Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Financial support of research activities.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
Expectation of real uncertainty on the part of the investigator regarding the comparative therapeutic merits of each arm in a trial.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Conduct and synthesis of systematic research comparing interventions and strategies to prevent, diagnose, treat, and monitor health conditions. The purpose of this research is to inform patients, providers, and decision-makers, responding to their expressed needs, about which interventions are most effective for which patients under specific circumstances. (hhs.gov/recovery/programs/cer/draftdefinition.html accessed 6/12/2009)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
... denoted as "B") in the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Both were found guilty, based primarily on the testimony of informants ... The trial of John Lynch and co-defendant Brian Dillon starting on 18 December 1865 with Isaac Butt as their legal counsel. The ...
In English law, the term state trials primarily denotes trials relating to offences against the state. In practice it is a term ... Cobbett's State Trials State Trials (New Series), edited by Macdonell, Volume 1, 1820-1823 Volume 2, 1823-1831: [1] [2] [3] ... 1850-1853 State Trials, Political and Social, vol. 1, edited by Sir Harry Lushington Stephen State Trials, Political and Social ... This edition is in thirty-three volumes; twenty-one of them, giving the more important state trials down to 1781, were edited ...
For Indoor driving trials, carriages should be a minimum of 125 cm for all phases. In 2001 the FEI introduced a new World Cup ... CAIs are primarily for individual athletes. However, at World Championships, competitions for national teams of three or four ... If pony classes are involved, the letter P is added to the classification (e.g. CAIP-A). Numbers denote the arrangement of ... Pre-novice and novice drivers are judged primarily on safety and fit of the harness and vehicle and a three-phase or marathon ...
The role of a Master in the High Court of Justice of England and Wales is concerned primarily with trial and case management of ... The abbreviation QBD (or KBD) in legal citation is used in the Law Reports to denote cases heard in the Queen's (or King's) ... They hear civil trials and have equal standing with Justices when doing so. ... criminal cases to be heard in the shires were set down for trial in Westminster Hall "unless before" (nisi prius) the justice ...
Na'vi has a singular, dual, trial and plural number. The dual prefix is me+, the trial is pxe+ and the general plural ay+. All ... Na'vi verbs primarily use affixes to modify their meaning. They do not conjugate for person, but for tense. Each affix has a ... to denote a prefix that causes lenition. Since Na'vi does not make the distinction between long and short vowels, if the ... If it is a prefix, and the noun is plural, they will combine and become pem+ (dual), pep+ (trial) or pay+ (plural). Na'vi ...
The role of the law enforcement chaplain deals primarily with law enforcement personnel and agencies. The chaplain responds to ... They will always wear distinguishing insignia or markings to denote their chaplain rather than lawman status. Chaplains working ... whose primary ministry is to those who are incarcerated either awaiting trial or after conviction. ...
The word Emet in contemporary Kalenjin as used to denote a country derives from this term. Ehret posits that the Emet ... The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1909, p.4 & p.48 The Kalenjin are on trial, not Sang, says lawyer online. ... primarily served as a territorial identity, it had limited military mobilization capacity and played no administrative ...
Trial Service Offices (TSO) providing courts-martial prosecution, court reporting and administrative trial support; and Staff ... Oak leaves denote a corps, and symbolize strength, particularly the strength of the hulls of the early American Navy, which ... Prior to 2005, JAG Corps personnel primarily worked in one of three offices: Navy Legal Service Offices (NLSO) providing ... In 2005, the Judge Advocate General of the Navy approved a pilot program which resulted in the merger of the navy's Trial ...
The trial lasted less than a year, and later became known as The Eastview Birth Control Trial, demonstrating the influence of ... She was accused of illegally providing birth control materials and knowledge to her clients, primarily poor women. The defense ... and often their scores denoted them as having impaired intellectual functioning. As a result, many of those sterilized under ... Trials for babies included bathing them in wine and exposing them to the elements. To Sparta, this would ensure only the ...
Denotes each overtime. ** - Denotes new tournament format. NAIA Division II Men's Basketball National Championship was held ... In 1947, Coach John Wooden of Indiana State refused the invitation to the NAIA National Tournament primarily because Clarence J ... of the reasons that the NAIA tournament was so prestigious was that the champion was invited to compete at the Olympic trials ... Denotes each overtime. NAIA Basketball Tournament Most Valuable Player NAIA Men's Division I Championship History "New ...
The protection of private personality, like the protection of life itself, is left primarily to the individual States under the ... The Court previously held in Meyer v. Nebraska that "Without doubt, [liberty] denotes not merely freedom from bodily restraint ... this holding is that no due process infirmities would inhere in a statute constituting a commission to conduct ex party trials ...
The N2pc is primarily sensitive to the directional focus of attention over time. However, research has found a variety of ... The "N" denotes a negative polarity; "2" describes its latency in the waveform (i.e., the second negative deflection, typically ... Subjects viewed arrays containing 4-12 items, one of which was a target on 50% of trials. Compared to the waveform over cortex ... However, researchers have primarily used the N2pc in visual search paradigms to study the deployment of attention over time and ...
As the show primarily takes place in Lizzie's bedroom, many major events happen offscreen and are retold by Lizzie, with her ... With the help of her friend Charlotte Lu, she starts a vlog series for her thesis, discussing the trials and tribulations of ... Occasionally they perform reenactments, using a recurring costume to denote who's who (such as a cap and bowtie for Darcy, a ...
Evidence at a trial within trial is not per se admissible at the main trial, whether the confession is allowed or excluded. If ... "Consent" refers to the consent of the opposing party; it clearly does not denote the consent of the witness in question. " ... The answer seems to be that this phrase refers to the issue of whose credibility the probative value rests upon primarily. ... "trial within a trial," on the basis of evidence led by the parties on this specific issue, in a form similar to that of a trial ...
The Senate refused to meet to hold an impeachment trial before the end of the old term, so the trial was held over until the ... He devised a $16 billion stimulus package primarily to aid inner-city programs desired by liberals, but it was defeated by a ... The term "ethnic cleansing" was used as an alternative to "genocide" to denote not just ethnically motivated murder but also ... The Senate finished a twenty-one-day trial on February 12, 1999, with the vote of 55 not guilty/45 guilty on the perjury charge ...
This primarily reflected the carriages use - second class (X25480), first-class, first and second-class composite (X25916) or ... All these upgraded carriages were running on new bogies, after a successful trial of a new "deluxe" bogie under 56-foot ... the O for observation denoted the large panoramic windows, and subsequent carriages followed this classification. Further ... primarily on the TranzAlpine. The second servery car upgraded to this large window configuration was to be numbered AS2517 but ...
Maha Hatfield on May 24, 2019, and embarked on sea trials and crane load tests afterwards. Sea trials were completed in late ... "DF" denotes dual-fuel, which means the engines can operate on either low-sulfur Marine Gas Oil (MGO) or liquefied natural gas ( ... Heerema intends to use primarily LNG fuel, except where terminals lack the infrastructure to provide LNG bunkers. SCR will be ... During sea trials, SSCV Sleipnir reached a speed of 12.2 kn (22.6 km/h; 14.0 mph). Cruising speed is rated at 10 kn (19 km/h; ...
B) denotes that the person was born there. Lois Green Carr (1922-2015), American historian whose work primarily focused on ... Ray D'Addario (1920-2011), American photographer best known for his work as the chief photographer of the Nuremberg trials, ... "Board Certified Criminal Trial Attorneys" in the Commonwealth. (B) François A. Pouliot (1896-1990), member of the Legislative ... whose portraits are found in all contemporary news reports and history books covering the postwar trial of Nazi leadership. (B ...
Comfort: this class has 2x1 seating primarily in airline style, with footrests. Prima: also offers 2x1 seating with soft ... This card has three tiers: Ambassador, Supporter and Friend (denoting the frequency of travel). Furthermore, in addition to ... by which point the trainset was participating in certification trials ahead of entering passenger service. Further Pendolinos ...
In a separate trial in 2007, McGhee was sentenced to 75 years to life for leading a 2005 prison riot. He is awaiting his ... they denoted his primary alias as Joe McGhee. McGhee was raised in the neighborhood of Atwater Village, a lower middle class ... primarily Toonerville Rifa (TVR), The Avenues (AVES), and Frogtown Rifa (FTR). Though smaller in number, Thee Rascals are just ... This did not deter the prosecution in his eventual trial. In the fall of 2002, a task force of as many as 60 local and federal ...
These trials were primarily for the purpose of evaluating the vehicles' performance on different types of local terrain; while ... now denoted as the Rooikat. In its final form the Rooikat incorporated several features adopted directly from the Eland-90, ... These prototypes were trialled in March 1984 and the Cheetah Mk2 was accepted by the South African Army. The Armoured Corps had ... when three 8X8 prototypes were built by Sandock-Austral and trialled in Potchefstroom. The prototypes were built using the ...
There were no trials as the team was chosen by the Russian Olympic Committee. The Olympic Athletes from Russia team won the ... Men Women * - Denotes the driver of each sled Russia qualified 12 athletes, seven male and five female. Distance Men Women ... consisting primarily of SKA and CSKA players of a Russia-based KHL and featuring ex-NHL all-stars Pavel Datsyuk, Ilya Kovalchuk ... The representatives were determined at the 2017 Russian Olympic Curling Trials. The Russian team consists of Victoria Moiseeva ...
He primarily worked with hip hop producers No I.D. and Salaam Remi, a frequent collaborator of Nas. Remi said that he wanted ... Music journalist Evan Rytlewski denotes "boom-bap drums, lush keyboards, smooth saxophones, and the occasional Run-D.M.C. and ... "the trials and tribulations of adult relationships". Brandon Soderberg from Spin asserts that his lyrics "constantly remind ...
As a food additive, it is used as an acidity regulator and can be denoted by the E number E297. It is generally used in ... primarily dimethyl fumarate, and marketed as Fumaderm by Biogen Idec in Europe. Biogen would later go on to develop the main ... significantly reduced relapse and disability progression in a phase 3 trial. It activates the Nrf2 antioxidant response pathway ...
In the timeline below, blue bars denote provincial laws while pink bars denote national laws. Medieval Scandinavian laws ... Three of the Scanian Law chapters in this manuscript deal with trial by ordeal. In these portions, the script is influenced by ... who instead stressed loyalty primarily to the area of their thing. When a rebellion broke out Scania, with demands that the ... and trial by ordeal has been abolished. Besides provisions reflecting older customs, the manuscripts contain law provisions ...
He uses solid blocks of color to denote shadows, along with depth and shade. His painting style appears to be very rudimentary ... It included the 1877 anti-Chinese Sand Lot riots, the 1934 San Francisco Waterfront Strike, and the Trial of trade unionist Tom ... After completing the hospital mural, Refregier's work became primarily government-sponsored projects. These included the ...
"SMS" stands for "Seiner Majestät Schiff" (English: His Majesty's Ship) The "S" in S116 denoted the shipbuilder who constructed ... reached during sea trials. 102 tonnes (100 long tons) of coal was carried, giving a range of 980 nautical miles (1,810 km; ... the German navy saw their role as primarily torpedo attack against opposing fleets, rather than defending their own fleet ...
After sea trials, the submarines now named Iquique and Antofogasta were refused by the Chilean officials as they had failed to ... Their refit in September and October 1914 was primarily focused on three problems. The first problem was the instability while ... in front of the class to denote Australia, the two submarines purchased by Canada, resembling British C-class submarines, had ... in sea trials in November 1917. An order for two submarines had originally been placed by Chile in 1911 with the Electric Boat ...
PVFC is run primarily by LCFR staffing 24/7, with several volunteers. PVFC is the only station in LCFR to operate two tankers, ... All units have a 3-4 digit designator, with the first digit denoting what agency the unit is from. 000 series Washington, D.C. ... Under the President are usually a Vice President, Secretary, Treasurer, Committee Directors, and a Trial Board. The Operations ... Used primarily by LC-CFRS for station fills in the western end of the county, such as Purcellville or Round Hill. Likewise, ...
It can, similarly, denote supporters of extensive government intervention to transform society. It is unabashedly used by ... There the term Jacobin linked primarily to The Mountain of the French Revolutionary governments and was popular among the ... Further, they were linked to ongoing trials of prominent members of the Terror involved in atrocities in Nantes, especially ... during which time well over ten thousand people were put on trial and executed in France, many for political crimes. Initially ...
In English law, the term state trials primarily denotes trials relating to offences against the state. In practice it is a term ... Cobbetts State Trials State Trials (New Series), edited by Macdonell, Volume 1, 1820-1823 Volume 2, 1823-1831: [1] [2] [3] ... 1850-1853 State Trials, Political and Social, vol. 1, edited by Sir Harry Lushington Stephen State Trials, Political and Social ... This edition is in thirty-three volumes; twenty-one of them, giving the more important state trials down to 1781, were edited ...
... denoted as "B") in the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Both were found guilty, based primarily on the testimony of informants ... The trial of John Lynch and co-defendant Brian Dillon starting on 18 December 1865 with Isaac Butt as their legal counsel. The ...
Omega-6 fatty acids are primarily derived from animal sources, while Omega-3 fatty acids derive primarily from plants. Omega-6 ... Small, non-zero numbers are denoted by , 0.01.. Item. Saturated Fat. LA (18:2). ALA (18:3). EPA (20:5). DHA (22:6). ... All animals require some amount of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids in their diet, but in clinical trials two specific types ... the name denotes their chemical structure), but the fact that they are required for normal growth and development, as well as ...
aDenotes acute requirement for mechanical ventilation primarily due to acute lung injury, pneumonia, influenza, aspiration, ... Dixon B, Santamaria JD, Campbell DJ: A phase 1 trial of nebulised heparin in acute lung injury. Crit Care 2008, 12: R64. ... aDenotes sputum reported as yellow, green, dirty, or purulent. bPatients on therapeutic heparin were excluded from this ... High-dose antithrombin III in severe sepsis: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001, 286: 1869-1878. 10.1001/jama.286.15.1869 ...
... approved the first human ES cell trial in 2009. This phase I safety trial in SCI sponsored by Geron Corp. began in 2010 after ... We have shown that these NSPCs primarily differentiate into oligodendrocytes in vitro (46) and in vivo (47, 48). ... where A is a complete SCI and E denotes normal sensory and motor function. Acute treatment often involves surgical management, ... Table 2 summarizes completed trials of stem cell therapy for SCI; Table 3 indicates ongoing trials. Recently, Stem Cells Inc. ...
A trial lasted 10 s, and the RF stimulation (100 Hz for 1 s) was delivered 1 s after the trial started. The whisker stimulus ... In all of the figures, gray is used to denote the activated state, and black is used to denote the quiescent state. The ... During the quiescent state, when the spontaneous activity of the cell was low, the cell responded primarily to whiskers C6 and ... the onset of the whisker stimulation also occurred at 2 s after the beginning of the trial, and a trial lasted 10 or 5 s. The ...
... denoted that UGT1A9 was primarily responsible for the in vitro glucuronidation of CA-4. UGT1A6 was also a significant ... A-4 prodrug phosphate is a leading vascular disrupting agent and is currently being evaluated in multiple clinical trials as a ...
from psycho(logy) + greek -oeides denoting resemblance of the most common cause of more sex-drive, more muscle, more energy, ... mg q4-5h morphine is to correct hypovolemia and excessive hip adduct thigh prolonged hip efferent medial thigh primarily ... to denote a seemingly significant coincidence in time is omitted, or when managing postpartum hemorrhage. The genitofemoral ...
Testosterone concentration: Performed primarily as an antiemetic speeds up the back might denote multiple vertebral fractures. ... but instead provides one criterion for schizophrenia but controlled trial in patients with thyroid cancer. Persistent aloofness ... neuontin express delivery Understanding controlled trials: What is the time of delivery. Transcutaneous electronic nerve ...
He is a member of prestigious trial organizations-the American College of Trial Lawyers and the American Board of Trial ... Attorneys at the law firm of Nash & Associates, LLC primarily focus on the following areas: *Birth Injuries *Medical ... The General Ethical Standards Rating denotes adherence to professional standards of conduct and ethics, reliability, diligence ...
In a typical experiment, we imaged at least five trials each of swimming and crawling. Swimming and crawling trials were ... 1 F,G). For crawling, we arbitrarily denoted the peak of elongation as 0° (Fig. 1 F, red points) and the peak of contraction as ... It appears to be a paired neuron that arborizes primarily ipsilateral to the soma location. It projects a process through an ... Trials at this frame rate were 60 s in duration. In the 2 Hz configuration, the excitation light was shuttered off in between ...
Clinical trials: A number of clinical trials in Tourette syndrome have recently been completed or are currently underway. These ... The abbreviated term ADHD denotes the condition commonly known as: See Answer Is Tourette syndrome inherited?. ... These medications are used primarily for hypertension but are also used in the treatment of tics. The most common side effect ... Smaller trials of novel approaches to treatment such as dopamine agonist and GABAergic medications also show promise. ...
This download Overcoming does on a specific heat that it must leave near it to get its trials, which address primarily analysis ... This excellence is comorbid to denoting hit, reading the assertion of its monetary ones. Sacred Huntress: This takes another l ... But he did primarily without reading individual terrain between what ignored very white in it and what included here and here ... world and problem do American products that would read every economy primarily long in a technological format; D state just not ...
... tasks that differed in the degree to which rewards for each option depended on the choices made on previous trials. In the ... tasks that differed in the degree to which rewards for each option depended on the choices made on previous trials. In the ... The Delta-Rule model assumes that the EV for the option chosen on each trial, denoted as option i, is updated on each trial ... Learning is primarily mediated by a prediction error between the reward received and the EV for the chosen option (the ...
Oxygen availability to the tissues under more extreme hypoxia must be dependent primarily on the low tissue PO2, in conjunction ... Data are presented as equivalents of Trolox (means ± s.e.m., N=5 independent trials on tissue from different animals). Data ... asterisks denote values are significantly different from controls, P,0.05. ... Histograms show mean normalized band densities (±s.e.m., N=5 independent trials on tissue from different animals). Data were ...
β Epochs occur primarily when old rats arrive at the reward zone. A, Example of a single trial spectrogram after a lever press ... Star denotes significance (p , 0.05). D, Example distribution of β power over trials in a daily session of a probability ... each starting with forced choice trials followed by free choice trials. Forced choice trials are defined as trials in which ... Trial design. Timeline of trials on the probabilistic discounting task. A trial began with a 2-s cue-light on, above the ...
A pilot trial to study the availability and effect of post-OP IV ketorolac on ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal ... Arrowheads denote the gelatin degradation sites. D, quantification of the gelatin degradation area in SKOV3ip cells. E, ... The pain relieving activity is ascribed primarily to the S-enantiomer, which is a known nonselective COX1/COX2 inhibitor (27, ... A phase 0 trial investigating the use of postoperative ketorolac was reviewed and approved by the University of New Mexico ...
To aid in the secondary use of ImmPort data, RImmPort implements a data model based on the CDISC clinical trial data standards ... The solid line denotes an example flow of cytometry data across the four applications. ... Data Analysis provides a graphic interface for open source data management and analysis tools primarily focused on flow ... Clinical Trials. Clinical data sharing practices have come under increasing scrutiny with calls for improvements including the ...
... primarily as organic acids. Across mats, although oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs were detected, cyanobacterial [NiFe]- ... primarily as organic acids. Across mats, although oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs were detected, cyanobacterial [NiFe]- ... denotes distributions for which the Shapiro-Wilk test p , 0.05. "+" denotes significantly different to all other GN-S trials ( ... primarily during the daylight period and into the water column (positive) primarily during the nighttime period, consistent ...
Global glomerulosclerosis and IFTA, for example, may denote focal nephron loss and adaptive responses of surviving nephrons ... We did not include readjudication of electron microscopy or immunofluorescence results primarily due to logistic constraints. ... is an area in need of more research and clinical trials. It is tempting to speculate that kidney biopsies could provide value ...
Each of these six faces was a target on 10 trials per block, randomly distributed over the block. Note that any fields denoted ... GNU Octave is software featuring a high-level programming language, primarily intended for numerical computations. This package ... Note that any fields denoted with an asterisk (*) are required. Block anonymous calls on. // select trials from block 1 and ... Between-trial page reloads take time, a problem which jsPsych doesnt suffer from, as full trial blocks can be ran within one ...
We conducted a systematic survey including all published systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials comparing at least ... were among the eligible trials. Since the methodology to handle MOD has been developed primarily in the context of standard ... one primary outcome for each systematic review that explicitly or implicitly denoted the presence of MOD in the included trials ... Only 55 (20%) out of 273 NMAs provided extractable MOD at arm- or trial-level for every included trial (Table 2) with most ...
primarily related co-morbid saatgut-technologie.de or glibuzole computer. Additional: denotes to the and accounts. sexual free ... or surgical trials due as development, heart, and measurement. been anyway Shop Картографирование По Космическим Снимкам И ... The Principles of Spiritist of cardiac Web inputs contain urinary inhibitor denoting CAM and refractory rays. training Sp ...
Basket trials and the evolution of clinical trial design in an era of genomic medicine. TL - 33. J Clin Oncol [Internet]. 2015; ... Over the last 10 years, quantitative efforts to capture the impact of treatment-related adverse events have primarily taken the ... Grade 4 indicates very severe toxicities (like liver failure), and grade 5 denotes death associated with an adverse treatment ... Clinical trial subjects compared to real world patients: Generalizability of renal cell carcinoma trials. , 2014 ASCO Annual ...
Therapeutic trial for documenting reversibility of airflow obstruction. Child presentation. Agent. Dose. Doses/day. Time to. ... In school-age children and adults, guidelines recommend the use of lung function tests, primarily spirometry, to confirm the ... The wide spectrum of labels commonly used in preschoolers, denoting either a suggestive pathophysiology (eg, bronchospasm or ... A trial of a medium-dose ICS (Table 5) for determination of reversibility of airflow obstruction is suggested because daily ICS ...
26 for complete details; the trial protocol is available in the Supplemental Materials; the trial profile is shown in Figure 1 ... Subjects to the right of the dotted line (,0% change) are denoted complete responders; subjects to the right of the broken line ... the cells thought to be primarily responsible for β cell destruction in T1D (3). Alefacept interrupts CD2-mediated T cell ... Although the trial was too small to detect uncommon AEs, alefacept has been widely used in psoriasis for over a decade with a ...
C) Song raster plot of all trials with either saline (top) or muscimol (bottom); each row denotes a different session. Ticks ... 3E), consistent with the hypothesis that the vocal patterning is primarily driven by a pathway independent of the OMC. In ... For every trial, we used the 10 notes preceding the perturbation to estimate the note durations that would be expected in an ... The colored arrows denote the onset time of the three corresponding notes from (B). (D) Trajectory plot in which individual ...
... for each trial; (5) relative weight/contribution of each trial to meta-analysis; and (6) OR (95% CI) for each trial. Testing ... Could this be a random play of chance denoted by the probability value (P=0.025)? On the side of a treatment benefit, the play ... Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased incidence of vascular complications, which are attenuated primarily by ACEIs ... An aspect that is often discussed relates to the uniqueness of the CHARM-Preserved trial, ie, no similar trial has been done ...
Elsenburg College of Agriculture which was founded on 15 May 1912 was visualised as being primarily a training facility for ... The minutes of the Senate Meeting on 12 September 1917, denoted Neethlings Department as Plant Breeding. At a Senate Meeting ... Among noteworthy reports regarding fruit and viticulture trials, mention is made of 378 wheat varieties, which were evaluated ...
Whiskers denote 5th and 95th centiles. A, 25-28 weeks gestation; B, 29-32 weeks. Black bars: intubated primarily; hatched bars ... Carlin JB; COIN Trial Investigators. . Nasal CPAP or intubation at birth for very preterm infants. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(7): ... Davis P, et al; Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group. . Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. N Engl J Med. 2006; ... A trial comparing noninvasive ventilation strategies in preterm infants. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(7):611-620pmid:23944299. ...
  • from nor + greek -oeides denoting resemblance of the ligament. (yogachicago.com)
  • Purpose We assessed and compared clinical trials which test advice for acute LBP to practice guidelines for their completeness of reporting and concordance on the content, method of delivery and treatment regimen of advice interventions. (chiro.org)
  • The recommendations made in guidelines of advice for acute LBP were often not concordant with the results of clinical trials. (chiro.org)
  • To address this knowledge gap we compared clinical trials which test advice for acute LBP to practice guidelines which provide advice recommendations for acute LBP. (chiro.org)
  • Combretastatin A-4 prodrug phosphate is a leading vascular disrupting agent and is currently being evaluated in multiple clinical trials as a treatment for solid tumors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20), which degrades extracellular arginine, resulting in arginine deprivation, has shown favorable results in clinical trials for treating arginine-auxotrophic tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumors frequently provoke innate and adaptive immune recognition, but the development of clinically evident disease denotes a failure of host defense ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Patient prognosis depends primarily on the stage of disease, but survival is reduced among those who are older than 60 years, are symptomatic at the time of diagnosis, have lesions of the middle and lower third of the vagina, or have poorly differentiated tumors. (cigna.com)
  • 8,12,13] "Modified" Chang staging is the current standard and refers to the addition of imaging to stage these tumors, which were originally staged only surgically.Medulloblastoma is denoted as having greater or lesser risk, according to the likelihood of disease recurrence, although the terms associated with risk vary in the literature. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The Australian Clinical Trials Registry (ACTR-12608000121369). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12619001010189). (bmj.com)
  • Fifty patients expected to require mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours were enrolled in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of nebulized heparin (25,000 U) or placebo (normal saline) 4 or 6 hourly, depending on patient height. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further investigation of EPA plus DHA for breast cancer prevention in a placebo-controlled trial in premenopausal women is warranted. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Maximum speed decreases may primarily be due to limitations of force generation capabilities of the inside leg (Chang et al. (biologists.org)
  • Italics denoting the limitations relied upon by the Board to find the claim non-obvious. (patentdocs.org)
  • Before beginning each block, participants completed 16 practice trials with feedback. (capaccionelpallone.it)
  • Sulfur-containing products are the predominant metabolites and are thought to be primarily responsible, together with spironolactone, for the therapeutic effects of the drug. (nih.gov)
  • The metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine and secondarily in bile. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Oncogenic KIT mutations occur primarily in core binding factor (CBF) AML ( Ashman and Griffith 2013 ). (mycancergenome.org)
  • However, adenocarcinomas that are not associated with DES exposure occur primarily during postmenopausal years. (cigna.com)
  • Authors: Combarros D, Cadiergues MC, Simon M Abstract Human filaggrin (FLG) plays a key role in epidermal barrier function, and loss-of-function mutations of gene are primarily responsible for the development of human atopic dermatitis (AD). (medworm.com)
  • Ask, and document perinatal mortality the subjects are not cowper glands have a predilection for anogenital cancers is unchanged, but the interpreta- tion of gonadotrophins, but instead provides one criterion for schizophrenia but controlled trial in patients with thyroid cancer. (norfolkspca.com)
  • trials) this searches for the phrase 'kidney cancer' in the title as well as either the word 'trial' or 'trials' in description. (medworm.com)
  • My Cancer Genome has released its new and improved cancer clinical trials search tool on our beta website. (mycancergenome.org)
  • The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) is a lung cancer screening trial sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and conducted by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) and the Lung Screening Study group. (cancer.gov)
  • The NLST researchers found approximately 15 percent to 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT relative to chest X-ray. (cancer.gov)
  • The 15 percent to 20 percent lower lung cancer death rate is equivalent to approximately three fewer deaths per 1,000 people screened in the CT group compared to the chest X-ray group over an average of 6.5 years of follow-up in the trial (17.6 per 1,000 versus 20.7 per 1,000). (cancer.gov)
  • Finally, many participants in the trial died of lung cancer despite receiving CT screening. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer survivorship denotes the phase following primary treatment until end-of-life care or death. (hindawi.com)
  • The most promising candidate vaccine, RTS,S/ASO1, currently in Phase III trials, boosts this natural pre-erythrocytic immune response [ 4 , 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A 'cytokine storm' most often denotes an injurious and hyperactive immune response characterized by the release of interferons, interleukins, tumor-necrosis factors, chemokines, and several other mediators. (dsm.com)
  • In school-age children and adults, guidelines recommend the use of lung function tests, primarily spirometry, to confirm the diagnosis [2] [3] . (cps.ca)
  • Covid-19 was initially assumed to be primarily a lung/respiratory disease. (dsm.com)
  • Submission of a report does not necessarily denote that the vaccine caused the adverse event. (cdc.gov)
  • The incidence rates of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States have decreased dramatically since the mid-1950s, primarily because of the availability and widespread public acceptance of effective vaccines (5). (cdc.gov)
  • As part of a larger, phase II clinical trial, we evaluated the ability of a recombinant canarypox HIV-1 vaccine to induce CTL that can be detected in both the systemic and mucosal compartments following i.m. immunization in 12 low- and high-risk HIV-1 seronegative volunteers. (jimmunol.org)
  • The wide spectrum of labels commonly used in preschoolers, denoting either a suggestive pathophysiology (eg, 'bronchospasm' or 'reactive airway disease'), symptoms (eg, 'wheeze' or 'chronic cough'), vague diagnoses ('wheezy bronchitis' or 'happy wheezer') or, possibly, inappropriate diagnoses (eg, repeated 'bronchiolitis' or 'recurrent bronchitis or pneumonia') [1] , attests to the need for clarity. (cps.ca)
  • Blunted affect denotes that nearly half of toxicity of this disease extremely difficult. (secureserver.net)
  • Originally, the medical community limited the term to denote persons who remained alive and disease-free for a minimum of five years, thus reflecting "cure. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical trials have demonstrated that women with cyclic mastalgia [ 9 ] or fibrocystic disease [ 8 ] can have symptomatic relief from treatment with molecular iodine (I 2 ). (medsci.org)
  • With only one exception, all of the prospective clinical trials in this disease have been done in the pediatric population, and therefore therapy for adult medulloblastoma has been either extrapolated from the pediatric literature or based on retrospective reviews. (cancernetwork.com)
  • 9] Patients with M0-1 and T1-2 disease fared best, and only 1 patient of 30 was denoted to have M2 or M3 disease. (cancernetwork.com)
  • With enrollment complete in its Phase 3 trial of a compound that treats post-operative pain, and an infusion of cash from a new partnership with a major pharmaceutical corporation, one analyst has initiated coverage of this California-based company, and another has reiterated his investment thesis. (streetwisereports.com)
  • Indeed, throughout propositional logic, the algebraic symbols used almost invariably denote arbitrary propositions, simple or compound. (binaryoptionsxpert.com)
  • Data from clinical trials support the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for initial respiratory management in preterm infants, but there is concern regarding the potential failure of CPAP support. (aappublications.org)
  • Results of large clinical trials favor continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for initial respiratory management in preterm infants. (aappublications.org)
  • However, the E2F decoy trials did establish the clinical feasibility of using a 30-min intraoperative window to treat the graft tissue ex vivo and support further development of prophylactic therapies, such as the one described here, that can be applied with precise dosing and negligible systemic drug exposure. (sciencemag.org)
  • The purpose of this pilot trial was to assess feasibility and explore the effects of high-dose EPA and DHA on blood and benign breast tissue risk biomarkers before design of a placebo-controlled phase IIB trial. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This complexity inherently stems from the additional assumptions required to integrate different pieces of evidence from multiple trials in a single analysis and obtain internally coherent relative treatment effects for all pairwise comparisons [ 25 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Concordance between clinical trials and guidelines was assessed by comparing the number of trials that found a statistically significant treatment effect for an intervention that included a specific advice topic against the number of guidelines recommending that topic. (chiro.org)
  • The current treatment for menopause primarily involves HRT, which is a combination of oestrogen and progesterone. (sophiaschoice.co.uk)
  • Thrombolytic treatment Thrombolytic treatment is used primarily for maintaining catheter patency and in the management of thromboembolism that threatens the viability of the affected organ. (binaryoptionsxpert.com)
  • While robust evidence for the treatment of Covid-19 patients with IV ascorbic acid is not yet available, several clinical trials are underway. (dsm.com)
  • Both were found guilty, based primarily on the testimony of informants although John Warner's account was very weak and unsatisfactory under cross examination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the administration of the medication, amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic, among adults suffering from ventricular fibrillation (VF) or polymorphous ventricular tachycardia (pVT) in out-of-hospital trials was found to be more effective in improving survival to hospital administration. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • In addition, four trials of magnesium administration versus a placebo found no impact on ROSC or survival until discharge. (advancedmedicalcertification.com)
  • TRAP is found primarily within the sporozoite's micronemes and on the sporozoite surface [ 16 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In English law, the term state trials primarily denotes trials relating to offences against the state. (wikipedia.org)
  • 24 This report focused on a 19% relative increase in MI with valsartan (compared with amlodipine) in the 15 245-patient Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial. (ahajournals.org)
  • The city's name derives from sela nad ( cera nad ), a term denoting the visit of an early Cera king. (britannica.com)
  • The Look AHEAD trial is evaluating the effects of a lifestyle intervention (calorie control and increased physical activity for weight loss) compared to diabetes support and education on long-term cardiovascular and other health outcomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Testimonials implicating long-term aspartame intake as the cause of conditions ranging from migraine headaches, epilepsy, bi-polar disorder, fibromyalgia, to chronic fatigue syndrome exist, yet clinical trials consistently verify aspartame s safety after both short-term and long-term usage. (kon.org)
  • On a scale of 1 to 4, with 4 denoting incapacitating tinnitus, the mean value of symptoms fell from 3.8 to 1.5. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • In a June 22 press release , DURECT Corp. (DRRX:NASDAQ) announced that it has completed enrollment for its Phase 3 PERSIST trial for Posimir, "an investigational locally acting, non-opioid analgesic intended to provide up to three days of continuous pain relief after surgery. (streetwisereports.com)
  • DURECT remains responsible for the completion of the ongoing PERSIST Phase 3 clinical trial for POSIMIR as well as FDA interactions through approval," the June 19 press release states. (streetwisereports.com)
  • Before approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), vaccines are evaluated for efficacy and safety using large Phase III randomized controlled trials. (nap.edu)
  • This allows you to search for specific titles primarily, however as many podcasts include their topic in the title, you can effectively use it to search (albeit crudely) by genre too. (thenextweb.com)
  • However, in children with no wheezing (or other signs of airflow obstruction) on presentation, reversibility may be determined by convincing parental report of a symptomatic response to a three-month therapeutic trial of a medium dose of inhaled corticosteroids with as-needed SABA (alternative method), or as-needed SABA alone (weaker alternative method). (cps.ca)
  • We conducted a systematic survey including all published systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials comparing at least three interventions from January 1, 2009 until March 31, 2017. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Network meta-analysis (NMA) is an extension of pairwise meta-analysis that allows direct (i.e., trials investigating the same comparison) and indirect (i.e., different sets of trials that compare each intervention with a common comparator) evidence to be synthesized simultaneously in a single analysis in order to yield relative intervention effects for all possible comparisons and by extent, to rank the multiple competing interventions [ 24 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 13 ] This checklist was developed to guide reporting of interventions in randomised controlled trials (RCT). (chiro.org)
  • To date no studies have used TIDieR to assess concordance between the advice interventions recommended in guidelines to those evaluated in trials. (chiro.org)
  • Notwithstanding the authors' vast experience, one must recognize that the conclusions are derived from a retrospective analysis of a huge database installed primarily for clinical quality management reasons and not for this particular study purpose. (ahajournals.org)
  • 9] In the present day, T staging does retain a prognostic role in adult medulloblastoma, as suggested in a prospective trial and in a large retrospective series. (cancernetwork.com)
  • As we observed, the high rate of formation of CA-4 glucuronide ( V max = 12.78 ± 0.29 nmol/min/mg protein) and the low K m (6.98 ± 0.65 μM) denoted that UGT1A9 was primarily responsible for the in vitro glucuronidation of CA-4. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Current drugs in development primarily target the Smoothened (Smo) protein. (pnas.org)
  • These reports should also be concordant with the clinical trials that have previously shown the advice intervention to be effective. (chiro.org)
  • Further trials are required to confirm these findings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, our findings should be considered hypothesis generating and need to be confirmed in randomized trials specifically designed for the outcomes of interest. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Guideline recommendations were discordant with clinical trials for 50% of the advice topics identified. (chiro.org)
  • Similarly, sideways triangles ( ) denote substantially new or revised text, such as new parenthetical notes or guideline language. (advanceweb.com)
  • Next to that, there's a settings icon, which allows you to upgrade from the free trial (14 days) for $9 (plus tax, where applicable - for example, the total is $10.80 including VAT in the UK), check out the FAQs or log out. (thenextweb.com)
  • denote as for your visual Free Trial purely! (pflege-fachwissen.de)
  • The pattern in mice was attributed to a division of labor where front legs are primarily responsible for rotation and hindlegs responsible for deflection, which also takes advantage of the lower rotational inertia of the body at forelimb-to-hindlimb step transitions. (biologists.org)
  • In case-control studies, adequately controlled trials have not confirmed a drug target gene? (secureserver.net)
  • This weblog is intended primarily for other attorneys. (patentdocs.org)
  • Results The Median (IQR) completeness of reporting for clinical trials and guidelines was 8 (7-9) and 3 (2-4) out of 9 items on the TIDieR Checklist, respectively. (chiro.org)
  • If the use of a preparation has become well established, full documentation of the results of pharmacological and toxicological investigations or clinical trials may be replaced by data from published scientific literature. (who.int)
  • If the product has not been used traditionally, the application has to be supplemented with a specific product-related documentation, and results of clinical trials and pharmacological studies presented. (who.int)
  • The General Ethical Standards Rating denotes adherence to professional standards of conduct and ethics, reliability, diligence, and other criteria relevant to the discharge of professional responsibilities. (prweb.com)
  • extensive denotes professional spatial house. (intervista-institute.com)
  • This column will provide an overview of CPT coding basics for the coding professional who is primarily experienced in inpatient coding. (advanceweb.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -A total of 314 Caucasian adults without diabetes received either 500 mg calcium citrate and 700 IU vitamin D 3 or placebos daily for 3 years in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial designed for bone-related outcomes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To describe the baseline food and nutrient intake of the Look AHEAD trial participants, compare participant intake to national guidelines, and describe demographic and health characteristics associated with food group consumption. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, as Ed Arce, an analyst with H. C. Wainwright, noted in a June 23 research report, the trial enrolled more rapidly than anticipated, and also included more patients. (streetwisereports.com)
  • The expected enrollment number for PERSIST was 264 patients, [but] actual enrollment was notably higher, at 296 patients, as a result of rapid enrollment toward the end of the trial," Arce wrote. (streetwisereports.com)
  • Lately, some of the patients with rectourethral bulbar fistula have been repaired primarily during the newborn period without a pro- tective colostomy. (top5binarybrokers.com)
  • These causes may relate to the design and conduct of the clinical trial or be completely irrelevant to the clinical trial structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Periods of high-power β developed over training days in the aged rats, and was greatest in early trials of a session. (eneuro.org)
  • Given this profile, the assumption early on, even before major clinical trials were conducted, was that ARBs would have similar if not greater systemic effects than might result from the use of ACEIs, because AT I blockade would offer a more complete inhibition of the RAS. (ahajournals.org)
  • many have been used in double blind placebo controlled trials and have been shown to be just as effective. (sophiaschoice.co.uk)
  • At the most basic level, the major difference between CPT and ICD-9 is that while ICD-9 classifies procedures primarily by the service itself (e.g. (advanceweb.com)
  • Additional in vitro and in vivo animal studies must be conducted to further identify gaps in basic knowledge before clinical trials in humans can be conducted. (binaryoptionsxpert.com)
  • Reductionism , in philosophy , a view that asserts that entities of a given kind are collections or combinations of entities of a simpler or more basic kind or that expressions denoting such entities are definable in terms of expressions denoting the more basic entities. (britannica.com)
  • The ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) ranges from A to E, where A is a complete SCI and E denotes normal sensory and motor function. (jci.org)
  • For this FOA, applications should be thought of as large pilot or preliminary studies rather than definitive trials. (nih.gov)
  • Two large clinical trials tested topical, ex vivo delivery of coronary and peripheral vascular vein grafts with an E2F transcription factor decoy designed to prevent smooth muscle proliferation, but these trials were unsuccessful at preventing graft failure ( 1 , 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Clinical trials have shown that the drug indeed cures diabetes. (rexresearch.com)
  • On February 29, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) denoted it in a high-risk category, and on March 11, 2020, this virus was designated pandemic, after its declaration being a Public Health International Emergency on January 30, 2020. (medworm.com)
  • Paradoxically, rates of MI in some trials have actually increased with ARBs, 13,16 which suggests that ARBs and ACEIs may exert distinctive effects on both the coronary circulation and atherosclerotic plaque stability. (ahajournals.org)
  • Due to its low molecular weight it exerts its effects primarily in the capillaries, the very small vessels that feed the inner ear. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • With respect to safety, consideration should be given primarily to the experience of corresponding earlier use of the product or constituents, in which no harmful effects have arisen or been suspected. (who.int)
  • Spironolactone is a specific pharmacologic antagonist of aldosterone, acting primarily through competitive binding of receptors at the aldosterone-dependent sodium-potassium exchange site in the distal convoluted renal tubule. (nih.gov)
  • Because HIV-1 infection is acquired primarily through mucosal routes, the presence of virus-specific CD8 + CTL at the site of viral entry may be critical in restricting viral dissemination to the lymphoid tissue and the blood. (jimmunol.org)
  • Add-on codes are used to denote a code that is closely related to a previous code in the same section and may be identified by specific language in the code description, such as "each additional" or "(List separately in addition to primary procedure). (advanceweb.com)
  • The Chang staging system ( Table 1 ) was published in 1969 and denoted T stage, the size and invasiveness of the tumor at resection, as well as M stage, the extent of spread outside of the posterior fossa. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The epidermis primarily provides protection from the SA node is no single unifying mechanism of the clinical course of IV drug administration for Survival (PARTNERS) program, shaken vigorously, where A = FDka/[VD(ka - k)]) and 4 to a two-dose series given 28 days apart. (secureserver.net)
  • while rootstocks are thought to have an indirect effect on fruit composition by primarily influencing the vegetative growth of the grafted wine, including vine vigor, canopy size, and fruit yield (e.g. (ajevonline.org)
  • The minutes of the Senate Meeting on 12 September 1917, denoted Neethlings' Department as Plant Breeding. (sun.ac.za)
  • Two clinical trials conducted at the ENT Department at the University of Genoa in Genoa, Italy have used sodium enoxaparin (trade name Lovenox) to treat this blockage. (tinnitusformula.com)
  • A new series, under the direction of a parliamentary committee, was projected in 1885, with the object of bringing the trials down to a later date. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is primarily used buy drug meridia 10mg with visa in the manufacture of nylon fibers, which are processed into textiles and engineering plastics. (tudortech.co.za)
  • Among noteworthy reports regarding fruit and viticulture trials, mention is made of 378 wheat varieties, which were evaluated for stem rust resistance at Elsenburg and Robertson Experimental Stations by Dr EA Nobbs. (sun.ac.za)
  • It is primarily an agricultural area specializing in fruit, coffee, cotton, and peanuts (groundnuts). (britannica.com)
  • If satisfactory proof of safety is not provided, then it should be established by means of clinical trials and/or pharmacological and toxicological studies. (who.int)