the good news is that there are effective ways to manage them. (diabetesselfmanagement.com)
- [ 1 ] High levels of triglycerides may not come with specific symptoms, but they may coincide with both high total blood cholesterol and low HDL ("good") cholesterol levels. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Triglycerides also circulate through your bloodstream, which allows your healthcare provider to detect them in blood tests. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- Triglycerides below 150 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood are considered normal. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- White bread, pasta, and Irish potatoes contain starch, a carbohydrate that has a high glycemic value that can spike blood sugar and raise your triglyceride levels. (globalhealingcenter.com)
- The food that people eat, whether it is from animal or plant sources, can affect the levels of triglycerides in the blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- One way to lower triglyceride levels in the blood is to consume fewer calories each day. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Meta-analysis of all experimental studies that assessed the effects of moderate alcohol intake on concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A I, fibrinogen, triglycerides, and other biological markers previously found to be associated with risk of coronary heart disease. (bmj.com)
- Alcohol intake is causally related to lower risk of coronary heart disease through changes in lipids and haemostatic factors. (bmj.com)
- Elevated plasma triglycerides (TGs) are widely used as a major cardiovascular risk predictor and are thought to play an important role in the progression of coronary heart disease (CHD). (springer.com)
- Fasting triglycerides at initial random assignment were related to risk of coronary heart disease death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and unstable angina in models adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and body mass index. (diva-portal.org)
- Unravelling the heritability of triglycerides and coronary risk Read more. (r3i.org)
- Previous Kowa research has shown that this first in class selective PPAR-a modulator is more potent than currently available therapies in lowering triglycerides, ApoC3, and remnant cholesterol and increasing high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. (healthcanal.com)
- Effectiveness and tolerability of a new lipid-altering agent, gemcabene, in patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- An experimental dose of 30 g of ethanol a day increased concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol by 3.99 mg/dl (95% confidence interval 3.25 to 4.73), apolipoprotein A I by 8.82 mg/dl (7.79 to 9.86), and triglyceride by 5.69 mg/dl (2.49 to 8.89). (bmj.com)
- Our findings suggest that levels of nonfasting triglycerides should be included in guidelines as a marker of elevated levels of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol," they advised. (medpagetoday.com)
- The relationship of triglycerides to risk was independent of lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol in both studies. (diva-portal.org)
- When drugs become necessary, we recommend as initial therapy pravastatin or atorvastatin for elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and gemfibrozil or fenofibrate when triglyceride concentrations exceed 500 mg/dL. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Lowering triglycerides or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: which provides greater clinical benefit? (r3i.org)
- In addition, problems with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, obesity and increased risks for heart disease are all associated with increased triglyceride levels. (livestrong.com)
- These findings collectively suggest that glycine or glycine analogues may have therapeutic benefits in lowering plasma lipid levels in diabetes and obesity by triggering the CNS. (ahajournals.org)
- 1 It is the most consistent lipid disorder in subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. (ahajournals.org)
- The purpose of this study is to evaluate the cardiovascular and lipid effects of two doses of an omega-3 fatty acid concentrate in a group of people who normally are not treated for high lipids. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- in the combination arm, DCCR was shown to be additive to fenofibrate for all lipid fractions except LDL-C. In contrast, a 2009 study of VHTG patients using prescription omega-3 fatty acid in combination with fenofibrate revealed no clinically important change compared to fenofibrate alone(1). (mdtmag.com)
- The main focus of the present work is the analytical study of the fatty acid, triglyceride (TAG) and tocopherol composition of oil extract from the fruit of Algerian tree Argania spinosa. (iospress.com)
- In an experimental model of SAP, high concentrations of free fatty acid (FFA) have been detected in PAAF, and the lipid metabolites extracted from the PAAF could promote the exacerbation of inflammation in vitro [ 5 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Triglycerides are made up of a spine of Glycerol and three fatty acid chains. (livestrong.com)
- Like triglycerides, phospholipid structure consist of fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol or sphingosine backbone. (reachingfordreams.com)
- Triglycerides are fatty acid esters of glycerol that have three hydroxyl groups. (cdc.gov)
- This trial, focusing specifically on high triglyceride patients with diabetes, will definitively test whether triglyceride reduction can reduce cardiac events" said Paul Ridker, MD, director of the Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention at BWH and co-PI of the planned trial. (healthcanal.com)
- The cluster of lipid abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes is defined by a high concentration of TG and small dense LDL and a low concentration of HDL cholesterol. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Certain factors can contribute to high triglyceride levels and to risk of CVD, including lack of exercise, being overweight, smoking cigarettes, consuming excess alcohol, and having medical conditions such as diabetes and kidney disease . (labtestsonline.org)
- There is no timetable to show when or if someone will have a heart attack, but having high levels of triglycerides is strongly associated with atherosclerosis, although high LDL cholesterol levels are believed to be the main cause of it. (livestrong.com)
- Although statins are effective in reducing heart attack risk, many users still often have high levels of triglycerides and go on to have heart attacks. (thefreedictionary.com)
- High levels of triglycerides carry an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities, heart disease, and premature death. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Very high levels of triglycerides (above 1000 mg/dL) can result in pancreatitis, which can be very dangerous. (healthadvisorycenter.com)
- 2) eliminating the toxic substances, mainly including inflammatory mediators, proteases and lipid metabolites in pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid (PAAF). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Among these substances, lipid metabolites, the reaction products of fat necrosis, have been demonstrated to be involved in the development and progression of pancreatitis [ 5 - 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- To evaluate the direct effect of AST on lipid accumulation in hepatocytes with IR and elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we induced IR in HepG2 cells, and used compound C and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (an AMPK inhibitor and agonist, respectively) as control substances. (frontiersin.org)
- Lipids are molecules that are not soluble in water and to give you an example, think fats, oils and waxy substances. (healthadvisorycenter.com)
- Lipids are a group of substances of diverse structures that share the common trait of being soluble in solvents such as ether or benzene. (encyclopedia.com)
- We know from the metabolic syndrome that HDL and triglyceride are key indicators of risk from heart disease and stroke. (sages.org)
- Given the relationship between sleep and lipid stores, we hypothesized that metabolic pathways play a role in sleep regulation and contribute to deficits induced by sleep loss. (plos.org)
- A triglyceride level of 150 mg/dL or higher is also a risk factor for metabolic syndrome . (medlineplus.gov)
- Foods that are high in sugar or are made with white flour will raise triglyceride levels. (healthadvisorycenter.com)
- Alcohol has a lot of sugar and calories in them, which raise triglyceride levels when taken in excess. (healthadvisorycenter.com)
- Trans fats and saturated fats raise triglyceride levels, so people should try to replace them wherever possible. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Foods that contain a lot of simple sugars, especially refined fructose, can raise triglyceride levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- He noted that statins only reduce clinical events by approximately one-third (although subsequent speakers suggested that with more aggressive LDL targets events may be reduced by half), and recommended targeting HDL and triglyceride in addition to LDL cholesterol to achieve greater degrees of risk reduction. (diabetesjournals.org)
- A lipid profile may also be ordered at regular intervals to evaluate the success of lipid-lowering drugs such as statins. (wikipedia.org)
- OBJECTIVES This study examined the relationship of fasting triglyceride levels to outcomes after ACS in patients treated with statins. (diva-portal.org)
- CONCLUSIONS Among patients with ACS treated effectively with statins, fasting triglycerides predict long-term and short-term cardiovascular risk. (diva-portal.org)
- We've been debating for years whether triglyceride lowering therapies added to a statin can further lower cardiovascular risk. (healthcanal.com)
- Remnants and residual cardiovascular risk: triglycerides or cholesterol? (r3i.org)
- Targeting residual cardiovascular risk: lipids and beyond… Read more. (r3i.org)
- Tackling residual cardiovascular risk: a case for targeting postprandial triglycerides? (r3i.org)
- Residual cardiovascular risk: it's not just lipids! (r3i.org)
- Do we need new lipid biomarkers for residual cardiovascular risk? (r3i.org)
- Lipid-related residual cardiovascular risk: a new therapeutic target on the horizon Read more. (r3i.org)
- Triglycerides and residual cardiovascular risk: where now? (r3i.org)