Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.ArgentinaReduviidae: A family of winged insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, called assassin bugs, because most prey on other insects. However one subfamily, TRIATOMINAE, attacks humans and other vertebrates and transmits Chagas disease.BoliviaTrypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Housing: Living facilities for humans.GuatemalaPyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Panstrongylus: A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Dicistroviridae: A family of invertebrate RNA viruses in the order Picornavirales.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Xenodiagnosis: A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)MexicoDefecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.ParaguayCentral AmericaPhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.BrazilCytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.ChileHemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.KansasArtificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Chagas Cardiomyopathy: A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).San FranciscoTrypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)United States Office of Economic Opportunity: A division of the Executive Branch of the United States government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs relative to the provision of opportunities for economic advancement.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Civil Disorders: Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
  • Infection is most commonly acquired through contact with the feces of an infected triatomine bug, but can also be passed from mother to baby, by contaminated blood products, organ transplants, or, rarely, through contaminated food or drink. (cirrusimage.com)
  • Moreover, the effects of infection depend on the insect species, the parasite strain, and environmental conditions involved. (ajtmh.org)
  • Many insect species have adopted the blood of birds and mammals as their main or even only food. (elifesciences.org)
  • If many insect species can avoid thermal stress simply by changing their posture or hide from sun exposure, some others, such as haematophagous (blood-feeding) insects, must expose themselves to high temperatures and their deleterious effects during blood-feeding ( Lahondère and Lazzari, 2012 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • We analysed the spatial variation in morphological diversity (MDiv) and species richness (SR) for 91 species of Neotropical Triatominae to determine the ecological relationships between SR and MDiv and to explore the roles that climate, productivity, environmental heterogeneity and the presence of biomes and rivers may play in the structuring of species assemblages. (fiocruz.br)
  • Species that were more similar than expected by chance co-occurred near the limits of the Triatominae distribution in association with changes in environmental variables. (fiocruz.br)
  • Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Insecta:Hemiptera;Pentatomidae), commonly known as the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), is an invasive pest of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, causing economically important damage to a wide range of crops. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Triatomines, commonly known as the "kissing bug," could possibly be in Delaware, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention officials say. (blackchristiannews.com)
  • We suggest that a major limitation of current criteria for classifying triatomines into sylvatic, intrusive, domiciliary and domestic species is that these are essentially qualitative and do not rely on quantitative variables measuring population sustainability and fitness in their different habitats. (fiocruz.br)
  • Currently, more than 140 species of triatomines are recognised. (fiocruz.br)
  • Trypanosomes, and other parasites, mainly cause disease when they spread to new hosts, like humans and their domestic animals, especially recent imports into endemic areas of species that diverged since continents separated. (rockefeller.edu)
  • African trypanosomiasis is commonly known as Sleeping Sickness in humans and Nagana (meaning 'loss of spirit' in the Zulu language) in cattle. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The four species known to infect humans are P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. falciparum . (glowm.com)
  • Eyeworms ( Thelazia spp) are most commonly found in large animals, though they can also be found in dogs, cats, and even humans! (country-oaks.vet)
  • In some situations, species have been deliberately moved by humans: livestock to the new world, the introduction of birds from Shakespeare's plays into Central Park , and even the notorious gypsy moth was transported from Europe in a failed attempt at an American silkmoth industry . (wisc.edu)
  • Accordingly, neutrophils phagocytose and kill intracellularly invading microorganisms in the phagosome by a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species, proteases, and antimicrobial peptides - . (prolekare.cz)
  • Although the putting out of Reactive Oxygen Species after H2 O2 was more pronounced in immortalized cells lines, comparable up-regulation of Pgp, at the protein unalterable, was observed after the oxidative accent treatments in both types of cells. (hexat.com)
  • antigenic, protein, and molecular analyses demonstrated that the isolate varied slightly from most isolates of b. burgdorferi from northern california and was clearly distinct from other species of borrelia that are endemic to the state. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • It has been noted that T. canis is not a native species of Australia but was brought in with domesticated animals. (animaldiversity.org)
  • A pest is any animal or plant species that live in or invades human habitats causing damage to buildings, clothing, and food. (crazylegspestcontrol.com)
  • This polyphagous species feeds on more than 1,100 plant species, from which about 150 are of great economic value. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The identification of plant species as bioindicators of herbicide action, especially species native to the area, can help in monitoring the impacts of xenobiotics in the remaining Cerrado. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • Furthermore, genetic divergence and species delimitation analyses show that R. taquarussuensis is not an independent lineage in the R. prolixus group. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The use of molecular analyses enabled new insights into the diversity and revealed high cryptic presence and unknown distribution patterns for various European species. (usda.gov)
  • We performed bootstrapping analyses of species assemblages to identify whether those assemblages were more similar or dissimilar in their morphology than expected by chance. (fiocruz.br)
  • The use of subtle features as species diagnostic traits in taxa with high morphological similarity sometimes fails in discriminating intraspecific variation from interspecific differences, leading to an incorrect species delimitation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The diversity of morphological, behavioral, biochemical, and ethological characters, as well as the genetic variability detected by molecular markers are indicative of the presence of a complex of species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For each 110 km x 110 km-cell on a grid map of America, we determined the number of species (SR) and estimated the mean Gower index (MDiv) based on 12 morphological attributes. (fiocruz.br)
  • Biological diversity may be quantified in terms of both the species richness (SR) and variety of forms, e.g., the morphological diversity (MDiv) (Roy & Foote 1997). (fiocruz.br)
  • Our results suggest a direct relationship between the number of spots found in males' tergites and the genetic variation in cryptic species of L. longipalpis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2005). SR and phenotypic variation might depend on species interactions, environmental variability and random processes [for reviews, see Chesson (2000), Hubbell (2001) and Venner et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • Multiferon is a prescription medicine used with another medicine called PEGASYS (peginterferon alfa-2a) to treat chronic (lasting a long time) hepatitis C infection in people 5 years and older whose liver still works normally, and who have not been treated before with a medicine called an interferon alpha. (termsreign.cf)
  • One of the major limitations of studies on kissing-bug foraging has been the exclusive focus on the dominant vector species. (fiocruz.br)
  • At first, the team was able to achieve, "83.0 and 86.7 percent correct identification rates across all Mexican and Brazilian species, respectively, an improvement over comparable rates from statistical classifiers," they write. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Khalighifar now is applying a similar approach using TensorFlow for instant identification of mosquitoes based on the sounds of their wings and frogs based on their calls. (medicalxpress.com)
  • There is little data on the behavior of this species, even though it is in danger of extinction and conservation strategies are being developed. (bvsalud.org)
  • The effects of the alkaloid scopolamine on the performance and behavior of two caterpillar species. (arizona.edu)
  • Surprisingly, not all mosquitoes can take advantage of floodwaters and some species have a strong preference for more permanent bodies of water, such as tree-holes, man-made objects, marshes, and other areas that can hold water for weeks or months on end. (wisc.edu)
  • T. versicolor can be distinguished from similar species by the tiny pores visible on the underside of the fruiting bodies. (blogspot.com)
  • In both North and South America, three different trees - Schinus molle, Schinus aroeira, and Schinus terebinthifolius - are all interchangeably called "peppertrees. (rain-tree.com)
  • The species name versicolor describes both the multicolored bands seen at different times within an individual specimen and the color variations seen among different specimens. (blogspot.com)
  • the association of immature ixodid ticks, several species of rodents, and the lyme disease spirochete, borrelia burgdorferi johnson, schmid, hyde, steigerwalt & brenner, was studied in two habitats in northern california in spring and summer 1985 and year-round in 1986. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • There is evidence to suggest that a variety of morphologies may be a positive function of the number of species [e.g., in fish (Gatz 1979), mammals (Shepherd & Kelt 1999) and birds (Cumming & Child 2009)] or taxonomic diversity [e.g., in plants such as Desmidiales (Neustupa et al. (fiocruz.br)
  • This insect is commonly called a kissing bug because it targets the soft tissues around the mouth of mammals as a feeding site. (ufl.edu)
  • These characteristics, if shared by phylogenetically unrelated species, may be responsible for convergent evolution (homoplasy) and promote the dilution of the true phylogenetic signal. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • The next age, Lincoln received a call in from the physician’s of?ce to come to pass in representing yet another blood evaluation diabetes type 2 irritability buy januvia no prescription diabetes definition wikipedia. (siertecc.fr)