Triazoles are a class of antifungal drugs that contain a triazole ring in their chemical structure and work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of the membrane.
A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
Thiadiazoles are heterocyclic compounds containing a five-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and two sulfur atoms, which have been widely studied for their potential therapeutic benefits, including antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Rhodium. A hard and rare metal of the platinum group, atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.905, symbol Rh. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal pathogens that can infect various tissues and organs, potentially leading to localized or systemic symptoms, depending on the immune status of the host.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
Compounds that specifically inhibit STEROL 14-DEMETHYLASE. A variety of azole-derived ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS act through this mechanism.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
Dioxolanes are specific chemical compounds characterized by a saturated six-membered ring containing two oxygen atoms and two carbon atoms, often formed through the reaction between aldehydes or ketones and diols, and significant in pharmaceutical synthesis and organic chemistry.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Synthetic organic reactions that use reactions between unsaturated molecules to form cyclical products.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
A mitosporic fungal genus previously called Monosporium. Teleomorphs include PSEUDALLESCHERIA.
A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.
A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
Lung infections with the invasive forms of ASPERGILLUS, usually after surgery, transplantation, prolonged NEUTROPENIA or treatment with high-doses of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can progress to CHRONIC NECROTIZING PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS or hematogenous spread to other organs.
Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
Thiazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a sulfur atom and a nitrogen atom, which are bound by two carbon atoms to form a five-membered ring, and are widely found in various natural and synthetic substances, including some pharmaceuticals and vitamins.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.
Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Any of the monobasic inorganic or organic acids of sulfur with the general formula RSO(OH). (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.

Interleukin-12 is synthesized by mesangial cells and stimulates platelet-activating factor synthesis, cytoskeletal reorganization, and cell shape change. (1/3718)

Preliminary studies indicate the involvement of interleukin (IL)-12 in experimental renal pathology. In the present study, we evaluated whether cultured glomerular mesangial cells are able to produce IL-12 and whether IL-12 may regulate some of their functions, including the cytoskeletal reorganization, the change in cell shape, and the production of platelet-activating factor (PAF). The results obtained indicate that pro-inflammatory stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and bacterial polysaccharides, induce the expression of IL-12 mRNA and the synthesis of the protein by cultured mesangial cells. Moreover, cultured mesangial cells were shown to bind IL-12 and to express the human low-affinity IL-12 beta1-chain receptor. When challenged with IL-12, mesangial cells produced PAF in a dose- and time-dependent manner and superoxide anions. No production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-8 was observed. Moreover, we demonstrate that IL-12 induced a delayed and sustained shape change of mesangial cells that reached its maximum between 90 and 120 minutes of incubation. The changes in cell shape occurred concomitantly with cytoskeletal rearrangements and may be consistent with cell contraction. As IL-12-dependent shape change of mesangial cells was concomitant with the synthesis of PAF, which is known to promote mesangial cell contraction, we investigated the role of PAF using two chemically different PAF receptor antagonists. Both antagonists inhibited almost completely the cell shape change induced by IL-12, whereas they were ineffective on angiotensin-II-induced cell shape change. In conclusion, our results suggest that mesangial cells can either produce IL-12 or be stimulated by this cytokine to synthesize PAF and to undergo shape changes compatible with cell contraction.  (+info)

Systemic candidiasis with candida vasculitis due to Candida kruzei in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia. (2/3718)

Candida kruzei-related systemic infections are increasing in frequency, particularly in patients receiving prophylaxis with antifungal triazoles. A Caucasian male with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia (AML M1) developed severe and persistent fever associated with a micropustular eruption scattered over the trunk and limbs during induction chemotherapy. Blood cultures grew Candida kruzei, and biopsies of the skin lesions revealed a candida vasculitis. He responded to high doses of liposomal amphotericin B and was discharged well from hospital.  (+info)

Glutamate receptor signaling interplay modulates stress-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinases and neuronal cell death. (3/3718)

Glutamate receptors modulate multiple signaling pathways, several of which involve mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, with subsequent physiological or pathological consequences. Here we report that stimulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, using platelet-activating factor (PAF) as a messenger, activates MAP kinases, including c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) blocks this NMDA-signaling through PAF and MAP kinases, and the resultant cell death. Recombinant PAF-acetylhydrolase degrades PAF generated by NMDA-receptor activation; the hetrazepine BN50730 (an intracellular PAF receptor antagonist) also inhibits both NMDA-stimulated MAP kinases and neuronal cell death. The finding that the NMDA receptor-PAF-MAP kinase signaling pathway is attenuated by mGluR activation highlights the exquisite interplay between glutamate receptors in the decision making process between neuronal survival and death.  (+info)

Treatment of murine fusariosis with SCH 56592. (4/3718)

Doses of 10 to 100 mg of the azole antifungal agent SCH 5692/kg of body weight/day were studied in immunocompetent mice as therapy for systemic infection by Fusarium solani. Treatment was begun 1 h after intravenous infection and continued daily for 4 or 13 doses. Prolongation of survival and organ clearance were dependent on both the dose and the duration of SCH 56592 therapy, with the best results seen at 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. The results at the highest doses of SCH 56592 used (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) were comparable to those obtained with amphotericin B at 1 mg/kg/day. SCH 56592 has potential for therapy of systemic infections caused by F. solani.  (+info)

Postnatal development of hippocampal dentate granule cell gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor pharmacological properties. (5/3718)

Postnatal development of hippocampal dentate granule cell gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor pharmacological properties was studied. Granule cells were acutely isolated from hippocampi of 7- to 14- and 45- to 52-day-old rats, and whole cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained. The sensitivity of GABAA receptors to GABA and modulation of GABAA receptor currents by benzodiazepines (BZ), zinc, furosemide, and loreclezole was studied. Multiple changes in the pharmacological properties of dentate granule-cell GABAA receptors occurred during the first 52 days of postnatal development: GABA-evoked maximal current increased with postnatal age; GABAA receptors changed from BZ type 3 in young rats to BZ type 1 in adult rats; furosemide and zinc inhibited GABAA receptor currents in young rats but not in adult rats; the fraction of cells that expressed loreclezole-sensitive GABAA receptors increased with postnatal age. These findings suggest that dentate granule cells in young and adult animals express pharmacologically distinct GABAA receptors and that the postnatal development of these receptors is prolonged, lasting at least 45 days. Comparison with the previously reported pharmacological properties of GABAA receptors on dentate granule cells acutely isolated from hippocampi of 28- to 35-day-old rats suggests that receptors expressed at that age have properties intermediate between young and adult rats.  (+info)

In-vitro activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B against filamentous fungi. (6/3718)

The in-vitro fungistatic and fungicidal activities of voriconazole were compared with those of itraconazole and amphotericin B. MICs for 110 isolates belonging to 11 species of filamentous fungi were determined by a broth microdilution adaptation of the method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) of the three antifungal agents were also determined. The MIC ranges of the three compounds were comparable for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladophialophora bantiana and Exophiala dermatitidis. Voriconazole and itraconazole were more active than amphotericin B against Fonsecaea pedrosoi, but the two azole agents were less active against Sporothrix schenckii. Voriconazole was more active than itraconazole or amphotericin B against Scedosporium apiospermum, but less active than the other two agents against two mucoraceous moulds, Absidia corymbifera and Rhizopus arrhizus. Voriconazole and amphotericin B were more active than itraconazole against Fusarium solani. With the exception of S. apiospermum, all the moulds tested had MLC50 values of < or =2 mg/L and MLC90 values of < or =4 mg/L against amphotericin B. Voriconazole and itraconazole showed fungicidal effects against five of the 1 1 moulds tested (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, C. bantiana, E. dermatitidis and F. pedrosoi) with MLC90 values of < or =2 mg/L. In addition, voriconazole was fungicidal for Phialophora parasitica. Our results suggest that voriconazole could be effective against a wide range of mould infections in humans.  (+info)

Effect of DL111-IT on progesterone biosynthesis and viability of rat luteal cells in vitro. (7/3718)

AIM: To study the influence of DL111-IT on progesterone biosynthesis of cultured luteal cells (LC). METHODS: LC viability was assessed with trypan blue dye exclusion and progesterone concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: DL111-IT decreased the viability of LC after 24-h incubation, its ED50 being 7.7 (95% confidence limits: 7.1-8.5) mg.L-1. DL111-IT inhibited basal secretion of progesterone in a concentration-dependent manner, and 3 mg.L-1 decreased progesterone concentration by 25% vs control. DL111-IT 3 mg.L-1 also inhibited the stimulatory effect of forskolin (cAMP activator) 10 mumol.L-1 and pregnenolone [converted to progesterone by 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase complex (3 beta-HSD)] 10 mumol.L-1 on progesterone production in cultured LC, and their inhibitory rates were 43% and 155%, respectively. At the same concentration, DL111-IT did not influence hCG-induced progesterone production. CONCLUSION: DL111-IT inhibited progesterone synthesis by suppressing the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone (inactivating 3 beta-HSD) and suppressed the activity of cAMP. DL111-IT 6-24 mg.L-1 decreased the viability of LC.  (+info)

2-mercapto N-(azolyl)benzenesulfonamides. VI. Synthesis and anti-HIV activity of some new 2-mercapto-N-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives containing the 1,2,4-triazole moiety fused with a variety of heteroaromatic rings. (8/3718)

A series of 2-mercapto-N-(1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide derivatives containing the triazole moiety fused with a variety of heteroaromatic rings [XVI-XXVIII] was obtained by the reactions of 3-methylthio-1,4-2-benzodithiazine 1,1-dioxide derivatives [Ia-d] with 2-hydrazines [IIa-f]. Some of the intermediate 1,1-dioxide-1,4,2-benzodithiazin-3-ylhydrazines [III-XV] initially formed were also isolated. Preliminary screening data indicated that compounds [XVI-XIX and XXVII] were anti-HIV inactive, whereas other compounds showed a high [XXI and XXIII], fairly high [XXIII and XXVI] or moderate [XX, XXIV, XXV and XXVIII] activity. The compound [XXI] exhibited also high activity against ten selected HIV mutants.  (+info)

Triazoles are a class of antifungal medications that have broad-spectrum activity against various fungi, including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and disruption of fungal growth. Triazoles are commonly used in both systemic and topical formulations for the treatment of various fungal infections, such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and dermatophytoses. Some examples of triazole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole.

Amitrole is a non-selective herbicide that is used to control broadleaf weeds and some annual grasses. Its chemical name is 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, and it works by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for the production of certain aromatic amino acids in plants, which are essential for their growth and development.

Amitrole is absorbed through the leaves and roots of plants and can be applied either before or after weed emergence. It is commonly used in agricultural settings, as well as in non-crop areas such as industrial sites, railways, and roadsides.

While amitrole is generally considered safe for use around humans and animals when used according to label instructions, it can cause eye and skin irritation, and may be harmful if swallowed or inhaled. It is important to follow all safety precautions when handling and applying this herbicide.

Click chemistry is a term used to describe a group of chemical reactions that are fast, high-yielding, and highly selective. These reactions typically involve the formation of covalent bonds between two molecules in a simple and efficient manner, often through the use of a catalyst. The concept of click chemistry was first introduced by K. B. Sharpless, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2001 for his work on chiral catalysis.

In the context of medical research and drug development, click chemistry has emerged as a valuable tool for rapidly synthesizing and optimizing small molecule compounds with therapeutic potential. By using click chemistry reactions to quickly and efficiently link different chemical building blocks together, researchers can rapidly generate large libraries of potential drug candidates and then screen them for biological activity. This approach has been used to discover new drugs for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders.

One common type of click chemistry reaction is the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, which involves the reaction between an azide and an alkyne to form a triazole ring. This reaction is highly selective and can be carried out under mild conditions, making it a popular choice for chemical synthesis in the life sciences. Other types of click chemistry reactions include the Diels-Alder cycloaddition, the thiol-ene reaction, and the Staudinger ligation.

Overall, click chemistry has had a significant impact on medical research and drug development by enabling the rapid and efficient synthesis of complex small molecule compounds with therapeutic potential. Its versatility and selectivity make it a powerful tool for researchers seeking to discover new drugs and better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human disease.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a vital component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of these membranes. Itraconazole is available in oral and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Medical Definition:
Itraconazole (i-tra-KON-a-zole): A synthetic triazole antifungal agent used to treat various fungal infections, such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes, leading to disruption of their integrity and function. Itraconazole is available in oral (capsule and solution) and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Alkynes are a type of hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon triple bond in their molecular structure. The general chemical formula for alkynes is CnH2n-2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The simplest and shortest alkyne is ethyne, also known as acetylene, which has two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms (C2H2). Ethyne is a gas at room temperature and pressure, and it is commonly used as a fuel in welding torches.

Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, meaning that they have the potential to undergo chemical reactions that add atoms or groups of atoms to the molecule. In particular, alkynes can be converted into alkenes (hydrocarbons with a carbon-carbon double bond) through a process called partial reduction, or they can be fully reduced to alkanes (hydrocarbons with only single bonds between carbon atoms) through a process called complete reduction.

Alkynes are important intermediates in the chemical industry and are used to produce a wide range of products, including plastics, resins, fibers, and pharmaceuticals. They can be synthesized from other hydrocarbons through various chemical reactions, such as dehydrogenation, oxidative coupling, or metathesis.

Industrial fungicides are antimicrobial agents used to prevent, destroy, or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores in industrial settings. These can include uses in manufacturing processes, packaging materials, textiles, paints, and other industrial products. They work by interfering with the cellular structure or metabolic processes of fungi, thereby preventing their growth or reproduction. Examples of industrial fungicides include:

* Sodium hypochlorite (bleach)
* Formaldehyde
* Glutaraldehyde
* Quaternary ammonium compounds
* Peracetic acid
* Chlorhexidine
* Iodophors

It's important to note that some of these fungicides can be harmful or toxic to humans and other organisms, so they must be used with caution and in accordance with safety guidelines.

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat and prevent various fungal infections, such as candidiasis (yeast infections), cryptococcal meningitis, and other fungal infections that affect the mouth, throat, blood, lungs, genital area, and other parts of the body. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi that cause these infections. Fluconazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous (IV) solutions, and is typically prescribed to be taken once daily.

The medical definition of Fluconazole can be found in pharmacological or medical dictionaries, which describe it as a triazole antifungal agent that inhibits fungal cytochrome P450-dependent synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. This results in increased permeability and leakage of cellular contents, ultimately leading to fungal death. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and others.

It is important to note that while Fluconazole is an effective antifungal medication, it may have side effects and interactions with other medications. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Fungal drug resistance is a condition where fungi are no longer susceptible to the antifungal drugs that were previously used to treat infections they caused. This can occur due to genetic changes in the fungi that make them less sensitive to the drug's effects, or due to environmental factors that allow the fungi to survive and multiply despite the presence of the drug.

There are several mechanisms by which fungi can develop drug resistance, including:

1. Mutations in genes that encode drug targets: Fungi can acquire mutations in the genes that encode for the proteins or enzymes that the antifungal drugs target. These mutations can alter the structure or function of these targets, making them less susceptible to the drug's effects.
2. Overexpression of efflux pumps: Fungi can increase the expression of genes that encode for efflux pumps, which are proteins that help fungi expel drugs from their cells. This can reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug and make it less effective.
3. Changes in membrane composition: Fungi can alter the composition of their cell membranes to make them less permeable to antifungal drugs, making it more difficult for the drugs to enter the fungal cells and exert their effects.
4. Biofilm formation: Fungi can form biofilms, which are complex communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are protected by a matrix of extracellular material. Biofilms can make fungi more resistant to antifungal drugs by limiting drug penetration and creating an environment that promotes the development of resistance.

Fungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer. It can lead to treatment failures, increased morbidity and mortality, and higher healthcare costs. To address this issue, there is a need for new antifungal drugs, as well as strategies to prevent and manage drug resistance.

Aspergillosis is a medical condition that is caused by the infection of the Aspergillus fungi. This fungus is commonly found in decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter and compost piles, and can also be found in some indoor environments like air conditioning systems and old buildings with water damage.

There are several types of aspergillosis, including:

1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): This type of aspergillosis occurs when a person's immune system overreacts to the Aspergillus fungi, causing inflammation in the airways and lungs. ABPA is often seen in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis.
2. Invasive aspergillosis: This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the Aspergillus fungi invade the bloodstream and spread to other organs, such as the brain, heart, or kidneys. Invasive aspergillosis typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation.
3. Aspergilloma: Also known as a "fungus ball," an aspergilloma is a growth of the Aspergillus fungi that forms in a preexisting lung cavity, such as one caused by previous lung disease or injury. While an aspergilloma itself is not typically harmful, it can cause symptoms like coughing up blood or chest pain if it grows too large or becomes infected.

Symptoms of aspergillosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery to remove the fungal growth, or management of underlying conditions that increase the risk of infection.

'Aspergillus fumigatus' is a species of fungi that belongs to the genus Aspergillus. It is a ubiquitous mold that is commonly found in decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter, compost, and rotting vegetation. This fungus is also known to be present in indoor environments, including air conditioning systems, dust, and water-damaged buildings.

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it can cause infections in people with weakened immune systems. It can lead to a range of conditions known as aspergillosis, including allergic reactions, lung infections, and invasive infections that can spread to other parts of the body.

The fungus produces small, airborne spores that can be inhaled into the lungs, where they can cause infection. In healthy individuals, the immune system is usually able to eliminate the spores before they can cause harm. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation, or those with certain underlying medical conditions like asthma or cystic fibrosis, the fungus can establish an infection.

Infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus can be difficult to treat, and treatment options may include antifungal medications, surgery, or a combination of both. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes in people with aspergillosis.

Thiadiazoles are heterocyclic compounds that contain a five-membered ring consisting of two nitrogen atoms and two sulfur atoms, along with a third non-carbon atom or group. They have the molecular formula N-S-N-C-S. Thiadiazole rings can be found in various pharmaceutical and agrochemical compounds, as they exhibit a wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Some well-known thiadiazole derivatives include the drugs furazolidone, nitrofurantoin, and sufasalazine.

Pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. They are one of the two types of nucleobases found in nucleic acids, the other being purines. The pyrimidine bases include cytosine (C) and thymine (T) in DNA, and uracil (U) in RNA, which pair with guanine (G) and adenine (A), respectively, through hydrogen bonding to form the double helix structure of nucleic acids. Pyrimidines are also found in many other biomolecules and have various roles in cellular metabolism and genetic regulation.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

An azide is a chemical compound that contains the functional group -N=N+=N-, which consists of three nitrogen atoms joined by covalent bonds. In organic chemistry, azides are often used as reagents in various chemical reactions, such as the azide-alkyne cycloaddition (also known as the "click reaction").

In medical terminology, azides may refer to a class of drugs that contain an azido group and are used for their pharmacological effects. For example, sodium nitroprusside is a vasodilator drug that contains an azido group and is used to treat hypertensive emergencies.

However, it's worth noting that azides can also be toxic and potentially explosive under certain conditions, so they must be handled with care in laboratory settings.

'Candida' is a type of fungus (a form of yeast) that is commonly found on the skin and inside the body, including in the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, in small amounts. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any problems. However, an overgrowth of Candida can lead to infections known as candidiasis or thrush. Common sites for these infections include the skin, mouth, throat, and genital areas. Some factors that can contribute to Candida overgrowth are a weakened immune system, certain medications (such as antibiotics and corticosteroids), diabetes, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing damp or tight-fitting clothing. Common symptoms of candidiasis include itching, redness, pain, and discharge. Treatment typically involves antifungal medication, either topical or oral, depending on the site and severity of the infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rhodium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Rh and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, corrosion-resistant, and chemically inert transition metal. It is found in small quantities in platinum or nickel ores along with some other rare metals.

It's primarily used in industrial applications, such as being a key component in catalytic converters in automobiles, which helps to reduce harmful emissions. It's also used in jewelry, electronics, and scientific instruments due to its properties of resistance to corrosion and heat.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, please let me know!

Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, lungs, and internal organs. The severity of mycoses can range from superficial, mild infections to systemic, life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of fungus and the immune status of the infected individual. Some common types of mycoses include candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be topical or systemic, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans. It can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, mucous membranes (such as the mouth and vagina), and internal organs (like the esophagus, lungs, or blood).

The symptoms of candidiasis depend on the location of the infection:

1. Oral thrush: White patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, gums, or roof of the mouth. These patches may be painful and can bleed slightly when scraped.
2. Vaginal yeast infection: Itching, burning, redness, and swelling of the vagina and vulva; thick, white, odorless discharge from the vagina.
3. Esophageal candidiasis: Difficulty swallowing, pain when swallowing, or feeling like food is "stuck" in the throat.
4. Invasive candidiasis: Fever, chills, and other signs of infection; multiple organ involvement may lead to various symptoms depending on the affected organs.

Risk factors for developing candidiasis include diabetes, HIV/AIDS, use of antibiotics or corticosteroids, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing tight-fitting clothing that traps moisture. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as fluconazole, nystatin, or clotrimazole, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and often life-threatening fungal infections. It works by binding to the ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to the loss of essential cell components and ultimately cell death.

The medical definition of Amphotericin B is:

A polyene antifungal agent derived from Streptomyces nodosus, with a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Amphotericin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis, among others. It may be administered intravenously or topically, depending on the formulation and the site of infection.

Adverse effects associated with Amphotericin B include infusion-related reactions (such as fever, chills, and hypotension), nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalances, and anemia. These side effects are often dose-dependent and may be managed through careful monitoring and adjustment of the dosing regimen.

Cyclization is a chemical process that involves forming a cyclic structure or ring-shaped molecule from a linear or open-chain compound. In the context of medicinal chemistry and drug design, cyclization reactions are often used to synthesize complex molecules, including drugs, by creating rings or fused ring systems within the molecule's structure.

Cyclization can occur through various mechanisms, such as intramolecular nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, or radical reactions. The resulting cyclized compounds may exhibit different chemical and biological properties compared to their linear precursors, making them valuable targets for drug discovery and development.

In some cases, the cyclization process can lead to the formation of stereocenters within the molecule, which can impact its three-dimensional shape and how it interacts with biological targets. Therefore, controlling the stereochemistry during cyclization reactions is crucial in medicinal chemistry to optimize the desired biological activity.

Overall, cyclization plays a significant role in the design and synthesis of many pharmaceutical compounds, enabling the creation of complex structures that can interact specifically with biological targets for therapeutic purposes.

"Aspergillus" is a genus of filamentous fungi (molds) that are widely distributed in the environment. These molds are commonly found in decaying organic matter such as leaf litter, compost piles, and rotting vegetation. They can also be found in indoor environments like air conditioning systems, dust, and building materials.

The medical relevance of Aspergillus comes from the fact that some species can cause a range of diseases in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions. The most common disease caused by Aspergillus is called aspergillosis, which can manifest as allergic reactions, lung infections (like pneumonia), and invasive infections that can spread to other parts of the body.

Aspergillus species produce small, airborne spores called conidia, which can be inhaled into the lungs and cause infection. The severity of aspergillosis depends on various factors, including the individual's immune status, the specific Aspergillus species involved, and the extent of fungal invasion in the body.

Common Aspergillus species that can cause human disease include A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus. Preventing exposure to Aspergillus spores and maintaining a healthy immune system are crucial steps in minimizing the risk of aspergillosis.

14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors are a class of antifungal medications that work by inhibiting the enzyme 14-alpha demethylase, which is essential for the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes. By inhibiting this enzyme, the drugs disrupt the structure and function of the fungal cell membrane, leading to fungal cell death.

Examples of 14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors include:

* Fluconazole (Diflucan)
* Itraconazole (Sporanox)
* Ketoconazole (Nizoral)
* Posaconazole (Noxafil)
* Voriconazole (Vfend)

These medications are used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including candidiasis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis. However, they can also have significant drug-drug interactions and toxicities, so their use must be monitored closely by healthcare professionals.

"Azoles" is a class of antifungal medications that have a similar chemical structure, specifically a five-membered ring containing nitrogen and two carbon atoms (a "azole ring"). The most common azoles used in medicine include:

1. Imidazoles: These include drugs such as clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole. They are used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including vaginal yeast infections, thrush, and skin infections.
2. Triazoles: These include drugs such as fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. They are also used to treat fungal infections, but have a broader spectrum of activity than imidazoles and are often used for more serious or systemic infections.

Azoles work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes. This leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane, which ultimately results in fungal cell death.

While azoles are generally well-tolerated, they can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In addition, some azoles can interact with other medications and affect liver function, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an azole regimen.

Echinocandins are a class of antifungal medications that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan, a key component of the fungal cell wall. This results in osmotic instability and ultimately leads to fungal cell death. Echinocandins are commonly used to treat invasive fungal infections caused by Candida species and Aspergillus species. The three drugs in this class that are approved for use in humans are caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.

Here's a brief overview of each drug:

1. Caspofungin (Cancidas, Cancidas-W): This is the first echinocandin to be approved for use in humans. It is indicated for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, including candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. Caspofungin is also approved for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
2. Micafungin (Mycamine): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of candidemia, esophageal candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
3. Anidulafungin (Eraxis): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis and candidemia, as well as other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Echinocandins have a broad spectrum of activity against many fungal species, including those that are resistant to other classes of antifungal medications. They are generally well-tolerated and have a low incidence of drug interactions. However, they should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment, as their metabolism may be affected by liver dysfunction.

Dioxolanes are a class of organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms, one oxygen atom, and two adjacent oxygen or sulfur atoms. The general structure of dioxolane is C2O2S2 or C2O3. These compounds are often used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other organic compounds due to their high reactivity and ability to act as protecting groups for carbonyl functionalities. Dioxolanes can also be found naturally in some foods and plants.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Pulmonary aspergillosis is a respiratory infection caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mainly affects the lungs, but it can also spread to other parts of the body. There are several forms of pulmonary aspergillosis, including:

1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): This form occurs in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis. The immune system overreacts to the presence of Aspergillus, causing inflammation and damage to the airways.
2. Aspergilloma: Also known as a fungus ball, this is a growth of Aspergillus that develops in a preexisting lung cavity, usually caused by old tuberculosis or scarring from previous lung infections.
3. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA): This is the most severe form and occurs when the fungus invades the lung tissue, blood vessels, and other organs. It primarily affects people with weakened immune systems due to conditions like cancer, HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, or long-term use of corticosteroids.

Symptoms of pulmonary aspergillosis can vary depending on the form and severity of the infection. They may include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and bloody sputum. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like chest X-rays or CT scans, along with laboratory tests to detect Aspergillus antigens or DNA in blood or respiratory samples. Treatment options include antifungal medications, surgery to remove fungal growths, and management of underlying conditions that weaken the immune system.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

A cycloaddition reaction is a type of chemical reaction involving the formation of one or more rings through the coupling of two unsaturated molecules. This process typically involves the simultaneous formation of new sigma bonds, resulting in the creation of a cyclic structure. Cycloaddition reactions are classified based on the number of atoms involved in each component molecule and the number of sigma bonds formed during the reaction. For example, a [2+2] cycloaddition involves two unsaturated molecules, each containing two atoms involved in the reaction, resulting in the formation of a four-membered ring. These reactions play a significant role in organic synthesis and are widely used to construct complex molecular architectures in various fields, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials science.

Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication that is primarily used to treat various fungal infections, including those caused by dermatophytes, Candida, and pityrosporum. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a crucial component of fungal cell membranes, which leads to increased permeability and ultimately results in fungal cell death.

Ketoconazole is available as an oral tablet for systemic use and as a topical cream or shampoo for localized applications. The oral formulation is used to treat severe or invasive fungal infections, while the topical preparations are primarily indicated for skin and scalp infections, such as athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch, candidiasis, and seborrheic dermatitis.

Common side effects of oral ketoconazole include nausea, vomiting, headache, and altered liver function tests. Rare but serious adverse reactions may include hepatotoxicity, adrenal insufficiency, and interactions with other medications that can affect the metabolism and elimination of drugs. Topical ketoconazole is generally well-tolerated, with local irritation being the most common side effect.

It's important to note that due to its potential for serious liver toxicity and drug-drug interactions, oral ketoconazole has been largely replaced by other antifungal agents, such as fluconazole and itraconazole, which have more favorable safety profiles. Topical ketoconazole remains a valuable option for treating localized fungal infections due to its effectiveness and lower risk of systemic side effects.

Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the inhalation of spores of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the skin, bones, and central nervous system. The initial symptoms of blastomycosis may include cough, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. If left untreated, the infection can become severe and potentially life-threatening. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as itraconazole or amphotericin B.

Nitriles, in a medical context, refer to a class of organic compounds that contain a cyano group (-CN) bonded to a carbon atom. They are widely used in the chemical industry and can be found in various materials, including certain plastics and rubber products.

In some cases, nitriles can pose health risks if ingested, inhaled, or come into contact with the skin. Short-term exposure to high levels of nitriles can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract. Prolonged or repeated exposure may lead to more severe health effects, such as damage to the nervous system, liver, and kidneys.

However, it's worth noting that the medical use of nitriles is not very common. Some nitrile gloves are used in healthcare settings due to their resistance to many chemicals and because they can provide a better barrier against infectious materials compared to latex or vinyl gloves. But beyond this application, nitriles themselves are not typically used as medications or therapeutic agents.

"Scedosporium" is a genus of filamentous fungi (molds) that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and decaying organic matter. It includes several species, with Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium boydii being the most common ones. These fungi can cause a range of infections in humans, ranging from superficial skin and nail infections to more serious invasive diseases affecting the lungs, brain, or other organs. Invasive scedosporiosis often occurs in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant recipients. The infection can be difficult to treat due to its resistance to many antifungal agents.

Ergosterol is a steroid found in the cell membranes of fungi, which is similar to cholesterol in animals. It plays an important role in maintaining the fluidity and permeability of fungal cell membranes. Ergosterol is also the target of many antifungal medications, which work by disrupting the synthesis of ergosterol or binding to it, leading to increased permeability and eventual death of the fungal cells.

Trichosporon is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, water, and air. They are also part of the normal flora of the human skin and mucous membranes. Some species of Trichosporon can cause various types of infections, mainly in people with weakened immune systems. These infections can range from superficial (e.g., skin and nail) to systemic and invasive, affecting internal organs. The most common Trichosporon-related infection is white piedra, a superficial mycosis that affects the hair shafts.

In a medical context, Trichosporon refers specifically to these fungi with potential pathogenic properties. It's essential to distinguish between the general term "trichosporon" (referring to the genus) and "Trichosporon" as a medically relevant entity causing infections.

Catalase is a type of enzyme that is found in many living organisms, including humans. Its primary function is to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). This reaction helps protect cells from the harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide, which can be toxic at high concentrations.

The chemical reaction catalyzed by catalase can be represented as follows:

H2O2 + Catalase → H2O + O2 + Catalase

Catalase is a powerful antioxidant enzyme that plays an important role in protecting cells from oxidative damage. It is found in high concentrations in tissues that produce or are exposed to hydrogen peroxide, such as the liver, kidneys, and erythrocytes (red blood cells).

Deficiency in catalase activity has been linked to several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging. On the other hand, overexpression of catalase has been shown to have potential therapeutic benefits in various disease models, such as reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a severe and often life-threatening fungal infection caused by the mold Aspergillus fumigatus or other Aspergillus species. It primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, such as those with hematologic malignancies, solid organ transplant recipients, or those receiving high-dose corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive therapies.

In IPA, the fungal hyphae invade the pulmonary blood vessels and surrounding lung tissue, leading to the formation of nodular lesions, infarcts, and cavities in the lungs. The infection can also spread to other organs, causing disseminated aspergillosis.

Symptoms of IPA include fever, cough, chest pain, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), and shortness of breath. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of radiologic imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) scans, and microbiological or molecular testing of respiratory specimens, blood, or tissue samples.

Treatment usually includes systemic antifungal therapy with agents such as voriconazole, isavuconazole, or liposomal amphotericin B. The prognosis of IPA is generally poor, with high mortality rates ranging from 30% to 90%, depending on the underlying condition and severity of the infection.

Transition elements, in the context of medical definitions, refer to a group of metallic elements that are characterized by their incomplete d series of orbitals. These elements include scandium (Sc), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Some definitions also include the lanthanide and actinide series.

These elements are essential to life, with iron being a key component of hemoglobin, and other transition metals playing crucial roles in various enzymatic reactions and as cofactors for many proteins. Transition elements are also widely used in medical devices, such as stainless steel implants, and in pharmaceuticals, such as platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques are a group of methods used in the field of chemistry to synthesize and optimize large libraries of chemical compounds in a rapid and efficient manner. These techniques involve the systematic combination of different building blocks, or reagents, in various arrangements to generate a diverse array of molecules. This approach allows chemists to quickly explore a wide chemical space and identify potential lead compounds for drug discovery, materials science, and other applications.

There are several common combinatorial chemistry techniques, including:

1. **Split-Pool Synthesis:** In this method, a large collection of starting materials is divided into smaller groups, and each group undergoes a series of chemical reactions with different reagents. The resulting products from each group are then pooled together and redistributed for additional rounds of reactions. This process creates a vast number of unique compounds through the iterative combination of building blocks.
2. **Parallel Synthesis:** In parallel synthesis, multiple reactions are carried out simultaneously in separate reaction vessels. Each vessel contains a distinct set of starting materials and reagents, allowing for the efficient generation of a series of related compounds. This method is particularly useful when exploring structure-activity relationships (SAR) or optimizing lead compounds.
3. **Encoded Libraries:** To facilitate the rapid identification of active compounds within large libraries, encoded library techniques incorporate unique tags or barcodes into each molecule. These tags allow for the simultaneous synthesis and screening of compounds, as the identity of an active compound can be determined by decoding its corresponding tag.
4. **DNA-Encoded Libraries (DELs):** DELs are a specific type of encoded library that uses DNA molecules to encode and track chemical compounds. In this approach, each unique compound is linked to a distinct DNA sequence, enabling the rapid identification of active compounds through DNA sequencing techniques.
5. **Solid-Phase Synthesis:** This technique involves the attachment of starting materials to a solid support, such as beads or resins, allowing for the stepwise addition of reagents and building blocks. The solid support facilitates easy separation, purification, and screening of compounds, making it an ideal method for combinatorial chemistry applications.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques have revolutionized drug discovery and development by enabling the rapid synthesis, screening, and optimization of large libraries of chemical compounds. These methods continue to play a crucial role in modern medicinal chemistry and materials science research.

Thiazoles are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring consisting of a nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom, along with two carbon atoms and two hydrogen atoms. They have the chemical formula C3H4NS. Thiazoles are present in various natural and synthetic substances, including some vitamins, drugs, and dyes. In the context of medicine, thiazole derivatives have been developed as pharmaceuticals for their diverse biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and antihypertensive properties. Some well-known examples include thiazide diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide) used to treat high blood pressure and edema, and the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Multiple drug resistance in fungi refers to the ability of certain fungal strains or species to resist the effects of multiple antifungal agents. This occurs when these organisms develop mechanisms that prevent the drugs from interfering with their growth and survival. As a result, the drugs become less effective or even completely ineffective at treating fungal infections caused by these resistant strains or species.

Multiple drug resistance in fungi can arise due to various factors, including genetic mutations, overuse or misuse of antifungal agents, and the ability of fungi to exchange genetic material with other fungi. This makes treatment of fungal infections more challenging, as doctors may need to use higher doses of drugs or try alternative therapies that may have more side effects or be less effective.

Multiple drug resistance in fungi is a significant concern in healthcare settings, particularly for patients who are immunocompromised or have underlying medical conditions that make them more susceptible to fungal infections. It is essential to take measures to prevent the development and spread of multiple drug-resistant fungi, such as using antifungal agents appropriately, practicing good infection control practices, and conducting surveillance for resistant strains.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

'Candida tropicalis' is a species of yeast that can be found normally in certain environments, including the human body (such as the skin, mouth, and digestive system). However, it can also cause infections in people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the bloodstream, urinary tract, and skin.

Like other Candida species, C. tropicalis is a type of fungus that reproduces by budding, forming oval-shaped cells. It is often resistant to certain antifungal medications, which can make infections more difficult to treat. Proper diagnosis and treatment, usually with antifungal drugs, are essential for managing C. tropicalis infections.

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the inhalation of spores of the Coccidioides species, mainly C. immitis and C. posadasii. These fungi are commonly found in the soil of dry regions such as the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America.

The infection often begins when a person inhales the microscopic spores, which can lead to respiratory symptoms resembling a common cold or pneumonia. Some people may develop more severe symptoms, especially those with weakened immune systems. The infection can disseminate to other parts of the body, causing skin lesions, bone and joint inflammation, meningitis, or other complications in rare cases.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests such as fungal cultures, histopathological examination, or serological tests to detect antibodies against Coccidioides antigens. Treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's immune status. Antifungal medications like fluconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin B are commonly used for treating coccidioidomycosis. Preventive measures include avoiding inhaling dust in endemic areas, especially during excavation or construction activities.

Microalgae are microscopic, simple, thalloid, often unicellular organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista. They can be found in freshwater and marine environments, and they are capable of photosynthesis, which allows them to convert light energy, carbon dioxide, and water into organic compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Microalgae are a diverse group of organisms that include various taxonomic groups such as cyanobacteria (also known as blue-green algae), diatoms, dinoflagellates, and euglenoids. They have important ecological roles in the global carbon cycle, oxygen production, and nutrient recycling.

In addition to their ecological significance, microalgae have gained attention for their potential applications in various industries, including food and feed, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biofuels, and environmental bioremediation. Some species of microalgae contain high levels of valuable compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, pigments, and bioactive molecules that have potential health benefits for humans and animals.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Sulfinic Acids" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a term from the field of chemistry. Sulfinic acids are organic compounds that contain a functional group with the formula RSO(O)H, where R represents an alkyl or aryl group. They are important intermediates in organic synthesis and can be found in some natural sources. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Synthetic chemistry techniques refer to the methods and processes used in the laboratory to synthesize or create new chemical compounds or molecules. This can involve a wide range of procedures, including various types of reactions, separations, purifications, and characterizations. The goal of synthetic chemistry is often to produce a specific compound with desired properties, such as a drug molecule with therapeutic activity or a materials compound with unique physical or chemical characteristics. Synthetic chemists use their knowledge of organic, inorganic, physical, and analytical chemistry to design and execute efficient and effective syntheses, and they may employ automation, computational modeling, and other advanced tools to aid in their work.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Periostitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the periosteum, which is the highly vascularized tissue that covers the outer surface of bones. The periosteum contains nerves and blood vessels that supply the bone and assist in bone repair and remodeling. Periostitis can occur as a result of various factors such as repetitive trauma, infection, or inflammatory diseases, leading to pain, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area. In some cases, periostitis may also lead to the formation of new bone tissue, resulting in bony outgrowths known as exostoses.

Heterocyclic compounds are organic compounds that contain at least one atom within the ring structure, other than carbon, such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur or phosphorus. These compounds make up a large class of naturally occurring and synthetic materials, including many drugs, pigments, vitamins, and antibiotics. The presence of the heteroatom in the ring can have significant effects on the physical and chemical properties of the compound, such as its reactivity, stability, and bonding characteristics. Examples of heterocyclic compounds include pyridine, pyrimidine, and furan.

The fourth ventricle is a part of the cerebrospinal fluid-filled system in the brain, located in the posterior cranial fossa and continuous with the central canal of the medulla oblongata and the cerebral aqueduct. It is shaped like a cavity with a roof, floor, and lateral walls, and it communicates rostrally with the third ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct and caudally with the subarachnoid space through the median and lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka and Magendie). The fourth ventricle contains choroid plexus tissue, which produces cerebrospinal fluid. Its roof is formed by the cerebellar vermis and the superior medullary velum, while its floor is composed of the rhomboid fossa, which includes several important structures such as the vagal trigone, hypoglossal trigone, and striae medullares.

Sterol 14-demethylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of sterols, particularly ergosterol in fungi and cholesterol in animals. This enzyme is classified as a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme and is located in the endoplasmic reticulum.

The function of sterol 14-demethylase is to remove methyl groups from the sterol molecule at the 14th position, which is a necessary step in the biosynthesis of ergosterol or cholesterol. Inhibition of this enzyme can disrupt the normal functioning of cell membranes and lead to various physiological changes, including impaired growth and development.

Sterol 14-demethylase inhibitors (SDIs) are a class of antifungal drugs that target this enzyme and are used to treat fungal infections. Examples of SDIs include fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole. These drugs work by binding to the heme group of the enzyme and inhibiting its activity, leading to the accumulation of toxic sterol intermediates and disruption of fungal cell membranes.

'Candida glabrata' is a species of yeast that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans. It is a member of the genus Candida, which includes several species of fungi that can cause infections in humans. C. glabrata is one of the more common causes of candidiasis, or yeast infections, particularly in the mouth (oral thrush) and genital area. It can also cause invasive candidiasis, a serious systemic infection that can affect various organs and tissues in the body. C. glabrata is often resistant to some of the antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections, making it more difficult to treat.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

Lipopeptides are a type of molecule that consists of a lipid (fatty acid) tail attached to a small peptide (short chain of amino acids). They are produced naturally by various organisms, including bacteria, and play important roles in cell-to-cell communication, signaling, and as components of bacterial membranes. Some lipopeptides have also been found to have antimicrobial properties and are being studied for their potential use as therapeutic agents.

Trypanocidal agents are a type of medication specifically used for the treatment and prevention of trypanosomiasis, which is a group of diseases caused by various species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. These agents work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the parasites in the human body.

There are two main types of human trypanosomiasis: African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, which is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; and American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.

Trypanocidal agents can be divided into two categories:

1. Drugs used to treat African trypanosomiasis: These include pentamidine, suramin, melarsoprol, and eflornithine. Pentamidine and suramin are used for the early stages of the disease, while melarsoprol and eflornithine are used for the later stages.
2. Drugs used to treat American trypanosomiasis: The main drug used for Chagas disease is benznidazole, which is effective in killing the parasites during the acute phase of the infection. Another drug, nifurtimox, can also be used, although it has more side effects than benznidazole.

It's important to note that trypanocidal agents have limited availability and are often associated with significant toxicity, making their use challenging in some settings. Therefore, prevention measures such as avoiding insect vectors and using vector control methods remain crucial in controlling the spread of these diseases.

Fungal lung diseases, also known as fungal pneumonia or mycoses, refer to a group of respiratory disorders caused by the infection of fungi in the lungs. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, such as soil, decaying organic matter, and contaminated materials. People can develop lung diseases from fungi after inhaling spores or particles that contain fungi.

There are several types of fungal lung diseases, including:

1. Aspergillosis: This is caused by the Aspergillus fungus and can affect people with weakened immune systems. It can cause allergic reactions, lung infections, or invasive aspergillosis, which can spread to other organs.
2. Cryptococcosis: This is caused by the Cryptococcus fungus and is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings. It can cause pneumonia, meningitis, or skin lesions.
3. Histoplasmosis: This is caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus and is commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated histoplasmosis, which can spread to other organs.
4. Blastomycosis: This is caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus and is commonly found in the southeastern and south-central United States. It can cause pneumonia, skin lesions, or disseminated blastomycosis, which can spread to other organs.
5. Coccidioidomycosis: This is caused by the Coccidioides immitis fungus and is commonly found in the southwestern United States. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated coccidioidomycosis, which can spread to other organs.

Fungal lung diseases can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of fungus and the person's immune system. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery, or supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to contaminated soil or dust, wearing protective masks in high-risk areas, and promptly seeking medical attention if symptoms develop.

Flucytosine is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and life-threatening fungal infections, such as cryptococcal meningitis and candidiasis. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA in the fungal cells, which inhibits their growth and reproduction.

The medical definition of Flucytosine is:

A synthetic fluorinated pyrimidine nucleoside analogue that is converted to fluorouracil after uptake into susceptible fungal cells. It is used as an antifungal agent in the treatment of serious systemic fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans. Flucytosine has both fungistatic and fungicidal activity, depending on the concentration achieved at the site of infection and the susceptibility of the organism.

Flucytosine is available in oral form and is often used in combination with other antifungal agents to increase its effectiveness and prevent the development of resistance. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression. Regular monitoring of blood counts and liver function tests is necessary during treatment to detect any potential toxicity.

Histoplasmosis is a pulmonary and systemic disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. It is typically acquired through the inhalation of microconidia from contaminated soil, particularly in areas associated with bird or bat droppings. The infection can range from asymptomatic to severe, depending on factors like the individual's immune status and the quantity of inhaled spores.

In acute histoplasmosis, symptoms may include fever, cough, fatigue, chest pain, and headache. Chronic or disseminated forms of the disease can affect various organs, such as the liver, spleen, adrenal glands, and central nervous system, leading to more severe complications. Diagnosis often involves serological tests, cultures, or histopathological examination of tissue samples. Treatment depends on the severity and dissemination of the disease, with antifungal medications like itraconazole or amphotericin B being commonly used for moderate to severe cases.

'Cryptococcus neoformans' is a species of encapsulated, budding yeast that is an important cause of fungal infections in humans and animals. The capsule surrounding the cell wall is composed of polysaccharides and is a key virulence factor, allowing the organism to evade host immune responses. C. neoformans is found worldwide in soil, particularly in association with bird droppings, and can be inhaled, leading to pulmonary infection. In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, hematological malignancies, or organ transplants, C. neoformans can disseminate from the lungs to other sites, most commonly the central nervous system (CNS), causing meningitis. The infection can also affect other organs, including the skin, bones, and eyes.

The diagnosis of cryptococcosis typically involves microscopic examination and culture of clinical specimens, such as sputum, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), followed by biochemical and molecular identification of the organism. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole, along with management of any underlying immunodeficiency. The prognosis of cryptococcosis depends on various factors, including the patient's immune status, the extent and severity of infection, and the timeliness and adequacy of treatment.

Cyclic peptides are a type of peptides in which the N-terminus and C-terminus of the peptide chain are linked to form a circular structure. This is in contrast to linear peptides, which have a straight peptide backbone with a free N-terminus and C-terminus. The cyclization of peptides can occur through various mechanisms, including the formation of an amide bond between the N-terminal amino group and the C-terminal carboxylic acid group (head-to-tail cyclization), or through the formation of a bond between side chain functional groups.

Cyclic peptides have unique structural and chemical properties that make them valuable in medical and therapeutic applications. For example, they are more resistant to degradation by enzymes compared to linear peptides, which can increase their stability and half-life in the body. Additionally, the cyclic structure allows for greater conformational rigidity, which can enhance their binding affinity and specificity to target molecules.

Cyclic peptides have been explored as potential therapeutics for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders. They have also been used as tools in basic research to study protein-protein interactions and cell signaling pathways.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, organ transplants, or long-term steroid use. The infection typically starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body, including the brain (meningitis), causing various symptoms like cough, fever, chest pain, headache, confusion, and vision problems. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications, and the prognosis depends on the patient's immune status and the severity of the infection.

There are four triazole isomers, which are conventionally divided into two pairs of tautomers. In the 1,2,3-triazoles, the ... Triazoles are relatively stable functional groups and triazole linkages can be used in a variety of applications, e.g. ... However, triazoles are also useful in bioorthogonal chemistry, because the large number of nitrogen atoms causes triazoles to ... Triazoles exhibit substantial isomerism, depending on the positioning of the nitrogen atoms within the ring. Many triazoles are ...
4-triazole-3(5)-thiol; oxidation of the thiol by nitric acid or hydrogen peroxide yields 1,2,4-triazole. 1,2,4-Triazoles are ... 1,2,4-Triazole and its derivatives find use in a wide variety of applications. 1,2,4-Triazole is a planar molecule. The C-N and ... 1,2,4-Triazoles can be prepared using the Einhorn-Brunner reaction or the Pellizzari reaction. Unsubstituted 1,2,4-triazole can ... 1,2,4-Triazole (as ligand in coordination compounds, Htrz abbreviation is sometimes used) is one of a pair of isomeric chemical ...
... is one of a pair of isomeric chemical compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, called triazoles, which have a ... 1,2,3-Triazole is a basic aromatic heterocycle. Substituted 1,2,3-triazoles can be produced using the azide alkyne Huisgen ... The 2H-1,2,3-triazole tautomer is the major form in aqueous solution. "1,2,3-triazole - an overview". Comprehensive ... Certain triazoles are relatively easy to cleave due to ring-chain tautomerism. One manifestation is found in the Dimroth ...
... (3-AT) is a heterocyclic organic compound that consists of a 1,2,4-triazole substituted with an amino ... 3-AT is also a nonselective systemic triazole herbicide used on nonfood croplands to control annual grasses and broadleaf and ...
1,1′-Azobis-1,2,3-triazole is a moderately explosive but comparatively stable chemical compound[citation needed] which contains ... 3-triazole rings. It is stable up to 194 °C. The compound exhibits cis-trans isomerism at the central azo group: the trans ... 3-triazole: A High-Nitrogen Compound with Stable N8 Structure and Photochromism". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 132 ...
Cookson, R. C. (1971). "4-Phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione" (PDF). Organic Syntheses: 121. doi:10.1002/0471264180.os051.30. ISBN ...
N. W. Isaacs and C. H. L. Kennard "Crystal structure of 4-amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole" J. Chem. Soc. B, 1971, ... 4-Amino-3-hydrazino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole is an organic compound with the formula SC2N3H(NH2)(N2H3). The compound consists ... of a 1,2,4-triazole heterocycle with three functional groups: amine, thioamide and hydrazyl. X-ray crystallography shows that ...
M. R. Atkinson, J. B. Polya (1954). "Triazoles. Part II. N-substitution of some 1 : 2 : 4-triazoles". Journal of the Chemical ... 4-triazole isomer. Triazoles have been found to have a number of real world applications as antibacterial agents.[citation ... Substituted 1,2,4-triazole have been prepared from diverse imides and hydrazines. In the case that the R groups of the imide ... In their research on the synthesis of 1,2,4-triazoles, Potts determined that the strongest acidic group attached to the side of ...
Triazole has been shown in laboratory studies to effectively control mycelial growth and provides local systemic protection. ... "Fungicides: Triazoles , Integrated Crop Management." Integrated Crop Management, November 9, 2006. http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ ...
Triazoles. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title COMU. If an internal link led you here, you may ...
"New Challenges for Triazoles. Farmers Journal, Crop Protection" (PDF). McCabe T. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011 ... In the latter case, the best activity rates are achieved in mixtures with triazoles. As an azole, Epoxiconazole, actively stops ... According to a study conducted by the Home Grown Cereals Authority (HGCA), Epoxiconazole was one of two triazole fungicides ( ... and it has been found that the inclusion of triazoles, like Epoxiconazole, in the fungicide mix may be necessary to limit ...
These consist of mancozeb, triazoles,[which?] tridemorph, and strobilurin.[which?] Mancozeb seems to be the most effective ...
Ast, Sandra; Rutledge, Peter J.; Todd, Matthew H. (2012). "Reversing the Triazole Topology in a Cyclam-Triazole-Dye Ligand ... "Chemical sensors that incorporate click-derived triazoles". Chemical Society Reviews. 40 (5): 2848-66. doi:10.1039/C0CS00143K. ... "Chemical sensors that incorporate click-derived triazoles". Chemical Society Reviews. 40 (5): 2848-2866. doi:10.1039/C0CS00143K ...
Generally, treatment is with triazoles, preferably itraconazole. A second choice is potassium iodide, either alone or combined ...
Non-carbon reagents also undergo cyclization, e.g. Azide alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition to give triazoles. Cycloaddition ...
C. Ainsworth (1960). "1,2,4-Triazole". Organic Syntheses. 40: 99. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.040.0099. (Articles without InChI source ... Formylation of thiosemicarbazide provides access to triazole. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (2014). ...
"Europium confined cyclen dendrimers with photophysically active triazoles". Journal of Materials Chemistry. 18 (22): 2545. doi: ...
... s are poly-triazole-poly-peptide hybrid polymers. They are made of repeating units of a 1,2,3-triazole ... The triazole bridges do not confer any stability to oligopeptide. Degradation of the polymer occurs at the peptide bonds ... They can be visualized as an oligopeptide that is flanked at both the C-terminus and N-terminus by a triazole molecule. Clicked ... The molecules linked to one another by the azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition are connected by an aromatic triazole which is ...
Sabo JA, Abdel-Rahman SM (September 2000). "Voriconazole: a new triazole antifungal". The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 34 (9): ...
3-triazoles. An example of this reaction is shown below: The use of azides is very important in a variety of different ... triazoles". Synlett. 24: 41-44. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1317712. "Espacenet - Bibliographic data". Hein, C. D.; Liu, X. M.; Wang, D ...
Structurally, loreclezole is a triazole derivative. In animal seizure models, loreclezole is protective against ... Triazoles, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, GABAA-rho receptor negative allosteric modulators, All stub articles ...
This set contains pyrrole, imidazole, pyrazole, triazoles, tetrazole, and pentazole. Substituted analogs of pentazole are ... Triazole, Tetrazole, and Pentazole Rings: Release of Parent Azoles. Generation of Unstable Pentazole, HN5/N5-, in Solution" ( ...
C3N5 - a combined triazole and triazine framework. MCN-12 (C3N6) and MCN-13 (C3N7). Azafullerenes are a class of ...
... , sold under the brand name Noxafil among others, is a triazole antifungal medication. It was approved for medical ... Rachwalski EJ, Wieczorkiewicz JT, Scheetz MH (October 2008). "Posaconazole: an oral triazole with an extended spectrum of ... Schiller DS, Fung HB (September 2007). "Posaconazole: an extended-spectrum triazole antifungal agent". Clinical Therapeutics. ...
Their NMR spectra and the x-ray structure of derived triazoles". The Journal of Organic Chemistry. 55 (8): 2304-2306. doi: ...
However, a growing proportion of infections are resistant to the triazoles. A. fumigatus, the most commonly infecting species, ... May 2011). "High-frequency triazole resistance found In nonculturable Aspergillus fumigatus from lungs of patients with chronic ...
It is in the triazole family of medications. It works by affecting fungal metabolism and fungal cell membranes. Voriconazole ... Triazole antifungals, World Health Organization essential medicines). ...
It differs from earlier azole antifungals (such as ketoconazole) in that its structure contains a triazole ring instead of an ... While the imidazole antifungals are mainly used topically, fluconazole and certain other triazole antifungals are preferred ... Fluconazole is a first-generation triazole antifungal medication. ...
4-triazole; 1H- and 2H- isoindole. Ring-chain tautomers occur when the movement of the proton is accompanied by a change from ...
One example is the triazole antimycotics or fungicides. However, the chemical environments encountered en route from the ...
Learn why triazole-resistant aspergillosis is a prevention priority. ... People with a triazole-resistant infection have over a 30% higher likelihood of dying than patients with an infection that can ... Use of triazole fungicides in the environment increased more than fourfold from 2006 to 2016 in the United States, amplifying ... CDC has developed a plan to address the growing threat of triazole-resistant A. fumigatus and has begun the first phase of ...
There are four triazole isomers, which are conventionally divided into two pairs of tautomers. In the 1,2,3-triazoles, the ... Triazoles are relatively stable functional groups and triazole linkages can be used in a variety of applications, e.g. ... However, triazoles are also useful in bioorthogonal chemistry, because the large number of nitrogen atoms causes triazoles to ... Triazoles exhibit substantial isomerism, depending on the positioning of the nitrogen atoms within the ring. Many triazoles are ...
Crystal structure of SETDB1 Tudor domain with aryl triazole fragment peptide conjugates ... Crystal structure of SETDB1 Tudor domain with aryl triazole fragment peptide conjugates. MADER, P., Mendoza-Sanchez, R., DONG, ... Crystal structure of SETDB1 Tudor domain with aryl triazole fragment peptide conjugates. *PDB DOI: https://doi.org/10.2210/ ...
... the emergence of triazole-resistant A. fumigatus threatens the effectiveness of triazoles in clinical practice (3). Patients ... Patients can acquire triazole-resistant A. fumigatus infections because of exposure to long-term triazole therapy for chronic ... Fatal Fungicide-Associated Triazole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Infection, Pennsylvania, USA On This Page ... Fatal Fungicide-Associated Triazole-Resistant Aspergillus fumigatus Infection, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases ...
1,2,4-Triazole Sodium extrapure, 98%. https://www.pathco.org/shop/41253-21-8-124-triazole-sodium-extrapure-98-33665 https://www ...
Udupi, R.H. ; Purushottamachar, P. ; Bhat, A.R. / Synthesis and biological activity of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing ... Udupi, R. H., Purushottamachar, P., & Bhat, A. R. (2000). Synthesis and biological activity of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives ... Udupi, RH, Purushottamachar, P & Bhat, AR 2000, Synthesis and biological activity of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing ... Dive into the research topics of Synthesis and biological activity of 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing triazolo- ...
Triazoles - Itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole; itraconazole is considered the drug of choice for ...
Fluconazole is in a class of antifungals called triazoles. It works by slowing the growth of fungi that cause infection. ...
In this study we investigated the in vitro effects of a phthalimide-1,2,3-triazole derivative, the 4-Phenyl-1-[2-(phthalimido-2 ... Antileishmanial activity of 4-phenyl-1-[2-(phthalimido-2-yl)ethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazole (PT4) derivative on Leishmania amazonensis ... Antileishmanial activity of 4-phenyl-1-[2-(phthalimido-2-yl)ethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazole (PT4) ... ethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazole (PT4) obtained by click chemistry, on mammalian cells and on L. amazonensis and L. braziliensis, the ...
LR: 20141120; CI: (c) 2007; JID: 0144731; 0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Echinocandins); 0 (Pyrimidines); 0 (Triazoles); 304NUG5GF4 ...
Categories: Triazoles Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 1 images ...
AZDye™ 405 Alkyne reacts with azides via a copper-catalyzed click reaction (CuAAC) to form a stable triazole linker. AZDye™ 405 ...
Triazoles - Itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole; itraconazole is considered the drug of choice for ...
The chemicals associated with the cases were identified as AMT (3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole) and DE-498 (Flumetsulam). ... The investigation provides strong evidence that AMT (3-Amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole) was the causal agent responsible for ... 4-triazole; Flumetsulam; DE-498; occupational asthma; nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity; chronic airflow obstruction ...
Fatal Fungicide-Associated Triazole-Resistant A fumigatus An older, immunocompromised patient presented with a case of triazole ...
result sql = Triazole. Triazole 19. char = D;code = 68. char = e;code = 101. char = a;code = 97. char = t;code = 116. char = h; ...
Green algae and cyanobacterium have been shown to be the most sensitive species for triazole fungicides (Peterson 1994). ... Fungicides broadly classified as N-substituted imidazoles or triazoles depress fungal growth through inhibition of 14- ...
Arylazo-1,2,3-Triazoles: "Clicked" Photoswitches for Versatile Functionalization and Electronic Decoupling. ...
4,5-Dibromo-1H-1,2,3-Triazole 99% min. Welcome to our factory! We specialize in producing high-quality 4,5-Dibromo-1H-1,2,3- ...
Triazoles (2) *  Growth regulators (4) *  Herbicides (24) *  Anilines (1) *  Bipyridyls (14) *  Carbamates (3) ...
Statistics for In Vitro Interactions of Echinocandins with Triazoles against Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris Total visits ... Fakhim 2017 - In Vitro Interactions of Echinocandins with Triazoles against Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris.pdf 10 ... In Vitro Interactions of Echinocandins with Triazoles against Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris 20 ...
... including amphotericin B and triazole compounds) to high-risk patients for prophylaxis against aspergillosis (514,515,714). ...
Triazoles (UV lamp required). 1 to 16. mg/l. VARIO Triazole Rgt F25 (100 pk). 532200. ...
TRIAZOLE ANTI... Triazole Anti Estrogen es una fórmula con amplio consumo en la industria de la nutrición y el deporte para ... DS Activate Xtreme y DS Triazole son dos de los productos más efectivos para aumentar la testosterona y bloquear los estrógenos ...
Triazole derivatives.. The ATX J02A C01 code. the Pharmacological Pharmacokinetics Later properties of intake flukonazol is ...
1H-1,2,3-Triazole-5-methanol, .alpha.,.alpha.-dimethyl-1-[4-(triphenylplumbyl)butyl]- EC / List no: - , CAS no: 73826-06-9 ...
1,2,4-Triazole-3-one (3) obtained from tryptamine was transformed to the corresponding carbox(thio)amides via several steps (6a ... Antimicrobial activity (7)1,2,4-triazole (3)Fluoroquinolone (3)Molecular docking (3)alpha-Glucosidase (2)Anti-lipase activity ( ... Conventional and microwave-assisted synthesis of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives containing tryptamine skeleton and evaluation ...
A triazole and benzonitrile derivative that is a selective non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, similar to ANASTROZOLE. It is ... A triazole and benzonitrile derivative that is a selective non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, similar to ANASTROZOLE. It is ...
... as average of triazole fungicides (Triadimefon, Difenoconazole and Myclobutanil). viii : as Flusilazole (triazole) + Syngenta ... 000061-82-5Amino triazole 069327-76-0Thiadiazine 000333-41-5Organo-phosphate CAS # 5% 043121-43-3Triazole 40% 25% 50% Amitrole ...
  • Voriconazole belongs to the triazole class of antifungal drugs and is a first-line treatment for invasive aspergillosis ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Voriconazole (VRZ) is a second-generation triazole antifungal agent with broad-spectrum activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Also, the newer triazoles such as voriconazole and posaconazole may be useful to treat some of these infections caused by rare and emerging molds. (medscape.com)
  • Many triazoles are versatile, biologically active compounds commonly used as fungicides and plant retardants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to spreading resistance of plant pathogens towards fungicides of the strobilurin class, control of fungi such as Septoria tritici or Gibberella zeae relies heavily on triazoles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of particular concern are resistant infections that appear to be related to environmental use of triazole fungicides in agriculture rather than to previous patient use of antifungal medicine. (cdc.gov)
  • Use of triazole fungicides in the environment increased more than fourfold from 2006 to 2016 in the United States, amplifying concerns about resistant A. fumigatus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The agricultural use of triazole fungicides, a practice that recently increased 4-fold in the United States, can select for A. fumigatus strains harboring unique CYP51A gene mutations, such as TR 34 /L98H and TR 46 /Y121F/T289A, that can cause pan-triazole resistance in patients ( 5 , 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Green algae and cyanobacterium have been shown to be the most sensitive species for triazole fungicides (Peterson 1994). (janusinfo.se)
  • It is a triazole-based antifungal agent indicated to treat esophageal candidiasis, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, and serious fungal infections caused by Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium spp. (thetopmedstore.com)
  • Given medicine is a triazole antifungal agent that acts by inhibition of fungal cytochrome P-450 and sterol C-14 alpha-demethylation. (thetopmedstore.com)
  • CDC has developed a plan to address the growing threat of triazole-resistant A. fumigatus and has begun the first phase of implementation. (cdc.gov)
  • We report a fatal infection in a 65-year-old immunocompromised male patient caused by pan-triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus containing a TR 34 /L98H genetic mutation linked to agricultural fungicide use. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical and environmental surveillance of triazole-resistant A. fumigatus is needed in the United States to prevent spread and guide healthcare and agricultural practices. (cdc.gov)
  • however, the emergence of triazole-resistant A. fumigatus threatens the effectiveness of triazoles in clinical practice ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Patients can acquire triazole-resistant A. fumigatus infections because of exposure to long-term triazole therapy for chronic aspergillosis or by directly inhaling environmental spores that are already triazole-resistant ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We report a patient who died from an invasive infection caused by a pan-triazole-resistant A. fumigatus strain containing an environmentally acquired TR 34 /L98H mutation in CYP51A . (cdc.gov)
  • Fatal Fungicide-Associated Triazole-Resistant A fumigatus An older, immunocompromised patient presented with a case of triazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus infection that was linked to agricultural fungicide use. (medscape.com)
  • Fluconazole is in a class of antifungals called triazoles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is in a class of antifungal medications called triazoles that slow the growth of the fungi that cause infection. (thetopmedstore.com)
  • A triazole is a heterocyclic compound featuring a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms with molecular formula C2H3N3. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with a triazole-resistant infection have over a 30% higher likelihood of dying than patients with an infection that can be treated with these medicines. (cdc.gov)
  • Triazoles are compounds with a vast spectrum of applications, varying from materials (polymers), agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, photoactive chemicals and dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), copper(I) salts select for the formation of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles. (wikipedia.org)
  • AZDye™ 405 Alkyne reacts with azides via a copper-catalyzed click reaction (CuAAC) to form a stable triazole linker. (vectorlabs.com)
  • One such catalyst is CuBr(PPh3)3, which is relatively stable towards oxidation even at elevated temperatures and can produce triazoles with a broad range of substituents either in solvent or under neat reaction conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Triazoles are relatively stable functional groups and triazole linkages can be used in a variety of applications, e.g. replacing the phosphate backbone of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imidazole, an analog with two nonadjacent nitrogen atoms Pyrazole, an analog with two adjacent nitrogen atoms Tetrazole, an analog with four nitrogen atoms Triazolium salts, substituted analogues that can be used as NHC precursors Synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles (overview of recent methods) Synthesis of 1,2,4-triazoles (overview of recent methods) Virant, M. (wikipedia.org)
  • in the 1,2,4-triazoles, an interstitial carbon separates out one nitrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to a pyrimidine, tertiary alcohol , a triazole antifungal drug, and a conazole antifungal drug. (thetopmedstore.com)
  • The azide alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition is a mild and selective reaction that gives 1,2,3-triazoles as products. (wikipedia.org)
  • A triazole and benzonitrile derivative that is a selective non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor, similar to ANASTROZOLE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most techniques for producing 1,2,4-triazoles use the free energy of water, either by dehydrating a mixture of amides and hydrazides (the Pellizzari reaction) or imides and alkyl hydrazines (the Einhorn-Brunner reaction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with triazoles, a class of antifungal medicine, has greatly improved survival, but resistant infections are increasingly reported worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • Antileishmanial activity of 4-phenyl-1-[2-(phthalimido-2-yl)ethyl]-1H-1,2,3-triazole (PT4) derivative on Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis: In silico ADMET, in vitro activity, docking and molecular dynamic simulations. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is a synthetic triazole with antifungal activity. (thetopmedstore.com)
  • Voriconazole belongs to the triazole class of antifungal drugs and is a first-line treatment for invasive aspergillosis. (medscape.com)
  • Second-generation triazoles such as voriconazole, posa-conazole, albaconazole, efinaconazole, ravuconazole and isavuconazole are all derivatives of either itraconazole or fluconazole, and designed to overcome the deficiencies of their parent drugs. (nih.gov)
  • The goal of this manuscript is to review antifungal agents derived from triazole. (nih.gov)
  • Flucoder a member of the triazole class of antifungal agents, is a potent and selective inhibitor of fungal enzymes necessary for the synthesis of ergosterol. (com.bd)
  • 1 Similar tautomerism also reported in 1-nitrobenzotriazole and 1-cyano-1,2,3-triazole derivatives. (nih.gov)
  • The NIDDK is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize TRIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS P2Y14 RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS. (nih.gov)
  • Itracon-azole and fluconazole were some of the first triazoles synthesized, but had limitations associated with their use. (nih.gov)
  • Fluconazole is in a class of antifungals called triazoles. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fluconazole is a triazole antifungal agent. (com.bd)