Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.
A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Serologic tests for syphilis.
Syphilis serodiagnosis employing as the antigen Treponema pallidum obtained from rabbit syphilis orchitis. Treponemes are kept alive for a few hours in a special medium. When syphilitic serum and complement are added and incubated, the treponemes are immobilized, i.e., stop moving.
Serologic assay that detects antibodies to Treponema pallidum, the etiologic agent of syphilis. After diluting the patient's serum to remove non-specific antibodies, the serum is mixed on a glass slide with Nichol's strain of Treponema pallidum. An antigen-antibody reaction occurs if the test is positive and the bound antibodies are detected with fluoresceinated antihuman gamma-globulin antibody.
A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)
Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.
Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Latent syphilis is a stage of the sexually transmitted infection Syphilis, characterized by the absence of symptoms, but with positive serological tests, which can be further divided into early and late latency, depending on the duration and the potential for progression to tertiary syphilis.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Environmental modulation of oral treponeme virulence in a murine model. (1/156)

This investigation examined the effects of environmental alteration on the virulence of the oral treponemes Treponema denticola and Treponema pectinovorum. The environmental effects were assessed by using a model of localized inflammatory abscesses in mice. In vitro growth of T. denticola and T. pectinovorum as a function of modification of the cysteine concentration significantly enhanced abscess formation and size. In contrast, growth of T. denticola or T. pectinovorum under iron-limiting conditions (e.g., dipyridyl chelation) had no effect on abscess induction in comparison to that when the strains were grown under normal iron conditions. In vivo modulation of the microenvironment at the focus of infection with Cytodex beads demonstrated that increasing the local inflammation had no effect on lesion induction or size. In vivo studies involved the determination of the effects of increased systemic iron availability (e.g., iron dextran or phenylhydrazine) on the induction, kinetics, and size of lesions. T. denticola induced significantly larger lesions in mice with iron pretreatment and demonstrated systemic manifestations of the infectious challenge and an accompanying spreading lesion with phenylhydrazine pretreatment (e.g., increases in circulating free hemoglobin). In contrast, T. pectinovorum virulence was minimally affected by this in vivo treatment to increase iron availability. T. denticola virulence, as evaluated by lesion size, was increased additively by in vivo iron availability, and cysteine modified growth of the microorganism. Additionally, galactosamine sensitized mice to a lethal outcome following infection with both T. denticola and T. pectinovorum, suggesting an endotoxin-like activity in these treponemes. These findings demonstrated the ability to modify the virulence capacity of T. denticola and T. pectinovorum by environmental conditions which can be evaluated by using in vivo murine models.  (+info)

Treponema lecithinolyticum sp. nov., a small saccharolytic spirochaete with phospholipase A and C activities associated with periodontal diseases. (2/156)

Strong phospholipase A (PLA) and phospholipase C (PLC) activities as potential virulence factors are the outstanding characteristics of eight strains of small oral spirochaetes isolated from deep periodontal lesions. By qualitative dot-blot DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S rDNA sequence comparison, these spirochaetes form a distinct phylogenetic group, with Treponema maltophilum as its closest cultivable relative. Growth of these treponemes, cells of which contain two endoflagella, one at each pole, was autoinhibited by the PLA-mediated production of lysolecithin unless medium OMIZ-Pat was prepared without lecithin. N-Acetylglucosamine was essential and D-ribose was stimulatory for growth. All isolates were growth-inhibited when 1% foetal calf serum was added to the medium. Growth on agar plates supplemented with human erythrocytes produced haemolysis. In addition to PLA and PLC, the new isolates displayed strong activities of alkaline and acid phosphatases, beta-galactosidase, beta-glucuronidase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and sialidase, intermediate activities of C4- and C8-esterases, naphthol phosphohydrolase and alpha-fucosidase and a distinctive 30 kDa antigen detectable on Western blots. This phenotypically and genotypically homogeneous group is proposed as a novel species, Treponema lecithinolyticum sp. nov., with isolate OMZ 684T designated as the type strain. A molecular epidemiological analysis using a T. lecithinolyticum-specific probe showed this organism to be associated with affected sites when compared with unaffected sites of periodontitis patients. This association was more pronounced in patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis than in those with adult periodontitis.  (+info)

Inactivation of Treponema pallidum by silver sulfadiazine. (3/156)

Silver sulfadiazine, an anti-infectious agent for the prevention and treatment of burn sepsis, has been found to possess antitreponemal activity against Treponema pallidum. At 28 C, complete inactivation of the organism was produced by exposure of the organism to a concentration of 50 mug of the drug per ml for 1 to 5 min, 12 to 25 mug/ml for 10 to 15 min, and 6.2 mug/ml for 30 min. At 37 C, the amounts of silver sulfadiazine required for inactivation were two- to fourfold less.  (+info)

Detection of Treponema denticola in atherosclerotic lesions. (4/156)

We examined 26 atherosclerotic lesions and 14 nondiseased aorta specimens to detect the periodontopathogenic part of the bacterial 16S rRNA locus by PCR. Treponema denticola sequence of the 16S rRNA locus was found in 6 out of 26 DNA samples (23.1%) from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embeded atherosclerotic lesions obtained during surgery but not in any of the 14 nondiseased aorta samples from deceased persons. Utilizing immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed aggregated antigenic particles reacting with rabbit antiserum against T. denticola in thin sections of the PCR-positive samples, but we could not detect any reacting particles in the PCR-negative thin sections.  (+info)

Treponema parvum sp. nov., a small, glucoronic or galacturonic acid-dependent oral spirochaete from lesions of human periodontitis and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. (5/156)

Small oral spirochaetes with a strict dependence on either glucuronic acid (GluA) or galacturonic acid (GalA) were isolated from European patients with periodontitis and from Chinese patients with either gingivitis or acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG). Thirteen such isolates were similar phenotypically to Treponema pectinovorum ATCC 33768T and this classification was confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing. However, four isolates differed from T. pectinovorum by their small cell size, by a prominent beta-glucuronidase activity, by a distinct protein and antigen profile, by an inability to grow on pectin as sole source of carbohydrate and by a markedly enhanced growth rate when supplied with a second carbohydrate (L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-mannitol, D-mannose, pectin, D-ribose or D-xylose) in addition to the essential GluA/GalA. By 16S rRNA sequencing these four isolates clustered in the recently described phylotype 'Smibert-2'. T. pectinovorum (14 strains) and 'Smibert-2' (four isolates with beta-glucuronidase activity) could each be subdivided into two serotypes based on immunoblot reactivity with two mAbs. Representatives of the two groups, including T. pectinovorum ATCC 33768T, showed a 1:2:1-type periplasmic flagellar arrangement. 'Smibert-2' is described as a novel species, Treponema parvum sp. nov., with isolate OMZ 833T (= ATCC 700770T) proposed as the type strain and OMZ 842 (= ATCC 700773) as reference strain for a second serotype.  (+info)

Biological characterization of lipopolysaccharide from Treponema pectinovorum. (6/156)

This study investigated the endotoxic and biological properties of purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from an oral spirochete, Treponema pectinovorum. Endotoxicity, measured by Limulus amoebocyte lysate kinetic assay, showed that the LPS contained 1.28 endotoxin units per microg of purified LPS, which was approximately 4,000 times less than Escherichia coli O55:B5 LPS. To determine in vivo endotoxicity, LPS responder mice were administered LPS following galactosamine (GalN) sensitization. The LPS induced neither endotoxic symptoms nor lethality for 96 h, suggesting negligible or very low endotoxicity. In contrast, infection with live T. pectinovorum induced 100% lethality within 12 h in GalN-sensitized LPS responder mice, indicating an endotoxin-like property of this treponeme. Heat-killed microorganisms exhibited no lethality in GalN-sensitized mice, suggesting that the endotoxicity was associated with heat-labile components. To determine cytokine and chemokine induction by LPS, human gingival fibroblasts were stimulated and secretion of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, gamma interferon, IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) was assessed. The purified LPS induced significant amounts of only IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, although they were substantially lower than levels after challenge with live T. pectinovorum. After injection of LPS or live or heat-killed T. pectinovorum, serum was collected from mice and analyzed for proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-6. LPS induced only IL-6 consistently. Both live and heat-killed T. pectinovorum induced serum IL-6, which was higher than the level detected following LPS administration. Importantly, live bacteria elicited systemic TNF-alpha and IL-1beta levels similar to those induced by a lethal dose of live E. coli O111. The results indicated that T. pectinovorum LPS has very low or no endotoxicity, although it can elicit low levels of cytokines from host cells. In contrast to the LPS, live T. pectinovorum demonstrated in vivo toxicity, which was associated with serum IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6, suggesting an endotoxin-like property of a heat-labile molecule(s) of the spirochete.  (+info)

Isolation and characterisation of a novel spirochaete from severe virulent ovine foot rot. (7/156)

A novel spirochaete was isolated from a case of severe virulent ovine foot rot (SVOFR) by immunomagnetic separation with beads coated with polyclonal anti-treponemal antisera and prolonged anaerobic broth culture. The as yet unnamed treponeme differs considerably from the only other spirochaete isolated from ovine foot rot as regards morphology, enzymic profile and 16S rDNA sequence. On the basis of 16S rDNA, it was most closely related to another unnamed spirochaete isolated from cases of bovine digital dermatitis in the USA, raising the possibility of cross-species transmission. Further information is required to establish this novel ovine spirochaete as the cause of SVOFR.  (+info)

Role of Treponema denticola in periodontal diseases. (8/156)

Among periodontal anaerobic pathogens, the oral spirochetes, and especially Treponema denticola, have been associated with periodontal diseases such as early-onset periodontitis, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and acute pericoronitis. Basic research as well as clinical evidence suggest that the prevalence of T denticola, together with other proteolytic gram-negative bacteria in high numbers in periodontal pockets, may play an important role in the progression of periodontal disease. The accumulation of these bacteria and their products in the pocket may render the surface lining periodontal cells highly susceptible to lysis and damage. T. denticola has been shown to adhere to fibroblasts and epithelial cells, as well as to extracellular matrix components present in periodontal tissues, and to produce several deleterious factors that may contribute to the virulence of the bacteria. These bacterial components include outer-sheath-associated peptidases, chymotrypsin-like and trypsin-like proteinases, hemolytic and hemagglutinating activities, adhesins that bind to matrix proteins and cells, and an outer-sheath protein with pore-forming properties. The effects of T. denticola whole cells and their products on a variety of host mucosal and immunological cells has been studied extensively (Fig. 1). The clinical data regarding the presence of T. denticola in periodontal health and disease, together with the basic research results involving the role of T. denticola factors and products in relation to periodontal diseases, are reviewed and discussed in this article.  (+info)

Treponemal infections are a group of diseases caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. This includes syphilis, yaws, bejel, and pinta. These infections can affect various organ systems in the body and can have serious consequences if left untreated.

1. Syphilis: A sexually transmitted infection that can also be passed from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth. It is characterized by sores (chancres) on the genitals, anus, or mouth, followed by a rash and flu-like symptoms. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as damage to the heart, brain, and nervous system.
2. Yaws: A tropical infection that is spread through direct contact with infected skin lesions. It primarily affects children in rural areas of Africa, Asia, and South America. The initial symptom is a painless bump on the skin that eventually ulcerates and heals, leaving a scar. If left untreated, it can lead to disfigurement and destruction of bone and cartilage.
3. Bejel: Also known as endemic syphilis, this infection is spread through direct contact with infected saliva or mucous membranes. It primarily affects children in dry and arid regions of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The initial symptom is a painless sore on the mouth or skin, followed by a rash and other symptoms similar to syphilis.
4. Pinta: A tropical infection that is spread through direct contact with infected skin lesions. It primarily affects people in rural areas of Central and South America. The initial symptom is a red or brown spot on the skin, which eventually turns into a scaly rash. If left untreated, it can lead to disfigurement and destruction of pigmentation in the skin.

Treponemal infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect antibodies against Treponema pallidum. Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as penicillin, which can cure the infection if caught early enough. However, untreated treponemal infections can lead to serious health complications and even death.

Yaws is a chronic, infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum pertenue. It primarily affects the skin, bones, and cartilage. The initial symptom is a small, hard bump (called a papule or mother yaw) that develops into an ulcer with a raised, red border and a yellow-crusted center. This lesion can be painful and pruritic (itchy). Yaws is usually contracted through direct contact with an infected person's lesion, typically during childhood. The disease is common in rural areas of tropical regions with poor sanitation and limited access to healthcare, particularly in West and Central Africa, the Pacific Islands, and parts of South America and Asia.

Yaws is treatable with antibiotics, such as penicillin, which can kill the bacteria and halt the progression of the disease. In most cases, a single injection of long-acting penicillin is sufficient to cure the infection. However, it's essential to identify and treat yaws early to prevent severe complications, including disfigurement and disability.

It's important to note that yaws should not be confused with other treponemal diseases, such as syphilis (caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum) or pinta (caused by Treponema carateum). While these conditions share some similarities in their clinical presentation and transmission, they are distinct diseases with different geographic distributions and treatment approaches.

"Treponema pallidum" is a species of spiral-shaped bacteria (a spirochete) that is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection. The bacterium is very thin and difficult to culture in the laboratory, which has made it challenging for researchers to study its biology and develop new treatments for syphilis.

The bacterium can infect various tissues and organs in the body, leading to a wide range of symptoms that can affect multiple systems, including the skin, bones, joints, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. The infection can be transmitted through sexual contact, from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.

Syphilis is a serious disease that can have long-term health consequences if left untreated. However, it is also curable with appropriate antibiotic therapy, such as penicillin. It is important to diagnose and treat syphilis early to prevent the spread of the infection and avoid potential complications.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It progresses in several stages if left untreated, with symptoms varying in each stage. The primary stage involves the appearance of a single, painless sore or multiple sores at the site where the bacteria entered the body, often on the genitals or around the mouth. During the secondary stage, individuals may experience rashes, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and other flu-like symptoms. In later stages, syphilis can lead to severe complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs, known as tertiary syphilis. Neurosyphilis is a form of tertiary syphilis that affects the nervous system, causing various neurological problems. Congenital syphilis occurs when a pregnant woman with syphilis transmits the infection to her unborn child, which can result in serious birth defects and health issues for the infant. Early detection and appropriate antibiotic treatment can cure syphilis and prevent further complications.

Syphilis serodiagnosis is a laboratory testing method used to diagnose syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It involves detecting specific antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the infection, rather than directly detecting the bacteria itself.

There are two main types of serological tests used for syphilis serodiagnosis: treponemal and nontreponemal tests.

1. Treponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies that specifically target Treponema pallidum. Examples include the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, T. pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay, and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or chemiluminescence immunoassays (CIAs) for Treponema pallidum antibodies. These tests are highly specific but may remain reactive even after successful treatment, indicating past exposure or infection rather than a current active infection.

2. Nontreponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies produced against cardiolipin, a lipid found in the membranes of Treponema pallidum and other bacteria. Examples include the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test. These tests are less specific than treponemal tests but can be used to monitor disease progression and treatment response, as their results often correlate with disease activity. Nontreponemal test titers usually decrease or become nonreactive after successful treatment.

Syphilis serodiagnosis typically involves a two-step process, starting with a nontreponemal test followed by a treponemal test for confirmation. This approach helps distinguish between current and past infections while minimizing false positives. It is essential to interpret serological test results in conjunction with the patient's clinical history, physical examination findings, and any additional diagnostic tests.

The Treponema pallidum Immunity (TPI) test, also known as the Treponema immobilization test, is not a commonly used diagnostic tool in modern medicine. It was previously used as a serological test to detect antibodies against Treponema pallidum, the spirochete bacterium that causes syphilis.

In this test, a sample of the patient's serum is incubated with a suspension of live Treponema pallidum organisms. If the patient has antibodies against T. pallidum, these antibodies will bind to the organisms and immobilize them. The degree of immobilization is then observed and measured under a microscope.

However, this test has largely been replaced by more sensitive and specific serological tests such as the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. These tests are able to detect both IgG and IgM antibodies, providing information on both past and current infections. The TPI test, on the other hand, is less specific and may produce false-positive results in individuals who have been vaccinated against other treponemal diseases such as yaws or pinta.

Therefore, the Treponema Immobilization Test is not a widely used or recommended diagnostic tool for syphilis in current medical practice.

The Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption (FTA-ABS) test is a type of blood test used to diagnose syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. The FTA-ABS test is a treponemal test, which means it looks for antibodies that the body produces in response to an infection with T. pallidum.

The FTA-ABS test works by using a fluorescent dye to label treponemal antigens, which are substances that can trigger an immune response in people who have been infected with T. pallidum. The labeled antigens are then mixed with a sample of the patient's blood. If the patient has antibodies against T. pallidum, they will bind to the labeled antigens and form a complex.

To ensure that the test is specific for syphilis and not another type of treponemal infection, such as yaws or pinta, the sample is then absorbed with antigens from these other treponemal organisms. This step removes any antibodies that may cross-react with the non-syphilitic treponemes, leaving only those specific to T. pallidum.

The mixture is then washed and examined under a fluorescent microscope. If there are fluorescing particles present, it indicates that the patient has antibodies against T. pallidum, which suggests a current or past infection with syphilis.

It's important to note that the FTA-ABS test can remain positive for life, even after successful treatment of syphilis, so it cannot be used to determine if a patient has an active infection. Other tests, such as a venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) or rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, are used to detect non-treponemal antibodies that may indicate an active infection.

Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria, also known as spirochetes. These bacteria are gram-negative and have unique motility provided by endoflagella, which are located in the periplasmic space, running lengthwise between the cell's outer membrane and inner membrane.

Treponema species are responsible for several important diseases in humans, including syphilis (Treponema pallidum), yaws (Treponema pertenue), pinta (Treponema carateum), and endemic syphilis or bejel (Treponema pallidum subspecies endemicum). These diseases are collectively known as treponematoses.

It is important to note that while these bacteria share some common characteristics, they differ in their clinical manifestations and geographical distributions. Proper diagnosis and treatment of treponemal infections require medical expertise and laboratory confirmation.

Neurosyphilis is a term used to describe the invasion and infection of the nervous system by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum, which is the causative agent of syphilis. This serious complication can occur at any stage of syphilis, although it's more common in secondary or tertiary stages if left untreated. Neurosyphilis can cause a variety of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, such as:

1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges (the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) leading to headaches, stiff neck, and fever.
2. Meningovascular syphilis: Affects the blood vessels in the brain causing strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), or small-vessel disease, which can lead to cognitive decline.
3. General paresis (also known as tertiary general paresis): Progressive dementia characterized by memory loss, personality changes, disorientation, and psychiatric symptoms like delusions or hallucinations.
4. Tabes dorsalis: A degenerative disorder affecting the spinal cord, leading to ataxia (loss of coordination), muscle weakness, pain, sensory loss, and bladder and bowel dysfunction.
5. Argyll Robertson pupils: Small, irregularly shaped pupils that react poorly or not at all to light but constrict when focusing on near objects. This is a rare finding in neurosyphilis.

Diagnosis of neurosyphilis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and serological tests for syphilis. Treatment usually consists of intravenous penicillin G, which can halt the progression of the disease if initiated early enough. However, any neurological damage that has already occurred may be irreversible. Regular follow-up evaluations are essential to monitor treatment response and potential complications.

"Reagin" is an outdated term that was used to describe a type of antibody found in the blood serum of some individuals, particularly those who have had certain infectious diseases or who have allergies. These antibodies were known as "reaginic antibodies" and were characterized by their ability to cause a positive reaction in a test called the "Reagin test" or "Wassermann test."

The Reagin test was developed in the early 20th century and was used as a diagnostic tool for syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. The test involved mixing a patient's serum with a suspension of cardiolipin, lecithin, and cholesterol - components derived from heart tissue. If reaginic antibodies were present in the patient's serum, they would bind to the cardiolipin component and form a complex that could be detected through a series of chemical reactions.

However, it was later discovered that reaginic antibodies were not specific to syphilis and could be found in individuals with other infectious diseases or allergies. As a result, the term "reagin" fell out of favor, and the test is no longer used as a diagnostic tool for syphilis. Instead, more specific and accurate tests, such as the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay, are now used to diagnose syphilis.

Congenital Syphilis is a medical condition that occurs when a mother with active syphilis infects her fetus through the placenta during pregnancy. If left untreated, congenital syphilis can lead to serious health problems in the newborn and can even cause death. The symptoms of congenital syphilis can appear at any time during the first two years of life, and they may include:

* Skin rashes or sores on the body, including the hands and feet
* Deformities of the bones and teeth
* Vision problems or blindness
* Hearing loss
* Developmental delays
* Neurological issues, such as seizures or difficulty coordinating movements
* Anemia
* Jaundice
* Enlarged liver and spleen

If congenital syphilis is diagnosed early, it can be treated with antibiotics, which can help to prevent serious health problems and reduce the risk of transmission to others. However, if left untreated, congenital syphilis can lead to long-term complications, such as developmental delays, neurological damage, and blindness. It is important for pregnant women to be screened for syphilis early in pregnancy and receive appropriate treatment to prevent the transmission of this serious infection to their unborn child.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Latent syphilis is a stage of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) syphilis, which is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. In this stage, individuals who have been infected with syphilis do not show any symptoms of the disease. However, the bacteria remain in their body and can be passed on to others through sexual contact.

Latent syphilis is typically divided into two stages: early latent syphilis and late latent syphilis. Early latent syphilis is defined as occurring within the first year of infection, while late latent syphilis occurs more than a year after the initial infection. During the early latent stage, individuals may still have a positive blood test for syphilis and can still transmit the disease to others through sexual contact. In contrast, during the late latent stage, the risk of transmitting the disease is much lower, but it is still possible.

It's important to note that if left untreated, latent syphilis can progress to more serious stages of the disease, including tertiary syphilis, which can cause severe damage to the heart, brain, and other organs. Therefore, it's essential for individuals who have been diagnosed with latent syphilis to receive appropriate treatment and follow-up care from a healthcare provider.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Penicillin G Benzathine is a type of antibiotic that is used to treat various bacterial infections. According to the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Penicillin G Benzathine is a "water-soluble salt of penicillin G, which has a very high degree of stability and provides prolonged low-level serum concentrations after intramuscular injection."

It is often used to treat infections caused by streptococci and treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis. Penicillin G Benzathine works by interfering with the ability of these bacteria to form a cell wall, which is essential for their survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are unable to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Penicillin G Benzathine is typically administered via intramuscular injection, and its prolonged release allows for less frequent dosing compared to other forms of penicillin. However, it may not be suitable for all patients, particularly those with a history of allergic reactions to penicillin or other antibiotics. As with any medication, Penicillin G Benzathine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

A "false positive reaction" in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the presence of a specific condition or disease in an individual who does not actually have it. This occurs when the test results give a positive outcome, while the true health status of the person is negative or free from the condition being tested for.

False positive reactions can be caused by various factors including:

1. Presence of unrelated substances that interfere with the test result (e.g., cross-reactivity between similar molecules).
2. Low specificity of the test, which means it may detect other conditions or irrelevant factors as positive.
3. Contamination during sample collection, storage, or analysis.
4. Human errors in performing or interpreting the test results.

False positive reactions can have significant consequences, such as unnecessary treatments, anxiety, and increased healthcare costs. Therefore, it is essential to confirm any positive test result with additional tests or clinical evaluations before making a definitive diagnosis.

"Serological markers for hepatitis B and treponemal infection among HIV carriers from Ethiopia". Isr J Med Sci. 29 (6-7): 390- ... indicative of Hepatitis B infections, in blood samples taken from this population. A few days after the expose, ten thousand ... relevance to helminth infections?". Clinical & Experimental Immunology. 103 (2): 239-243. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2249.1996.d01-612. ... "Ethical Issues in the Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS". Science. 239 (4840): 597-603. Bibcode:1988Sci...239 ...
An Appraisal of Old World pre-Columbian evidence for treponemal infection". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 146 (S53 ...
An appraisal of Old World Pre-Columbian evidence of treponemal infections". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 54: 99-133. doi: ... An appraisal of Old World Pre-Columbian evidence of treponemal infections." Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 54: 99-133. ... However, the attributions are also suggestive of possible routes of the spread of the infection, at least as perceived by " ... A substantial proportion of infections are linked to foreign travel. Antenatal testing continues. In the United States in 1917 ...
... more likely indicate active infection. Unfortunately, other treponemal infections such as yaws, bejel, and pinta and possibly ... There are a number of treponemal-specific tests such as the fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) test, T. ... The lab was renamed to the Treponemal Pathogenesis and Immunology Branch of the United States Public Health Service.[citation ... The MHA-TP is used to confirm a syphilis infection after another method tests positive for the syphilis bacteria. The MHA-TP ...
Šmajs D, Strouhal M, Knauf S (July 2018). "Genetics of human and animal uncultivable treponemal pathogens". Infection, Genetics ... The outer membrane's treponemal ligands main function is attachment to host cells, with functional and antigenic relatedness ... The incubation period for a T. p. pallidum infection is usually around 21 days, but can range from 10 to 90 days. Treponema ... Treponemal outer membrane proteins are key factors for its pathogenesis, persistence, and immune evasion strategies.[citation ...
... rather it was a non-venereal treponemal infection. For his discovery he was awarded a Doctor of Medicine. In 1937 Hackett once ...
Pinta, the least severe of treponemal infections being limited to the skin, is thought to be transmitted by skin-to-skin ... Pinta (also known as azul, carate, empeines, lota, mal del pinto, and tina) is a human skin disease caused by infection with ...
Treponemal antibody tests usually become positive two to five weeks after the initial infection and remain positive for many ... An appraisal of Old World Pre-Columbian evidence of treponemal infections". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 54: 99-133. ... Infections with a predominantly sexual mode of transmission, Sexually transmitted diseases and infections, Spirochaetes, ... It argues that treponemal disease in the form of bejel and yaws was a common childhood ailment in Europe and Afro-Eurasia ...
... a Treponemal infection spread by non-sexual social contact and seen in association with deprivation, especially overcrowded ...
In contrast, treponemal tests look for antibodies that are a direct result of the infection thus, anti-treponeme IgG, IgM and ... A nontreponemal test (NTT) is a blood test for diagnosis of infection with syphilis. Nontreponemal tests are an indirect method ... Nontreponemal tests are screening tests, very rapid and relatively simple, but need to be confirmed by treponemal tests. ... Miller, JN (1975). "Value and limitations of nontreponemal and treponemal tests in the laboratory diagnosis of syphilis". ...
They include a growing range of treponemal and nontreponemal assays. Treponemal tests are more specific, and are positive for ... Almost 85% of infections occurred in three countries-Ghana, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands. The disease only infects ... Other related treponemal diseases are bejel (T. pallidum endemicum), pinta (T. carateum), and syphilis (T. p. pallidum). Yaws ... It occurs in late stages of yaws, usually 5 to 10 years after first symptoms of infection. This is now rare. Very rarely, yaws ...
One hypothesis suggests the Fulton County Arctodus specimen suffered from a syphilis-like (treponemal) disease, or yaws, based ... Hypotheses include syphilis, osteoarthritis, a fungal infection in addition to long term syphilis, or an infected wound. More ... However, alternate hypotheses include tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, arthritis or a fungal infection, either singularly or in ...
... is the infection of the central nervous system in a patient with syphilis. In the era of modern antibiotics, the ... Due to the low sensitivity of the CSF VDRL, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS) can be used to supplement ... Also, infection with HIV has been found to cause penicillin therapy to fail more often. Therefore, neurosyphilis has once again ... It is important to note that neurosyphilis may occur at any stage of infection.[citation needed] Meningitis is the most common ...
Bejel, or endemic syphilis, is a chronic skin and tissue disease caused by infection by the endemicum subspecies of the ... Marks M, Solomon AW, Mabey DC (October 2014). "Endemic treponemal diseases". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical ... Bejel is one of the "endemic treponematoses" (endemic infections caused by spiral-shaped bacteria called treponemes), a group ... Antal GM, Lukehart SA, Meheus AZ (January 2002). "The endemic treponematoses". Microbes and Infection. 4 (1): 83-94. doi: ...
This is a type of specific treponemal test for syphilis.[citation needed] A similar specific treponemal test for syphilis is ... It is used as a confirmatory test for syphilis infection. A negative test result shows a tight button or spot of red blood ... British Medical Journal (bestpractice.bmj.com) > Syphilis infection > Diagnostic tests Last updated: Mar 22, 2012. In turn ... Antibodies against other treponemal organisms, such as the T. pallidum subspecies endemicum, pertenue, or carateum, can cause ...
Infection and Immunity. 56 (4): 726-8. doi:10.1128/IAI.56.4.726-728.1988. PMC 259361. PMID 3346072. Africa CW, Nel J, Stemmet M ... "Tomographic reconstruction of treponemal cytoplasmic filaments reveals novel bridging and anchoring components". Molecular ... infection under the gum tissue covering a partially erupted tooth)3, as well as necrotising ulcerative gingivitis (severe ... Infection and Immunity. 82 (5): 1959-67. doi:10.1128/IAI.01511-14. PMC 3993427. PMID 24566627. (Articles with short description ...
... treponemal infections MeSH C01.252.400.840.558 - pinta MeSH C01.252.400.840.744 - syphilis MeSH C01.252.400.840.744.161 - ... bacteroides infections MeSH C01.252.400.126 - bartonellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.126.100 - bartonella infections MeSH ... moraxellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.560.022 - acinetobacter infections MeSH C01.252.400.610 - mycoplasmatales infections ... treponemal infections MeSH C01.252.847.840.558 - pinta MeSH C01.252.847.840.744 - syphilis MeSH C01.252.847.840.744.161 - ...
Most of the bone that is destroyed is due to secondary infections. Syphilis has been seen in the Americas and Europe alike but ... Syphilis is a disease classified in a category of treponemal disease. This group includes diseases like pinta, yaws, endemic ... The damaged joints could be the source of infection or they could be damaged because of disruption in the nervous systems and ... It was thought that there was no tuberculosis infection in North America before the arrival of Europeans, but recent findings ...
The Treponemal antibody test (specific test) confirms with FTA-ABS (Fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption). Brain imaging ... The infection of the heart, muscles, and vessels in the body can lead to meningovascular syphilis. Generally, rashes may start ... The infection of the heart and vessels leads to meningovascular syphilis, which is usually presented during the secondary stage ... The two phases of the asymptomatic stage include early (within one year of exposure and infection) and late(after one year of ...
As a result, these two screening tests should always be followed up by a more specific treponemal test. Tests based on ... type of rapid diagnostic test that looks for non-specific antibodies in the blood of the patient that may indicate an infection ... with positive results then confirmed using a specific treponemal test (TT) such as TPPA or FTA-ABS. This algorithm is currently ... monoclonal antibodies and immunofluorescence, including T. pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) and fluorescent treponemal ...
Treponemal diseases, which include syphilis, most likely originated in East Africa. Where syphilis itself first emerged is ... were less likely to have HSV-2 infection and syphilis. The main ethnic group of that city, the Luo, do not traditionally ... Sexually Transmitted Infections. 77 (1): 37-45. doi:10.1136/sti.77.1.37. ISSN 1368-4973. PMC 1758332. PMID 11158690. Retrieved ... Sexually Transmitted Infections. 63 (5): 320-325. doi:10.1136/sti.63.5.320. ISSN 1368-4973. PMC 1194101. PMID 3679218. ...
"Tomographic reconstruction of treponemal cytoplasmic filaments reveals novel bridging and anchoring components". Molecular ... "Pathogenicity of Treponema denticola Wild-Type and Mutant Strain Tested by an Active Mode of Periodontal Infection Using ...
... a list of countries in which endemic treponemal infection has been reported is provided. Surveillance for treponemal infections ... In children, treponemal infection as indicated by positive screening and confirmatory tests might be caused by 1) nonsexual ... This bacterium causes syphilis and is the only sexually acquired treponemal infection. The endemic subspecies (i.e., T. ... Suspected cases of yaws or other non-venereal treponemal infections can be reported to CDC at telephone 404-639-8368. ...
Cerebrospinal fluid treponemal antibody titres: a breakthrough in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis ... Cerebrospinal fluid treponemal antibody titres: a breakthrough in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis ... Cerebrospinal fluid treponemal antibody titres: a breakthrough in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis ...
Over 10 million new infections worldwide are reported every year. To date, complete genome sequences of 6 TPA strains (all ... Through this procedure we were able to prepare treponemal DNA (in concentration 1 ng/μl) for NGS isolated directly from the ... 009.5 Isolation and amplification of treponemal dna for whole genome sequencing directly from the patient sample ... 009.5 Isolation and amplification of treponemal dna for whole genome sequencing directly from the patient sample ...
Treponemal infections : report of a WHO scientific group [meeting held in Geneva from 6 to 12 October 1980] by WHO Scientific ... by WHO Scientific Group on Treponemal Infections , World Health Organization.. Series: Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Série ... by WHO Scientific Group on Treponemal Infections , World Health Organization.. Series: Organizacion Mundial de la Salud. Serie ... Group on Treponemal Infections , World Health Organization.. Series: World Health Organization technical report series ; no. ...
Treponemal infections in the pediatric population. Clin Dermatol. 2000 Nov-Dec. 18(6):687-700. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Serologic, morphologic, and biochemical tests are not useful in distinguishing between the types of treponemal infections. ... Results of treponemal tests, such as the fluorescence treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, are positive in all stages ... Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus infection: an endemic infection in men who have sex with men]. Enferm Infecc ...
"Serological markers for hepatitis B and treponemal infection among HIV carriers from Ethiopia". Isr J Med Sci. 29 (6-7): 390- ... indicative of Hepatitis B infections, in blood samples taken from this population. A few days after the expose, ten thousand ... relevance to helminth infections?". Clinical & Experimental Immunology. 103 (2): 239-243. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2249.1996.d01-612. ... "Ethical Issues in the Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection and AIDS". Science. 239 (4840): 597-603. Bibcode:1988Sci...239 ...
Categories: Treponemal Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
VDRL is a screening test for treponemal infection. Weakly Reactive and Reactive values should be confirmed by LIA TP ...
The immunoregulation of repeated treponemal infections should be reassessed in an animal model. (end of abstract) P.S. HIV has ... Infection with T. pallidum results in somewhat effective Th1 type responses in early syphilis, while immune deviation away from ... Some cases of syphilis in the HIV population may be super-infections. If we speculate that a large number of undetected ... This latter response, coupled with the other down-regulation of Th1 DTH, is associated with chronic active infections, ...
... bacterial infection that mainly affects the skin, bones, and joints. ... Nonvenereal treponemal infections.In: Kliegman RM, St. Geme JW, Blum NJ, Shah SS, Tasker RC, Wilson KM, eds. Nelson Textbook of ... Yaws is an infection caused by a form of the Treponema pallidum bacteria. It is closely related to the bacterium that causes ... About 2 to 4 weeks after infection, the person develops a sore called a "mother yaw" where bacteria entered the skin. The sore ...
Markers of past syphilis in HIV infection comparing Captia Syphilis G anti-treponemal IgG enzyme immunoassay with other ... Syphilis treponemal pallidum agglutin (TPA). Target: Both males and females 18 YEARS - 49 YEARS. Code or Value. Value ... The Serodia TP-PA test is a treponemal test for the serologic detection of antibodies to the various species and subspecies of ... Despite the importance of syphilis as a risk factor for both chronic disease and the progression of HIV infection, there has ...
Treponemal infections in the pediatric population. Clin Dermatol. 2000 Nov-Dec. 18(6):687-700. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Endemic treponemal diseases. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Oct. 108 (10):601-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... The infection is thought to be limited to the epidermal and dermal layers despite systemic dissemination, although potential ... Late or tertiary pinta usually develops 2-5 years after the initial infection. Late pinta is characterized by disfiguring ...
Syphilitic infection of the nervous system results in the most chronic, insidious meningeal inflammatory process known. ... Test results can be reactive in persons with any treponemal infection, including yaws, pinta, and endemic syphilis (ie, bejel, ... These false-positive results can be found in persons with nonvenereal treponemal infections (eg, yaws, pinta, bejel), those who ... Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) may lead to a false-positive FTA-ABS test result, but it does not cause a ...
The researchers also discovered signs of a potential treponemal bacterial infection that caused severe alteration of the ...
Skeletal evidence for tuberculosis and treponemal infection-forms of syphilis and yaws-have been found throughout the Americas ... usually resulting in milder cases of infection, confers immunity from later infection. Yet, as New Spains only Atlantic port, ... These diarrheal infections are the kinds of illnesses that would have run rampant in the urban settings of Mesoamerica, where ... More serious respiratory infections were also common. One that is mentioned in many of the domestic medicine manuals and in ...
Two Cases of Facial Involvement in Probable Treponemal Infection from Late Prehistoric Coastal North Carolina. International ...
... or the infection of an infant or child who has a reactive treponemal test for syphilis and any one of the following:. *Any ... The infection is largely preventable if pregnant women are tested for syphilis and, if found to be infected, treated with ... A reactive test for fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed-19S-IgM antibody. Cases are classified as confirmed (among ... the infection of an infant whose mother had untreated or inadequately treated syphilis at delivery, regardless of signs in the ...
7820 Infections of the skin not listed elsewhere (including bacterial, fungal, viral, treponemal, and parasitic diseases). ...
Treponemal tests are particular for syphilitic an infection however often keep reactive regardless of treatment or illness ... infections from complicated (surgical) infections. Managing patients with difficult infections often requires anatomic ... Classic examples of such hematogenous infection are genitourinary tuberculosis or staphylococcal an infection of a renal cyst ( ... The an infection can persist and turn into troublesome to eradicate if the prostate becomes colonized or if the affected person ...
Infection by Treponema pallidum Active Synonym false false 503244019 Treponemal infection Active Synonym false false ...
Treponemal infections. Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, eds. Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, and ... Notice to readers: Recommendations regarding screening of refugee children for treponemal infection. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ... WHO Expert Committee on Venereal Infections. Report on the third session. Vol 13. 1950. ...
Treponemal infections. * Protozoal disorders. * Key references. * References. *15. Viral diseases of the skin ... Features updated sections on infections, exanthems, vascular disorders, dermatoses and genodermatoses.. *Discusses hot topics ... congenital Zika virus infections; and much more. ... Bacterial, mycobacterial, and protozoal infections of the skin ...
Attachment LossDental CalculusOral Hygiene IndexPeriodontal PocketDentifricesBacteroidaceaeOral HygieneTreponemal Infections ... NomaPeriodontal DiseasesChronic PeriodontitisPeriodontal Attachment LossDental CalculusPeriodontal PocketTreponemal Infections ... Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.. ... HyperplasiaMouth DiseasesAggressive PeriodontitisPericoronitisGingival DiseasesOral UlcerDental CariesBacteroidaceae Infections ...
A nitroimidazole used to treat amebiasis; vaginitis; trichomonas infections; giardiasis; anaerobic bacteria; and treponemal ... For the treatment of anaerobic infections and mixed infections, surgical prophylaxis requiring anaerobic coverage, Clostridium ... infections. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on ... difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis, Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, ...
17.2.4 Treponemal Infections. 320. (1). 17.3 Circulatory Disturbances and Hematopoietic Disorders. ...
The reference range for syphilis detection tests reflects an absence of treponemal exposure, as follows: Venereal Disease ... Syphilis detection tests are serologic tests used to screen for and confirm infection with Treponema pallidum.{file14076} ... In patients with HIV infection, serology is an effective screening method for concomitant syphilis infection. Generally, higher ... Treponemal tests include fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS), T pallidum particle agglutination test (TP- ...
... and treponemal infections. Pyogenic Liver Abscess. , antidepressants * Genetics Genetics Genetics is the study of genes and ... CNS) infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause ... Intrauterine infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can ... Infections Infections Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms or their toxins or by parasites that can cause ...
... or to distinguish between an active infection/reinfection or past infection (if the treponemal test is taken first). ... Positive Rapid Plasma Reagin Test; Positive Treponemal Test: Patient has active syphilis infection. ... Therefore, a positive result should be followed by a treponemal antibody test, such as the FTA-ABS test, to confirm the ... Positive Rapid Plasma Reagin Test; Negative Treponemal Test: May indicate a false positive. Further testing may be done to ...
  • Infection with Treponema pallidum subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • Syphilis detection tests are serologic tests used to screen for and confirm infection with Treponema pallidum. (medscape.com)
  • Species of the spirochete Treponema cause diverse infections in humans. (medscape.com)
  • Yaws is an infection caused by a form of the Treponema pallidum bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Serodia TP-PA test is a treponemal test for the serologic detection of antibodies to the various species and subspecies of pathogenic Treponema , the causative agents of syphilis, yaws, pinta, bejel, and endemic syphilis. (cdc.gov)
  • The syphilis test screens for antibodies in the blood produced as a result of a Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) infection, the bacterium that causes syphilis. (walkinlab.com)
  • Syphilis is caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum and is characterized by 3 sequential symptomatic stages separated by periods of asymptomatic latent infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Congenital Syphilis Congenital syphilis is a multisystem infection caused by Treponema pallidum and transmitted to the fetus via the placenta. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum . (ipfs.io)
  • Syphilis is a predominantly sexually transmitted bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum . (amboss.com)
  • Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease ( STD ) caused by an infection with bacteria known as Treponema pallidum. (medicinenet.com)
  • These tests detect the body's response to the infection, but not to the actual Treponema organism. (medicinenet.com)
  • Treponemal tests detect antibodies specific to Treponema pallidum . (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to Treponema pallidum , which causes syphilis, other treponemal subspecies (e.g., pertenue, which causes yaws, and carateum, which causes pinta) also can produce reactive results to treponemal tests, but these subspecies are rare in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • A condition caused by infection in utero with Treponema pallidum . (cdc.gov)
  • A treponemal test, such as the FTA-ABS test, looks for the specific Treponema pallidum antibodies to help confirm a syphilis infection. (personalabs.com)
  • Treponema pallidum, cause of syphilis infection. (health.mil)
  • After infection the host forms Treponemal antibodies to Treponema pal/idum, in addition, the host also forms Non Treponemal antilipoidal antibodies in response to the lipoidal material released from the damaged host cell. (vigagemilang.com.my)
  • We investigated Treponema pallidum infection in 8 nonhuman primate species (289 animals) in Tanzania during 2015-2017. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Venereal syphilis, commonly known as simply "syphilis", is an infection caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum (subspecies pallidum). (ada.com)
  • Other treponemal diseases caused by Treponema pallidum are related to syphilis but are not spread by sexual contact. (ada.com)
  • A multistage infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These tests are used to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against a cardiolipin-lecithin-cholesterol antigen, which are formed indirectly during infection with T pallidum. (medscape.com)
  • A dilution of the patient's serum is added to the well to allow any T. pallidum -specific antibodies present to bind to the treponemal antigens. (cdc.gov)
  • The anti-lipoidal antibodies are antibodies that are produced not only as a consequence of syphilis and other treponemal diseases, but also in response to nontreponemal diseases of an acute and chronic nature in which tissue damage occurs. (cdc.gov)
  • A patient that has contracted syphilis, even if successfully treated, will always carry treponemal antibodies. (walkinlab.com)
  • We investigated serological evidence for yaws among children aged 0-14 years in Nigeria by measuring antibodies to the treponemal antigens rp17 and TmpA in blood specimens from a 2018 nationally representative HIV survey using a multiplex bead assay. (cdc.gov)
  • The presence of antibodies to both antigens ('double positive') likely reflects current or recent treponemal infection. (cdc.gov)
  • There are two types of tests used to diagnose syphilis: treponemal tests (that identify antibodies to the causative organism) and non-treponemal tests (that identify the body's response to the infection but not to the organism itself). (medicinenet.com)
  • Nontreponemal tests, such as the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, detect antibodies to cardiolipin and are not specific for treponemal infection. (cdc.gov)
  • A nontreponemal test screens for antibodies, or proteins, the body's immune system produces in response to syphilis as well as other infections. (personalabs.com)
  • This test will detect antibodies that signal a syphilis infection. (personalabs.com)
  • Furthermore, infection-induced antibodies preferentially target the V regions rather than the predicted β-barrel scaffolding, and sequence variation abrogates the binding of antibodies elicited by antigenically different V regions. (biorxiv.org)
  • During infection, clearance of V region variants originally in the inoculum mirrored the generation of antibodies to these variants, although no new variants were generated in the SS14-DC KO strain to overcome immune pressure. (biorxiv.org)
  • Syphilis cannot be easily cultured, and testing includes direct detection using darkfield microscopy or blood tests that detect antibodies against TP (also known as treponemal tests) or antibodies against antigens that are produced by individuals in response to a syphilis infection (also known as, non-treponemal or non-TP test). (stiwatch.org)
  • We used a serologic treponemal test to detect antibodies against the bacterium. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Treponemal tests detect antibodies directed specifically against the T. Pallidum bacteria themselves, such as RPGA syphilis (passive hemagglutination reaction) or RIF syphilis (immunofluorescence reaction). (lab24.pl)
  • With the help of non-treponemal tests, antibodies against cardiolipin (a lipid that is part of the membrane of mitochondria and bacteria) are detected. (lab24.pl)
  • With non-treponemal methods of analysis for syphilis, the type of antibodies (IgG, IgM or others) is not taken into account, but the total response is determined. (lab24.pl)
  • However, when using non-treponemal tests, a false-positive result is also possible (detection of antibodies, despite the fact that the person does not have syphilis). (lab24.pl)
  • If the screening test is positive (irrespective of titer), a treponemal confirmatory test (e.g., the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed test [FTA-ABS] or the T. pallidum particle agglutination assay [TP-PA]) should be performed. (cdc.gov)
  • Treponemal tests include fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS), T pallidum particle agglutination test (TP-PA), chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA), and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, a positive result should be followed by a treponemal antibody test, such as the FTA-ABS test, to confirm the diagnosis. (walkinlab.com)
  • It performs a triplexed immunoassay not currently available in a single test format: HIV antibody, treponemal-specific antibody for syphilis, and non-treponemal antibody for active syphilis infection. (bioscholar.com)
  • How the test is used: Syphilis testing can be performed in a laboratory with an algorithm that includes treponemal and non-treponemal antibody assays. (evidenceprime.com)
  • The following serologic tests were requested: Venereal Disease Research Laboratory, fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption, anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2, and anti-hepatitis C virus. (nih.gov)
  • or (3) with the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FHA-ABS). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • NHANES offers a unique opportunity to estimate the prevalence of reactive serologic tests as an estimate of the prevalence of syphilis infections in the general population, to identify and confirm risk factors for syphilis, to confirm the risk for HIV infection and HIV-related neurologic disease among Americans with syphilis, and to monitor trends in prevalence as syphilis detection and treatment programs are established and expanded. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, TP and non-TP serological testing are used to screen and confirm syphilis infections. (stiwatch.org)
  • Non-TP tests are useful in identifying recent syphilis infections, monitoring the progression of syphilis, and evaluating response to treatment. (stiwatch.org)
  • Even though TP tests cannot distinguish between active and post-treated infections, they are still used to treat syphilis infections in resource-limited settings as the potential risk of over-treatment is more acceptable than complications that arise from non-treatment of syphilis. (stiwatch.org)
  • An estimated 7 million syphilis infections occur each year, including nearly 1 million among pregnant women. (stiwatch.org)
  • Untreated syphilis in pregnancy is a major cause of death and stillbirths, preterm or low-birth-weight infants, neonatal death and syphilis infections in infants. (evidenceprime.com)
  • 350 000 adverse birth outcomes occurred among 1 million pregnant women with syphilis and 6.3 million new syphilis infections occurred among adults. (evidenceprime.com)
  • Nearly three quarters of all new syphilis infections in the U.S. occurred in men who have sex with men. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Negative Treponemal Test: May indicate a false positive. (walkinlab.com)
  • Negative Treponemal Test: Patient does not have syphilis. (walkinlab.com)
  • Sensitivity, specificity, and overall laboratory test agreement were determined using the Trep-Sure qualitative enzyme immunoassay (EIA) reference treponemal test as the standard for "true" positive or negative treponemal test results. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, testing for syphilis traditionally has consisted of initial screening with an inexpensive nontreponemal test, followed by retesting reactive specimens with a more specific treponemal test. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, when diagnosing syphilis, a non-treponemal test should be confirmed with a more specific treponemal test. (lab24.pl)
  • This report summarizes incidence rates of the 5 most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces during 2011-2019. (health.mil)
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are relevant to the U.S. military because of their relatively high incidence, adverse impact on service members' availability and ability to perform their duties, and potential for serious medical sequelae if untreated. (health.mil)
  • This report summarizes incidence rates and trends of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from 2014 to 2022 among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces. (health.mil)
  • In 2021, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represented 1 of the highest health care burdens attributable to infectious diseases (other than COVID-19) among active component service members of the U.S. Armed Forces. (health.mil)
  • Prevalence rates of many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are highest among adolescents. (aap.org)
  • Recent studies among MSM have reported that factors associated with syphilis were low educational attainment, sex with casual partners without a condom and coinfection with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). (who.int)
  • 2016. Global health sector strategy on sexually transmitted infections 2016-2021: towards ending STIs 2016. (evidenceprime.com)
  • Positive Treponemal Test: Patient has active syphilis infection. (walkinlab.com)
  • An algorithm has been developed to assist in assessment of children from areas with endemic treponematoses with positive screening and treponemal serologic tests. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the importance of syphilis as a risk factor for both chronic disease and the progression of HIV infection, there has not been a population-based measure of syphilis prevalence for the United States since 1980. (cdc.gov)
  • Global prevalence and incidence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Decline in the prevalence of HIV- infection and syphilis among women attending antenatal care clinic in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Results from sentinel surveillance, 1995-2001. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • In the United States of America, the prevalence of the viral infection among 14-49-year-olds is 19%, and throughout the world, seropositivity rates are uniformly higher in women than in men and increase with age. (who.int)
  • The burden is greatest in the developing world, but industrialized nations can also be expected to experience an increased burden of disease because of the prevalence of non-curable viral infections, trends in sexual behaviour and increased travel. (who.int)
  • The goal of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening is to identify and treat individuals with treatable infections, reduce transmission to others, avoid or minimize long-term consequences, identify other exposed and potentially infected individuals, and decrease the prevalence of infection in a community. (aap.org)
  • In 2018 we carried out a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey among beach boys in Galle, Sri Lanka, to determine prevalence of HIV and other infections, HIV risk behaviours and utilisation of HIV prevention services. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This bacterium causes syphilis and is the only sexually acquired treponemal infection. (cdc.gov)
  • long-term infection can result in deformations of bone and nasopharyngeal tissue, aortitis, and other destructive lesions ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 6 ). In West Africa, clinical signs of lesions and infection level in parturient pede yaws eradication efforts. (cdc.gov)
  • Why else would E.W. Thomas, a leading syphilologist who studied over two thousand patients, conclude in 1949, 'Within 2 years after infection, untreated syphilis produces immune changes in the host which, with rare exceptions, are permanent and make it impossible for tissues to react to subsequent infection with development of early syphilitic lesions' (Syphilis: Its Course and Management, New York: MacMillan, 1949, p.10)? (bio.net)
  • Syphilis should be suspected in patients with typical mucocutaneous lesions or unexplained neurologic disorders, particularly in areas where the infection is prevalent. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A tibia from the Sitio Sierra archaeological site showing severe inflammation and swelling of the bone, as well as focal lesions, strongly suggesting a treponemal infection. (brewminate.com)
  • In rabbits injected intradermally with the SS14-DC KO strain, generation of new TprK sequences was impaired, and the animals developed attenuated lesions with a significantly reduced treponemal burden compared to control animals. (biorxiv.org)
  • As such, treponemal tests can produce reactive results for life, even after adequate treatment for syphilis. (cdc.gov)
  • Late or tertiary pinta usually develops 2-5 years after the initial infection. (medscape.com)
  • Suspected cases of yaws or other non-venereal treponemal infections can be reported to CDC at telephone 404-639-8368. (cdc.gov)
  • Treponemal yaws primarily affects children in hot tive performance in high producing dairy and humid areas of Africa and Asia, cows. (cdc.gov)
  • Since then, high levels efforts to prevent new cases proved lence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia of infection have been documented in abortus in sheep in correlation with insufficient, yaws resurged in some other monkey species in West Africa management systems and abortion rate areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Yaws is a long-term (chronic) bacterial infection that mainly affects the skin, bones, and joints. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because these are often asymptomatic stages of infection and may lead to severe neurologic or cardiovascular complications, it is important to document a decrease in the late stages of syphilis that have resulted from our extraordinary efforts to reduce primary and secondary syphilis. (cdc.gov)
  • Secondary syphilis occurs approximately four to ten weeks after the primary infection. (ipfs.io)
  • After the symptoms of secondary syphilis go away, the infection remains latent in the body if untreated. (medicinenet.com)
  • In primary and secondary syphilis, the sensitivity of non-treponemal tests is high (in the case of RPR: 86% in primary, 100% in secondary), and the higher the sensitivity of the method, the greater the probability that the test will detect the disease. (lab24.pl)
  • In secondary syphilis, the affected person experiences a generalized infection. (ada.com)
  • Secondary syphilis is a generalized infection affecting the entire body, so it has a number of possible symptoms. (ada.com)
  • Positive nontreponemal test findings should be confirmed with treponemal serology. (medscape.com)
  • VDRL is a screening test for treponemal infection. (sgh.com.sg)
  • Every animal and human study suggests that such a test is insensitive to detect re-infection, perhaps in up to half of demonstrably re-infected experimental subjects. (bio.net)
  • Without some other evidence for the diagnosis of syphilis, a reactive nontreponemal test does not confirm T. pallidum infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, both types of tests will be required to either confirm the diagnosis (if the nontreponemal test is taken first) or to distinguish between an active infection/reinfection or past infection (if the treponemal test is taken first). (walkinlab.com)
  • Positive Treponemal Test: Patient has previously been infected with syphilis, but has been successfully treated. (walkinlab.com)
  • A reactive treponemal test result indicates that treponemal infection has occurred at some point in the past but cannot distinguish between treated and untreated infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Many laboratories now use an automated treponemal test as the initial screening test followed by a nontreponemal test. (cdc.gov)
  • While this algorithm is more time and cost effective for laboratories, it does have a ~14-40% false-positive rate, with a second treponemal test often being used to help determine what clinical action should be taken. (cdc.gov)
  • In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration granted the first-ever Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments waiver for a rapid treponemal syphilis screening test, Syphilis Health Check (SHC) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • a venous blood specimen was drawn concurrently and submitted for treponemal (Trep-Sure), and nontreponemal (Arlington Scientific, Inc. [ASI] rapid plasma reagin [RPR] card test for syphilis) testing at the state public health laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • however, for the purpose of this study, all collected specimens underwent treponemal testing regardless of the nontreponemal test result. (cdc.gov)
  • The sensitivity of SHC was 71.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.9%-95.1%) when compared with the Trep-Sure (EIA) reference treponemal test ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, four of 14 specimens that tested positive on the reference treponemal test tested negative on the SHC, including one from a patient with primary syphilis. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients are usually screened with a non-treponemal test, and positive results are confirmed by treponemal testing. (evidenceprime.com)
  • These tests can detect the presence of the bacteria or the body's immune response to the infection. (syphilistreatment.net)
  • Overview of Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexually transmitted infection (STI) refers to infection with a pathogen that is transmitted through blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or other body fluids during oral, anal, or genital sex with. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Romantic love and sexually transmitted infection acquisition: hypothesis and review. (shengsci.com)
  • Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • It can be spread by any sexual activity, making it a sexually transmitted infection (STI). (ada.com)
  • Report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance. (evidenceprime.com)
  • To assist in evaluation of refugee and immigrant children, a list of countries in which endemic treponemal infection has been reported is provided. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2012, the distinguishing between the subspecies dynamics of endemic Coxiella burnetii World Health Organization launched infection in cattle by application of phase- by using single nucleotide polymor- plans for a second campaign to eradi- specific ELISAs in an infected dairy herd. (cdc.gov)
  • pertenue infection) and pertenue, the agent responsible for endemic syphilis (subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • Syphilis and the endemic treponematoses : clinical, (histo- pathological and laboratory studies = Syfilis en de endemische treponematosen, klinische, (histo- pathologische en laboratorium studies / door Herman Jan Henk Engelkens. (who.int)
  • The tests allow accurate diagnosis and differentiation between acute, latent and tertiary infections and other treponematoses. (evidenceprime.com)
  • 5. Johns DR, Tierney M, Felsenstein D. Alteration in the natural history of neurosyphilis by concurrent infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Neurosyphilis , ocular syphilis , and otosyphilis are serious manifestations that can occur at any stage of infection. (amboss.com)
  • See "Subtypes and variants" for details on neurosyphilis , ocular syphilis , and otosyphilis , which can occur at any stage of infection. (amboss.com)
  • This sore develops at the site of infection and is usually solitary. (medicinenet.com)
  • The primary phase usually starts with a sore at the site of infection. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Primary syphilis is the initial stage of infection, in which a flat, painless ulcer develops at the site of infection. (ada.com)
  • During the primary stage of syphilis, a small, painless sore known as a chancre develops at the site of infection. (syphilistreatment.net)
  • After an incubation period of 10 days to 2 months, a papule appears on the skin that develops into a painless ulcer (chancre) characteristic of the primary stage of infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The researchers also discovered signs of a potential treponemal bacterial infection that caused severe alteration of the cranial bones. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • A wide spectrum of severity exists, from inapparent infection to severe cases that are clinically apparent at birth. (cdc.gov)
  • It is crucial to get tested and receive treatment as soon as possible to prevent the infection from advancing to more severe stages and infecting others. (syphilistreatment.net)
  • This means that if left untreated, the infection can progress to more severe stages, causing irreversible damage to various organs, such as the brain, heart, and blood vessels. (syphilistreatment.net)
  • About 15% of infected and untreated people will go on to develop the third stage of syphilis, which can occur as much as 10 to 20 years after the initial infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • Thus, transmission may occur from persons who are unaware of their infection. (cdc.gov)
  • While sexually transmitted infections are mostly transmitted through sexual intercourse, transmission can occur also from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth, and through blood products or tissue transfer, as well as occasionally through other non-sexual means. (who.int)
  • Millions of viral sexually transmitted infections also occur annually, attributable mainly to HIV, human herpesviruses, human papillomaviruses and hepatitis B virus. (who.int)
  • Tertiary syphilis can occur from 3 to 15 years after the initial infection, and is when the affected individual develops complications from long term infection. (ada.com)
  • A small number of congenital infections occur during pregnancy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Researchers are currently pursuing a two-pronged approach that would reduce syphilis transmission and also prevent the dissemination of syphilis bacteria through the bloodstream, to stop it from causing congenital infections and neurological damage. (stiwatch.org)
  • Syphilis infection, when untreated, progresses through different clinical stages with characteristic signs and symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
  • It also prevents you from spreading the infection during its earliest stages. (personalabs.com)
  • Infections can progress through stages and last from weeks to years, depending on when the infection is detected and treatment. (stiwatch.org)
  • The present prospective study, carried out over fifteen years, describes the pattern of natural course of disease progression in a group of ART naive male professional blood donors with asymptomatic HIV-1 infection in relation to serum iron status, viral load, peripheral CD4 + T lymphocyte count, serum levels of cytokines and immune activation markers viz. (scirp.org)
  • Late latent syphilis is an asymptomatic stage when the infection occurred more than 12 months earlier, and these patients are generally not infectious. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Epidemiological synergy: Interrelationships between human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • These symptoms will eventually subside, but if this secondary stage of the infection is not treated, the infection can progress to tertiary syphilis. (medicinenet.com)
  • Syphilis can lead to serious and permanent problems like brain damage, blindness and paralysis, as well as prematurity, low birthweight, neonatal death, and infections in newborns. (stiwatch.org)
  • infection with any of them will cause positive results using both treponemal and nontreponemal tests routinely used for diagnosis of syphilis. (cdc.gov)
  • Treponemal or nontreponemal serological studies are used for screening, and the diagnosis is typically made based on clinical assessment and the interpretation of syphilis serologies . (amboss.com)
  • Serum WNV IgM can provide evidence for recent WNV infection, but in the absence of other findings does not establish the diagnosis of neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis). (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • The specificity of EBV CSF PCR for diagnosis of CNS infection is unknown. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • An IVD for diagnosis of treponemal disease would advance efforts towards the global elimination of congenital syphilis. (evidenceprime.com)
  • 2013. Laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus. (evidenceprime.com)
  • This intermittent nature of the symptoms can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment, as individuals may mistakenly believe that the infection has resolved on its own. (syphilistreatment.net)
  • In children, treponemal infection as indicated by positive screening and confirmatory tests might be caused by 1) nonsexual exposure to a person infected with non-venereal T. pallidum subspecies, 2) congenital transmission from an infected mother (occurs only with syphilis), or 3) consensual or nonconsensual sexual exposure (occurs only with syphilis). (cdc.gov)
  • The mouth, anus, and other parts of the body may also be the site of the initial infection. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Both tests become reactive about 1 to 2 weeks after initial infection. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Sore throats caused by viral infections are often self-limiting and resolve on their own. (easystd.com)
  • Considering the proximity, it is easier to transmit bacterial and viral infections among different individuals - leading to increased susceptibility in contracting the pathogens that cause sore throat. (easystd.com)
  • Our findings indicate that T. pallidum infection is geographically widespread in Tanzania and occurs in several species (olive baboons, yellow baboons, vervet monkeys, and blue monkeys). (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • The infection is thought to be limited to the epidermal and dermal layers despite systemic dissemination, although potential bone involvement has been reported. (medscape.com)
  • Two Cases of Facial Involvement in Probable Treponemal Infection from Late Prehistoric Coastal North Carolina. (unc.edu)
  • Annually, the clinic serves about 500 HIV-positive patients, and patients with HIV-infection are advised to visit the clinic for antiretroviral therapy treatment and checkup about every three months. (who.int)
  • The treponemal (FTA-ABS/TP-PA) tests remain positive for the life of the patient regardless of therapy, and titers are not reported. (medscape.com)
  • The tests are categorized into two serologies: nontreponemal tests and the treponemal tests. (medscape.com)
  • therefore, reactive results from nontreponemal tests are more reliable indicators of untreated infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In the last five years, there has been an increase in the adoption of automated treponemal tests by laboratories which has resulted in the syphilis testing algorithm being reversed. (cdc.gov)
  • Non-Treponemal tests like CARBOGEN® are of great value when used for screening and follow up of therapy. (vigagemilang.com.my)
  • The Florida Department of Health evaluated the performance of SHC in comparison with treponemal and nontreponemal tests routinely used in its sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Escambia County. (cdc.gov)
  • All types of tests can be divided into two groups: treponemal and non-treponemal tests. (lab24.pl)
  • About 2 to 4 weeks after infection, the person develops a sore called a "mother yaw" where bacteria entered the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. (bvsalud.org)
  • Screening for syphilis infection in pregnancy: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. (medscape.com)
  • The infection is largely preventable if pregnant women are tested for syphilis and, if found to be infected, treated with penicillin early in pregnancy (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • Syphilis infection during pregnancy: fetal risks and clinical management. (scielo.br)
  • Syphilis has acquired new potential for morbidity and mortality through association with increased risk for HIV infection. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • If the infection is not eradicated with antibiotics, it establishes latent infection that may cause multiple destructive changes in many organ systems years later. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Screening for syphilis infection: recommendation statement. (medscape.com)
  • The early latent phase (first 12 months following infection) is characterized by an absence of symptoms. (emedicinehealth.com)
  • However, it is important to note that even in the absence of symptoms, the infection can still be transmitted to others. (syphilistreatment.net)
  • Symptoms typically develop at around 21 days after the infection, but they may appear anywhere from 10 to 90 days following infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • If syphilis is suspected (if the patient has symptoms of syphilis, genital ulcers or other sexually transmitted infections, as well as if his sexual partner has syphilis). (lab24.pl)
  • The incubation period begins from the moment of infection and lasts until the first symptoms (hard chancre) on average 21 days (from 10 to 90 days). (lab24.pl)
  • These symptoms can be mistaken for other infections or illnesses, which is why it is important to seek medical attention and get tested for syphilis if any of these signs are present. (syphilistreatment.net)
  • During this stage, the infection remains dormant and does not present any visible symptoms. (syphilistreatment.net)
  • Because children are the active transmitters of the disease, infection of all members of a household is very common. (medscape.com)
  • The immune response to syphilis - a disease which is rarely resolved without *early* treatment - wanes over time, and untreated infection leads to an irreversibly non-responsive state, which leads me to suspect that some sort of tolerogenic or immune-switching mechanism is operating in chronic disease, as suggested by the late Tom Fitzgerald. (bio.net)
  • For the treatment of anaerobic infections and mixed infections, surgical prophylaxis requiring anaerobic coverage, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis, Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, Giardia lamblia gastro-enteritis, amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica, acne rosacea (topical treatment), and Trichomonas infections. (pharmfair.com)
  • It was of interest to find out if disease course in HIV type-1 infection could have any relation with alteration in body iron status among individuals with history of oral iron intake. (scirp.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease in developing countries. (who.int)
  • The disease is typically transmitted sexually by direct contact with the skin or mucous membranes of a person with active infection. (unboundmedicine.com)