The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
A macular lesion on the side of the FACE, involving the CONJUNCTIVA and EYELIDS, as well as the adjacent facial skin, SCLERA; OCULOMOTOR MUSCLES; and PERIOSTEUM. Histological features vary from those of a MONGOLIAN SPOT to those of a BLUE NEVUS.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.
Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.
A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.
HERPES ZOSTER but without eruption of vesicles. Patients exhibit the characteristic pain minus the skin rash, sometimes making diagnosis difficult.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Surgery performed to relieve pressure from MICROVESSELS that are located around nerves and are causing NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
A small space in the skull between the MAXILLA and the SPHENOID BONE, medial to the pterygomaxillary fissure, and connecting to the NASAL CAVITY via the sphenopalatine foramen.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)
Monotremata is an order of mammals, including the platypus and echidnas, which are unique for laying eggs instead of giving birth to live young and for having a single body opening for both excretion and reproduction, known as a cloaca.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Abnormal sensitivity to light. This may occur as a manifestation of EYE DISEASES; MIGRAINE; SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; MENINGITIS; and other disorders. Photophobia may also occur in association with DEPRESSION and other MENTAL DISORDERS.
A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Diazonium compounds are organic derivatives containing the general formula R-N2+X-, where R represents an aryl or alkyl group, and X- is an anion such as bromide or chloride, formed by the reaction of amines with nitrous acid in an acidic medium.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A slow-growing benign pseudotumor in which plasma cells greatly outnumber the inflammatory cells.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).
Facial neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the facial region, which can be benign or malignant, originating from various cell types including epithelial, glandular, connective tissue, and neural crest cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.

The trigeminovascular system in humans: pathophysiologic implications for primary headache syndromes of the neural influences on the cerebral circulation. (1/736)

Primary headache syndromes, such as cluster headache and migraine, are widely described as vascular headaches, although considerable clinical evidence suggests that both are primarily driven from the brain. The shared anatomical and physiologic substrate for both of these clinical problems is the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography has shed light on the genesis of both syndromes, documenting activation in the midbrain and pons in migraine and in the hypothalamic gray in cluster headache. These areas are involved in the pain process in a permissive or triggering manner rather than as a response to first-division nociceptive pain impulses. In a positron emission tomography study in cluster headache, however, activation in the region of the major basal arteries was observed. This is likely to result from vasodilation of these vessels during the acute pain attack as opposed to the rest state in cluster headache, and represents the first convincing activation of neural vasodilator mechanisms in humans. The observation of vasodilation was also made in an experimental trigeminal pain study, which concluded that the observed dilation of these vessels in trigeminal pain is not inherent to a specific headache syndrome, but rather is a feature of the trigeminal neural innervation of the cranial circulation. Clinical and animal data suggest that the observed vasodilation is, in part, an effect of a trigeminoparasympathetic reflex. The data presented here review these developments in the physiology of the trigeminovascular system, which demand renewed consideration of the neural influences at work in many primary headaches and, thus, further consideration of the physiology of the neural innervation of the cranial circulation. We take the view that the known physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the systems involved dictate that these disorders should be collectively regarded as neurovascular headaches to emphasize the interaction between nerves and vessels, which is the underlying characteristic of these syndromes. Moreover, the syndromes can be understood only by a detailed study of the cerebrovascular physiologic mechanisms that underpin their expression.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. (2/736)

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds. (3/736)

A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (4/736)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the anaesthetized cat: role of endothelin(B) receptors in carotid vasodilatation. (5/736)

1. The effects of intravenous administration of endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists SB-209670 (0.001-10.0 mg kg(-1)), SB-217242, SB-234551 (0.01-10.0 mg kg(-1)) and BQ-788 (0.001-1.0 mg kg(-1)) were investigated on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced neurovascular reflexes in the carotid vasculature of the anaesthetized cat. Comparisons were made with sumatriptan (0.003-3.0 mg kg(-1)) and alpha-CGRP8-37 (0.001-0.1 mg kg(-1)). 2. Trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation produced frequency related increases in carotid blood flow, reductions in carotid vascular resistance and non-frequency related increases in blood pressure. Guanethidine (3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) blocked trigeminal nerve ganglion-induced increases in blood pressure but had no effect on changes in carotid flow or resistance. Maximal reductions in carotid vascular resistance was observed at 10 Hz, and this frequency was selected to investigate the effects of drugs on trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced responses in guanethidine treated cats. 3. Saline, alpha-CGRP8-37 SB-209670 and BQ-788 had little or no effect on resting haemodynamic parameters. SB-217242 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 56% reduction in arterial blood pressure whereas SB-233451 (10 mg kg(-1), n=3) produced a 30% reduction in carotid vascular resistance. Sumatriptan produced dose-related reductions in resting carotid flow and increases (max. 104% at 0.3 mg kg(-1), n = 5) in vascular resistance. 4. SB-209670 (n=6-7), SB-217242 (n=3) and BQ-788 (n=3) produced inhibition of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation-induced reductions in carotid vascular resistance. Saline, SB-234551, alpha-CGRP8-37 and sumatriptan had no effect. 5. These data demonstrate ET(B) receptor blockade attenuates the vasodilator effects of trigeminal nerve ganglion stimulation in the carotid vascular bed of guanethidine pretreated anaesthetized cats.  (+info)

Properties of conditioned abducens nerve responses in a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle. (6/736)

Previous work suggested that the cerebellum and red nucleus are not necessary for the acquisition, extinction, and reacquistion of the in vitro classically conditioned abducens nerve response in the turtle. These findings are extended in the present study by obtaining conditioned responses (CRs) in preparations that received a partial ablation of the brain stem circuitry. In addition to removing all tissue rostral to and including the midbrain and cerebellum, a transection was made just caudal to the emergence of the IXth nerve. Such ablations result in a 4-mm-thick section of brain stem tissue that functionally eliminates the sustained component of the unconditioned response (UR) while leaving only a phasic component. We refer to this region of brain stem tissue caudal to the IXth nerve as the "caudal premotor blink region." Neural discharge was recorded from the abducens nerve following a single shock unconditioned stimulus (US) applied to the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve. When the US was paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) applied to the posterior eighth, or auditory, nerve using a delay conditioning paradigm, a positive slope of CR acquisition was recorded in the abducens nerve, and CR extinction was recorded when the stimuli were alternated. Resumption of paired stimuli resulted in reacquisition. Quantitative analysis of the CRs in preparations in which the caudal premotor blink region had been removed and those with cerebellar/red nucleus lesions showed that both types of preparations had abnormally short latency CR onsets compared with preparations in which these regions were intact. Preparations with brain stem transections had significantly earlier CR offsets as more CRs terminated as short bursts when compared with intact or cerebellar lesioned preparations. These data suggest that a highly reduced in vitro brain stem preparation from the turtle can be classically conditioned. Furthermore, the caudal brain stem is not a site of acquisition in this reduced preparation, but it contributes to the sustained activity of both the UR and CR. Finally, the unusually short CR onset latencies following lesions to the cerebellum are not further exacerbated by removal of the caudal brain stem. These studies suggest that convergence of CS and US synaptic inputs onto the abducens nerve reflex circuitry may underlie acquisition in this reduced preparation, but that mechanisms that control learned CR timing arise from the cerebellorubral system.  (+info)

MR imaging of Dejerine-Sottas disease. (7/736)

We report the MR findings in two patients with clinically and histologically proved Dejerine-Sottas disease. One patient had spinal involvement with multiple thickened and clumped nerve roots of the cauda equina; the second had multiple enlarged and enhancing cranial nerves. Although these findings are not specific for Dejerine-Sottas disease, they are suggestive of the diagnosis, which is further corroborated with history and confirmed with sural nerve biopsy and laboratory studies.  (+info)

Trigeminal nerve and brainstem catecholamine systems in cerebral vasospasm. (8/736)

Cisternal blood injection in the rat and squirrel monkey produces a biphasic cerebral vasospasm, a decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and an increase in glucose uptake (CMRglu) due to an anaerobic glucolysis actually representing a decrease in metabolism. Lesioning of the A2-nucleus, its ascending cathecolamine pathways or their projection site, the median eminence in the hypothalamus, prevents the occurrence of spasm. A unilateral postganglionic trigeminal lesion causes an ipsilateral constriction of the cerebral arteries while a preganglionic lesion does not affect the baseline arterial diameter. Both kinds of trigeminal lesions induce a global increase in glucose uptake of about 50% without influencing CBF. Following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) the decrease in CBF in both groups of lesioned animals is similar to that seen in controls. After SAH there is no further change in CMRglu in the animals with a preganglionic lesion, while in the postganglionically lesioned animals there is an additional increase in CMRglu of about 50% as compared to controls or animals with a preganglionic lesion. Treatment with the peptidergic substance P (SP) antagonist, spantide, or gammaglobulin against SP prevents or significantly reduces the degree of spasm and the changes in flow and metabolism normally seen post-SAH. The non-peptidergic neurokinins NK1 and NK3 antagonists do not influence flow and metabolism in SAH animals. The NK2 seems to change both flow and metabolism post-SAH in rats.  (+info)

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Trigeminal nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The trigeminal nerve has three branches: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which innervate different parts of the face and head.

Trigeminal nerve diseases can cause various symptoms, including facial pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness. Some common trigeminal nerve diseases include:

1. Trigeminal neuralgia: A chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, causing intense, stabbing, or electric shock-like pain in the face.
2. Hemifacial spasm: A neuromuscular disorder that causes involuntary muscle spasms on one side of the face, often affecting the muscles around the eye and mouth.
3. Trigeminal neuropathy: Damage or injury to the trigeminal nerve, which can result in numbness, tingling, or weakness in the face.
4. Herpes zoster oticus (Ramsay Hunt syndrome): A viral infection that affects the facial nerve and geniculate ganglion of the trigeminal nerve, causing facial paralysis, ear pain, and a rash around the ear.
5. Microvascular compression: Compression of the trigeminal nerve by a blood vessel, which can cause symptoms similar to trigeminal neuralgia.

Treatment for trigeminal nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Trigeminal nerve injuries refer to damages or traumas affecting the trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. Trigeminal nerve injuries can result in various symptoms depending on the severity and location of the injury, including:

1. Loss or reduction of sensation in the face, lips, gums, teeth, or tongue.
2. Pain, often described as burning, aching, or stabbing, in the affected areas.
3. Numbness or tingling sensations.
4. Difficulty with biting, chewing, or performing other motor functions.
5. Impaired taste sensation.
6. Headaches or migraines.
7. Eye dryness or excessive tearing.

Trigeminal nerve injuries can occur due to various reasons, such as trauma during facial surgeries, accidents, tumors, infections, or neurological conditions like multiple sclerosis. Treatment options depend on the cause and severity of the injury and may include medication, physical therapy, surgical intervention, or pain management strategies.

Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the largest nerves in the head. It carries sensations from the face to the brain.

Medically, trigeminal neuralgia is defined as a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face supplied by the trigeminal nerve (the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions). The pain can be triggered by simple activities such as talking, eating, brushing teeth, or even touching the face lightly.

The condition is more common in women over 50, but it can occur at any age and in either gender. While the exact cause of trigeminal neuralgia is not always known, it can sometimes be related to pressure on the trigeminal nerve from a nearby blood vessel or other causes such as multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within or near the cranial nerves. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor information between the brain and various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, each with a specific function and location in the skull.

Cranial nerve neoplasms can be benign or malignant and may arise from the nerve itself (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or from surrounding tissues that invade the nerve (meningioma, epidermoid cyst). The growth of these tumors can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or numbness
* Double vision or other visual disturbances
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Loss of smell or taste
* Uncontrollable eye movements or drooping eyelids

Treatment for cranial nerve neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or complications.

The ophthalmic nerve, also known as the first cranial nerve or CN I, is a sensory nerve that primarily transmits information about vision, including light intensity and color, and sensation in the eye and surrounding areas. It is responsible for the sensory innervation of the upper eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, and nasal cavity. The ophthalmic nerve has three major branches: the lacrimal nerve, frontal nerve, and nasociliary nerve. Damage to this nerve can result in various visual disturbances and loss of sensation in the affected areas.

The maxillary nerve, also known as the second division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V2), is a primary sensory nerve that provides innervation to the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, part of the cheek, upper lip, and roof of the mouth. It also supplies sensory fibers to the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity, maxillary sinus, palate, and upper teeth. Furthermore, it contributes motor innervation to the muscles involved in chewing (muscles of mastication), specifically the tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani. The maxillary nerve originates from the trigeminal ganglion and passes through the foramen rotundum in the skull before reaching its target areas.

The trigeminal nuclei are a collection of sensory nerve cell bodies (nuclei) located in the brainstem that receive and process sensory information from the face and head, including pain, temperature, touch, and proprioception. There are four main trigeminal nuclei: the ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular, and mesencephalic nuclei. Each nucleus is responsible for processing sensory information from specific areas of the face and head. The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) carries these sensory signals to the brainstem, where they synapse with neurons in the trigeminal nuclei before being relayed to higher brain centers for further processing.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

Facial pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain felt in any part of the face. It can result from various causes, including nerve damage or irritation, injuries, infections, dental problems, migraines, or sinus congestion. The pain can range from mild to severe and may be sharp, dull, constant, or intermittent. In some cases, facial pain can also be associated with other symptoms such as headaches, redness, swelling, or changes in sensation. Accurate diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for effective management of facial pain.

The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a component of the trigeminal nerve sensory nuclear complex located in the brainstem. It is responsible for receiving and processing pain, temperature, and tactile discrimination sensations from the face and head, particularly from the areas of the face that are more sensitive to pain and temperature (the forehead, eyes, nose, and mouth). The spinal trigeminal nucleus is divided into three subnuclei: pars oralis, pars interpolaris, and pars caudalis. These subnuclei extend from the pons to the upper part of the medulla oblongata.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

The trigeminal ganglion, also known as the semilunar or Gasserian ganglion, is a sensory ganglion (a cluster of nerve cell bodies) located near the base of the skull. It is a part of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing.

The trigeminal ganglion contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons that carry information from three major branches of the trigeminal nerve: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions. These divisions provide sensation to different areas of the face, head, and oral cavity, including the skin, mucous membranes, muscles, and teeth.

Damage to the trigeminal ganglion or its nerve branches can result in various sensory disturbances, such as pain, numbness, or tingling in the affected areas. Conditions like trigeminal neuralgia, a disorder characterized by intense, stabbing facial pain, may involve the trigeminal ganglion and its associated nerves.

A Nevus of Ota, also known as an oculodermal melanocytosis, is a benign birthmark characterized by the presence of darkly pigmented (melanin-containing) cells called melanocytes in the skin and mucous membranes around the eye. These pigmented cells can also extend to the sclera (the white part of the eye), dura mater (the outer covering of the brain), and leptomeninges (the middle layer of the meninges, which cover the brain and spinal cord).

The Nevus of Ota typically presents as a unilateral (occurring on one side) bluish-gray or brown patch that follows the distribution of the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve. It usually affects the eye, forehead, temple, and cheek, but it can also involve other areas of the face, scalp, and neck.

While Nevi of Ota are generally harmless, they may be associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma (a type of skin cancer) in the affected area. Therefore, regular monitoring and evaluation by a healthcare professional is recommended.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

The mandibular nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The mandibular nerve provides both sensory and motor innervation to the lower third of the face, below the eye and nose down to the chin.

More specifically, it carries sensory information from the lower teeth, lower lip, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as the skin over the jaw and chin. It also provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication (chewing), which include the masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid muscles.

Damage to the mandibular nerve can result in numbness or loss of sensation in the lower face and mouth, as well as weakness or difficulty with chewing and biting.

A neurilemmoma, also known as schwannoma or peripheral nerve sheath tumor, is a benign, slow-growing tumor that arises from the Schwann cells, which produce the myelin sheath that surrounds and insulates peripheral nerves. These tumors can occur anywhere along the course of a peripheral nerve, but they most commonly affect the acoustic nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve), leading to a type of tumor called vestibular schwannoma or acoustic neuroma. Neurilemmomas are typically encapsulated and do not invade the surrounding tissue, although larger ones may cause pressure-related symptoms due to compression of nearby structures. Rarely, these tumors can undergo malignant transformation, leading to a condition called malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor or neurofibrosarcoma.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

Cranial nerves are a set of twelve pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and skull, rather than the spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste) to the brain, as well as controlling various muscles in the head and neck (including those involved in chewing, swallowing, and eye movement). Each cranial nerve has a specific function and is named accordingly. For example, the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, while the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) controls parasympathetic functions in the body such as heart rate and digestion.

The optic nerve, also known as the second cranial nerve, is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. It is composed of approximately one million nerve fibers that carry signals related to vision, such as light intensity and color, from the eye's photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) to the visual cortex in the brain. The optic nerve is responsible for carrying this visual information so that it can be processed and interpreted by the brain, allowing us to see and perceive our surroundings. Damage to the optic nerve can result in vision loss or impairment.

A lingual nerve injury refers to damage or trauma to the lingual nerve, which is a branch of the mandibular nerve (itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve). The lingual nerve provides sensation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and the floor of the mouth. It also contributes to taste perception on the front two-thirds of the tongue through its connection with the chorda tympani nerve.

Lingual nerve injuries can result from various causes, such as surgical procedures (e.g., dental extractions, implant placements, or third molar surgeries), pressure from tumors or cysts, or direct trauma to the mouth and tongue area. The injury may lead to symptoms like numbness, altered taste sensation, pain, or difficulty speaking and swallowing. Treatment for lingual nerve injuries typically involves a combination of symptom management and possible surgical intervention, depending on the severity and cause of the injury.

Masticatory muscles are a group of skeletal muscles responsible for the mastication (chewing) process in humans and other animals. They include:

1. Masseter muscle: This is the primary muscle for chewing and is located on the sides of the face, running from the lower jawbone (mandible) to the cheekbone (zygomatic arch). It helps close the mouth and elevate the mandible during chewing.

2. Temporalis muscle: This muscle is situated in the temporal region of the skull, covering the temple area. It assists in closing the jaw, retracting the mandible, and moving it sideways during chewing.

3. Medial pterygoid muscle: Located deep within the cheek, near the angle of the lower jaw, this muscle helps move the mandible forward and grind food during chewing. It also contributes to closing the mouth.

4. Lateral pterygoid muscle: Found inside the ramus (the vertical part) of the mandible, this muscle has two heads - superior and inferior. The superior head helps open the mouth by pulling the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) downwards, while the inferior head assists in moving the mandible sideways during chewing.

These muscles work together to enable efficient chewing and food breakdown, preparing it for swallowing and digestion.

The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). It provides general sensory innervation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, including taste sensation from the same region. It also supplies sensory innervation to the floor of the mouth and the lingual gingiva (gum tissue). The lingual nerve is closely associated with the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands and their ducts.

The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a narrow space located at the junction of the brainstem and the cerebellum, where the pons and cerebellum meet. This region is filled with several important nerves, blood vessels, and membranous coverings called meninges. The CPA is a common site for various neurological disorders because it contains critical structures such as:

1. Cerebellum: A part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
2. Pons: A portion of the brainstem that plays a role in several vital functions, including facial movements, taste sensation, sleep regulation, and respiration.
3. Cranial nerves: The CPA is home to the following cranial nerves:
* Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII): This nerve has two components - cochlear and vestibular. The cochlear part is responsible for hearing, while the vestibular part contributes to balance and eye movement.
* Facial nerve (CN VII): This nerve controls facial expressions, taste sensation in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, salivary gland function, and lacrimation (tear production).
4. Blood vessels: The CPA contains critical blood vessels like the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), which supplies blood to various parts of the brainstem, cerebellum, and cranial nerves.
5. Meninges: These are protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. In the CPA, the meninges include the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

Disorders that can affect the structures in the cerebellopontine angle include acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwannomas), meningiomas, epidermoids, and arteriovenous malformations. These conditions may cause symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), facial weakness or numbness, difficulty swallowing, and imbalance.

Neuritis is a general term that refers to inflammation of a nerve or nerves, often causing pain, loss of function, and/or sensory changes. It can affect any part of the nervous system, including the peripheral nerves (those outside the brain and spinal cord) or the cranial nerves (those that serve the head and neck). Neuritis may result from various causes, such as infections, autoimmune disorders, trauma, toxins, or metabolic conditions. The specific symptoms and treatment depend on the underlying cause and the affected nerve(s).

Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is a rare and somewhat controversial clinical entity within the family of herpes zoster infections. It is characterized by the presence of dermatomal pain, or shingles, without the accompanying rash or vesicles typically associated with classic herpes zoster (shingles).

In ZSH, the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivates from its dormant state in the sensory ganglia and travels along the affected nerve to the skin, causing pain. However, it does not produce the characteristic rash due to an unknown reason, which differentiates it from classic herpes zoster.

Diagnosis of ZSH can be challenging since the absence of a rash makes it difficult to confirm VZV reactivation through direct observation or laboratory tests. Diagnosis often relies on clinical judgment and response to antiviral therapy, as well as supportive findings from imaging studies, like MRI or PET scans, which may reveal inflammation in the affected dermatome.

The condition can be particularly distressing for patients, as they experience painful shingles symptoms without the rash that would typically signal the need for medical intervention. Early diagnosis and treatment with antiviral medications are crucial to help manage pain, reduce complications, and shorten the duration of the illness.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve (CN VI), is a motor nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. This muscle is responsible for moving the eye away from the midline (towards the temple) and enables the eyes to look towards the side while keeping them aligned. Any damage or dysfunction of the abducens nerve can result in strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions, specifically an adduction deficit, also known as abducens palsy or sixth nerve palsy.

Hyperesthesia is a medical term that refers to an increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli, including touch, pain, or temperature. It can affect various parts of the body and can be caused by different conditions, such as nerve damage, multiple sclerosis, or complex regional pain syndrome. Hyperesthesia can manifest as a heightened awareness of sensations, which can be painful or uncomfortable, and may interfere with daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment if experiencing symptoms of hyperesthesia.

Microvascular decompression surgery (MVD) is a surgical procedure used to alleviate the symptoms of certain neurological conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. The primary goal of MVD is to relieve pressure on the affected cranial nerve by placing a small pad or sponge between the nerve and the blood vessel that is causing compression. This procedure is typically performed under a microscope, hence the term "microvascular."

During the surgery, the neurosurgeon makes an incision behind the ear and creates a small opening in the skull (a craniotomy) to access the brain. The surgeon then identifies the affected nerve and the blood vessel that is compressing it. Using specialized instruments under the microscope, the surgeon carefully separates the blood vessel from the nerve and places a tiny pad or sponge between them to prevent further compression.

The benefits of MVD include its high success rate in relieving symptoms, minimal impact on surrounding brain tissue, and lower risk of complications compared to other surgical options for treating these conditions. However, as with any surgery, there are potential risks and complications associated with MVD, including infection, bleeding, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, facial numbness, hearing loss, balance problems, and very rarely, stroke or death.

It is essential to consult a qualified neurosurgeon for a thorough evaluation and discussion of the risks and benefits of microvascular decompression surgery before making a treatment decision.

The petrous bone is a part of the temporal bone, one of the 22 bones in the human skull. It is a thick and irregularly shaped bone located at the base of the skull and forms part of the ear and the cranial cavity. The petrous bone contains the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals of the inner ear, which are responsible for hearing and balance. It also helps protect the brain from injury by forming part of the bony structure surrounding the brain.

The term "petrous" comes from the Latin word "petrosus," meaning "stony" or "rock-like," which describes the hard and dense nature of this bone. The petrous bone is one of the densest bones in the human body, making it highly resistant to fractures and other forms of damage.

In medical terminology, the term "petrous" may also be used to describe any structure that resembles a rock or is hard and dense, such as the petrous apex, which refers to the portion of the petrous bone that points towards the sphenoid bone.

The middle cranial fossa is a depression or hollow in the skull that forms the upper and central portion of the cranial cavity. It is located between the anterior cranial fossa (which lies anteriorly) and the posterior cranial fossa (which lies posteriorly). The middle cranial fossa contains several important structures, including the temporal lobes of the brain, the pituitary gland, the optic chiasm, and the cavernous sinuses. It is also where many of the cranial nerves pass through on their way to the brain.

The middle cranial fossa can be further divided into two parts: the anterior and posterior fossae. The anterior fossa contains the optic chiasm and the pituitary gland, while the posterior fossa contains the temporal lobes of the brain and the cavernous sinuses.

The middle cranial fossa is formed by several bones of the skull, including the sphenoid bone, the temporal bone, and the parietal bone. The shape and size of the middle cranial fossa can vary from person to person, and abnormalities in its structure can be associated with various medical conditions, such as pituitary tumors or aneurysms.

Nerve regeneration is the process of regrowth and restoration of functional nerve connections following damage or injury to the nervous system. This complex process involves various cellular and molecular events, such as the activation of support cells called glia, the sprouting of surviving nerve fibers (axons), and the reformation of neural circuits. The goal of nerve regeneration is to enable the restoration of normal sensory, motor, and autonomic functions impaired due to nerve damage or injury.

The Trigeminal Caudal Nucleus, also known as the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract or spinal trigeminal nucleus, is a component of the trigeminal nerve sensory nuclear complex located in the brainstem. It is responsible for receiving and processing pain and temperature information from the face and head, particularly from the areas innervated by the ophthalmic (V1) and maxillary (V2) divisions of the trigeminal nerve. The neurons within this nucleus then project to other brainstem regions and ultimately to the thalamus, which relays this information to the cerebral cortex for conscious perception.

The olfactory nerve, also known as the first cranial nerve (I), is a specialized sensory nerve that is responsible for the sense of smell. It consists of thin, delicate fibers called olfactory neurons that are located in the upper part of the nasal cavity. These neurons have hair-like structures called cilia that detect and transmit information about odors to the brain.

The olfactory nerve has two main parts: the peripheral process and the central process. The peripheral process extends from the olfactory neuron to the nasal cavity, where it picks up odor molecules. These molecules bind to receptors on the cilia, which triggers an electrical signal that travels along the nerve fiber to the brain.

The central process of the olfactory nerve extends from the olfactory bulb, a structure at the base of the brain, to several areas in the brain involved in smell and memory, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus. Damage to the olfactory nerve can result in a loss of smell (anosmia) or distorted smells (parosmia).

Spinal nerve roots are the initial parts of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen, which are small openings between each vertebra in the spine. These nerve roots carry motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers to and from specific regions of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerve roots in total, with 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal pair. Each root has a dorsal (posterior) and ventral (anterior) ramus that branch off to form the peripheral nervous system. Irritation or compression of these nerve roots can result in pain, numbness, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neurotransmitter and vasodilator peptide that is widely distributed in the nervous system. It is encoded by the calcitonin gene, which also encodes calcitonin and catestatin. CGRP is produced and released by sensory nerves and plays important roles in pain transmission, modulation of inflammation, and regulation of blood flow.

CGRP exists as two forms, α-CGRP and β-CGRP, which differ slightly in their amino acid sequences but have similar biological activities. α-CGRP is found primarily in the central and peripheral nervous systems, while β-CGRP is expressed mainly in the gastrointestinal tract.

CGRP exerts its effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors, which are widely distributed in various tissues, including blood vessels, smooth muscles, and sensory neurons. Activation of CGRP receptors leads to increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels, activation of protein kinase A, and subsequent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, resulting in vasodilation.

CGRP has been implicated in several clinical conditions, including migraine, cluster headache, and inflammatory pain. Inhibition of CGRP signaling has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these disorders.

The pterygopalatine fossa is a small, irregularly shaped space located in the skull, lateral to the nasal cavity and inferior to the orbit. It serves as a critical communications center for several important nerves, arteries, and veins that provide sensory innervation, vasomotor control, and blood supply to various structures in the head and neck region.

The following are some key components of the pterygopalatine fossa:

1. Nerves: The pterygopalatine ganglion is a major component of this fossa, which contains postganglionic parasympathetic fibers, sympathetic fibers, and sensory fibers from various nerves, including the maxillary nerve (V2), greater petrosal nerve, deep petrosal nerve, and nerve of the pterygoid canal.

2. Arteries: The maxillary artery, a branch of the external carotid artery, enters the fossa through the foramen rotundum and divides into several branches that supply various structures in the head and neck region, such as the sphenopalatine artery, posterior superior alveolar artery, infraorbital artery, and greater palatine artery.

3. Veins: The pterygoid venous plexus is a complex network of veins located in and around the fossa that communicates with various venous systems, including the facial vein, cavernous sinus, and inferior ophthalmic vein.

The pterygopalatine fossa plays an essential role in several physiological functions, such as lacrimation, salivation, and vasodilation of blood vessels in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Additionally, it is a potential site for the spread of infection or neoplasm from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, or paranasal sinuses to other regions of the head and neck.

Blinking is the rapid and repetitive closing and reopening of the eyelids. It is a normal physiological process that helps to keep the eyes moist, protected and comfortable by spreading tears over the surface of the eye and removing any foreign particles or irritants that may have accumulated on the eyelid or the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane that covers the front of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids).

Blinking is controlled by the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII), which sends signals to the muscles that control the movement of the eyelids. On average, people blink about 15-20 times per minute, but this rate can vary depending on factors such as mood, level of attention, and visual tasks. For example, people tend to blink less frequently when they are concentrating on a visual task or looking at a screen, which can lead to dry eye symptoms.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Electrocoagulation is a medical procedure that uses heat generated from an electrical current to cause coagulation (clotting) of tissue. This procedure is often used to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as:

* Gastrointestinal bleeding: Electrocoagulation can be used to control bleeding in the stomach or intestines by applying an electrical current to the affected blood vessels, causing them to shrink and clot.
* Skin lesions: Electrocoagulation can be used to remove benign or malignant skin lesions, such as warts, moles, or skin tags, by applying an electrical current to the growth, which causes it to dehydrate and eventually fall off.
* Vascular malformations: Electrocoagulation can be used to treat vascular malformations (abnormal blood vessels) by applying an electrical current to the affected area, causing the abnormal vessels to shrink and clot.

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized device that delivers an electrical current through a needle or probe. The intensity and duration of the electrical current can be adjusted to achieve the desired effect. Electrocoagulation may be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or medication.

It's important to note that electrocoagulation is not without risks, including burns, infection, and scarring. It should only be performed by a qualified medical professional who has experience with the procedure.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

The cavernous sinus is a venous structure located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a depression in the skull that houses several important nerves and blood vessels. The cavernous sinus is situated on either side of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the skull, and it contains several important structures:

* The internal carotid artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the brain
* The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI), which controls lateral movement of the eye
* The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), which controls most of the muscles that move the eye
* The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV), which controls one of the muscles that moves the eye
* The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which transmit sensory information from the face and head

The cavernous sinus is an important structure because it serves as a conduit for several critical nerves and blood vessels. However, it is also vulnerable to various pathological conditions such as thrombosis (blood clots), infection, tumors, or aneurysms, which can lead to serious neurological deficits or even death.

Denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss or removal of nerve supply to an organ or body part. This can occur as a result of surgical intervention, injury, or disease processes that damage the nerves leading to the affected area. The consequences of denervation depend on the specific organ or tissue involved, but generally, it can lead to changes in function, sensation, and muscle tone. For example, denervation of a skeletal muscle can cause weakness, atrophy, and altered reflexes. Similarly, denervation of an organ such as the heart can lead to abnormalities in heart rate and rhythm. In some cases, denervation may be intentional, such as during surgical procedures aimed at treating chronic pain or spasticity.

Nerve endings, also known as terminal branches or sensory receptors, are the specialized structures present at the termination point of nerve fibers (axons) that transmit electrical signals to and from the central nervous system (CNS). They primarily function in detecting changes in the external environment or internal body conditions and converting them into electrical impulses.

There are several types of nerve endings, including:

1. Free Nerve Endings: These are unencapsulated nerve endings that respond to various stimuli like temperature, pain, and touch. They are widely distributed throughout the body, especially in the skin, mucous membranes, and visceral organs.

2. Encapsulated Nerve Endings: These are wrapped by specialized connective tissue sheaths, which can modify their sensitivity to specific stimuli. Examples include Pacinian corpuscles (responsible for detecting deep pressure and vibration), Meissner's corpuscles (for light touch), Ruffini endings (for stretch and pressure), and Merkel cells (for sustained touch).

3. Specialised Nerve Endings: These are nerve endings that respond to specific stimuli, such as auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, and vestibular information. They include hair cells in the inner ear, photoreceptors in the retina, taste buds in the tongue, and olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity.

Nerve endings play a crucial role in relaying sensory information to the CNS for processing and initiating appropriate responses, such as reflex actions or conscious perception of the environment.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

The brainstem is the lower part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord. It consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The brainstem controls many vital functions such as heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and the rest of the body. Additionally, several cranial nerves originate from the brainstem, including those that control eye movements, facial movements, and hearing.

The sural nerve is a purely sensory peripheral nerve in the lower leg and foot. It provides sensation to the outer ( lateral) aspect of the little toe and the adjacent side of the fourth toe, as well as a small portion of the skin on the back of the leg between the ankle and knee joints.

The sural nerve is formed by the union of branches from the tibial and common fibular nerves (branches of the sciatic nerve) in the lower leg. It runs down the calf, behind the lateral malleolus (the bony prominence on the outside of the ankle), and into the foot.

The sural nerve is often used as a donor nerve during nerve grafting procedures due to its consistent anatomy and relatively low risk for morbidity at the donor site.

The median nerve is one of the major nerves in the human body, providing sensation and motor function to parts of the arm and hand. It originates from the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that arise from the spinal cord in the neck. The median nerve travels down the arm, passing through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues into the forearm and hand.

In the hand, the median nerve supplies sensation to the palm side of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. It also provides motor function to some of the muscles that control finger movements, allowing for flexion of the fingers and opposition of the thumb.

Damage to the median nerve can result in a condition called carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) neoplasms refer to tumors that originate in the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These tumors can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors, such as schwannomas and neurofibromas, grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors, such as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), can invade nearby tissues and may metastasize (spread) to other organs.

PNS neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include pain, weakness, numbness, or tingling in the affected area. In some cases, PNS neoplasms may not cause any symptoms until they become quite large. Treatment options for PNS neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Monotremata is an order of mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young. This small group includes the platypus and echidnas, which are native to Australia and New Guinea. These animals are unique because they have characteristics of both reptiles and mammals, making them a fascinating subject of study in evolutionary biology. The order Monotremata is part of the infraclass Eutheria, or placental mammals, even though monotremes lay eggs. This demonstrates the complex evolutionary history of mammals.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

A nerve crush injury is a type of peripheral nerve injury that occurs when there is excessive pressure or compression applied to a nerve, causing it to become damaged or dysfunctional. This can happen due to various reasons such as trauma from accidents, surgical errors, or prolonged pressure on the nerve from tight casts, clothing, or positions.

The compression disrupts the normal functioning of the nerve, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the affected area. In severe cases, a nerve crush injury can cause permanent damage to the nerve, leading to long-term disability or loss of function. Treatment for nerve crush injuries typically involves relieving the pressure on the nerve, providing supportive care, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair the damaged nerve.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

The Tibial nerve is a major branch of the sciatic nerve that originates in the lower back and runs through the buttock and leg. It provides motor (nerve impulses that control muscle movement) and sensory (nerve impulses that convey information about touch, temperature, and pain) innervation to several muscles and skin regions in the lower limb.

More specifically, the Tibial nerve supplies the following structures:

1. Motor Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles in the back of the leg (posterior compartment), including the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) and the small muscles in the foot (intrinsic muscles). These muscles are responsible for plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward) and inversion (turning the foot inward) of the foot.
2. Sensory Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides sensory innervation to the skin on the sole of the foot, as well as the heel and some parts of the lower leg.

The Tibial nerve travels down the leg, passing behind the knee and through the calf, where it eventually joins with the common fibular (peroneal) nerve to form the tibial-fibular trunk. This trunk then divides into several smaller nerves that innervate the foot's intrinsic muscles and skin.

Damage or injury to the Tibial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the calf and foot muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the sole of the foot, and difficulty walking or standing on tiptoes.

The Ulnar nerve is one of the major nerves in the forearm and hand, which provides motor function to the majority of the intrinsic muscles of the hand (except for those innervated by the median nerve) and sensory innervation to the little finger and half of the ring finger. It originates from the brachial plexus, passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues down the forearm, where it runs close to the ulna bone. The ulnar nerve then passes through the Guyon's canal in the wrist before branching out to innervate the hand muscles and provide sensation to the skin on the little finger and half of the ring finger.

Horner syndrome, also known as Horner's syndrome or oculosympathetic palsy, is a neurological disorder characterized by the interruption of sympathetic nerve pathways that innervate the head and neck, leading to a constellation of signs affecting the eye and face on one side of the body.

The classic triad of symptoms includes:

1. Ptosis (drooping) of the upper eyelid: This is due to the weakness or paralysis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle, which is responsible for elevating the eyelid.
2. Miosis (pupillary constriction): The affected pupil becomes smaller in size compared to the other side, and it may not react as robustly to light.
3. Anhydrosis (decreased sweating): There is reduced or absent sweating on the ipsilateral (same side) of the face, particularly around the forehead and upper eyelid.

Horner syndrome can be caused by various underlying conditions, such as brainstem stroke, tumors, trauma, or certain medical disorders affecting the sympathetic nervous system. The diagnosis typically involves a thorough clinical examination, pharmacological testing, and sometimes imaging studies to identify the underlying cause. Treatment is directed towards managing the underlying condition responsible for Horner syndrome.

Paresthesia is a medical term that describes an abnormal sensation such as tingling, numbness, prickling, or burning, usually in the hands, feet, arms, or legs. These sensations can occur without any obvious cause, often described as "pins and needles" or falling asleep in a limb. However, persistent paresthesia can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as nerve damage, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or a vitamin deficiency. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent paresthesia to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

Ethylnitrosourea (ENU) is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemical compound that has the ability to interact with and modify the structure of DNA. It is commonly used in laboratory research as a mutagen, which is a substance that increases the frequency of mutations or changes in the genetic material of organisms.

ENU is known to cause point mutations, which are small changes in the DNA sequence that can lead to alterations in the function of genes. This property makes ENU a valuable tool for studying gene function and for creating animal models of human diseases caused by genetic mutations.

It is important to note that ENU is a potent carcinogen, meaning it can cause cancer, and should be handled with care in laboratory settings. It is not used as a medical treatment in humans or animals.

Afferent pathways, also known as sensory pathways, refer to the neural connections that transmit sensory information from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system (CNS), specifically to the brain and spinal cord. These pathways are responsible for carrying various types of sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, pressure, vibration, hearing, vision, and taste, to the CNS for processing and interpretation.

The afferent pathways begin with sensory receptors located throughout the body, which detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted via afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, to the spinal cord or brainstem. Within the CNS, the information is further processed and integrated with other neural inputs before being relayed to higher cognitive centers for conscious awareness and response.

Understanding the anatomy and physiology of afferent pathways is essential for diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions that affect sensory function, such as neuropathies, spinal cord injuries, and brain disorders.

Photophobia is a condition characterized by an abnormal sensitivity to light. It's not a fear of light, despite the name suggesting otherwise. Instead, it refers to the discomfort or pain felt in the eyes due to exposure to light, often leading to a strong desire to avoid light. This can include both natural and artificial light sources.

The severity of photophobia can vary greatly among individuals. Some people may only experience mild discomfort in bright light conditions, while others may find even moderate levels of light intolerable. It can be a symptom of various underlying health issues, including eye diseases or disorders like uveitis, keratitis, corneal abrasions, or optic neuritis, as well as systemic conditions such as migraines, meningitis, or certain medications that increase light sensitivity.

A cluster headache is a type of primary headache disorder characterized by severe, one-sided headaches that occur in clusters, meaning they happen several times a day for several weeks or months and then go into remission for a period of time. The pain of a cluster headache is typically intense and often described as a sharp, stabbing, or burning sensation around the eye or temple on one side of the head.

Cluster headaches are relatively rare, affecting fewer than 1 in 1000 people. They tend to affect men more often than women and usually start between the ages of 20 and 50. The exact cause of cluster headaches is not fully understood, but they are thought to be related to abnormalities in the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that regulates various bodily functions, including hormone production and sleep-wake cycles.

Cluster headache attacks can last from 15 minutes to several hours and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as redness or tearing of the eye, runny nose, sweating, or swelling on the affected side of the face. During a cluster period, headaches typically occur at the same time each day, often at night or in the early morning.

Cluster headaches can be treated with various medications, including triptans, oxygen therapy, and local anesthetics. Preventive treatments such as verapamil, lithium, or corticosteroids may also be used to reduce the frequency and severity of cluster headache attacks during a cluster period.

The femoral nerve is a major nerve in the thigh region of the human body. It originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves (L2-L4). The femoral nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and areas in the lower limb.

Motor Innervation:
The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to several muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, including:

1. Iliacus muscle
2. Psoas major muscle
3. Quadriceps femoris muscle (consisting of four heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius)

These muscles are involved in hip flexion, knee extension, and stabilization of the hip joint.

Sensory Innervation:
The sensory distribution of the femoral nerve includes:

1. Anterior and medial aspects of the thigh
2. Skin over the anterior aspect of the knee and lower leg (via the saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve)

The saphenous nerve provides sensation to the skin on the inner side of the leg and foot, as well as the medial malleolus (the bony bump on the inside of the ankle).

In summary, the femoral nerve is a crucial component of the lumbar plexus that controls motor functions in the anterior thigh muscles and provides sensory innervation to the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh and lower leg.

Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, are a type of nerve cell that conducts impulses or signals from peripheral receptors towards the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information such as touch, temperature, pain, sound, and light to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent neurons have specialized receptor endings that detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the CNS via synapses with other neurons. Once the signals reach the CNS, they are processed and integrated with other information to produce a response or reaction to the stimulus.

Neuralgia is a type of pain that occurs along the pathway of a nerve, often caused by damage or irritation to the nerve. It is typically described as a sharp, stabbing, burning, or electric-shock like pain that can be severe and debilitating. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it most commonly occurs in the facial area (trigeminal neuralgia) or in the nerves related to the spine (postherpetic neuralgia). The pain associated with neuralgia can be intermittent or constant and may be worsened by certain triggers such as touch, temperature changes, or movement. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain, as well as other therapies such as nerve blocks, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

Diazonium compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain the functional group -N=N+E-, where E- represents a halide ion or an organic cation. They are typically prepared by treating an aromatic primary amine with nitrous acid (HNO2) in an acidic medium, which results in the formation of a diazonium ion.

The general reaction can be represented as follows:

R-NH2 + HNO2 + HX → R-N=N+X- + 2H2O

where R represents the aromatic ring and X- is a halide ion (Cl-, Br-, or I-).

Diazonium compounds are important intermediates in organic synthesis, particularly in the preparation of azo dyes and other colored compounds. They are also useful for introducing functional groups into aromatic rings through various chemical reactions such as sandmeyer reaction, gattermann reaction etc. However, diazonium salts are generally unstable and can decompose explosively if heated or subjected to strong shock or friction. Therefore, they must be handled with care.

Spinal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that transmit signals between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body, which can be divided into five regions: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each spinal nerve carries both sensory information (such as touch, temperature, and pain) from the periphery to the spinal cord, and motor information (such as muscle control) from the spinal cord to the muscles and other structures in the body. Spinal nerves also contain autonomic fibers that regulate involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure.

A toothache is defined as pain or discomfort in or around a tooth, usually caused by dental cavities, gum disease, tooth fracture, or exposed tooth roots. The pain may be sharp and stabbing, throbbing, or constant and dull. It can also be aggravated by hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks, or by biting or chewing. Toothaches are serious and should not be ignored as they can be a sign of more significant dental issues that require immediate professional attention from a dentist.

Lateral Medullary Syndrome, also known as Wallenberg's syndrome, is a type of stroke that affects the lateral part (side) of the medulla oblongata, which is a structure at the lower end of the brainstem. This condition is typically caused by a blockage or narrowing of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), leading to infarction (tissue death due to lack of blood supply) in this area.

The lateral medulla contains several important nerve tracts and nuclei that are responsible for various functions, including:

1. Pain and temperature sensation from the face and body
2. Facial movements and sensations
3. Eye movement control
4. Hearing
5. Vestibular function (balance)
6. Swallowing and cough reflexes
7. Cardiovascular regulation

As a result, individuals with Lateral Medullary Syndrome may experience various symptoms such as:
- Ipsilateral (same side) facial pain and temperature sensation loss
- Contralateral (opposite side) body pain and temperature sensation loss
- Vertigo, dizziness, or unsteady gait due to vestibular dysfunction
- Difficulty swallowing and hoarseness
- Horner's syndrome (drooping eyelid, small pupil, and decreased sweating on the affected side of the face)
- Nystagmus (involuntary eye movement)
- Hiccups
- Ipsilateral (same side) limb ataxia (lack of coordination)

The severity and combination of symptoms may vary depending on the extent and location of the infarction. Treatment typically involves managing underlying risk factors, such as hypertension or diabetes, and providing supportive care to address specific symptoms.

An axon is a long, slender extension of a neuron (a type of nerve cell) that conducts electrical impulses (nerve impulses) away from the cell body to target cells, such as other neurons or muscle cells. Axons can vary in length from a few micrometers to over a meter long and are typically surrounded by a myelin sheath, which helps to insulate and protect the axon and allows for faster transmission of nerve impulses.

Axons play a critical role in the functioning of the nervous system, as they provide the means by which neurons communicate with one another and with other cells in the body. Damage to axons can result in serious neurological problems, such as those seen in spinal cord injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

A "Plasma Cell Granuloma" is a specific type of granulomatous inflammation that is characterized by the presence of numerous plasma cells. Plasma cells are white blood cells that produce antibodies, which are proteins that help the body fight off infections and diseases. In a Plasma Cell Granuloma, there is an excessive accumulation of these cells, leading to the formation of a nodular lesion or mass.

Plasma Cell Granulomas can occur in various organs, including the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and oral cavity. They are often associated with chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders, or malignancies. The exact cause of Plasma Cell Granulomas is not always known, but they may be triggered by infections, foreign bodies, or other stimuli that induce an immune response.

Histologically, a Plasma Cell Granuloma is composed of a central area of plasma cells surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and macrophages. The lesion may also contain multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, and other inflammatory cells. Treatment options for Plasma Cell Granulomas depend on the location and extent of the lesion, as well as the underlying cause. Surgical excision is often curative, but medical therapy may be necessary in some cases.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

Irritants, in a medical context, refer to substances or factors that cause irritation or inflammation when they come into contact with bodily tissues. These substances can cause a range of reactions depending on the type and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Common examples include chemicals found in household products, pollutants, allergens, and environmental factors like extreme temperatures or friction.

When irritants come into contact with the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or mucous membranes, they can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, pain, coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, prolonged exposure to irritants can lead to more serious health problems, including chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and disease.

It's important to note that irritants are different from allergens, which trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. While both can cause similar symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are different: allergens cause a specific immune reaction, while irritants directly affect the affected tissues without involving the immune system.

Rhizotomy is a surgical procedure where the root(s) of a nerve are cut. It is often used to treat chronic pain, spasticity, or other neurological symptoms that have not responded to other treatments. In some cases, only a portion of the nerve root may be severed (selective rhizotomy), while in others the entire root may be cut (root transaction). The specific nerves targeted during a rhizotomy depend on the individual patient's condition and symptoms.

This procedure is typically performed by a neurosurgeon, and it can be done through an open surgical approach or using minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopic or percutaneous approaches. After the surgery, patients may require physical therapy to help regain strength and mobility in the affected area. Potential risks of rhizotomy include numbness, weakness, and loss of reflexes in the areas served by the severed nerves.

Central nervous system (CNS) sensitization refers to a state in which the CNS, specifically the brain and spinal cord, becomes increasingly hypersensitive to stimuli. This heightened sensitivity results in an amplified response to painful or non-painful stimuli.

In CNS sensitization, there is an increased responsiveness of neurons in the CNS, leading to a lower threshold for activation and an enhanced transmission of nociceptive (pain) signals. This can occur due to various factors such as tissue injury, inflammation, or nerve damage, which trigger changes in the nervous system that contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pain conditions.

CNS sensitization is associated with functional and structural reorganization within the CNS, including alterations in neurotransmitter release, ion channel function, and synaptic plasticity. These changes can result in long-term modifications in the processing and perception of pain, making it more difficult to manage and treat chronic pain conditions.

Facial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tissues of the face. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Facial neoplasms can occur in any of the facial structures, including the skin, muscles, bones, nerves, and glands.

Benign facial neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Examples include papillomas, hemangiomas, and neurofibromas. While these tumors are usually harmless, they can cause cosmetic concerns or interfere with normal facial function.

Malignant facial neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and invasive. They can spread to other parts of the face, as well as to distant sites in the body. Common types of malignant facial neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.

Treatment for facial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you notice any unusual growths or changes in the skin or tissues of your face.

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a small secreted protein that is involved in the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain neurons (nerve cells). It was the first neurotrophin to be discovered and is essential for the development and function of the nervous system. NGF binds to specific receptors on the surface of nerve cells and helps to promote their differentiation, axonal growth, and synaptic plasticity. Additionally, NGF has been implicated in various physiological processes such as inflammation, immune response, and wound healing. Deficiencies or excesses of NGF have been linked to several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and pain conditions.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Nerve Growth Factors (NGFs) are a family of proteins that play an essential role in the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain neurons (nerve cells). They were first discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen in 1956. NGF is particularly crucial for the development and function of the peripheral nervous system, which connects the central nervous system to various organs and tissues throughout the body.

NGF supports the differentiation and survival of sympathetic and sensory neurons during embryonic development. In adults, NGF continues to regulate the maintenance and repair of these neurons, contributing to neuroplasticity – the brain's ability to adapt and change over time. Additionally, NGF has been implicated in pain transmission and modulation, as well as inflammatory responses.

Abnormal levels or dysfunctional NGF signaling have been associated with various medical conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), chronic pain disorders, and certain cancers (e.g., small cell lung cancer). Therefore, understanding the role of NGF in physiological and pathological processes may provide valuable insights into developing novel therapeutic strategies for these conditions.

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

The phrenic nerve is a motor nerve that originates from the cervical spine (C3-C5) and descends through the neck to reach the diaphragm, which is the primary muscle used for breathing. The main function of the phrenic nerve is to innervate the diaphragm and control its contraction and relaxation, thereby enabling respiration.

Damage or injury to the phrenic nerve can result in paralysis of the diaphragm, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially causing respiratory failure. Certain medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, spinal cord injuries, and tumors, can affect the phrenic nerve and impair its function.

Physical stimulation, in a medical context, refers to the application of external forces or agents to the body or its tissues to elicit a response. This can include various forms of touch, pressure, temperature, vibration, or electrical currents. The purpose of physical stimulation may be therapeutic, as in the case of massage or physical therapy, or diagnostic, as in the use of reflex tests. It is also used in research settings to study physiological responses and mechanisms.

In a broader sense, physical stimulation can also refer to the body's exposure to physical activity or exercise, which can have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular function, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

A migraine disorder is a neurological condition characterized by recurrent headaches that often involve one side of the head and are accompanied by various symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances. Migraines can last from several hours to days and can be severely debilitating. The exact cause of migraines is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the brain and blood vessels. There are different types of migraines, including migraine without aura, migraine with aura, chronic migraine, and others, each with its own specific set of symptoms and diagnostic criteria. Treatment typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and behavioral therapies to manage symptoms and prevent future attacks.

The Radial nerve is a major peripheral nerve in the human body that originates from the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves formed by the union of the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of spinal nerves C5-T1. The radial nerve provides motor function to extensor muscles of the upper limb and sensation to parts of the skin on the back of the arm, forearm, and hand.

More specifically, the radial nerve supplies motor innervation to:

* Extensor muscles of the shoulder (e.g., teres minor, infraspinatus)
* Rotator cuff muscles
* Elbow joint stabilizers (e.g., lateral head of the triceps)
* Extensors of the wrist, fingers, and thumb

The radial nerve also provides sensory innervation to:

* Posterior aspect of the upper arm (from the lower third of the humerus to the elbow)
* Lateral forearm (from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the wrist)
* Dorsum of the hand (skin over the radial side of the dorsum, including the first web space)

Damage or injury to the radial nerve may result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the extensor muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the affected areas, and difficulty with extension movements of the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Common causes of radial nerve injuries include fractures of the humerus bone, compression during sleep or prolonged pressure on the nerve (e.g., from crutches), and entrapment syndromes like radial tunnel syndrome.

Dental pulp is the soft tissue located in the center of a tooth, surrounded by the dentin. It contains nerves, blood vessels, and connective tissue, and plays a vital role in the development and health of the tooth. The dental pulp helps to form dentin during tooth development and continues to provide nourishment to the tooth throughout its life. It also serves as a sensory organ, allowing the tooth to detect hot and cold temperatures and transmit pain signals to the brain. Injury or infection of the dental pulp can lead to serious dental problems, such as tooth decay or abscesses, and may require root canal treatment to remove the damaged tissue and save the tooth.

The pons is a part of the brainstem that lies between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain. Its name comes from the Latin word "ponte" which means "bridge," as it serves to connect these two regions of the brainstem. The pons contains several important structures, including nerve fibers that carry signals between the cerebellum (the part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements) and the rest of the nervous system. It also contains nuclei (clusters of neurons) that help regulate various functions such as respiration, sleep, and facial movements.

A headache is defined as pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. It can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as stress, sinus congestion, migraine, or more serious issues like meningitis or concussion. Headaches can vary in intensity, ranging from mild to severe, and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. There are over 150 different types of headaches, including tension headaches, cluster headaches, and sinus headaches, each with their own specific characteristics and causes.

Vibrissae are stiff, tactile hairs that are highly sensitive to touch and movement. They are primarily found in various mammals, including humans (in the form of eyelashes and eyebrows), but they are especially prominent in certain animals such as cats, rats, and seals. These hairs are deeply embedded in skin and have a rich supply of nerve endings that provide the animal with detailed information about its environment. They are often used for detecting nearby objects, navigating in the dark, and maintaining balance.

Nerve tissue, also known as neural tissue, is a type of specialized tissue that is responsible for the transmission of electrical signals and the processing of information in the body. It is a key component of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Nerve tissue is composed of two main types of cells: neurons and glial cells.

Neurons are the primary functional units of nerve tissue. They are specialized cells that are capable of generating and transmitting electrical signals, known as action potentials. Neurons have a unique structure, with a cell body (also called the soma) that contains the nucleus and other organelles, and processes (dendrites and axons) that extend from the cell body and are used to receive and transmit signals.

Glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons. There are several different types of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and Schwann cells. These cells play a variety of roles in the nervous system, such as providing structural support, maintaining the proper environment for neurons, and helping to repair and regenerate nerve tissue after injury.

Nerve tissue is found throughout the body, but it is most highly concentrated in the brain and spinal cord, which make up the central nervous system (CNS). The peripheral nerves, which are the nerves that extend from the CNS to the rest of the body, also contain nerve tissue. Nerve tissue is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain, controlling muscle movements, and regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

In medical terms, the face refers to the front part of the head that is distinguished by the presence of the eyes, nose, and mouth. It includes the bones of the skull (frontal bone, maxilla, zygoma, nasal bones, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, and mandible), muscles, nerves, blood vessels, skin, and other soft tissues. The face plays a crucial role in various functions such as breathing, eating, drinking, speaking, seeing, smelling, and expressing emotions. It also serves as an important identifier for individuals, allowing them to be recognized by others.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

A meningioma is a type of slow-growing tumor that forms on the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It's usually benign, meaning it doesn't spread to other parts of the body, but it can still cause serious problems if it grows and presses on nearby tissues.

Meningiomas most commonly occur in adults, and are more common in women than men. They can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size, including headaches, seizures, vision or hearing problems, memory loss, and changes in personality or behavior. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms at all and are discovered only during imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for meningiomas include monitoring with regular imaging scans, surgery to remove the tumor, and radiation therapy to shrink or kill the tumor cells. The best treatment approach depends on factors such as the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and their personal preferences.

Hyperalgesia is a medical term that describes an increased sensitivity to pain. It occurs when the nervous system, specifically the nociceptors (pain receptors), become excessively sensitive to stimuli. This means that a person experiences pain from a stimulus that normally wouldn't cause pain or experiences pain that is more intense than usual. Hyperalgesia can be a result of various conditions such as nerve damage, inflammation, or certain medications. It's an important symptom to monitor in patients with chronic pain conditions, as it may indicate the development of tolerance or addiction to pain medication.

Stereotaxic techniques are minimally invasive surgical procedures used in neuroscience and neurology that allow for precise targeting and manipulation of structures within the brain. These methods use a stereotactic frame, which is attached to the skull and provides a three-dimensional coordinate system to guide the placement of instruments such as electrodes, cannulas, or radiation sources. The main goal is to reach specific brain areas with high precision and accuracy, minimizing damage to surrounding tissues. Stereotaxic techniques are widely used in research, diagnosis, and treatment of various neurological disorders, including movement disorders, pain management, epilepsy, and psychiatric conditions.

Mechanoreceptors are specialized sensory receptor cells that convert mechanical stimuli such as pressure, tension, or deformation into electrical signals that can be processed and interpreted by the nervous system. They are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the skin, muscles, tendons, joints, and internal organs. Mechanoreceptors can detect different types of mechanical stimuli depending on their specific structure and location. For example, Pacinian corpuscles in the skin respond to vibrations, while Ruffini endings in the joints detect changes in joint angle and pressure. Overall, mechanoreceptors play a crucial role in our ability to perceive and interact with our environment through touch, proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts), and visceral sensation (awareness of internal organ activity).

In neuroanatomy, the trigeminal nerve (lit. triplet nerve), also known as the fifth cranial nerve, cranial nerve V, or simply ... The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve-the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2) and the mandibular nerve ( ... Diagram of facial sensory nerves (front view) Trigeminal nerve in yellow Trigeminal ganglion Cerebrum (deep inferior dissection ... the glossopharyngeal nerve) and X (the vagus nerve). All sensory fibers from these nerves terminate in the trigeminal nucleus. ...
The sensory trigeminal nerve nuclei are the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extend through the whole of the midbrain, ... Photic sneeze reflex Trigeminal nerve Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ... The mesencephalic nucleus The principal sensory nucleus The spinal trigeminal nucleus The spinal trigeminal nucleus is further ... Nuclei of origin of cranial motor nerves schematically represented; lateral view. Primary terminal nuclei of the afferent ( ...
The mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve is one of the sensory nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). It is ... The mesencephalic nucleus is one of four trigeminal nerve nuclei, three sensory and one motor. The other two sensory nuclei are ... sensory nuclei of the trigeminal nerve receive their sensory inputs by synapsing with primary sensory neurons in the trigeminal ... by means of projecting to the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve). The axons of the neuron cell bodies of this nucleus ...
The principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve (or chief sensory nucleus of V, main trigeminal sensory nucleus) is a group ... Articles with TA98 identifiers, Cranial nerve nuclei, Trigeminal nerve, Pons). ...
The trigeminal nerve is a paired cranial nerve that has three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve ( ... the maxillary nerve or V2) and lower branch (mandibular nerve or V3) of the trigeminal nerve. An individual attack usually ... The trigeminal nerve is a mixed cranial nerve responsible for sensory data such as tactition (pressure), thermoception ( ... V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). One, two, or all three branches of the nerve may be affected. Trigeminal neuralgia most ...
The nerves are: the olfactory nerve (I), the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve ( ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ... and trochlear nerve (IV); the pons has the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve (VII) and ... glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and the hypoglossal nerve (XII). Cranial nerves are ...
"The distribution and probable significance of unmyelinated nerve fibers in the trigeminal nerve of the cat". Journal of ... See trigeminal nerve.) Windle, W.F.; Becker, R.F. (1943). "Asphyxia neonatorum". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ... His Ph.D. thesis Studies on the trigeminal nerve with particular reference to the pathway for painful afferent impulses was ... doi:10.1016/S0002-9378(43)90778-1. Windle, William F.; Groat, Richard A. (1945). "Disappearance of nerve cells after concussion ...
See Trigeminal Nerve.) These transcription factors respond to SHH gradient concentration. Depending upon the nature of their ...
Holland GR (1996). "Experimental trigeminal nerve injury". Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 7 (3): 237-58. PMID 8909880. Piercecchi- ...
The zygomatic nerve is a branch of the maxillary nerve (itself a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)). It arises in the ... The nerves of the scalp, face, and side of neck. Branches of the trigeminal nerve. The zygomatic nerve is visible branching ... Zygomaticotemporal nerve Zygomaticofacial nerve A communicating branch to lacrimal nerve Sometimes, the zygomatic nerve does ... The zygomatic nerve can be blocked indirectly by anaesthetising the maxillary nerve (CN V2). The zygomatic nerve and its ...
Anatomy of the Trigeminal Nerve". Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Vol. 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics. ... The tensor veli palatini muscle receives motor innervation from the mandibular nerve (CN V3) (a branch of the trigeminal nerve ... Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve, seen from the middle line. Levator veli palatini This article incorporates text in the ... CN V)) via the nerve to medial pterygoid. It is the only muscle of the palate not innervated by the pharyngeal plexus, which is ...
Anatomy of the Trigeminal Nerve". Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Vol. 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics. ... They join with filaments from the lacrimal nerve and the zygomaticofacial nerve from the maxillary nerve (CN V2). They also ... The zygomatic branches of the facial nerve (malar branches) are nerves of the face. They run across the zygomatic bone to the ... The zygomatic branches of the facial nerve have many nerve connections. Along their course, there may be connections with the ...
The supratrochlear nerve is a branch of the frontal nerve, itself a branch of the ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) from the trigeminal ... Anatomy of the Trigeminal Nerve". Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Vol. 1: History, Embryology, Anatomy, Imaging, and Diagnostics. ... Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ... the supratrochlear nerve emits a descending branch to the infratrochlear nerve. The supratrochlear nerve provides sensory ...
... branch of the mandibular nerve (CN V3) (which is itself the third branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)). The nerve provides ... Alveolar nerve (Dental nerve) Superior alveolar nerve (Superior dental nerve) Anterior superior alveolar nerve (Anterior ... Trauma and related mandibular fractures are also often related to inferior alveolar nerve injuries. Trigeminal sensory nerve ... Mandibular division of trifacial nerve, seen from the middle line. Inferior alveolar nerve Mandibular nerve and bone. Deep ...
Nerve block is difficult due to variation in the course of the nerve. Dermatome distribution of the trigeminal nerve Yu, Megan ... The lesser occipital nerve (or small occipital nerve) is a cutaneous spinal nerve of the cervical plexus. It arises from second ... It communicates with the greater occipital nerve, great auricular nerve, and the auricular branch of the facial nerve. Rarely, ... The lesser occipital nerve is one of the four cutaneous branches of the cervical plexus. It curves around the accessory nerve ( ...
... vcm-trigeminal nerve and vena capitis medialis; cnVI, abducens nerve; cnVII, facial nerve; cnIX-XI, glossopharyngeal and ... vagoaccessory nerves; cnXII, hypoglossal nerve; en, epiphyseal nerve; fb, forebrain; fcl, flocculus; ibic, internal branch of ... Evolution of mammals Therocephalia ce, cerebellum; cnI, olfactory nerve; cnV + ... a large epyphysial nerve (found in creatures with a parietal eye on the top of the head), an enlarged pituitary gland, and an ...
Robert RC, Bacchetti P, Pogrel MA (June 2005). "Frequency of trigeminal nerve injuries following third molar removal". Journal ... Sometimes, when there is a high risk to the inferior alveolar nerve, only the crown of the tooth will be removed (intentionally ... Injury to the inferior alveolar nerve resulting in numbness or partial numbness of the lower lip and chin has reported rates ... Coronectomy, while lessening the immediate risk to the inferior alveolar nerve function has its own complication rates and can ...
Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve, seen from the middle line. External carotid artery with branches This article ... It descends through the infratemporal fossa as part of a neurovascular bundle with the inferior alveolar nerve and vein to the ... In the infratemporal fossa, it is situated posterior to the inferior alveolar nerve, lateral to the skull, and medial to the ... It passes inferior-ward through the infratemporal fossa as part of a neurovascular bundle with the inferior alveolar nerve and ...
"The Zygomaticotemporal Branch of the Trigeminal Nerve: An Anatomical Study". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 115 (1): 273- ... nerve of the head. It is a branch of the zygomatic nerve (itself a branch of the maxillary nerve (CN V2)). It arises in the ... the lacrimal nerve (a branch of the ophthalmic nerve (CN V1)),: 495 and the auriculotemporal nerve (a branch of the mandibular ... The zygomaticotemporal nerve is a branch of the zygomatic nerve.: 496 It passes along the lateral wall of the orbit in a groove ...
The sciatic nerve and trigeminal nerve are the sites of latency. A reactivated latent carrier is normally the source of ... After primary infection of BoHV-1, the latent infection is quite often found in the trigeminal ganglion of the cow, although on ...
The trigeminal nerve supplies the cornea via the long ciliary nerves. There are pain receptors in the outer layers and pressure ... Corneal ulcers are painful due to nerve exposure, and can cause tearing, squinting, and pawing at the eye. There may also be ... Central ulcers are typically caused by trauma, dry eye, or exposure from facial nerve paralysis or exophthalmos. Ulcers in the ... This can be greatly facilitated by the use of local nerve blocks and topical anaesthesia. There is almost invariably a ...
The ophthalmic nerve (CN V1) is a sensory nerve of the head. It is one of three divisions of the trigeminal nerve (CN V), a ... frontal nerve supraorbital nerve supratrochlear nerve lacrimal nerve nasociliary nerve posterior ethmoidal nerve anterior ... Dermatome distribution of the trigeminal nerve Pathways in the ciliary ganglion. Ophthalmic nerve Ophthalmic nerve Extrinsic ... It measures about 2.5 cm in length.[citation needed] The ophthalmic nerve is the first branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V), ...
It transmits the mandibular nerve, a branch of the trigeminal nerve. The foramen ovale is an opening in the greater wing of the ... 776 The following structures pass through foramen ovale: mandibular nerve (CN V3) (a branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)) ... accessory meningeal artery lesser petrosal nerve (a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve) an emissary vein connecting the ... These are performed to treat trigeminal neuralgia. In the procedure, the electrode is introduced through the cheek of an ...
Trigeminal nerve The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary branch. It supplies not only the upper lip but also much ... by the nerve of the second pharyngeal arch, the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve). The muscles of facial expression are all ... The mental nerve is a branch of the mandibular branch ( via the inferior alveolar nerve). It supplies the skin and mucous ... The lip has many nerve endings and reacts as part of the tactile (touch) senses. Lips are very sensitive to touch, warmth, and ...
Dermatome distribution of the trigeminal nerve Cutaneous nerves of right upper extremity. Diagram of segmental distribution of ... The lateral supraclavicular nerve or posterior supraclavicular nerves (nn. supraclaviculares posteriores; supra-acromial nerves ... The medial supraclavicular nerves or anterior supraclavicular nerves (nn. supraclaviculares anteriores; suprasternal nerves) ... The intermedial supraclavicular nerve middle supraclavicular nerves (nn. supraclaviculares medii; supraclavicular nerves) cross ...
... terminal nerve masses, or TNMs). The receptors are therefore not discrete cells, but a part of the trigeminal nerve itself. The ... In all cases, the facial pit is innervated by the trigeminal nerve. In crotalines, information from the pit organ is relayed to ... The nerve fibers in the pit organ are constantly firing at a very low rate. Objects that are within a neutral temperature range ... The sensitivity of the nerve fibers is estimated to be >0.001 °C. The pit organ will adapt to a repeated stimulus; if an ...
Primary cell bodies are in the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. These fibers transmit information to secondary ... v t e (Cerebellar connections, Trigeminal nerve, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs). ... afferent cell bodies in the oralis and interpolaris portions of the spinal trigeminal nucleus plus the principal nucleus. Axons ...
Crumpton, Nick; Thompson, Richard S. (2013-09-01). "The Holes of Moles: Osteological Correlates of the Trigeminal Nerve in ...
The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. The ... The spinal trigeminal nerve nuclei which contains the general somatic afferent column. The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, ... The word bulbar can refer to the nerves and tracts connected to the medulla, and also by association to those muscles ... The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory nucleus, both of which form the general visceral efferent fibers ...
A slowly enlarging, uninflammed ulcer can occur in the area that has had trigeminal nerve damage; including but not limited to ... 65 These sores affect the skin supplied by the sensory component of the trigeminal nerve. Similar lesions may also occur in the ... Trigeminal trophic syndrome is a rare disease caused by the interruption of peripheral or central sensory pathways of the ... May 2004). "Trigeminal trophic syndrome--report of four cases and review of the literature". Dermatol Surg. 30 (5): 807-12, ...
In neuroanatomy, the trigeminal nerve (lit. triplet nerve), also known as the fifth cranial nerve, cranial nerve V, or simply ... The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve-the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2) and the mandibular nerve ( ... Diagram of facial sensory nerves (front view) Trigeminal nerve in yellow Trigeminal ganglion Cerebrum (deep inferior dissection ... the glossopharyngeal nerve) and X (the vagus nerve). All sensory fibers from these nerves terminate in the trigeminal nucleus. ...
... or spread of tumor along a nerve, is one of the more insidious forms of tumor growth. This form of spread is more commonly ... Trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve and has 3 major branches: the ophthalmic, the maxillary, ... petrosal nerve of the facial nerve and the parotid gland joining the third division of the trigeminal nerve to the facial nerve ... connections between the trigeminal and facial nerves are the Vidian nerve joining the second division of the trigeminal nerve ...
Trigeminal nerve block provides hemifacial anesthesia and is used predominantly in the diagnosis and treatment of neuralgia. It ... encoded search term (Trigeminal Nerve Block) and Trigeminal Nerve Block What to Read Next on Medscape ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve and supplies sensory innervations to the face via its branches (see the image ... The mandibular nerve has sensory and motor functions. For more information about the relevant anatomy, see Trigeminal Nerve ...
The distance between the trigeminal nerve and the acousticofacial nerve complex (referred to as ... fifth cranial nerve) and the acousticofacial nerve complex (seventh-eighth cranial nerves) preoperatively when approaching the ... Methods In 40 consecutive patients who underwent microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve via a sub-occipital ... retrosigmoid approach for trigeminal neuralgia, the following three parameters were assessed on preoperative magnetic resonance ...
Anatomy Dissected: CNV (trigeminal nerve). Posted on January 7, 2020. January 24, 2020. by Olivia Murray , 12 minute video ... Welcome back to another Anatomy Dissected! Olivia Murray kicks off the new year with a video on CNV (the trigeminal nerve), ... Explore the course and functions of each of the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve. ... Understand some of the common clinical conditions associated with this nerve.. As always, you can follow along using Complete ...
Breathlessness, Inspiratory neural drive, Nasal mucosa, Olfactory nerve, Trigeminal nerve, TRPM8 channels. in Respiratory ... Olfactory nerve; Trigeminal nerve; TRPM8 channels}}, language = {{eng}}, publisher = {{Elsevier}}, series = {{Respiratory ... Impact of trigeminal and/or olfactory nerve stimulation on measures of inspiratory neural drive : Implications for ... Stimulation of upper airway cold receptors on the trigeminal nerve (TGN) with TGN agonists such as menthol or cool air to the ...
Trigeminal Neuralgia - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Trigeminal neuralgia is severe facial pain due to malfunction of the 5th cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve). This nerve carries ... See also Overview of the Cranial Nerves Overview of the Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of nerves-the cranial nerves-lead directly ... If the trigeminal nerve is compressed, an area on the back of the head is shaved, and an incision is made. The surgeon cuts a ...
Learn and reinforce your understanding of Anatomy clinical correlates: Trigeminal nerve (CN V). ... Trigeminal nerve (CN V) Videos, Flashcards, High Yield Notes, & Practice Questions. ... First off, lets remember some important anatomical features of the trigeminal nerve. The trigeminal nerve has three divisions ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve. It provides both sensory and motor functions, while also serving as a highway ...
What you need to know about Georgia trigeminal nerve neuralgia. Find a local Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMD) dentist ... Georgia Trigeminal Nerve Neuralgia - In Your Local Area. Implant & Family Dentistry. Appointments: (770) 973-4214. ...
... a study was conducted into external trigeminal nerve stimulation, a non-invasive method for neuromodulation therapy. Read the ... External Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation (ETNS) For Drug Resistant Seizures The Epilepsy Therapy Project provided funding ... External Trigeminal nerve stimulation is a non-invasive therapy, designed to deliver neuromodulation without the risk of ... External Trigeminal nerve stimulation was associated with significant improvements in mood, as measured by the Beck Depression ...
Trigeminal nerve block provides hemifacial anesthesia and is used predominantly in the diagnosis and treatment of neuralgia. It ... encoded search term (Trigeminal Nerve Block) and Trigeminal Nerve Block What to Read Next on Medscape ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve and supplies sensory innervations to the face via its branches (see the image ... The mandibular nerve has sensory and motor functions. For more information about the relevant anatomy, see Trigeminal Nerve ...
Trigeminal nerve block provides hemifacial anesthesia and is used predominantly in the diagnosis and treatment of neuralgia. It ... encoded search term (Trigeminal Nerve Block) and Trigeminal Nerve Block What to Read Next on Medscape ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve and supplies sensory innervations to the face via its branches (see the image ... The mandibular nerve has sensory and motor functions. For more information about the relevant anatomy, see Trigeminal Nerve ...
JAA, Arruda et al. Zoster with Trigeminal Nerve Damage: Case Report. Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac. [online]. 2016, vol. ... with commitment of the trigeminal nerve comprehending the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branches. There was tissue ... usually determined by vesicle-bullous lesions involving the skin over the brachial nerve pathway. The aim of this study is to ...
And trigeminal nerve relates to cranial nerves, starts from the brain stem. It consist of hundreds nerve clusters called " ... One of these is in-depth description of trigeminal nerve anatomy, undoubtedly, trigeminal nerve is complex, and suggestions ... The thing is that cores of a trigeminal nerve, the fifth cranial nerve, is located in only a few millimeters from the cores of ... Which in your opinion nerve is responsible for the order on the face? Right, the same great and terrible TRIGEMINAL NERVE. I ...
Trigeminal Nerve Diagnosis & Treatments. Due to the broad trigeminal nerve functions, trigeminal nerve pain can have a ... Tagged Trigeminal NerveTrigeminal Nerve Pain Post navigation. Dry Socket Symptoms. Why Consider Dental Implants for Missing ... Trigeminal Nerve Pain. Symptoms of trigeminal nerve pain can vary, and triggers of those symptoms may be inconsistent or vary ... The trigeminal nerve provides feeling to most of the face and mouth. Some problems with the nerve, such as trigeminal neuralgia ...
The infraorbital nerve block is often used to accomplish regional anesthesia of the face. The procedure offers several ... The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), provides sensory innervation to the face. [3] The second division, the maxillary nerve ... What equipment are needed to perform an infraorbital nerve block?. How is the patient positioned for an infraorbital nerve ... encoded search term (Infraorbital Nerve Block) and Infraorbital Nerve Block What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Disorders of trigeminal nerve. G89. Pain, not elsewhere classified. G99.8. Other specified disorders of nervous system in ...
Importantly, because the local block of NaV1.1 in the trigeminal nerve reverses nerve injury-induced mechanical ... of NaV1.1 in trigeminal nerves suggests a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of pain associated with trigeminal nerve ... There were differences between somatic and trigeminal nerves in VGSC subtypes underlying action potential propagation both in ... Mechanisms Underlying the Selective Therapeutic Efficacy of Carbamazepine for Attenuation of Trigeminal Nerve Injury Pain. ...
Trigeminal Nerve Radiofrequency Ablation. View all 37 Treatment & Services + Specialty in Diseases & Conditions. *Abdominal ...
Trigeminal neuralgia (severe nerve pain of the face).. *Severe tremors due to essential tremor or Parkinson disease. ... A slow-growing tumor of the nerve that connects the ear to the brain (acoustic neuroma) ...
Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve + ++ Nucleus of spinal tract of trigeminal nerve ++ +++ Nucleus of hypoglossal nerve + ++ ...
Changes in trigeminal nerve function or morphology. *Impairment of vestibular function. Limited evidence, primarily from ...
Neuralgia is a condition that can cause nerve pain. Treatment options include medications and surgery. Learn more about the ... Trigeminal neuralgia. Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) involves the trigeminal nerve in the head. This nerve has three branches that ... Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare nerve disorder that causes sudden, sharp attacks of pain in the face. Learn about its causes and ... Diabetic neuropathy is nerve damage that affects a range of nerves in the bodies of some people with diabetes. It can lead to ...
Nerve plexa (trigeminal, facial). ▸ Endocrine control (sex hormones). The ocular surface system as a whole and its individual ... If available, any therapy addressing nerve health, such as nerve growth factors, autoserum eye drops or vitamin-enriched eye ... Sensory (trigeminal) and motor (facial) nervous connections, as well as cytokines, lymphocytes and systemic hormones, guarantee ... It has been suggested that the neuroanatomic integrations, mediated by the fifth and seventh nerves, play a relevant role in ...
All four muscles are connected to a single division of the trigeminal nerve. ...
Trigeminal Nerve:pathology, Trigeminal Neuralgia:etiology,. OBJECTIVES: The etiology of classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is ... Lower trigeminal nerve volume appears to manifest independently of NVC, and may represent nerve asymmetry rather than atrophy. ... Trigeminal nerve asymmetry in classic trigeminal neuralgia - pretreatment volumetry and clinical evaluation in patients ... Urgosik D, Keller J, Svehlik V, Pingle M, Horinek D. Trigeminal nerve asymmetry in classic trigeminal neuralgia - pretreatment ...
... the sharpness of the normal-side trigeminal nerve using full width at half maximum (FWHM); and a qualitative score of noise ... identified that a vestibular nerve origin tumor with a volume ≥13.65 cm3 is a major risk factor of developing communicating HCP ... The models performed with dice scores of 0.91, 0.85, 0.75, and 0.86 for inner ear, ossicles, facial nerve, and the sigmoid ... Specifically, these tumors are related to disorders of hearing, balance, skull base, and facial/vestibulocochlear nerves and ...
Trigeminal nerve. : Because headaches involve the trigeminal nerve, other structures associated with nerve may also become ... Nerve blocks. : In a study by afridi, et al., it was shown that greater occipital nerve blocks provided a partial response in ... The nerve that controls our jaw muscles also controls one of the muscles associated with the eustacian tube. In some people ...
The meningeal irritation stimulates the trigeminal nerve terminals and triggers pain sensation (60). ...
  • The motor division of the trigeminal nerve derives from the basal plate of the embryonic pons, and the sensory division originates in the cranial neural crest. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is located in the pterygopalatine fossa on the maxillary division of the Trigeminal nerve. (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
  • Tegretol (carbamazepine) is an anticonvulsant that is used to treat seizures and nerve pain caused by conditions like trigeminal neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. (reassured.me)
  • Tegretol is used to treat seizures and nerve pain such as trigeminal neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. (worldstorerxc.com)
  • Although no specific test exists for identifying trigeminal neuralgia, its characteristic pain usually makes it easy for doctors to diagnose. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Different peripheral nerve injuries cause neuropathic pain through distinct mechanisms. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results suggest a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of trigeminal neuropathic pain .SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study is based on evidence of differences in pain and its treatment depending on whether the pain is above (trigeminal) or below (somatic) the neck , as well as evidence that voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) may contribute to these differences. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3) Trigeminal neuropathic pain results from unintentional injury to the trigeminal nerve from trauma or surgery. (thejns.org)
  • Caused by nerve damage or malfunction, neuropathic pain can be intense and debilitating. (polln.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia, atypical odontalgia (phantom tooth pain), burning mouth syndrome, traumatic neuropathies, postherpetic neuralgias and complex regional pain syndrome are neuropathic pain conditions in the orofacial region that can be encountered in pain and dental clinics. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve and supplies sensory innervations to the face via its branches (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is severe facial pain due to malfunction of the 5th cranial nerve (trigeminal nerve). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), provides sensory innervation to the face. (medscape.com)
  • translocate along the olfactory nerve into the olfactory bulb. (cdc.gov)
  • bulbs are consistent with earlier studies in nonhuman primates and rodents that demonstrated that intranasally instilled solid UFP translocate along axons of the olfactory nerve into the CNS. (cdc.gov)
  • We conclude from our study that the CNS can be targeted by airborne solid ultrafine particles and that the most likely mechanism is from deposits on the olfactory mucosa of the nasopha- ryngeal region of the respiratory tract and subsequent translocation via the olfactory nerve. (cdc.gov)
  • From the trigeminal ganglion, a single, large sensory root (radix sensoria s. portio major) enters the brainstem at the level of the pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor fibers pass through the trigeminal ganglion without synapsing on their way to peripheral muscles, their cell bodies being located in the nucleus of the fifth nerve, deep within the pons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three major branches of the trigeminal nerve-the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2) and the mandibular nerve (V3)-converge on the trigeminal ganglion (also called the semilunar ganglion or gasserian ganglion), located within Meckel's cave and containing the cell bodies of incoming sensory-nerve fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trigeminal ganglion is analogous to the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord, which contain the cell bodies of incoming sensory fibers from the rest of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trigeminal nerve ganglion (also referred to as the gasserian ganglion) lies in the trigeminal cave (also known as the Meckel cave), which is a dural invagination in the petrous part of the temporal bone. (medscape.com)
  • This ganglion is formed by 2 roots that exit the ventral surface of the brainstem at the midpontine level and travel forwards and laterally to enter the trigeminal cave. (medscape.com)
  • The dural pouch (trigeminal cistern) contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and lies behind the ganglion. (medscape.com)
  • The Sphenopalatine Ganglion is the largest Parasympathetic Ganglion of the head and contains post ganglionic fibers from the superior cervical sympathetic chain and the Stellate Ganglion as well as somatosensory nerves. (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
  • 6) Postherpetic TN follows a cutaneous herpes zoster outbreak in the trigeminal distribution. (thejns.org)
  • 1994 . Nerve growth factor administration protects against experimental diabetic sensory neuropathy. (annualreviews.org)
  • Mechanisms Underlying the Selective Therapeutic Efficacy of Carbamazepine for Attenuation of Trigeminal Nerve Injury Pain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Even the site of injury may impact underlying mechanisms, as indicated by the clinical finding that the antiseizure drug carbamazepine (CBZ) relieves pain because of compression injuries of trigeminal but not somatic nerves. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tegretol (Carbamazepine) is used for controlling certain types of epileptic seizures and treats severe pain of the jaw or cheek caused by a facial nerve problem (trigeminal neuralgia). (worldstorerxc.com)
  • The infraorbital nerve block is often used to accomplish regional anesthesia of the face. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, the infraorbital nerve block is a convenient alternative for situations such as facial lacerations in which tissue distortion would be unacceptable. (medscape.com)
  • The infraorbital nerve supplies sensory innervation to the lower eyelid, the side of the nose, and the upper lip (see image below). (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Since the infraorbital nerve provides a considerably large area of sensory innervation, it is a prime candidate for a regional nerve block. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] A successful infraorbital nerve block provides anesthesia for the area between the lower eyelid and the upper lip. (medscape.com)
  • Area of anesthesia for infraorbital nerve block. (medscape.com)
  • After giving off numerous branches, the maxillary nerve eventually enters the face through the infraorbital canal, where it ends as the infraorbital nerve (see image below). (medscape.com)
  • An infraorbital nerve block requires 1-3 mL of the chosen anesthetic agent. (medscape.com)
  • CBZ diminished ongoing and evoked pain behavior in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the infraorbital nerve (ION) but had minimal effect in rats with sciatic nerve CCI. (bvsalud.org)
  • Behavioral evidence of trigeminal pain following chronic constriction injury to the rat s infraorbital nerve. (bvsalud.org)
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS) In multiple sclerosis, patches of myelin (the substance that covers most nerve fibers) and underlying nerve fibers in the brain, optic nerves, and spinal cord are damaged or destroyed. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We have 7 neck or cervical vertebrae and 8 spinal nerve roots that exit between these vertebrae. (noveraheadachecenter.com)
  • The top 3 spinal nerves (C1, C2, C3) come together in the trigeminal cervical nucleus which is located in the brainstem. (noveraheadachecenter.com)
  • Its name (trigeminal, from Latin tri- 'three', and -geminus 'twin') derives from each of the two nerves (one on each side of the pons) having three major branches: the ophthalmic nerve (V1), the maxillary nerve (V2), and the mandibular nerve (V3). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory, whereas the mandibular nerve supplies motor as well as sensory (or "cutaneous") functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mandibular nerve (V3) carries sensory information from the lower lip, the lower teeth and gums, the chin and jaw (except the angle of the jaw, which is supplied by C2-C3), parts of the external ear and parts of the meninges. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mandibular nerve carries touch-position and pain-temperature sensations from the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, teeth on one side of the jaw can be numbed by injecting the mandibular nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • in these cases, the involved branches may be termed: V1/V2 distribution - Referring to the ophthalmic and maxillary branches V2/V3 distribution - Referring to the maxillary and mandibular branches V1-V3 distribution - Referring to all three branches Nerves on the left side of the jaw slightly outnumber the nerves on the right side of the jaw. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trigeminal nerve carries general somatic afferent fibers (GSA), which innervate the skin of the face via ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2) and mandibular (V3) divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A case study by Fukai et al of a patient with perineural spread of adenoid cystic carcinoma along the mandibular nerve suggested that progression of this lesion is associated with elevated expression of ephrin type-A receptor 2 and a transition of the tumor cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype. (medscape.com)
  • The mandibular nerve has sensory and motor functions. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this study is to report a case of a 21-year-old patient, diagnosed with zoster, with commitment of the trigeminal nerve comprehending the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branches. (bvsalud.org)
  • The ophthalmic nerve (V1) carries sensory information from the scalp and forehead, the upper eyelid, the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, the nose (including the tip of the nose, except alae nasi), the nasal mucosa, the frontal sinuses and parts of the meninges (the dura and blood vessels). (wikipedia.org)
  • The ophthalmic and maxillary nerves are purely sensory. (medscape.com)
  • Because of their extensive and intricate network of nerve fibers within the head and neck, the trigeminal and facial nerves are the nerves most commonly affected. (medscape.com)
  • Overview of the Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of nerves-the cranial nerves-lead directly from the brain to various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Trigeminal Neuralgia - sudden, severe stabbing or electric shock-like pains usually in the head or neck area and lasting several seconds. (sanevax.org)
  • I found several different schematics below that all show the connection of the upper neck (C1-3) into the trigeminal nucleus and eventually the trigeminal nerve which gives our head and face sensation. (noveraheadachecenter.com)
  • Nerve growth factor in the synovial fluid of patients with chronic arthritis. (annualreviews.org)
  • The peripheral processes of mesencephalic nucleus of V neurons run in the motor root of the trigeminal nerve and terminate in the muscle spindles in the muscles of mastication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central processes of mesencephalic V neurons synapse in the motor nucleus V. The areas of cutaneous distribution (dermatomes) of the three sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve have sharp borders with relatively little overlap (unlike dermatomes in the rest of the body, which have considerable overlap). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tegretol-Xr is also used to treat nerve pain (neuralgia) in those who have problems with their facial or throat nerves (trigeminal neuralgia or glossopharyngeal neuralgia). (reassured.me)
  • Adding to the complexity of this nerve is that autonomic nerve fibers as well as special sensory fibers (taste) are contained within it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The postganglionic fibers are the sensory nerves to the face and exit via various foramina at the base of the skull. (medscape.com)
  • Although it does not carry taste sensation (the chorda tympani is responsible for taste), one of its branches-the lingual nerve-carries sensation from the tongue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The image below depicts the pertinent nerve branches related to the trigeminal nerve and the pterygopalatine fossa. (medscape.com)
  • This pictorial diagram lists the pertinent nerve branches related to the trigeminal nerve and the pterygopalatine fossa, as well as the facial nerve and its relation to the pterygopalatine fossa. (medscape.com)
  • Trigeminal nerve block provides hemifacial anesthesia and is used predominantly in the diagnosis and treatment of neuralgia. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis, in most cases, is eminently clinical, usually determined by vesicle-bullous lesions involving the skin over the brachial nerve pathway. (bvsalud.org)
  • Development and validation of radiomics models for the prediction of diagnosis of classic trigeminal neuralgia. (iasp-pain.org)
  • The study aims to develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomics model for the diagnosis of classic trigeminal neuralgia (cTN). (iasp-pain.org)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is a diagnosis we frequently see at Novera Headache Center. (noveraheadachecenter.com)
  • For more information about the relevant anatomy, see Trigeminal Nerve Anatomy . (medscape.com)
  • Patients can experience pain, burning, or dysethetic sensations following the course of the nerve involved. (medscape.com)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is characterized by spontaneous, paroxysmal lancinating pain in the trigeminal nerve distribution. (medscape.com)
  • Pain due to trigeminal neuralgia can occur spontaneously but is often triggered by touching a particular spot (called a trigger point) on the face, lips, or tongue or by an action such as brushing the teeth or chewing. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, doctors must distinguish trigeminal neuralgia from other possible causes of facial pain, such as disorders of the jaw, teeth, or sinuses. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Importantly, because the local block of NaV1.1 in the trigeminal nerve reverses nerve injury -induced mechanical hypersensitivity , the selective upregulation of NaV1.1 in trigeminal nerves suggests a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of pain associated with trigeminal nerve injury . (bvsalud.org)
  • Based on specific, objective, and reproducible criteria, a classification scheme for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and related facial pain syndromes is proposed. (thejns.org)
  • 1) and 2) Trigeminal neuralgia Types 1 and 2 (TN1 and TN2) refer to idiopathic, spontaneous facial pain that is either predominantly episodic (as in TN1) or constant (as in TN2) in nature. (thejns.org)
  • 4) Trigeminal deafferentation pain results from intentional injury to the nerve by peripheral nerve ablation, gangliolysis, or rhizotomy in an attempt to treat either TN or other related facial pain. (thejns.org)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (severe nerve pain of the face). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism is on the verge of becoming a powerful analgesic treatment for numerous conditions, including osteoarthritis and lower back pain. (annualreviews.org)
  • 2014 . Nerve safety of tanezumab, a nerve growth factor inhibitor for pain treatment. (annualreviews.org)
  • This involves using a needle-like probe to freeze and destroy small parts of nerves in neuromas to stop the pain signals. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is also the nerve that relays pain signals for almost all headaches and toothaches. (park56dental.com)
  • The pain in the affected tooth irritates the trigeminal nerve, and that causes a migraine headache, with symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound. (park56dental.com)
  • It can also be used to treat nerve pain caused by diabetes (peripheral neuropathy) or trigeminal neuralgia, a severe facial ailment. (reassured.me)
  • It works by decreasing nerve impulses that cause seizures and pain. (worldstorerxc.com)
  • MRI also provides a more accurate assessment of intracranial spread to the Meckel cave, the cavernous sinus, the cisternal portion of the trigeminal nerve, and the facial nerve in the internal auditory canal (IAC) or cerebellopontine angle (CPA). (medscape.com)
  • Over the years Tom has handled a large number of dental malpractice matters including, lingual nerve paraesthesia, trigeminal neuralgia injuries, mental nerve and inferior alveolar nerve injuries, dental neglect and poor restorative dentistry. (avvo.com)
  • Perineural spread of a tumor, or spread of tumor along a nerve, is one of the more insidious forms of tumor growth. (medscape.com)
  • The most accepted current theory is that nerves provide a pathway of least resistance for tumor growth. (medscape.com)
  • Occasionally, tumor infiltration, vascular compression of the nerve, or diseases such as multiple sclerosis may be the causative factors. (medscape.com)
  • Brain MRI can also determine whether a tumor is compressing the nerve. (msdmanuals.com)
  • All the models showed excellent diagnostic ability in predicting trigeminal neuralgia. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Results showed that the radiomics models based on MRI can predict trigeminal neuralgia with high accuracy, which could be used as a diagnostic tool for this disorder. (iasp-pain.org)
  • The maxillary nerve (V2) carries sensory information from the lower eyelid and cheek, the nares and upper lip, the upper teeth and gums, the nasal mucosa, the palate and roof of the pharynx, the maxillary, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses and parts of the meninges. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nerve carries sensory information from the face to the brain and controls the muscles involved in chewing. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Stimulation of upper airway cold receptors on the trigeminal nerve (TGN) with TGN agonists such as menthol or cool air to the face/nose has been hypothesized to reduce breathlessness by decreasing IND. (lu.se)
  • In summary, the sensation of freshness associated with mint is a result of a combination of menthol's interaction with temperature receptors, nerve stimulation, psychological conditioning, breath freshening, and the mouth-cleansing effects of mint-flavored products. (encyclopedia4y.com)
  • When you grind your teeth, the sensation travels through the nerve and causes a headache. (park56dental.com)
  • The symptoms of vaccine nerve damage depend upon which nerves are damaged. (sanevax.org)
  • The symptoms sound similar to those of Trigeminal Neuralgia. (mayoclinic.org)
  • We leveraged this observation in the present study hypothesizing that because CBZ blocks voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs), its therapeutic selectivity reflects differences between trigeminal and somatic nerves with respect to injury -induced changes in VGSCs. (bvsalud.org)
  • There were differences between somatic and trigeminal nerves in VGSC subtypes underlying action potential propagation both in the absence and presence of injury . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mr. Reilly handled my malpractice case, which was a wisdomtooth extraction that caused permanent nerve damage. (avvo.com)
  • Menthol in mint can stimulate the nerves in the mouth and on the skin. (encyclopedia4y.com)
  • It is well known that almost 100% of all headaches are Trigeminal Nerve Innervated and that there is often a large autonomic component. (sphenopalatineganglionblocks.com)
  • Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS) is a noninvasive, non-drug treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Richard Tyler presented on findings from MicroTransponder's Serenity System, the implanted Vagus Nerve Stimulation device. (tinnitushub.com)
  • This nerve stimulation can lead to a tingling and refreshing feeling. (encyclopedia4y.com)
  • The sensory function of the trigeminal nerve is to provide tactile, proprioceptive, and nociceptive afference to the face and mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2003 . Signalling pathways involved in the sensitisation of mouse nociceptive neurones by nerve growth factor. (annualreviews.org)
  • MRI of the brain is done to determine whether an artery is crossing the nerve. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The recurrent and chaotic firing of nerves in the brain causes seizures. (reassured.me)
  • [ 3 ] The second division, the maxillary nerve (V2), exits the skull from the foramen rotundum. (medscape.com)
  • This is one of the largest nerves in your head and provides sensation to most of your face. (park56dental.com)
  • The sensation of feeling cold when consuming mint is a fascinating interplay of sensory perception, chemistry, and nerve response. (encyclopedia4y.com)
  • From there, the signal continues into the trigeminal nerve which feeds the sensation of the face. (noveraheadachecenter.com)
  • CT scans are superior to MRI for evaluating bony changes, which is important because a substantial portion of the trigeminal and facial nerves are surrounded by, or contained within, bony structures. (medscape.com)
  • A nerve block often achieves anesthesia with a smaller amount of medication than is required for local infiltration. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, unlike local tissue infiltration, nerve blocks can provide anesthesia without causing tissue distortion. (medscape.com)
  • The process was initially thought to occur via spread through lymphatics within the nerve sheath, but this concept was rejected after the discovery that lymphatic channels do not penetrate the epineurium. (medscape.com)
  • The increase in potency was associated with a selective increase in the efficacy of the NaV1.1 channel blocker ICA-121431 and NaV1.1 protein in the ION, but no change in NaV1.1 mRNA in trigeminal ganglia . (bvsalud.org)
  • A better understanding of the radiobiology of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone may help to maximize the efficacy and minimize the complication rates of GKS. (thejns.org)
  • Trigeminal neuralgia is a painful disorder produced by the trigeminal nerve, which is the principal nerve in the face. (reassured.me)
  • trigeminal nerve block is reserved for patients who do not respond to medical treatment or patients in whom neurologic decompression of the canal is not feasible or has failed. (medscape.com)
  • The symptomatic side trigeminal nerve regions of patients and both sides of the trigeminal nerve regions of control participants were manually labeled on MRI images. (iasp-pain.org)