A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS; and HERPES ZOSTER OPHTHALMICUS. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgery performed to relieve pressure from MICROVESSELS that are located around nerves and are causing NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES.
Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.
Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.
Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)
The application, via IMPLANTED ELECTRODES, of short bursts of electrical energy in the radiofrequency range, interspersed with pauses in delivery of the current long enough to dissipate the generated heat and avoid heat-induced tissue necrosis.
Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)
A vascular anomaly characterized by a radial or wedge-shaped arrangement of dilated VEINS draining into a larger vein in the brain, spinal cord, or the meninges. Veins in a venous angioma are surrounded by normal nervous tissue, unlike a CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CAVERNOUS HEMANGIOMA that lacks intervening nervous tissue. Drainage of venous angioma is fully integrated with the body's venous system, therefore, in most cases there is no clinical signs and rare bleeding.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Pain associated with a damaged PUDENDAL NERVE. Clinical features may include positional pain with sitting in the perineal and genital areas, sexual dysfunction and FECAL INCONTINENCE and URINARY INCONTINENCE.
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A primary headache disorder that is characterized by frequent short-lasting, unilateral, neuralgiform pain attacks in the ocular area, with CONJUNCTIVA fluid-filling and tearing. SUNCT syndrome is usually resistant to treatment.
Process in which a patient is induced into a trance-like state in order to relieve anxiety during a dental procedure.
An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.
Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A small space in the skull between the MAXILLA and the SPHENOID BONE, medial to the pterygomaxillary fissure, and connecting to the NASAL CAVITY via the sphenopalatine foramen.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.

Neurovascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia in elderly patients. (1/226)

The operative findings and outcomes of neurovascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia were compared between patients aged 75 years and older (elderly group, 17 patients) and patients aged under 75 years (nonelderly group, 115 patients). There were no statistically significant differences in the operative findings or outcomes between the two groups, except in the percentage of patients who had been treated with carbamazepine. Neurovascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia can be performed in elderly patients with the same operative results as in nonelderly patients. If other treatments (especially carbamazepine treatment) prove ineffective, neurovascular decompression should be considered in elderly patients before they become too old to undergo surgery. However, neurovascular decompression in elderly patients requires great care, as the venous system, including the superior petrosal vein, should be preserved and retraction of the cerebellum should be avoided whenever possible to maintain correct blood circulation in the cerebellum and brainstem.  (+info)

Removal of petrous apex meningioma and microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia through the anterior petrosal approach. Case report. (2/226)

A 64-year-old female presented with right trigeminal neuralgia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a tumor attached to the right petrous apex. MR imaging also revealed that the trigeminal nerve was compressed and distorted by the tumor. Tumor removal and microvascular decompression (MVD) were performed via the anterior petrosal approach. The trigeminal nerve was distorted by the tumor and the superior cerebellar artery compressed the medial part of the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve. The surgery resulted in complete relief of the trigeminal neuralgia. Posterior fossa tumors causing ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia are not rare, and are often removed via the suboccipital retromastoid approach, as MVD for trigeminal neuralgia is usually performed through the retromastoid approach. The advantages of the anterior petrosal approach are shorter access to the lesion and direct exposure without interference from the cranial nerves, and that bleeding from the tumors is easily controlled as the feeding arteries can be managed in the early stage of the surgery. We conclude that the anterior petrosal approach is safe and advantageous for the removal of petrous apex tumor associated with trigeminal neuralgia.  (+info)

Trigeminal evoked potentials in patients with symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia due to intracranial mass lesions. (3/226)

Trigeminal evoked potentials (TEP) were recorded by electrical stimulation of the lips in 7 patients with symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia due to CT proved mass lesions involving the trigeminal nerve. All the patients showed TEP abnormalities on the affected side. Chronic compression and irritation of the trigeminal nerve may be responsible for these changes. The results obtained were compared with other similar studies and TEP abnormalities observed in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. As all the patients had unequivocal compression of the trigeminal nerve and all of them had TEP changes, it can be concluded that TEP abnormality is an accurate predictor of trigeminal nerve compression. TEPs may be a valuable aid in demonstrating a compressive element in patients with trigeminal neuralgia.  (+info)

Measurement of changes in opioid receptor binding in vivo during trigeminal neuralgic pain using [11C] diprenorphine and positron emission tomography. (4/226)

The binding of [11C]diprenorphine to mu, kappa, and delta subsites in cortical and subcortical structures was measured by positron emission tomography in vivo in six patients before and after surgical relief of trigeminal neuralgia pain. The volume of distribution of [11C]diprenorphine binding was significantly increased after thermocoagulation of the relevant trigeminal division in the following areas: prefrontal, insular, perigenual, mid-cingulate and inferior parietal cortices, basal ganglia, and thalamus bilaterally. In addition to the pain relief associated with the surgical procedure, there also was an improvement in anxiety and depression scores. In the context of other studies, these changes in binding most likely resulted from the change in the pain state. The results suggest an increased occupancy by endogenous opioid peptides during trigeminal pain but cannot exclude coexistent down-regulation of binding sites.  (+info)

Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia: comments on a series of 250 cases, including 10 patients with multiple sclerosis. (5/226)

OBJECTIVE: To examine surgical findings and results of microvascular decompression (MVD) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN), including patients with multiple sclerosis, to bring new insight about the role of microvascular compression in the pathogenesis of the disorder and the role of MVD in its treatment. METHODS: Between 1990 and 1998, 250 patients affected by trigeminal neuralgia underwent MVD in the Department of Neurosurgery of the "Istituto Nazionale Neurologico C Besta" in Milan. Limiting the review to the period 1991-6, to exclude the "learning period" (the first 50 cases) and patients with less than 1 year follow up, surgical findings and results were critically analysed in 148 consecutive cases, including 10 patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS: Vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve was found in all cases. The recurrence rate was 15.3% (follow up 1-7 years, mean 38 months). In five of 10 patients with multiple sclerosis an excellent result was achieved (follow up 12-39 months, mean 24 months). Patients with TN for more than 84 months did significantly worse than those with a shorter history (p<0.05). There was no mortality and most complications occurred in the learning period. Surgical complications were not related to age of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Aetiopathogenesis of trigeminal neuralgia remains a mystery. These findings suggest a common neuromodulatory role of microvascular compression in both patients with or without multiple sclerosis rather than a direct causal role. MVD was found to be a safe and effective procedure to relieve typical TN in patients of all ages. It should be proposed as first choice surgery to all patients affected by TN, even in selected cases with multiple sclerosis, to give them the opportunity of pain relief without sensory deficits.  (+info)

Acute and chronic craniofacial pain: brainstem mechanisms of nociceptive transmission and neuroplasticity, and their clinical correlates. (6/226)

This paper reviews the recent advances in knowledge of brainstem mechanisms related to craniofacial pain. It also draws attention to their clinical implications, and concludes with a brief overview and suggestions for future research directions. It first describes the general organizational features of the trigeminal brainstem sensory nuclear complex (VBSNC), including its input and output properties and intrinsic characteristics that are commensurate with its strategic role as the major brainstem relay of many types of somatosensory information derived from the face and mouth. The VBSNC plays a crucial role in craniofacial nociceptive transmission, as evidenced by clinical, behavioral, morphological, and electrophysiological data that have been especially derived from studies of the relay of cutaneous nociceptive afferent inputs through the subnucleus caudalis of the VBSNC. The recent literature, however, indicates that some fundamental differences exist in the processing of cutaneous vs. other craniofacial nociceptive inputs to the VBSNC, and that rostral components of the VBSNC may also play important roles in some of these processes. Modulatory mechanisms are also highlighted, including the neurochemical substrate by which nociceptive transmission in the VBSNC can be modulated. In addition, the long-term consequences of peripheral injury and inflammation and, in particular, the neuroplastic changes that can be induced in the VBSNC are emphasized in view of the likely role that central sensitization, as well as peripheral sensitization, can play in acute and chronic pain. The recent findings also provide new insights into craniofacial pain behavior and are particularly relevant to many approaches currently in use for the management of pain and to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures aimed at manipulating peripheral inputs and central processes underlying nociceptive transmission and its control within the VBSNC.  (+info)

Neurovascular compression of the trigeminal and glossopharyngeal nerve: three case reports. (7/226)

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a frequent cause of paroxysmal facial pain and headache in adults. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is less common, but can cause severe episodic pain in the ear and throat. Neurovascular compression of the appropriate cranial nerve as it leaves the brain stem is responsible for the symptoms in many patients, and neurosurgical decompression of the nerve is now a well accepted treatment in adults with both TN and GPN who fail to respond to drug therapy. Neither TN nor GPN are routinely considered in the differential diagnosis when assessing children with paroxysmal facial or head pain, as they are not reported to occur in childhood. Case reports of three children with documented neurovascular compression causing severe neuralgic pain and disability are presented. The fact that these conditions do occur in the paediatric population, albeit rarely, is highlighted, and appropriate investigation and management are discussed.  (+info)

Posterior fossa craniotomy. Technical report. (8/226)

The use of craniotomy to approach supratentorial lesions is quite well established in the literature. The use of craniotomy for posterior fossa approaches, however, is not well described. The aim of this article is to describe the technical aspects of this approach and to delineate the important landmarks. In our cases, posterior fossa craniotomies have been utilized for treat different pathologies. Additionally, the technique has not added any additional risk, and the cosmetic results have been excellent.  (+info)

Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the largest nerves in the head. It carries sensations from the face to the brain.

Medically, trigeminal neuralgia is defined as a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face supplied by the trigeminal nerve (the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions). The pain can be triggered by simple activities such as talking, eating, brushing teeth, or even touching the face lightly.

The condition is more common in women over 50, but it can occur at any age and in either gender. While the exact cause of trigeminal neuralgia is not always known, it can sometimes be related to pressure on the trigeminal nerve from a nearby blood vessel or other causes such as multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a type of neuralgia, which is defined as pain in the distribution of a nerve or nerves. Specifically, PHN is a neuropathic pain condition that develops after an individual has had herpes zoster, also known as shingles. Shingles is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, which lies dormant in the nervous system following chickenpox infection.

PHN is characterized by persistent burning pain, often accompanied by sensory abnormalities such as numbness, tingling, or itching, in the area of the body where shingles occurred. The pain can be severe and debilitating, significantly impacting a person's quality of life. PHN primarily affects older adults and individuals with weakened immune systems.

The exact cause of PHN is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from damage to the affected nerves and their surrounding tissues during the shingles infection. This damage can lead to altered nerve function and increased sensitivity to stimuli, resulting in chronic pain. Treatment for PHN typically involves a combination of medications, such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, or opioids, as well as topical treatments, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to help manage the pain and improve quality of life.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

Neuralgia is a type of pain that occurs along the pathway of a nerve, often caused by damage or irritation to the nerve. It is typically described as a sharp, stabbing, burning, or electric-shock like pain that can be severe and debilitating. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it most commonly occurs in the facial area (trigeminal neuralgia) or in the nerves related to the spine (postherpetic neuralgia). The pain associated with neuralgia can be intermittent or constant and may be worsened by certain triggers such as touch, temperature changes, or movement. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain, as well as other therapies such as nerve blocks, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

Rhizotomy is a surgical procedure where the root(s) of a nerve are cut. It is often used to treat chronic pain, spasticity, or other neurological symptoms that have not responded to other treatments. In some cases, only a portion of the nerve root may be severed (selective rhizotomy), while in others the entire root may be cut (root transaction). The specific nerves targeted during a rhizotomy depend on the individual patient's condition and symptoms.

This procedure is typically performed by a neurosurgeon, and it can be done through an open surgical approach or using minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopic or percutaneous approaches. After the surgery, patients may require physical therapy to help regain strength and mobility in the affected area. Potential risks of rhizotomy include numbness, weakness, and loss of reflexes in the areas served by the severed nerves.

Microvascular decompression surgery (MVD) is a surgical procedure used to alleviate the symptoms of certain neurological conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. The primary goal of MVD is to relieve pressure on the affected cranial nerve by placing a small pad or sponge between the nerve and the blood vessel that is causing compression. This procedure is typically performed under a microscope, hence the term "microvascular."

During the surgery, the neurosurgeon makes an incision behind the ear and creates a small opening in the skull (a craniotomy) to access the brain. The surgeon then identifies the affected nerve and the blood vessel that is compressing it. Using specialized instruments under the microscope, the surgeon carefully separates the blood vessel from the nerve and places a tiny pad or sponge between them to prevent further compression.

The benefits of MVD include its high success rate in relieving symptoms, minimal impact on surrounding brain tissue, and lower risk of complications compared to other surgical options for treating these conditions. However, as with any surgery, there are potential risks and complications associated with MVD, including infection, bleeding, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, facial numbness, hearing loss, balance problems, and very rarely, stroke or death.

It is essential to consult a qualified neurosurgeon for a thorough evaluation and discussion of the risks and benefits of microvascular decompression surgery before making a treatment decision.

The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a narrow space located at the junction of the brainstem and the cerebellum, where the pons and cerebellum meet. This region is filled with several important nerves, blood vessels, and membranous coverings called meninges. The CPA is a common site for various neurological disorders because it contains critical structures such as:

1. Cerebellum: A part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
2. Pons: A portion of the brainstem that plays a role in several vital functions, including facial movements, taste sensation, sleep regulation, and respiration.
3. Cranial nerves: The CPA is home to the following cranial nerves:
* Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII): This nerve has two components - cochlear and vestibular. The cochlear part is responsible for hearing, while the vestibular part contributes to balance and eye movement.
* Facial nerve (CN VII): This nerve controls facial expressions, taste sensation in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, salivary gland function, and lacrimation (tear production).
4. Blood vessels: The CPA contains critical blood vessels like the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), which supplies blood to various parts of the brainstem, cerebellum, and cranial nerves.
5. Meninges: These are protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. In the CPA, the meninges include the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

Disorders that can affect the structures in the cerebellopontine angle include acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwannomas), meningiomas, epidermoids, and arteriovenous malformations. These conditions may cause symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), facial weakness or numbness, difficulty swallowing, and imbalance.

Facial neuralgia is a general term that refers to painful conditions affecting the facial nerves. It is often used to describe two specific disorders: trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia.

1. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, one of the major nerves of the face. The trigeminal nerve is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. Trigeminal neuralgia causes intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face where the branches of the nerve are distributed: the lower jaw, upper jaw, and cheek. The pain usually affects one side of the face, is triggered by light touch or other stimuli, and can last from a few seconds to several minutes.

2. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is a similar but less common condition that involves the glossopharyngeal nerve, which is responsible for sensations in the throat, tongue, and ear on one side of the face. GPN causes sharp, stabbing pain in these areas, often triggered by swallowing, talking, or coughing.

Both trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia can be debilitating and significantly impact a person's quality of life. The exact cause of these conditions is not always clear, but they are often associated with nerve compression by blood vessels or tumors, age-related changes in the nerves and blood vessels, multiple sclerosis, or other underlying medical conditions. Treatment options may include medications to manage pain, surgical procedures to decompress the affected nerves, or, in some cases, radiofrequency ablation or gamma knife radiosurgery to destroy a portion of the nerve and reduce pain signals.

Electrocoagulation is a medical procedure that uses heat generated from an electrical current to cause coagulation (clotting) of tissue. This procedure is often used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as:

* Gastrointestinal bleeding: Electrocoagulation can be used to control bleeding in the stomach or intestines by applying an electrical current to the affected blood vessels, causing them to shrink and clot.
* Skin lesions: Electrocoagulation can be used to remove benign or malignant skin lesions, such as warts, moles, or skin tags, by applying an electrical current to the growth, which causes it to dehydrate and eventually fall off.
* Vascular malformations: Electrocoagulation can be used to treat vascular malformations (abnormal blood vessels) by applying an electrical current to the affected area, causing the abnormal vessels to shrink and clot.

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized device that delivers an electrical current through a needle or probe. The intensity and duration of the electrical current can be adjusted to achieve the desired effect. Electrocoagulation may be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or medication.

It's important to note that electrocoagulation is not without risks, including burns, infection, and scarring. It should only be performed by a qualified medical professional who has experience with the procedure.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

Facial pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain felt in any part of the face. It can result from various causes, including nerve damage or irritation, injuries, infections, dental problems, migraines, or sinus congestion. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent. In some cases, facial pain can also be associated with other symptoms such as headaches, redness, swelling, or changes in sensation. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for effective management of facial pain.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant medication that is primarily used to treat seizure disorders (epilepsy) and neuropathic pain. It works by decreasing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which helps to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures. Carbamazepine may also be used off-label for other conditions such as bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia.

The medication is available in various forms, including tablets, extended-release tablets, chewable tablets, and suspension. It is usually taken two to four times a day with food to reduce stomach upset. Common side effects of carbamazepine include dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and unsteady gait.

It is important to note that carbamazepine can interact with other medications, including some antidepressants, antipsychotics, and birth control pills, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider of all the medications you are taking before starting carbamazepine. Additionally, carbamazepine levels in the blood may need to be monitored regularly to ensure that the medication is working effectively and not causing toxicity.

Hemifacial spasm is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by involuntary, irregular contractions or twitching of the muscles on one side of the face. These spasms typically begin around the eye and may progress to involve the muscles of the lower face, including those around the mouth.

The primary cause of hemifacial spasm is pressure on or irritation of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) as it exits the brainstem, often due to a blood vessel or tumor. This pressure can lead to abnormal electrical signals in the facial nerve, resulting in uncontrolled muscle contractions.

In some cases, hemifacial spasm may be associated with other conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Bell's palsy. Treatment options for hemifacial spasm include medications to help relax the muscles, botulinum toxin (Botox) injections to paralyze the affected muscles temporarily, and, in rare cases, surgical intervention to relieve pressure on the facial nerve.

Pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) treatment is a minimally invasive therapeutic procedure used in pain management and interventional medicine. It involves the use of electrical pulses, delivered via a specialized needle-like probe, to target specific nerves or nerve roots. These electrical pulses are delivered in a controlled and precise manner, at a frequency that does not cause heat damage to the surrounding tissues.

The goal of PRF treatment is to modulate the transmission of pain signals from the affected area to the brain, thereby reducing the perception of pain. The exact mechanism by which PRF works is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the electrical properties of nerve cells and the release of various chemical mediators that influence pain processing.

PRF treatment is typically performed under local anesthesia or conscious sedation, depending on the patient's preference and the specific procedure being performed. It is generally considered a safe and well-tolerated procedure, with few reported side effects. However, as with any medical intervention, there are potential risks and benefits that should be discussed with a qualified healthcare provider before undergoing treatment.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is primarily responsible for providing motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus muscle and sensory innervation to parts of the pharynx, middle ear, and posterior tongue. It also plays a role in the reflexive control of heart rate via the baroreceptors located in the carotid sinus.

Glossopharyngeal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the function of this nerve, leading to various symptoms. These diseases can be classified into two main categories: peripheral and central. Peripheral disorders are caused by damage or injury to the nerve itself, while central disorders result from problems in the brainstem where the glossopharyngeal nerve originates.

Some examples of glossopharyngeal nerve diseases include:

1. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia: A rare condition characterized by severe, stabbing pain in the throat, ear, or tongue, often triggered by swallowing or talking. This disorder may be caused by compression of the nerve by blood vessels or other structures.

2. Infections: Bacterial and viral infections can cause inflammation and damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve, leading to dysfunction. Examples include Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), and meningitis.

3. Tumors: Benign or malignant growths in the head and neck region can compress and injure the glossopharyngeal nerve, resulting in symptoms related to its dysfunction.

4. Trauma: Direct trauma to the neck or skull base can damage the glossopharyngeal nerve, causing various deficits depending on the severity of the injury.

5. Neurological disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis and stroke can affect the central connections of the glossopharyngeal nerve in the brainstem, leading to dysfunction.

6. Genetic conditions: Rare genetic disorders like Moersch-Woltman syndrome (also known as stiff person syndrome) can involve the glossopharyngeal nerve and cause symptoms related to its dysfunction.

Symptoms of glossopharyngeal nerve dysfunction may include difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, loss of taste on the back of the tongue, decreased sensation in the throat or ear, and pain in the neck, throat, or ear. Treatment for these conditions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the specific problem.

A Central Nervous System Venous Angioma (CNS VA), also known as a cerebral venous angioma or developmental venous anomaly (DVA), is a benign vascular malformation of the central nervous system. It is a congenital condition, which means it is present at birth.

A CNS VA is characterized by a cluster of veins that converge into a single larger vein, creating a radial pattern that resembles a Medusa head or a spoked wheel. This venous anomaly typically drains blood from normal brain tissue and usually does not cause any symptoms or neurological deficits. However, in rare cases, CNS VAs may be associated with intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, or development of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).

CNS VAs are usually discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other medical reasons. Diagnostic imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans with contrast can help identify and characterize CNS VAs. No specific treatment is required for asymptomatic CNS VAs, but follow-up imaging may be recommended to monitor the condition over time. In cases where symptoms are present or there is a risk of complications, various treatment options may be considered, including surgical removal, endovascular embolization, or radiation therapy.

Hyperesthesia is a medical term that refers to an increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli, including touch, pain, or temperature. It can affect various parts of the body and can be caused by different conditions, such as nerve damage, multiple sclerosis, or complex regional pain syndrome. Hyperesthesia can manifest as a heightened awareness of sensations, which can be painful or uncomfortable, and may interfere with daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment if experiencing symptoms of hyperesthesia.

Trigeminal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The trigeminal nerve has three branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which innervate different parts of the face and head.

Trigeminal nerve diseases can cause various symptoms, including facial pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness. Some common trigeminal nerve diseases include:

1. Trigeminal neuralgia: A chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, causing intense, stabbing, or electric shock-like pain in the face.
2. Hemifacial spasm: A neuromuscular disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms on one side of the face, often affecting the muscles around the eye and mouth.
3. Trigeminal neuropathy: Damage or injury to the trigeminal nerve, which can result in numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
4. Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): A viral infection that affects the facial nerve and geniculate ganglion of the trigeminal nerve, causing facial paralysis, ear pain, and a rash around the ear.
5. Microvascular compression: Compression of the trigeminal nerve by a blood vessel, which can cause symptoms similar to trigeminal neuralgia.

Treatment for trigeminal nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Pudendal Neuralgia is a chronic pain condition characterized by the irritation or damage to the pudendal nerve, which supplies sensation and innervation to the perineum, genital region, and lower rectum. The symptoms often include burning pain, numbness, tingling, or shooting pain in these areas, which can be worsened by sitting or certain movements. It is important to note that Pudendal Neuralgia is not the same as Pudendal Nerve Entrapment (PNE), although PNE can lead to Pudendal Neuralgia. The diagnosis of this condition typically involves a thorough physical examination, medical history, and sometimes specialized tests like nerve blocks or electromyography (EMG) studies.

Radiosurgery is a non-invasive surgical procedure that uses precisely focused beams of radiation to treat various medical conditions, primarily in the field of neurosurgery and oncology. It allows for the destruction of targeted tissue while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy structures. Unlike traditional surgery, radiosurgery does not require any incisions, as it delivers radiation through the skin to reach the intended target.

The term "stereotactic" is often associated with radiosurgery, which refers to the use of a three-dimensional coordinate system to precisely locate and target the affected area. This technique enables high doses of radiation to be delivered accurately and efficiently, maximizing therapeutic effectiveness while minimizing side effects.

Radiosurgery can be used to treat various conditions such as brain tumors (both malignant and benign), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic neuromas, pituitary adenomas, and spinal cord tumors. Common radiosurgery platforms include the Gamma Knife, CyberKnife, and linear accelerator-based systems like Novalis Tx or TrueBeam.

It is essential to note that although it is called "surgery," radiosurgery does not involve any physical incisions or removal of tissue. Instead, it relies on the destructive effects of high-dose radiation to ablate or damage targeted cells over time, leading to their eventual death and resolution of symptoms or tumor control.

The trigeminal ganglion, also known as the semilunar or Gasserian ganglion, is a sensory ganglion (a cluster of nerve cell bodies) located near the base of the skull. It is a part of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing.

The trigeminal ganglion contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons that carry information from three major branches of the trigeminal nerve: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions. These divisions provide sensation to different areas of the face, head, and oral cavity, including the skin, mucous membranes, muscles, and teeth.

Damage to the trigeminal ganglion or its nerve branches can result in various sensory disturbances, such as pain, numbness, or tingling in the affected areas. Conditions like trigeminal neuralgia, a disorder characterized by intense, stabbing facial pain, may involve the trigeminal ganglion and its associated nerves.

Trigeminal nerve injuries refer to damages or traumas affecting the trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. Trigeminal nerve injuries can result in various symptoms depending on the severity and location of the injury, including:

1. Loss or reduction of sensation in the face, lips, gums, teeth, or tongue.
2. Pain, often described as burning, aching, or stabbing, in the affected areas.
3. Numbness or tingling sensations.
4. Difficulty with biting, chewing, or performing other motor functions.
5. Impaired taste sensation.
6. Headaches or migraines.
7. Eye dryness or excessive tearing.

Trigeminal nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma during facial surgeries, accidents, tumors, infections, or neurological conditions like multiple sclerosis. Treatment options depend on the cause and severity of the injury and may include medication, physical therapy, surgical intervention, or pain management strategies.

Cranial nerves are a set of twelve pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and skull, rather than the spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste) to the brain, as well as controlling various muscles in the head and neck (including those involved in chewing, swallowing, and eye movement). Each cranial nerve has a specific function and is named accordingly. For example, the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, while the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) controls parasympathetic functions in the body such as heart rate and digestion.

A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle, group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the ureter or bronchi. Spasms can occur as a result of various factors including muscle fatigue, injury, irritation, or abnormal nerve activity. They can cause pain and discomfort, and in some cases, interfere with normal bodily functions. For example, a spasm in the bronchi can cause difficulty breathing, while a spasm in the ureter can cause severe pain and may lead to a kidney stone blockage. The treatment for spasms depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

SUNCT syndrome, an acronym for Short-lasting Unilateral Neuralgiform headache attacks with Conjunctival injection and Tearing, is a rare and severe type of headache disorder. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of intense, one-sided (unilateral) head pain that typically lasts for a short duration (less than 5 minutes). The headaches are often described as stabbing or piercing and can be triggered by various stimuli such as touch, movement, or temperature changes.

In addition to the head pain, SUNCT syndrome is also associated with autonomic symptoms, including redness (conjunctival injection) and tearing of the eye on the same side as the headache. Other possible autonomic symptoms include sweating, nasal congestion, and pupil changes.

SUNCT syndrome can be challenging to diagnose and treat due to its rarity and severity. It is typically managed with a combination of medications, including anti-epileptic drugs, and in some cases, invasive procedures such as nerve blocks or neurostimulation may be considered.

Hypnosis in dentistry, also known as hypnodontics, refers to the use of hypnosis as an adjunctive therapy in dental practice. It is a state of highly focused attention or concentration, often associated with relaxation, and heightened suggestibility. The American Dental Association recognizes hypnosis as a useful tool for:

* Reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation before and during dental procedures
* Managing pain and reducing the need for anesthesia
* Controlling gag reflex
* Treating dental phobias
* Assisting in habit control, such as bruxism (teeth grinding) and nail biting
* Enhancing recovery after surgery

The process typically involves verbal or written suggestions made by a trained dental professional to the patient, who is in a state of hypnotic trance. The patient remains conscious and in control throughout the procedure, but is more open to accepting and acting on the suggestions made. Hypnosis is considered safe when practiced by a trained professional, and its effectiveness varies from person to person.

The Herpes Zoster vaccine, also known as the shingles vaccine, is a preventive measure against the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in individuals who have previously had chickenpox. The vaccine contains a live but weakened form of VZV that boosts the immune system's ability to recognize and fight off the virus, thereby reducing the risk of developing shingles and its complications. It is typically administered as a single dose for people aged 50 and older, or as a two-dose series for those aged 19 and older who have weakened immune systems.

Paresthesia is a medical term that describes an abnormal sensation such as tingling, numbness, prickling, or burning, usually in the hands, feet, arms, or legs. These sensations can occur without any obvious cause, often described as "pins and needles" or falling asleep in a limb. However, persistent paresthesia can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as nerve damage, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or a vitamin deficiency. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent paresthesia to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

The trigeminal nuclei are a collection of sensory nerve cell bodies (nuclei) located in the brainstem that receive and process sensory information from the face and head, including pain, temperature, touch, and proprioception. There are four main trigeminal nuclei: the ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular, and mesencephalic nuclei. Each nucleus is responsible for processing sensory information from specific areas of the face and head. The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) carries these sensory signals to the brainstem, where they synapse with neurons in the trigeminal nuclei before being relayed to higher brain centers for further processing.

Facial paralysis is a loss of facial movement due to damage or dysfunction of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). This nerve controls the muscles involved in facial expressions, such as smiling, frowning, and closing the eyes. Damage to one side of the facial nerve can cause weakness or paralysis on that side of the face.

Facial paralysis can result from various conditions, including:

1. Bell's palsy - an idiopathic (unknown cause) inflammation of the facial nerve
2. Trauma - skull fractures, facial injuries, or surgical trauma to the facial nerve
3. Infections - Lyme disease, herpes zoster (shingles), HIV/AIDS, or bacterial infections like meningitis
4. Tumors - benign or malignant growths that compress or invade the facial nerve
5. Stroke - damage to the brainstem where the facial nerve originates
6. Congenital conditions - some people are born with facial paralysis due to genetic factors or birth trauma

Symptoms of facial paralysis may include:

* Inability to move one or more parts of the face, such as the eyebrows, eyelids, mouth, or cheeks
* Drooping of the affected side of the face
* Difficulty closing the eye on the affected side
* Changes in saliva and tear production
* Altered sense of taste
* Pain around the ear or jaw
* Speech difficulties due to weakened facial muscles

Treatment for facial paralysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as Bell's palsy, spontaneous recovery may occur within a few weeks to months. However, physical therapy, medications, and surgical interventions might be necessary in other situations to improve function and minimize complications.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

The pterygopalatine fossa is a small, irregularly shaped space located in the skull, lateral to the nasal cavity and inferior to the orbit. It serves as a critical communications center for several important nerves, arteries, and veins that provide sensory innervation, vasomotor control, and blood supply to various structures in the head and neck region.

The following are some key components of the pterygopalatine fossa:

1. Nerves: The pterygopalatine ganglion is a major component of this fossa, which contains postganglionic parasympathetic fibers, sympathetic fibers, and sensory fibers from various nerves, including the maxillary nerve (V2), greater petrosal nerve, deep petrosal nerve, and nerve of the pterygoid canal.

2. Arteries: The maxillary artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, enters the fossa through the foramen rotundum and divides into several branches that supply various structures in the head and neck region, such as the sphenopalatine artery, posterior superior alveolar artery, infraorbital artery, and greater palatine artery.

3. Veins: The pterygoid venous plexus is a complex network of veins located in and around the fossa that communicates with various venous systems, including the facial vein, cavernous sinus, and inferior ophthalmic vein.

The pterygopalatine fossa plays an essential role in several physiological functions, such as lacrimation, salivation, and vasodilation of blood vessels in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Additionally, it is a potential site for the spread of infection or neoplasm from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, or paranasal sinuses to other regions of the head and neck.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

An acoustic neuroma, also known as vestibular schwannoma, is not actually a neuroma but rather a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops on the vestibular nerve. This nerve is one of the two nerves that transmit sound and balance information from the inner ear to the brain. The tumor arises from an overproduction of Schwann cells, which normally provide a protective covering for the nerve fibers. As the tumor grows, it can press against the hearing and balance nerves, causing symptoms such as hearing loss, ringing in the ear (tinnitus), unsteadiness, and disequilibrium. In some cases, acoustic neuromas can become quite large and cause additional symptoms by pressing on nearby cranial nerves. Treatment options include observation, radiation therapy, or surgical removal of the tumor.

Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal, tangled connections between the arteries and veins in the brain. These connections bypass the capillary system, which can lead to high-flow shunting and potential complications such as hemorrhage, stroke, or neurological deficits. AVMs are congenital conditions, meaning they are present at birth, although symptoms may not appear until later in life. They are relatively rare, affecting approximately 0.1% of the population. Treatment options for AVMs include surgery, radiation therapy, and endovascular embolization, depending on the size, location, and specific characteristics of the malformation.

... one of which is atypical trigeminal neuralgia ("trigeminal neuralgia, type 2" or trigeminal neuralgia with concomitant pain), ... Trigeminal neuralgia at Curlie Trigeminal Neuralgia at NHS Choices (Articles with short description, Short description is ... "Facial Neuralgia Resources". Trigeminal Neuralgia Resources / Facial Neuralgia Resources. Archived from the original on 8 July ... Bilateral (occurring on both sides) trigeminal neuralgia is very rare except for trigeminal neuralgia caused by multiple ...
... (ATN), or type 2 trigeminal neuralgia, is a form of trigeminal neuralgia, a disorder of the fifth ... TN "Trigeminal Neuralgia Description / Definition", [US] Facial Pain Association, "TN (Trigeminal Neuralgia) Description / ... "atypical facial pain is a confusing term and should never be used to describe patients with trigeminal neuralgia or trigeminal ... National Pain Foundation, "Trigeminal Neuralgia - Definitions" Archived 2011-10-03 at the Wayback Machine Rief W, Isaac M ( ...
Trigeminal neuralgia. Méthode du traitement des fractures, Paris, 1916. WorldCat Search Traité de chirurgie clinique et ...
Berlin, 1898.) Trigeminal neuralgia. (Allbutt's System of Medicine, 1899, 6, 724-752.) Herpes zoster. (Allbutt's System of ...
"Trigeminal Neuralgia." In: Rakel RE (ed), Conn's Current Therapy. WB Saunders Co, Phila, PA, pp 900-902, 1996. Bederson JB. " ... trigeminal neuralgia, tumors of the skull base, carotid artery disease and problems of the cervical and lumbar spine. During ...
Acute pain due to trigeminal neuralgia is usually successfully treated with anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine or phenytoin ... Bayer DB, Stenger TG (November 1979). "Trigeminal neuralgia: an overview". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology. 48 ... Brisman R (April 1987). "Trigeminal neuralgia and multiple sclerosis". Archives of Neurology. 44 (4): 379-81. doi:10.1001/ ... as well as trigeminal neuralgia, Lhermitte's sign, or dysesthesias. Subacute pain is usually secondary to the disease and can ...
Towards the end of the war, she is known to have also suffered from severe depression and trigeminal neuralgia. This condition ... What is Trigeminal Neuralgia? TNA Website Meissner 1980, pp. 141, 228, 234. Thacker 2010, p. 298. "Magda Goebbels". Spartacus ...
Porter NC (2008). "Trigeminal Neuralgia: Surgical Perspective". In Chin LS, Regine WF (eds.). Principles and practice of ... Pino MA (19 January 2017). "Trigeminal Neuralgia: A "Lightning Bolt" of Pain". US Pharmacist. 42: 41-44. Powell G, Saunders M, ... Gambeta E, Chichorro JG, Zamponi GW (January 2020). "Trigeminal Neuralgia: an overview from pathophysiology to pharmacological ... its use for trigeminal neuralgia (formerly known as tic douloureux) was introduced at the same time. It has been used as an ...
... anatomy, part 1 and part 2 on YouTube Trigeminal neuralgia (Articles with short description, Short description ... Trigeminal neuralgia Cluster headache Migraine Lateral medullary syndrome (Wallenberg syndrome) is a clinical demonstration of ... The spinal trigeminal nucleus contains a pain-temperature sensory map of the face and mouth. From the spinal trigeminal nucleus ... Kontzialis M, Kocak M (2017). "Imaging evaluation of trigeminal neuralgia". Journal of Istanbul University Faculty of Dentistry ...
Carbamazepine is most commonly prescribed to treat trigeminal neuralgia due to clinical experience and early clinical trials ... Al-Quliti, Khalid W. (April 2015). "Update on neuropathic pain treatment for trigeminal neuralgia: The pharmacological and ... Bennetto, Luke; Patel, Nikunj K; Fuller, Geraint (27 January 2007). "Trigeminal neuralgia and its management". BMJ. 334 (7586 ... "Pharmacological treatment for all neuropathic pain except trigeminal neuralgia". NICE Guidance CG173. 2013. "Neuropathic pain ...
Trigeminal neuralgia has been described as one of the most painful conditions possible. Trigeminal neuralgia and AFP are ... In 2005 researchers proposed a new classification of trigeminal neuralgia which described a type of trigeminal neuralgia where ... "atypical trigeminal neuralgia", "trigeminal neuropathic pain" and "atypical facial neuralgia" as synonyms of AFP. The ICHD-2 ... Trigeminal neuralgia is another example of a cause of facial pain. Neuralgia refers to pain in the distribution of a nerve (or ...
Trigeminal neuralgia "Death of Dr. Carnochan; Stricken with Apoplexy in His Bath--His Career" (PDF). The New York Times. 29 ... was an American surgeon who performed the first successful neurosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Carnochan was born in ... The First Description of Successful Surgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia". J. Neurosurg. United States. 112 (1): 199-201. doi: ... The removal of this nerve had been decided upon to secure relief in a chronic case of neuralgia. It was entirely successful, ...
Singh, Manish (2017-09-26). "Trigeminal Neuralgia: Practice Essentials, Background, Anatomy". Medscape. Morton DA, Foreman KB, ... that are especially painful when pressed Trigeminal neuralgia: attacks of shooting pain down the face that may be triggered by ... Irritation of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) is the most common cause of referred ear pain. While some disorders may ... Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is treated with carbamazepine. 2/3 of people presenting with ear pain were diagnosed with some sort ...
"Facial Neuralgia Resources". Trigeminal Neuralgia Resources / Facial Neuralgia Resources. Archived from the original on 8 July ... A patient resource group for trigeminal neuralgia (which has been described as the most painful condition in existence) have ...
It may be beneficial in trigeminal neuralgia. "Oxcarbazepine Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. Retrieved 13 April 2019. Anvisa ... October 2008). "AAN-EFNS guidelines on trigeminal neuralgia management". European Journal of Neurology. 15 (10): 1013-1028. doi ...
Trigeminal neuralgia: Second choice drug to carbamazepine. Phenytoin has a narrow therapeutic index. Its therapeutic range for ...
Vertebrobasillar dolichoectasia Hemifacial spasm Paresis Trigeminal neuralgia Internal carotid dolichoectasia Progressive ... "Trigeminal Neuralgia Secondary to Basilar Artery Dolichoectasia". Current Medical Issues. 16 (3): 103. doi:10.4103/cmi.cmi_16_ ...
These are performed to treat trigeminal neuralgia. In the procedure, the electrode is introduced through the cheek of an ... It transmits the mandibular nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve. The foramen ovale is an opening in the greater wing of the ... 776 The following structures pass through foramen ovale: mandibular nerve (CN V3) (a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)) ...
... prevalence of persistent trigeminal artery among trigeminal neuralgia patients. Surgery to move the persistent trigeminal ... Persistent trigeminal artery has been identified as a rare cause of trigeminal neuralgia, with 2.2% ... "Trigeminal neuralgia caused by persistent primitive trigeminal artery." Journal of Korean Neurosurgery Society (2014) 56: 278- ... The trigeminal artery then anastomoses with the basilar artery. At this point in development, the trigeminal artery serves as ...
hopeful evidence Health fraud Trigeminal neuralgia Atypical trigeminal neuralgia Bouquot JE, Roberts AM, Person P, Christian J ... Roberts AM, Person P (October 1979). "Etiology and treatment of idiopathic trigeminal and atypical facial neuralgias". Oral ... "Jawbone cavities and trigeminal and atypical facial neuralgias". Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. 48 (1): 3-20. doi:10.1016/ ... Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis (NICO) is a diagnosis whereby a putative jawbone cavitation causes chronic facial ...
... trigeminal neuralgia). Sir Astley Cooper performed on him an operation that divided several branches of the trigeminal nerve - ... He was compelled by his continuing neuralgia to cease the practice of medicine, to leave London, and to retire to Kent at ... He resigned that office in 1808 (due to his severe neuralgia). In 1806 he was appointed physician-extraordinary to the Prince ...
Weigel G and Casey K. Striking Back! The trigeminal neuralgia handbook. Trigeminal Neuralgia Association Press. Gainesville, ... Trigeminal neuralgia and trigeminal tic douloureux. In: Lewis D, ed. Practice of Surgery. Hagerstown, MD: WF Prior CO, 1932: ... Arterial compression of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Journal of Neurosurgery 1967: ... is a neurosurgical procedure used to treat trigeminal neuralgia (along with other cranial nerve neuralgias), a pain syndrome ...
"Duration of attacks of first division trigeminal neuralgia". Cephalalgia. 25 (4): 305-8. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2004.00864.x. ... TACs are caused by activation of the autonomic nervous system of the trigeminal nerve in the face. As of 2015 about 50 cases ... IHS standard criteria for the diagnosis of SUNCT specifically includes pain in the trigeminal division of the face, especially ... There exists a direct connection between trigeminal nucleus caudalis, which is located in the brain stem, and the posterior ...
Jannetta PJ (1975). "Trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm--etiology and definitive treatment". Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 100 ... Hanakita J; Kondo A (1988). "Serious complications of microvascular decompression operations for trigeminal neuralgia and ...
... for a method to treat trigeminal neuralgia by inserting an electrode into the trigeminal nerve and ablating it. He published ... Functional disorders are: trigeminal neuralgia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Stereotactic surgery works on the basis of ... 6-8. ISBN 978-1-56396-497-8. Park, Kyung-Jae (2012). "Outcomes of Gamma Knife surgery for trigeminal neuralgia secondary to ... Smith, Zachary A. (2003). "Dedicated linear accelerator radiosurgery for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia". Journal of ...
Bin Yaacob H (April 1985). "Flupenthixol and Melitracen in the management of trigeminal neuralgia". Dental Journal of Malaysia ...
Trigeminal neuralgia (or "tic douloureux") is a disorder of the trigeminal nerve that causes episodes of intense pain in the ... Acute pain is mainly due to optic neuritis, trigeminal neuralgia, Lhermitte's sign or dysesthesias. Subacute pain is usually ... Eldridge PR, Sinha AK, Javadpour M, Littlechild P, Varma TR (2003). "Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia in ... and Trigeminal Neuralgia (3%). These authors did not however find enough data to quantify the prevalence of painful optic ...
The superior cerebellar artery is frequently the cause of trigeminal neuralgia. It compresses the trigeminal nerve (CN V), ... It is the cause of trigeminal neuralgia in some patients. The superior cerebellar artery arises near the end of the basilar ... At autopsy, 50% of people without trigeminal neuralgia will also be noted to have vascular compression of the nerve. An ... This may be treated with vascular microsurgery to decompress the trigeminal nerve. ...
Initial approval on 11 March 1968 was for trigeminal neuralgia.) Schain, Richard J. (1 March 1978). "Pediatrics-Epitomes of ...
He is also credited with first identifying and naming trigeminal neuralgia in his work Of a Painful Affection of the Face in ... 43 (475). Pearce, J. M. S. (2003). "Trigeminal neuralgia (Fothergill's disease) in the 17th and 18th centuries". Journal of ...
... one of which is atypical trigeminal neuralgia ("trigeminal neuralgia, type 2" or trigeminal neuralgia with concomitant pain), ... Trigeminal neuralgia at Curlie Trigeminal Neuralgia at NHS Choices (Articles with short description, Short description is ... "Facial Neuralgia Resources". Trigeminal Neuralgia Resources / Facial Neuralgia Resources. Archived from the original on 8 July ... Bilateral (occurring on both sides) trigeminal neuralgia is very rare except for trigeminal neuralgia caused by multiple ...
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or tic douloureux) causes extreme, sudden burning or shock-like pain in the face. Learn about the ... Trigeminal Neuralgia (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) * Trigeminal Neuralgia (National Institute of Dental ... Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a type of chronic pain that affects your face. It causes extreme, sudden burning or shock-like ... Trigeminal Neuralgia (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) Also in Spanish ...
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a distinctive facial pain syndrome that may become recurrent and ... encoded search term (Trigeminal Neuralgia) and Trigeminal Neuralgia What to Read Next on Medscape ... develop trigeminal neuralgia, [12] whereas Jensen et al noted that 2% of patients with trigeminal neuralgia have multiple ... Baclofen in trigeminal neuralgia: its effect on the spinal trigeminal nucleus: a pilot study. Arch Neurol. 1980 Dec. 37(12):768 ...
This guidance has been updated and replaced by stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia ... Stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia using the gamma knife. Interventional procedures guidance [IPG85]. Published ...
Radiofrequency trigeminal rhizolysis for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to brainstem infarction Report of two ... Descending trigeminal reticular fibers may be affected by brainstem infarction and result in trigeminal neuralgia; thus, ... 19 Veins of the brainstem may sometimes compress the trigeminal and facial nerve roots and cause trigeminal neuralgias 4 , 8 , ... Although percutaneous radiofrequency trigeminal rhizolysis (RFL) has been used to treat idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia thought ...
Results showed that the radiomics models based on MRI can predict trigeminal neuralgia with high accuracy, which could be used ... Development and validation of radiomics models for the prediction of diagnosis of classic trigeminal neuralgia.. ... Development and validation of radiomics models for the prediction of diagnosis of classic trigeminal neuralgia. ... All the models showed excellent diagnostic ability in predicting trigeminal neuralgia. A prospective study was conducted, 20 ...
Trigeminal Neuralgia - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Symptoms and Signs of Trigeminal Neuralgia Pain due to trigeminal neuralgia occurs along the distribution of one or more ... For trigeminal neuralgia, pressure is relieved by placing a sponge is placed between the 5th cranial (trigeminal) nerve and the ... Trigeminal neuralgia is treated with carbamazepine 200 mg orally 3 or 4 times a day, which is usually effective for long ...
... sharing their positive review and testimonial about Yashoda hospitals after undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation for Trigeminal ... Neuralgia at best Neurosurgery, Spine Surgeon hospital in Hyderabad ... Trigeminal neuralgia is a condition in which the patient feels excruciating pain on one side of their face. This condition ... B. Satyanarayana from Visakhapatnam, underwent a Radiofrequency Ablation for Trigeminal Neuralgia, under the supervision of Dr ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Trigeminal neuralgia. Check out our video library. Trigeminal neuralgia ... Trigeminal neuralgia is often caused by compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve, although the exact cause is not ... Trigeminal neuralgia, also known as prosopalgia, tic douloureux, or Fothergills disease, is a neuropathic disorder ... Treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia include medication, such as anticonvulsants or muscle relaxants, or surgical ...
Trigeminal neuralgia is a neuropathic pain condition which develops... ... Trigeminal Neuralgia. Trigeminal Neuralgia is also known as tic douloureux. It is a condition that affects the trigeminal nerve ... What is trigeminal neuralgia?. Trigeminal neuralgia is a neuropathic pain condition which develops when damage occurs to a ... When trigeminal neuralgia occurs, even a mild sensation can cause intense pain. Individuals with trigeminal neuralgia often ...
Learn more about the types of neuralgia here. ... Neuralgia is a condition that can cause nerve pain. Treatment ... The following are some common types of neuralgia:. Trigeminal neuralgia. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) involves the trigeminal ... Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare nerve disorder that causes sudden, sharp attacks of pain in the face. Learn about its causes and ... Peripheral neuralgia can affect a single nerve or entire nerve groups.. Peripheral neuralgia can cause pain or numbness. in the ...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either ... Ranked list of diseases related to "trigeminal neuralgia"Drugs, active principles and "trigeminal neuralgia"Medicinal plants ... Trigeminal neuralgia (Tic Douloureux). A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several ... seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve. pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points ...
Learn more about Trigeminal Neuralgia signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment at Baptist Health, Kentucky and Southern ... Trigeminal Neuralgia What is Trigeminal Neuralgia?. Trigeminal neuralgia, a type of neuralgia, is a chronic pain condition ... There is no known way to prevent trigeminal neuralgia.. Trigeminal Neuralgia Prognosis. Without treatment, trigeminal neuralgia ... Trigeminal Neuralgia Causes. Trigeminal neuralgia is often caused by a blood vessel or tumor pressing on the trigeminal nerve, ...
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... is a neuropathic issue. Trigeminal nerve is the major nerve controlling. ... What is trigeminal neuralgia? Trigeminal Neuralgia is a sharp and unpredictable pain that feels like an. ... Trigeminal Neuralgia Trigeminal Neuralgia also called tic douloureux is a sore nerve disorder that makes. ... Trigeminal Neuralgia Trigeminal Neuralgia is that disease in which chronic pain condition occurs due to. ...
Alternative Therapies For Trigeminal Neuralgia Trigeminal neuralgia is a painful condition affecting the trigeminal nerve, also ... Alternative Therapies For Trigeminal Neuralgia. Trigeminal neuralgia is a painful condition affecting the trigeminal nerve, ... One common treatment for trigeminal neuralgia is an injection of sterile glycerol solution into the trigeminal nerve. This ... There are several herbal treatments that can be used to relieve the pain and swelling caused by trigeminal neuralgia. Herbs ...
Understand you therapy options and causes of trigeminal neuralgia from our expert with 25-years of experience.; visit us now. ... Trigeminal neuralgia or tic douloureux Happens when the trigeminal nerve function is disrupted and compressed. Trigeminal ... Non-Surgical Treatment Of Trigeminal Neuralgia. Trigeminal Neuralgia or tic douloureux is common in Malaysia, and treatments ... There are two types of trigeminal neuralgia: classical and symptomatic. Classical trigeminal neuralgia is attacks of pain ...
Trigeminal Neuralgia - Explanation. If you like your Trigeminal Neuralgia explanations about the cause, medication and ...
... trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is likely to have an exacerbating and remitting course. Over time, the pain-free intervals appear to ... encoded search term (Trigeminal Neuralgia Surgery) and Trigeminal Neuralgia Surgery What to Read Next on Medscape ... For more information, see Trigeminal Neuralgia and Management of Acute Trigeminal Neuralgia. ... Zakrzewska J, Chen HI, Lee J. Trigeminal neuralgia and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. McMahon S, Koltzenburg M, Tracey I, Turk D. ...
What is Trigeminal Neuralgia? Various types of facial pain have a wide range of symptoms. ... of trigeminal neuralgia for many years.. Definition Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a very painful disorder of the portion of the ... trigeminal neuralgia type 1 (TN1), the classic form with episodic excruciating pain; and 2) trigeminal neuralgia type 2 (TN2), ... for trigeminal neuralgia; about 2% of individuals with trigeminal neuralgia have multiple sclerosis (Burchiel). ...
... TARRICONE, ROSANNA;AGUZZI G;MUSÌ F; ... that has been proven to be an effective treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) or "tic douloureux". The objective of this ... that has been proven to be an effective treatment for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) or "tic douloureux". The objective of this ...
The pathophysiology is unclear, but trigeminal neuralgia seems to be the consequence of vascular compression of the trigeminal ... REIS, Renata Cristiane dos et al. Clinical aspects and pharmacological treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. RSBO (Online) [online ... Introduction: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is defined as sudden, usually unilateral, severe and brief pain episodes within the ... Although TN presents a low prevalence in general population (i.e. 5-30 new patients per 100,000), trigeminal neuralgia is an ...
Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis Masquerading as Bilateral Trigeminal Neuralgia ...
For patients with medically unresponsive trigeminal neuralgia (TIC) and hemifacial spasm (HS), surgical microvascular ... Microvascular Decompression and MRI Findings in Trigeminal Neuralgia and Hemifacial Spasm. A Single Center Experience.. ... Microvascular decompression and MRI findings in trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. A single center experience. Clinical ... OBJECTIVE: For patients with medically unresponsive trigeminal neuralgia (TIC) and hemifacial spasm (HS), surgical ...
Trigeminal neuralgia. G56.0. Carpal tunnel syndrome. G81.1. Spastic hemiplegia. G83.9. Paralytic syndrome, unspecified. ...
1. Trigeminal neuralgia. van Kleef M, van Genderen WE, Narouze S, Nurmikko TJ, van Zundert J, Geurts JW, Mekhail N; World ...
BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia (TGN) is considered a sensory neuropathy. However, reports of pain on chewing/speaking suggest ... Ultrasound-guided dry needling of masticatory muscles in trigeminal neuralgia - A case series of 35 patients. ... Treatment was USGDN alone or combined with trigeminal ganglion/mandibular nerve pulsed radiofrequency (PRF), followed by yoga ...
Trigeminal Neuralgia / Facial Pain. For facial neuralgias, the evidence for acupuncture appears to be mostly anecdotal. Some ... Practical application of meridian acupuncture treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Anesthesia and Pain Control in Dentistry, ... This report evaluated the effect of meridian acupuncture treatment on trigeminal neuralgia. Ten patients aged 26 to 67 years ( ... that meridian acupuncture treatment is useful and can be one therapeutic approach in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. [ ...
AAN-EFNS guidelines on trigeminal neuralgia management (pages 1013-1028). G. Cruccu, G. Gronseth, J. Alksne, C. Argoff, M. ... European Academy of Neurology guideline on trigeminal neuralgia. Lars Bendtsen, Joanna Maria Zakrzewska, Jillie Abbott, Mark ...
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN), also called Fothergill disease, tic douloureux, or trifacial neuralgia is a long-term pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve, the nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is a distinctive facial pain syndrome that may become recurrent and chronic. (medscape.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia , also known as prosopalgia, tic douloureux, or Fothergill's disease, is a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense pain in the face. (osmosis.org)
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia Trigeminal Neuralgia also called 'tic douloureux' is a sore nerve disorder that makes. (herbal-care-products.com)
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia or tic douloureux is common in Malaysia, and treatments offered are often flawed, and most suffer needlessly. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia or tic douloureux Happens when the trigeminal nerve function is disrupted and compressed. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms, after ruling out other possible causes such as postherpetic neuralgia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a painful condition that affects the nerves in the skin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • has been used were postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, and trigeminal neuralgia. (bvsalud.org)
  • The cause is probably a blood vessel pressing on the trigeminal nerve, one of the largest nerves in the head. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It can help a physician determine if a blood vessel, multiple sclerosis or a tumor pressing on the trigeminal nerve is causing trigeminal neuralgia. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Development and validation of radiomics models for the prediction of diagnosis of classic trigeminal neuralgia. (iasp-pain.org)
  • The study aims to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomics model for the diagnosis of classic trigeminal neuralgia (cTN). (iasp-pain.org)
  • Various types of facial pain with a range of symptoms have confused diagnosis, of trigeminal neuralgia for many years. (tnnme.com)
  • All reported with a previous diagnosis made by a neurologist of trigeminal neuralgia. (upcspine.com)
  • Trigeminal nerve block provides hemifacial anesthesia and is used predominantly in the diagnosis and treatment of neuralgia. (medscape.com)
  • Conclusion: According to the new classification of the International Headache Society, classic trigeminal neuralgia is divided in purely paroxysmal and with concomitant persistent facial pain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Microscopic demonstration of demyelination in primary trigeminal neuralgia. (medscape.com)
  • Pain due to trigeminal neuralgia occurs along the distribution of one or more sensory divisions of the trigeminal nerve, most often the maxillary. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 3) Trigeminal neuropathic pain results from unintentional injury to the trigeminal nerve from trauma or surgery. (thejns.org)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is a neuropathic pain condition which develops when damage occurs to a trigeminal nerve. (painscale.com)
  • There are two main types: typical and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. (wikipedia.org)
  • and 2) trigeminal neuralgia type 2 (TN2), an atypical form with constant aching, burning, or throbbing pain. (tnnme.com)
  • Seven subjects met diagnostic criteria for trigeminal neuralgia set forth by the International Headache Society (IHS), while one subject (5) described pain more characteristic of atypical trigeminal neuralgia (ATN) as there were no pain-free periods and Aslow@ pain, i.e. aching, burning sensations, was more bothersome than brief, lancinating pain. (upcspine.com)
  • Other disorders that cause similar symptoms (eg, multiple sclerosis) are sometimes considered to be trigeminal neuralgia and sometimes not. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia are often pathognomonic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This article covers the different types of neuralgia, their symptoms, and the treatment options available. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Herbal Products For Trigeminal Neuralgia Treatment by Herbal Care Products also Symptoms Causes define in. (herbal-care-products.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia herbal treatment with symptoms and causes Trigeminal neuralgia is thought to be a. (herbal-care-products.com)
  • What Causes And Symptoms Of Trigeminal Neuralgia Natural Treatment The trigeminal nerve (called the fifth. (herbal-care-products.com)
  • It's a safe procedure that may help alleviate some symptoms associated with trigeminal neuralgia. (soundtherapy.com)
  • More recently, research has discovered that this herb may also aid in relieving symptoms associated with trigeminal neuralgia. (soundtherapy.com)
  • The first step in treating trigeminal neuralgia is to identify the source of symptoms. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • Therefore, a detailed treatment plan that addresses the contributing sources of pain should be able to alleviate the symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • Changes that are associated with death, of nerve cells (degenerative changes) or with scar tissue (fibrotic changes) have been reported in the trigeminal nerve, but may not be the cause of symptoms. (tnnme.com)
  • 1) and 2) Trigeminal neuralgia Types 1 and 2 (TN1 and TN2) refer to idiopathic, spontaneous facial pain that is either predominantly episodic (as in TN1) or constant (as in TN2) in nature. (thejns.org)
  • When no specific disease of the fifth nerve or central nervous system can be found, the condition is described as idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. (tnnme.com)
  • Bilateral (occurring on both sides) trigeminal neuralgia is very rare except for trigeminal neuralgia caused by multiple sclerosis (MS). This normally indicates problems with both trigeminal nerves, since one nerve serves the left side of the face and the other serves the right side. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20 Bridging veins often traverse the surgical corridors to the trigeminal and facial nerves. (thejns.org)
  • The trigeminal nerves are the main nerves on each side of the face. (painscale.com)
  • This form of neuralgia affects the occipital nerves, which originate in the neck and send signals to the back of the head. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Intercostal neuralgia affects the nerves that sit just below the ribs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia, a type of neuralgia, is a chronic pain condition affecting the trigeminal nerve, one of the cranial nerves that carries sensation from the face to the brain. (baptisthealth.com)
  • The cause of trigeminal neuralgia is unknown, although one theory suggests that the pain stems from abnormal high-frequency impulses generated by areas of nerve fibers in which the fatty covering of the nerves (myelin) has been destroyed (demyelination) (Burchiel). (tnnme.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is the most frequent of all the painful disorders affecting nerves (neuralgias), but is still relatively rare Incidence is15,000 cases each year, with a prevalence of 15 per 100,000 (Lenaerts). (tnnme.com)
  • A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve . (lookfordiagnosis.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Trigeminal neuralgia (TGN) is considered a sensory neuropathy. (integrativedn.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve and supplies sensory innervations to the face via its branches (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • 6) Postherpetic TN follows a cutaneous herpes zoster outbreak in the trigeminal distribution. (thejns.org)
  • The symptomatic side trigeminal nerve regions of patients and both sides of the trigeminal nerve regions of control participants were manually labeled on MRI images. (iasp-pain.org)
  • There are two types of trigeminal neuralgia: classical and symptomatic. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • Symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia causes the neurological deficit, and there is an identified underlying lesion. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • Treatment options for trigeminal neuralgia include medication, such as anticonvulsants or muscle relaxants, or surgical procedures such as microvascular decompression, radiofrequency ablation, or stereotactic radiosurgery. (osmosis.org)
  • Microvascular decompression is a type of surgery designed to relieve pressure on the trigeminal nerve. (soundtherapy.com)
  • Microvascular Decompression and MRI Findings in Trigeminal Neuralgia a" by Patrick W Hitchon, Mario Zanaty et al. (lvhn.org)
  • Microvascular Decompression and MRI Findings in Trigeminal Neuralgia and Hemifacial Spasm. (lvhn.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: For patients with medically unresponsive trigeminal neuralgia (TIC) and hemifacial spasm (HS), surgical microvascular decompression (MVD) is the procedure of choice. (lvhn.org)
  • Microvascular decompression (MVD) of the trigeminal root, involving open surgery through the posterior fossa, has the best results with long term pain relief and the lowest chance of numbness and dysesthesia but greater incidence of serious complications. (upcspine.com)
  • Thus, neurologic deficits (usually loss of facial sensation) suggest that the trigeminal neuralgia-like pain is caused by another disorder (eg, tumor, stroke, multiple sclerosis plaque, vascular malformation, other lesions that compress the trigeminal nerve or disrupt its brain stem pathways). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The secondary form of trigeminal neuralgia is often seen in patients that have multiple sclerosis, tumor, or cyst-like lesion at or near the base of the skull. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • Pain associated with trigeminal neuralgia occasionally occurs in individuals with brain stem damage resulting from multiple sclerosis or in individuals with blood vessel abnormalities involving the root of the fifth cranial nerve (vascular anomaly). (tnnme.com)
  • about 2% of individuals with trigeminal neuralgia have multiple sclerosis (Burchiel). (tnnme.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia occurs in up to 4% of Americans with multiple sclerosis and is often bilateral in these individuals (Burchiel). (tnnme.com)
  • All the models showed excellent diagnostic ability in predicting trigeminal neuralgia. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Results showed that the radiomics models based on MRI can predict trigeminal neuralgia with high accuracy, which could be used as a diagnostic tool for this disorder. (iasp-pain.org)
  • To determine if someone has trigeminal neuralgia, we use advanced diagnostic procedures and technology to effectively diagnose, inform treatment and carefully monitor the condition. (baptisthealth.com)
  • An MRI scan of the trigeminal nerve can help pinpoint where the issue lies, which then allows targeted radiotherapy treatments like Gamma Knife radiation or stereotactic radiosurgery to address it. (soundtherapy.com)
  • Where these pains originate in the body depends on the type of neuralgia a person is dealing with. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Carbamazepine is the first-line drug, but other anticonvulsants may be employed and have shown variable efficacy in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is severe paroxysmal, lancinating facial pain due to a disorder of the 5th cranial nerve. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Neurosurgery is generally more helpful in those patients with paroxysmal rather than constant pain and in patients whose pain follows the anatomic distribution of 1 or more trigeminal distributions rather than being spread diffusely. (medscape.com)
  • It is characterized by recurrent electric shock-like (paroxysmal) pains in one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve (maxillary, mandibular, and/or ophthalmic branches), each supplying a different portion of the face. (tnnme.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is characterized by spontaneous, paroxysmal lancinating pain in the trigeminal nerve distribution. (medscape.com)
  • 4) Trigeminal deafferentation pain results from intentional injury to the nerve by peripheral nerve ablation, gangliolysis, or rhizotomy in an attempt to treat either TN or other related facial pain. (thejns.org)
  • It is estimated that trigeminal neuralgia affects around 0.03% to 0.3% of people around the world with a female over-representation around a 3:1 ratio between women and men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a type of chronic pain that affects your face. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia affects mainly adults, especially older people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This condition affects the trigeminal nerve (the nerve that transmits sensations from the face to the brain). (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Healthcare professionals divide neuralgia into categories depending on the areas of the body it affects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Intercostal neuralgia causes a sharp, burning pain that affects the chest wall, upper abdomen, and upper back. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN), the most common pain disorder of the face and one of the most painful afflictions known,1 affects one or more branches of the fifth cranial nerve and has a reported annual incidence of 4.3 per 100,000.2 Once known as the suicide disease, TN effects women more often than men and the annual incidence rate increases significantly with age. (upcspine.com)
  • In addition to conventional and alternative treatment options, various at-home treatments may be beneficial for trigeminal neuralgia. (painscale.com)
  • In addition, we have the region's only comprehensive cancer center and radiation treatment program, as well as the only advanced 3Tesla MRI, MRI spectroscopy and functional MRI, MRI angiography, CT angiography and conventional cerebral angiography technology to accurately diagnose all manner of neurologic disease, including trigeminal neuralgia. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Prolotherapy is an injection technique that has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating chronic trigeminal neuralgia when other treatment options fail and patients must rely on symptom management medicine for relief. (soundtherapy.com)
  • One common treatment for trigeminal neuralgia is an injection of sterile glycerol solution into the trigeminal nerve. (soundtherapy.com)
  • Treatment was USGDN alone or combined with trigeminal ganglion/mandibular nerve pulsed radiofrequency (PRF), followed by yoga mudras to stretch masticatory and facial muscles. (integrativedn.com)
  • trigeminal nerve block is reserved for patients who do not respond to medical treatment or patients in whom neurologic decompression of the canal is not feasible or has failed. (medscape.com)
  • When trigeminal neuralgia occurs, even a mild sensation can cause intense pain. (painscale.com)
  • Neuralgia is the medical term for severe, shooting pain that occurs due to a damaged or irritated nerve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Peripheral neuralgia, or peripheral neuropathy , refers to pain that occurs due to nerve damage in the peripheral nervous system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia Trigeminal Neuralgia is that disease in which chronic pain condition occurs due to. (herbal-care-products.com)
  • Individuals report a searing or burning pain on one side of the face that occurs in lightening-like jabs (paroxysms) in the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. (tnnme.com)
  • This disorder is characterized by episodes of severe facial pain along the trigeminal nerve divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Occasional reports of bilateral trigeminal neuralgia reflect successive episodes of unilateral (only one side) pain switching the side of the face rather than pain occurring simultaneously on both sides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on specific, objective, and reproducible criteria, a classification scheme for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and related facial pain syndromes is proposed. (thejns.org)
  • One theory suggests that nerve compression causes local demyelination, which may result in ectopic impulse generation (ephaptic transmission) and/or disinhibition of central pain pathways involving the spinal trigeminal nucleus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is a condition in which the patient feels excruciating pain on one side of their face. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Radiofrequency Ablation is a surgical procedure that uses high-frequency heat to destroy the brain's ability to transmit pain signals to the trigeminal nerve. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Individuals with trigeminal neuralgia often describe the pain as electric shock sensations. (painscale.com)
  • Neuralgia can affect any part of the body, causing mild to severe pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Occipital neuralgia causes a throbbing or shooting pain that starts near the base of the skull and radiates along the scalp. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Occipital neuralgia pain can flow to the back of the eyes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Peripheral neuralgia can cause pain or numbness in the hands, feet, arms, and legs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In general, neuralgia is pain that travels the path and length of a nerve. (baptisthealth.com)
  • With trigeminal neuralgia, the pain usually involves the lower face and jaw, although sometimes it can affect the area around the nose and above the eye. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Pain from trigeminal neuralgia is described as intense, stabbing or like electric shocks. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Touching and examining parts of the face can help a physician determine where the pain is occurring and which branches of the trigeminal nerve may be affected. (baptisthealth.com)
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia is a sharp and unpredictable pain that feels like an. (herbal-care-products.com)
  • There are several herbal treatments that can be used to relieve the pain and swelling caused by trigeminal neuralgia. (soundtherapy.com)
  • While these treatments often provide long-lasting pain relief for people suffering from trigeminal neuralgia, they may also cause numbness and pins and needles in your face. (soundtherapy.com)
  • If you are over the age of 50 and have sharp, shooting, lancinating pain in your face or head, you might be suffering from trigeminal neuralgia. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • Classical trigeminal neuralgia is attacks of pain without neurological loss and lack of underlying cause. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • As a result of this convergence mechanism, irritation of structures innervated by upper cervical segments can cause pain in areas innervated by the trigeminal nerve and vice versa. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve, cervical spine and musculature, temporomandibular joint, and different types of headaches may be contributing to the pain. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • and 8) glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) with tonsillar pain in the back of the throat, derived from talking or swallowing (Burchiel). (tnnme.com)
  • Introduction: Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is defined as sudden, usually unilateral, severe and brief pain episodes within the distribution of one or more branches of the trigeminal nerve. (bvsalud.org)
  • In some patients a constant background pain may persist, additionally to pain attacks, which can make difficult to differentiate the trigeminal neuralgia from other orofacial pain types. (bvsalud.org)
  • Objective: To review the classification, physiopathological aspects, epidemiologic data and pharmacological options to control pain related to trigeminal neuralgia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Literature review: One of the proposed etiologies for this condition is a localcircumscribed demyelination of the trigeminal nerve resulting in neuronal hyperexcitability and generation of ephaptic coupling, which would be responsible for the pain paroxysms. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although TN presents a low prevalence in general population (i.e. 5-30 new patients per 100,000), trigeminal neuralgia is an important clinical concern both by pain severity and difficulty of its satisfactory control. (bvsalud.org)
  • Even though it is sold as a cosmetic skin cream, Gallixa kept popping up as the "go-to" remedy for trigeminal neuralgia, a chronic pain condition affecting the trigeminal nerve in the face. (earthclinic.com)
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN), the most common pain disorder of the face and one of the most painful afflictions known, is characterized by brief periods of lancinating facial pain. (upcspine.com)
  • One subject (7) suffered from trigeminal neuralgia and contralateral anesthesia dolorosa (AD), an iatrogenic disorder caused by surgical deafferentation and characterized by a constant sensation of numbness and burning pain. (upcspine.com)
  • Another condition that is linked to possible trigeminal neuralgia like sensation is the eagle syndrome. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • Definition Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a very painful disorder of the portion of the fifth cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve) that supplies sensation to the face. (tnnme.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is a painful condition affecting the trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve. (soundtherapy.com)
  • Neurologic examination is normal in trigeminal neuralgia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve is a paired cranial nerve that has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia most commonly involves the middle branch (the maxillary nerve or V2) and lower branch (mandibular nerve or V3) of the trigeminal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • For more information about the relevant anatomy, see Trigeminal Nerve Anatomy . (medscape.com)
  • Severe neuralgia can interfere with a person's ability to perform everyday tasks and may impact their quality of life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is often caused by compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve , although the exact cause is not always clear. (osmosis.org)
  • In some cases, the trigeminal nerve is compressed by blood vessels (vascular compression), and less often by a tumor. (tnnme.com)
  • The pathophysiology is unclear, but trigeminal neuralgia seems to be the consequence of vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve near the brain stem. (bvsalud.org)
  • 9. Subject has had previous radiofrequency ablation (including non-lesional pulsed radiofrequency), balloon compression, gamma knife, or chemical denervation (e.g. glycerol treatments) of a division or branch of the trigeminal nerve being targeted in this study. (who.int)
  • Chiropractors can identify and address the source of trigeminal neuralgia by adjusting the positioning of the cervical vertebrae, which could put pressure on the trigeminal nerve and result in discomfort. (soundtherapy.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve ganglion (also referred to as the gasserian ganglion) lies in the trigeminal cave (also known as the Meckel cave), which is a dural invagination in the petrous part of the temporal bone. (medscape.com)
  • This ganglion is formed by 2 roots that exit the ventral surface of the brainstem at the midpontine level and travel forwards and laterally to enter the trigeminal cave. (medscape.com)
  • The dural pouch (trigeminal cistern) contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and lies behind the ganglion. (medscape.com)
  • Psychological evaluation and cope with trigeminal neuralgia and temporomandibular disorder. (bvsalud.org)
  • The patient is sedated before a needle is inserted into the mouth corner to access the trigeminal nerve at the base of the skull. (yashodahospitals.com)
  • Lifestyle changes can accommodate individual needs and reduce occurrences of trigeminal neuralgia attacks. (painscale.com)
  • However, trigeminal neuralgia is a challenging condition that is too difficult for the inexperienced, lacking specialized skillsets or advanced therapeutic technologies. (chiropractic-in-malaysia.com)
  • Although remissions are common, trigeminal neuralgia usually is a long-term condition. (tnnme.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia can occur at any age, but onset is after age 40 in 90% of cases (Burchiel), with a female-to-male ratio of 2:1 (Lenaerts). (tnnme.com)