A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
A species of bacteria in the family SPIROCHAETACEAE, frequently isolated from periodontal pockets (PERIODONTAL POCKET).
Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Syphilis serodiagnosis employing as the antigen Treponema pallidum obtained from rabbit syphilis orchitis. Treponemes are kept alive for a few hours in a special medium. When syphilitic serum and complement are added and incubated, the treponemes are immobilized, i.e., stop moving.
A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
Serologic tests for syphilis.
A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.
A genus of flexible, spiral rods found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud, sewage, and polluted water. None of the species properly referred to in this genus are pathogenic.
An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Highly contagious infectious dermatitis with lesions near the interdigital spaces usually in cattle. It causes discomfort and often severe lameness (LAMENESS, ANIMAL). Lesions can be either erosive or proliferative and wart-like with papillary growths and hypertrophied hairs. DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS and TREPONEMA are the most commonly associated causative agents for this mixed bacterial infection disease.
Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Cutaneous lesions arising from infection with Treponema pallidum. In the primary stage, 18-21 days following infection, one or more chancres appear. If untreated, the subsequent stages of the disease appear as syphilids. These eruptions are superficial, nondestructive, exanthematic, transient, macular roseolas that may later be maculopapular or papular polymorphous or scaly, pustular, pigmented eruptions.(Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p409)
The primary sore of syphilis, a painless indurated, eroded papule, occurring at the site of entry of the infection.
An acute or chronic GINGIVITIS characterized by redness and swelling, NECROSIS extending from the interdental papillae along the gingival margins, PAIN; HEMORRHAGE, necrotic odor, and often a pseudomembrane. The condition may extend to the ORAL MUCOSA; TONGUE; PALATE; or PHARYNX. The etiology is somewhat unclear, but may involve a complex of FUSOBACTERIUM NUCLEATUM along with spirochetes BORRELIA or TREPONEMA.
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)
Any inflammation of the skin.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A species of anaerobic, spiral bacteria that was formerly classified as Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Treponema hyodysenteriae (and for a short while, Serpula hyodysenteriae). This organism is the agent of swine dysentery.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.
Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
Latent syphilis is a stage of the sexually transmitted infection Syphilis, characterized by the absence of symptoms, but with positive serological tests, which can be further divided into early and late latency, depending on the duration and the potential for progression to tertiary syphilis.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An infectious disease of the skin caused by Treponema carateum that occurs only in the western hemisphere. Age of onset is between 10 and 20 years of age. This condition is characterized by marked changes in the skin color and is believed to be transmitted by direct person-to-person contact.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Activation of murine macrophages by lipoprotein and lipooligosaccharide of Treponema denticola. (1/399)

We have recently demonstrated that the periodontopathogenic oral spirochete Treponema denticola possesses membrane-associated lipoproteins in addition to lipooligosaccharide (LOS). The aim of the present study was to test the potential of these oral spirochetal components to induce the production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages, which in turn may stimulate tissue breakdown as observed in periodontal diseases. An enriched lipoprotein fraction (dLPP) from T. denticola ATCC 35404 obtained upon extraction of the treponemes with Triton X-114 was found to stimulate the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) by mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Induction of NO by dLPP was at 25% of the levels obtained by Salmonella typhosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at similar concentrations, while IL-1 was produced at similar levels by both inducers. dLPP-mediated macrophage activation was unaffected by amounts of polymyxin B that neutralized the induction produced by S. typhosa LPS. dLPP also induced NO and TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages isolated from endotoxin-unresponsive C3H/HeJ mice to an extent similar to the stimulation produced in endotoxin-responsive mice. Purified T. denticola LOS also produced a concentration-dependent activation of NO and TNF-alpha in LPS-responsive and -nonresponsive mouse macrophages. However, macrophage activation by LOS was inhibited by polymyxin B. These results suggest that T. denticola lipoproteins and LOS may play a role in the inflammatory processes that characterize periodontal diseases.  (+info)

Treponema denticola outer membrane enhances the phagocytosis of collagen-coated beads by gingival fibroblasts. (2/399)

Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) degrade collagen fibrils in physiological processes by phagocytosis. Since Treponema denticola outer membrane (OM) extract perturbs actin filaments, important structures in phagocytosis, we determined whether the OM affects collagen phagocytosis in vitro by HGFs. Phagocytosis was measured by flow cytometric assessment of internalized collagen-coated fluorescent latex beads. Confluent HGFs pretreated with T. denticola ATCC 35405 OM exhibited an increase in the percentage of collagen phagocytic cells (phagocytosis index [PI]) and in the number of beads per phagocytosing cell (phagocytic capacity [PC]) compared with untreated controls. The enhancement was swift (within 15 min) and was still evident after 1 day. PI and PC of HGFs for bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated beads were also increased, indicating a global increase in phagocytic processes. These results contrasted those for control OM from Veillonella atypica ATCC 17744, which decreased phagocytosis. The T. denticola OM-induced increase in bead uptake was eliminated by heating the OM and by depolymerization of actin filaments by cytochalasin D treatment of HGFs. Fluid-phase accumulation of lucifer yellow was enhanced in a saturable, concentration-dependent, transient manner by the T. denticola OM. Our findings were not due to HGF detachment or cytotoxicity in response to the T. denticola OM treatment since the HGFs exhibited minimal detachment from the substratum; they did not take up propidium iodide; and there was no change in their size, granularity, or content of sub-G1 DNA. We conclude that a heat-sensitive component(s) in T. denticola OM extract stimulates collagen phagocytosis and other endocytic processes such as nonspecific phagocytosis and pinocytosis by HGFs.  (+info)

Treponema brennaborense sp. nov., a novel spirochaete isolated from a dairy cow suffering from digital dermatitis. (3/399)

A novel Treponema species was isolated from an ulcerative lesion of a cow suffering from digital dermatitis (DD), a disease which causes painful ulcerations along the coronary band. Among other anaerobic bacteria, high numbers of spirochaetes have been regularly found in DD lesions. Here data are presented of a spirochaete isolated from a DD ulcer. By chemotaxonomy, protein analysis and comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis this isolate was classified as a treponeme that differed from all Treponema species described previously. The only isolate, DD5/3T, for which the name Treponema brennaborense is proposed, is designated the type strain of the novel species. The strain is a small, highly motile spirochaete that has two periplasmic flagella, one flagellum being attached at each cell pole. Strain DD5/3T exhibits alpha-glucosidase and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase activity and growth is inhibited by rabbit serum. T. brennaborense was phylogenetically most closely related (89.5% 16S rRNA similarity) to Treponema maltophilum, an oral spirochaete isolated from a periodontitis patient.  (+info)

Cystalysin, a 46-kDa L-cysteine desulfhydrase from Treponema denticola: biochemical and biophysical characterization. (4/399)

A 46-kDa hemolytic protein referred to as cystalysin, from Treponema denticola ATCC 35404, was characterized and overexpressed in Escherichia coli LC-67. Cystalysin lysed erythrocytes, hemoxidized hemoglobin to sulfhemoglobin and methemoglobin, and removed the sulfhydryl and amino group from selected S-containing compounds (e.g., cysteine) producing H2S, NH3, and pyruvate. With L-cysteine as substrate, cystalysin obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Cystathionine and s-aminoethyl-L-cysteine were also substrates. Several of the small alpha amino acids were found to be competitive inhibitors of cystalysin. The enzymatic activity was increased by beta-mercaptoethanol and was not inhibited by the proteinase inhibitor TLCK (N alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone), pronase, or proteinase K, suggesting the functional site was physically protected or located in a small fragment of the polypeptide. We hypothesize that cystalysin is a pyridoxal-5-phosphate-containing enzyme with the activity of an alphaC-N and betaC-S lyase (cystathionase). Since high amounts of H2S have been reported in deep periodontal pockets, this metabolic enzyme from T. denticola may also function in vivo as an important virulence molecule.  (+info)

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene diversity in eubacteria and eukaryotes: evidence for intra- and inter-kingdom gene transfer. (5/399)

Cyanobacteria contain up to three highly divergent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) genes: gap1, gap2, and gap3. Genes gap1 and gap2 are closely related at the sequence level to the nuclear genes encoding cytosolic and chloroplast GAPDH of higher plants and have recently been shown to play distinct key roles in catabolic and anabolic carbon flow, respectively, of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. In the present study, sequences of 10 GAPDH genes distributed across the cyanobacteria Prochloron didemni, Gloeobacter violaceus PCC7421, and Synechococcus PCC7942 and the alpha-proteobacterium Paracoccus denitrificans and the beta-proteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum were determined. Prochloron didemni possesses homologs to the gap2 and gap3 genes from Anabaena, Gloeobacter harbors gap1 and gap2 homologs, and Synechococcus possesses gap1, gap2, and gap3. Paracoccus harbors two highly divergent gap genes that are related to gap3, and Ralstonia possesses a homolog of the gap1 gene. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences in the context of other eubacterial and eukaryotic GAPDH genes reveal that divergence across eubacterial gap1, and gap2, and gap3 genes is greater than that between eubacterial gap1 and eukaroytic glycolytic GapC or between eubacterial gap2 and eukaryotic Calvin cycle GapAB. These data strongly support previous analyses which suggested that eukaryotes acquired their nuclear genes for GapC and GapAB via endosymbiotic gene transfer from the antecedents of mitochondria and chloroplasts, and extend the known range of sequence diversity of the antecedent eubacterial genes. Analyses of available GAPDH sequences from other eubacterial sources indicate that the glycosomal gap gene from trypanosomes (cytosolic in Euglena) and the gap gene from the spirochete Treponema pallidum are each other's closest relatives. This specific relationship can therefore not reflect organismal evolution but must be the result of an interkingdom gene transfer, the direction of which cannot be determined with certainty at present. Contrary to this, the origin of the cytosolic Gap gene from trypanosomes can now be clearly defined as gamma-proteobacterial, since the newly established Ralstonia sequence (beta-proteobacteria) branches basally to the gamma-proteobacterial/trypanosomal assemblage.  (+info)

Environmental modulation of oral treponeme virulence in a murine model. (6/399)

This investigation examined the effects of environmental alteration on the virulence of the oral treponemes Treponema denticola and Treponema pectinovorum. The environmental effects were assessed by using a model of localized inflammatory abscesses in mice. In vitro growth of T. denticola and T. pectinovorum as a function of modification of the cysteine concentration significantly enhanced abscess formation and size. In contrast, growth of T. denticola or T. pectinovorum under iron-limiting conditions (e.g., dipyridyl chelation) had no effect on abscess induction in comparison to that when the strains were grown under normal iron conditions. In vivo modulation of the microenvironment at the focus of infection with Cytodex beads demonstrated that increasing the local inflammation had no effect on lesion induction or size. In vivo studies involved the determination of the effects of increased systemic iron availability (e.g., iron dextran or phenylhydrazine) on the induction, kinetics, and size of lesions. T. denticola induced significantly larger lesions in mice with iron pretreatment and demonstrated systemic manifestations of the infectious challenge and an accompanying spreading lesion with phenylhydrazine pretreatment (e.g., increases in circulating free hemoglobin). In contrast, T. pectinovorum virulence was minimally affected by this in vivo treatment to increase iron availability. T. denticola virulence, as evaluated by lesion size, was increased additively by in vivo iron availability, and cysteine modified growth of the microorganism. Additionally, galactosamine sensitized mice to a lethal outcome following infection with both T. denticola and T. pectinovorum, suggesting an endotoxin-like activity in these treponemes. These findings demonstrated the ability to modify the virulence capacity of T. denticola and T. pectinovorum by environmental conditions which can be evaluated by using in vivo murine models.  (+info)

Insertional inactivation of Treponema denticola tap1 results in a nonmotile mutant with elongated flagellar hooks. (7/399)

The treponemal fla operon is comprised of numerous motility-related genes; however, the initial gene of this operon, tap1, has no known function. A recently developed system to generate specific mutants in Treponema denticola was utilized to determine if Tap1 was essential for motility. T. denticola tap1 and flanking DNA were identified, cloned, and sequenced, and a suicide plasmid that contained tap1 interrupted with an erythromycin resistance cassette (ermF and ermAM) was constructed. Because of potential polar effects from this cassette, a second plasmid that contained tap1 interrupted with a modified erythromycin resistance cassette that lacked the putative ermF transcription terminator was constructed. Electroporation-mediated allelic exchange incorporated the interrupted tap1 genes into the T. denticola chromosome, creating Tap1-deficient mutants. Reverse transcriptase PCR revealed that the erythromycin resistance cassette within tap1 did not terminate fla operon transcription in either mutant. Moreover, the phenotypes of the two mutants were indistinguishable. These mutants lacked motion in liquid culture, were unable to spread on agar plates, and lacked flagellar filaments as determined by electron microscopy. Immunoblots revealed a marked reduction in detectable FlaB flagellar filament protein compared to that of wild type; however, flaB RNA was easily detectable, and transcription levels did not appear to be altered. The basis for the lack of filament protein expression is unknown. Immunoblotting also showed that the flagellar hook protein (FlgE) was synthesized in the Tap1-deficient mutant; however, electron microscopy revealed that the mutant possessed unusual elongated hooks of variable lengths. We propose that treponemal Tap1 is analogous to FliK, which is involved in monitoring the flagellar hook length of Salmonella typhimurium.  (+info)

Development of a system for expressing heterologous genes in the oral spirochete Treponema denticola and its use in expression of the Treponema pallidum flaA gene. (8/399)

The present communication describes the construction of a new Escherichia coli-Treponema denticola shuttle vector based on the naturally occurring spirochete plasmid pTS1 and the expression of the heterologous T. pallidum flaA gene from the plasmid in T. denticola. This new shuttle vector system should prove useful in characterizing virulence factors from unculturable pathogenic spirochetes.  (+info)

Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria, also known as spirochetes. These bacteria are gram-negative and have unique motility provided by endoflagella, which are located in the periplasmic space, running lengthwise between the cell's outer membrane and inner membrane.

Treponema species are responsible for several important diseases in humans, including syphilis (Treponema pallidum), yaws (Treponema pertenue), pinta (Treponema carateum), and endemic syphilis or bejel (Treponema pallidum subspecies endemicum). These diseases are collectively known as treponematoses.

It is important to note that while these bacteria share some common characteristics, they differ in their clinical manifestations and geographical distributions. Proper diagnosis and treatment of treponemal infections require medical expertise and laboratory confirmation.

"Treponema pallidum" is a species of spiral-shaped bacteria (a spirochete) that is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection. The bacterium is very thin and difficult to culture in the laboratory, which has made it challenging for researchers to study its biology and develop new treatments for syphilis.

The bacterium can infect various tissues and organs in the body, leading to a wide range of symptoms that can affect multiple systems, including the skin, bones, joints, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. The infection can be transmitted through sexual contact, from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.

Syphilis is a serious disease that can have long-term health consequences if left untreated. However, it is also curable with appropriate antibiotic therapy, such as penicillin. It is important to diagnose and treat syphilis early to prevent the spread of the infection and avoid potential complications.

Treponema denticola is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that belongs to the genus Treponema. It is commonly found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontal diseases such as chronic periodontitis. T. denticola is one of the "red complex" bacteria, which also includes Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, that are strongly associated with periodontal disease. These bacteria form a complex biofilm in the subgingival area and contribute to the breakdown of the periodontal tissues, leading to pocket formation, bone loss, and ultimately tooth loss if left untreated.

T. denticola has several virulence factors, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteases, fimbriae, and endotoxins, that allow it to evade the host's immune system and cause tissue damage. It can also modulate the host's immune response, leading to a chronic inflammatory state that contributes to the progression of periodontal disease.

In addition to its role in periodontal disease, T. denticola has been linked to several systemic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between T. denticola and these conditions.

Treponemal infections are a group of diseases caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. This includes syphilis, yaws, bejel, and pinta. These infections can affect various organ systems in the body and can have serious consequences if left untreated.

1. Syphilis: A sexually transmitted infection that can also be passed from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth. It is characterized by sores (chancres) on the genitals, anus, or mouth, followed by a rash and flu-like symptoms. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as damage to the heart, brain, and nervous system.
2. Yaws: A tropical infection that is spread through direct contact with infected skin lesions. It primarily affects children in rural areas of Africa, Asia, and South America. The initial symptom is a painless bump on the skin that eventually ulcerates and heals, leaving a scar. If left untreated, it can lead to disfigurement and destruction of bone and cartilage.
3. Bejel: Also known as endemic syphilis, this infection is spread through direct contact with infected saliva or mucous membranes. It primarily affects children in dry and arid regions of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The initial symptom is a painless sore on the mouth or skin, followed by a rash and other symptoms similar to syphilis.
4. Pinta: A tropical infection that is spread through direct contact with infected skin lesions. It primarily affects people in rural areas of Central and South America. The initial symptom is a red or brown spot on the skin, which eventually turns into a scaly rash. If left untreated, it can lead to disfigurement and destruction of pigmentation in the skin.

Treponemal infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect antibodies against Treponema pallidum. Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as penicillin, which can cure the infection if caught early enough. However, untreated treponemal infections can lead to serious health complications and even death.

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It progresses in several stages if left untreated, with symptoms varying in each stage. The primary stage involves the appearance of a single, painless sore or multiple sores at the site where the bacteria entered the body, often on the genitals or around the mouth. During the secondary stage, individuals may experience rashes, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and other flu-like symptoms. In later stages, syphilis can lead to severe complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs, known as tertiary syphilis. Neurosyphilis is a form of tertiary syphilis that affects the nervous system, causing various neurological problems. Congenital syphilis occurs when a pregnant woman with syphilis transmits the infection to her unborn child, which can result in serious birth defects and health issues for the infant. Early detection and appropriate antibiotic treatment can cure syphilis and prevent further complications.

The Treponema pallidum Immunity (TPI) test, also known as the Treponema immobilization test, is not a commonly used diagnostic tool in modern medicine. It was previously used as a serological test to detect antibodies against Treponema pallidum, the spirochete bacterium that causes syphilis.

In this test, a sample of the patient's serum is incubated with a suspension of live Treponema pallidum organisms. If the patient has antibodies against T. pallidum, these antibodies will bind to the organisms and immobilize them. The degree of immobilization is then observed and measured under a microscope.

However, this test has largely been replaced by more sensitive and specific serological tests such as the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay. These tests are able to detect both IgG and IgM antibodies, providing information on both past and current infections. The TPI test, on the other hand, is less specific and may produce false-positive results in individuals who have been vaccinated against other treponemal diseases such as yaws or pinta.

Therefore, the Treponema Immobilization Test is not a widely used or recommended diagnostic tool for syphilis in current medical practice.

Yaws is a chronic, infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum pertenue. It primarily affects the skin, bones, and cartilage. The initial symptom is a small, hard bump (called a papule or mother yaw) that develops into an ulcer with a raised, red border and a yellow-crusted center. This lesion can be painful and pruritic (itchy). Yaws is usually contracted through direct contact with an infected person's lesion, typically during childhood. The disease is common in rural areas of tropical regions with poor sanitation and limited access to healthcare, particularly in West and Central Africa, the Pacific Islands, and parts of South America and Asia.

Yaws is treatable with antibiotics, such as penicillin, which can kill the bacteria and halt the progression of the disease. In most cases, a single injection of long-acting penicillin is sufficient to cure the infection. However, it's essential to identify and treat yaws early to prevent severe complications, including disfigurement and disability.

It's important to note that yaws should not be confused with other treponemal diseases, such as syphilis (caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum) or pinta (caused by Treponema carateum). While these conditions share some similarities in their clinical presentation and transmission, they are distinct diseases with different geographic distributions and treatment approaches.

Dysentery is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the intestine, particularly the colon, leading to severe diarrhea containing blood, mucus, and/or pus. It is typically caused by infectious agents such as bacteria (like Shigella, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli) or parasites (such as Entamoeba histolytica). The infection can be acquired through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected person. Symptoms may also include abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent potential complications.

Syphilis serodiagnosis is a laboratory testing method used to diagnose syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It involves detecting specific antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the infection, rather than directly detecting the bacteria itself.

There are two main types of serological tests used for syphilis serodiagnosis: treponemal and nontreponemal tests.

1. Treponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies that specifically target Treponema pallidum. Examples include the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, T. pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay, and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or chemiluminescence immunoassays (CIAs) for Treponema pallidum antibodies. These tests are highly specific but may remain reactive even after successful treatment, indicating past exposure or infection rather than a current active infection.

2. Nontreponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies produced against cardiolipin, a lipid found in the membranes of Treponema pallidum and other bacteria. Examples include the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test. These tests are less specific than treponemal tests but can be used to monitor disease progression and treatment response, as their results often correlate with disease activity. Nontreponemal test titers usually decrease or become nonreactive after successful treatment.

Syphilis serodiagnosis typically involves a two-step process, starting with a nontreponemal test followed by a treponemal test for confirmation. This approach helps distinguish between current and past infections while minimizing false positives. It is essential to interpret serological test results in conjunction with the patient's clinical history, physical examination findings, and any additional diagnostic tests.

Spirochaetaceae is a family of spiral-shaped, gram-negative bacteria known as spirochetes. These bacteria are characterized by their unique morphology, which includes a flexible helical shape and the presence of endoflagella, which are located inside the cell wall and run lengthwise along the entire length of the organism. This arrangement of flagella allows the spirochete to move in a corkscrew-like motion.

Spirochaetaceae includes several genera of medically important bacteria, such as:

* Treponema: This genus includes the bacterium that causes syphilis (Treponema pallidum) and other treponemal diseases like yaws and pinta.
* Borrelia: This genus includes the spirochetes responsible for Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) and relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis).
* Leptospira: This genus contains the bacteria that cause leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease transmitted through the urine of infected animals.

Spirochetes are often found in aquatic environments and can be part of the normal microbiota of some animals, including humans. However, certain species can cause significant diseases in humans and animals, making them important pathogens. Proper identification and appropriate antibiotic treatment are crucial for managing spirochetal infections.

"Spirochaeta" is a genus of spirochete bacteria, characterized by their long, spiral-shaped bodies. These bacteria are gram-negative, meaning they do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining method, and are typically motile, moving by means of endoflagella located within their outer membrane. Members of this genus are found in various environments, including freshwater, marine, and terrestrial habitats. Some species are free-living, while others are parasitic or symbiotic with animals. It is important to note that the medical significance of "Spirochaeta" species is limited compared to other spirochete genera like "Treponema," which includes the bacterium causing syphilis.

Spirochaetales is an order of bacteria that are characterized by their unique spiral or corkscrew shape. This shape allows them to move in a flexing, twisting motion, which can be quite rapid. They are gram-negative, meaning they do not retain crystal violet stain in the Gram staining method, and they have a unique structure with endoflagella (also known as axial filaments) located inside their outer membrane.

The Spirochaetales order includes several families and genera of bacteria, some of which are free-living, while others are parasitic or symbiotic. The parasitic spirochetes can cause various diseases in humans and animals. For example, Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a serious sexually transmitted infection. Another species, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks.

It's important to note that spirochetes are a diverse group with varying characteristics and pathogenic potential. While some species can cause significant harm, others are not associated with diseases and play essential roles in various ecosystems.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Digital dermatitis is a type of skin inflammation that affects the digits (hooves) of cattle, particularly dairy cows. It is also known as hairy heel warts or strawberry footrot. The condition is caused by a bacterial infection, often involving Treponema spp., and is characterized by lesions on the skin around the coronary band and heels of the hoof. These lesions can be painful and may lead to lameness in affected animals. Digital dermatitis is a significant welfare concern in the cattle industry and can also have economic impacts due to reduced milk production and decreased mobility in affected cows.

Congenital Syphilis is a medical condition that occurs when a mother with active syphilis infects her fetus through the placenta during pregnancy. If left untreated, congenital syphilis can lead to serious health problems in the newborn and can even cause death. The symptoms of congenital syphilis can appear at any time during the first two years of life, and they may include:

* Skin rashes or sores on the body, including the hands and feet
* Deformities of the bones and teeth
* Vision problems or blindness
* Hearing loss
* Developmental delays
* Neurological issues, such as seizures or difficulty coordinating movements
* Anemia
* Jaundice
* Enlarged liver and spleen

If congenital syphilis is diagnosed early, it can be treated with antibiotics, which can help to prevent serious health problems and reduce the risk of transmission to others. However, if left untreated, congenital syphilis can lead to long-term complications, such as developmental delays, neurological damage, and blindness. It is important for pregnant women to be screened for syphilis early in pregnancy and receive appropriate treatment to prevent the transmission of this serious infection to their unborn child.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Cutaneous syphilis refers to the manifestation of the sexually transmitted infection syphilis on the skin. This can occur in various stages of the disease. In the primary stage, it may appear as a painless chancre (ulcer) at the site of infection, usually appearing 3 weeks after exposure. In the secondary stage, a widespread rash can develop, often affecting the palms and soles, along with other symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, and hair loss. Later stages of syphilis can also cause skin issues, including condylomata lata (broad, flat warts) and gummatous lesions (large, destructive ulcers). It's important to note that if left untreated, syphilis can lead to serious complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs.

A chancre is a medical term that refers to a hard, painless skin ulcer that is typically the first stage of certain bacterial infections, most commonly syphilis. It is usually round or oval in shape and can appear as a sore or lesion on the skin or mucous membranes, such as the genitals, anus, or mouth. The chancre is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum and is typically accompanied by swollen lymph nodes in the nearby area.

The chancre usually develops about 3 weeks after exposure to the bacteria and can last for several weeks. While it may heal on its own, it's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a chancre, as syphilis is a serious infection that can cause long-term health problems if left untreated. Treatment with antibiotics, such as penicillin, can cure syphilis and prevent further complications.

Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG), also known as trench mouth or acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivostomatitis, is a severe and painful form of gingivitis that is characterized by the presence of necrosis (tissue death) and ulcers in the gum tissue. It is caused by a combination of factors, including poor oral hygiene, stress, smoking, and a weakened immune system. The condition is often associated with the presence of certain types of bacteria that produce toxins that can damage the gum tissue.

NUG is characterized by the sudden onset of symptoms such as severe pain, bleeding, bad breath, and a grayish-white or yellowish film covering the gums. The gums may also appear bright red, swollen, and shiny, and may bleed easily when brushed or touched. In some cases, the condition can progress to involve other areas of the mouth, such as the lining of the cheeks and lips.

NUG is typically treated with a combination of professional dental cleaning, antibiotics to eliminate the bacterial infection, and pain management. It is important to maintain good oral hygiene practices to prevent recurrence of the condition. If left untreated, NUG can lead to more serious complications such as tooth loss or spread of the infection to other parts of the body.

Neurosyphilis is a term used to describe the invasion and infection of the nervous system by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum, which is the causative agent of syphilis. This serious complication can occur at any stage of syphilis, although it's more common in secondary or tertiary stages if left untreated. Neurosyphilis can cause a variety of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, such as:

1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges (the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) leading to headaches, stiff neck, and fever.
2. Meningovascular syphilis: Affects the blood vessels in the brain causing strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), or small-vessel disease, which can lead to cognitive decline.
3. General paresis (also known as tertiary general paresis): Progressive dementia characterized by memory loss, personality changes, disorientation, and psychiatric symptoms like delusions or hallucinations.
4. Tabes dorsalis: A degenerative disorder affecting the spinal cord, leading to ataxia (loss of coordination), muscle weakness, pain, sensory loss, and bladder and bowel dysfunction.
5. Argyll Robertson pupils: Small, irregularly shaped pupils that react poorly or not at all to light but constrict when focusing on near objects. This is a rare finding in neurosyphilis.

Diagnosis of neurosyphilis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and serological tests for syphilis. Treatment usually consists of intravenous penicillin G, which can halt the progression of the disease if initiated early enough. However, any neurological damage that has already occurred may be irreversible. Regular follow-up evaluations are essential to monitor treatment response and potential complications.

Dermatitis is a general term that describes inflammation of the skin. It is often characterized by redness, swelling, itching, and tenderness. There are many different types of dermatitis, including atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, and nummular dermatitis.

Atopic dermatitis is a chronic skin condition that often affects people with a family history of allergies, such as asthma or hay fever. It typically causes dry, scaly patches on the skin that can be extremely itchy.

Contact dermatitis occurs when the skin comes into contact with an irritant or allergen, such as poison ivy or certain chemicals. This type of dermatitis can cause redness, swelling, and blistering.

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common condition that causes a red, itchy rash, often on the scalp, face, or other areas of the body where oil glands are located. It is thought to be related to an overproduction of oil by the skin's sebaceous glands.

Nummular dermatitis is a type of eczema that causes round, coin-shaped patches of dry, scaly skin. It is more common in older adults and often occurs during the winter months.

Treatment for dermatitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, over-the-counter creams or lotions may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. Prescription medications, such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressants, may be necessary in more severe cases. Avoiding triggers and irritants can also help prevent flare-ups of dermatitis.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

Periodontitis is a severe form of gum disease that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone supporting your teeth. If left untreated, it can lead to tooth loss. It is caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. The body's immune system fights the bacterial infection, which causes an inflammatory response. If the inflammation continues for a long time, it can damage the tissues and bones that support the teeth.

The early stage of periodontitis is called gingivitis, which is characterized by red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed or flossed. When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to periodontitis. In addition to plaque, other factors that increase the risk of developing periodontitis include smoking or using tobacco products, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, a weakened immune system, and genetic factors.

Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using an antimicrobial mouth rinse, can help prevent periodontitis. Treatment for periodontitis may include deep cleaning procedures, medications, or surgery in severe cases.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

'Brachyspira hyodysenteriae' is a species of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is a primary cause of swine dysentery, a severe enteric disease in pigs. The bacteria colonize the large intestine and produce toxins that cause inflammation and diarrhea, often with mucus and blood in the feces. Infection can lead to weight loss, dehydration, and death in young pigs, resulting in significant economic losses for pig farmers.

The bacteria are difficult to control due to their ability to survive outside the host for extended periods and their resistance to many antibiotics. Good biosecurity practices, including strict sanitation measures and the use of vaccines, can help prevent the spread of swine dysentery in pig herds.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Gingiva is the medical term for the soft tissue that surrounds the teeth and forms the margin of the dental groove, also known as the gum. It extends from the mucogingival junction to the base of the cervical third of the tooth root. The gingiva plays a crucial role in protecting and supporting the teeth and maintaining oral health by providing a barrier against microbial invasion and mechanical injury.

A periodontal pocket is a pathological space or gap that develops between the tooth and the surrounding gum tissue (gingiva) as a result of periodontal disease. This condition is also known as a "periodontal depth" or "probing depth." It is measured in millimeters using a dental probe, and it indicates the level of attachment loss of the gingival tissue to the tooth.

In a healthy periodontium, the sulcus (the normal space between the tooth and gum) measures 1-3 mm in depth. However, when there is inflammation due to bacterial accumulation, the gums may become red, swollen, and bleed easily. As the disease progresses, the sulcus deepens, forming a periodontal pocket, which can extend deeper than 3 mm.

Periodontal pockets provide an environment that is conducive to the growth of harmful bacteria, leading to further tissue destruction and bone loss around the tooth. If left untreated, periodontal disease can result in loose teeth and eventually tooth loss. Regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings are essential for maintaining healthy gums and preventing periodontal pockets from developing or worsening.

Penicillin G Benzathine is a type of antibiotic that is used to treat various bacterial infections. According to the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Penicillin G Benzathine is a "water-soluble salt of penicillin G, which has a very high degree of stability and provides prolonged low-level serum concentrations after intramuscular injection."

It is often used to treat infections caused by streptococci and treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis. Penicillin G Benzathine works by interfering with the ability of these bacteria to form a cell wall, which is essential for their survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are unable to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Penicillin G Benzathine is typically administered via intramuscular injection, and its prolonged release allows for less frequent dosing compared to other forms of penicillin. However, it may not be suitable for all patients, particularly those with a history of allergic reactions to penicillin or other antibiotics. As with any medication, Penicillin G Benzathine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Foot diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the foot, including its structures such as the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These conditions can cause symptoms like pain, swelling, numbness, difficulty walking, and skin changes. Examples of foot diseases include:

1. Plantar fasciitis: inflammation of the band of tissue that connects the heel bone to the toes.
2. Bunions: a bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of the big toe.
3. Hammertoe: a deformity in which the toe is bent at the middle joint, resembling a hammer.
4. Diabetic foot: a group of conditions that can occur in people with diabetes, including nerve damage, poor circulation, and increased risk of infection.
5. Athlete's foot: a fungal infection that affects the skin between the toes and on the soles of the feet.
6. Ingrown toenails: a condition where the corner or side of a toenail grows into the flesh of the toe.
7. Gout: a type of arthritis that causes sudden, severe attacks of pain, swelling, redness, and tenderness in the joints, often starting with the big toe.
8. Foot ulcers: open sores or wounds that can occur on the feet, especially in people with diabetes or poor circulation.
9. Morton's neuroma: a thickening of the tissue around a nerve between the toes, causing pain and numbness.
10. Osteoarthritis: wear and tear of the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility.

Foot diseases can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and some may be prevented or managed with proper foot care, hygiene, and appropriate medical treatment.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

Genitalia, also known as the genitals, refer to the reproductive organs located in the pelvic region. In males, these include the penis and testicles, while in females, they consist of the vulva, vagina, clitoris, and ovaries. Genitalia are essential for sexual reproduction and can also be associated with various medical conditions, such as infections, injuries, or congenital abnormalities.

Latent syphilis is a stage of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) syphilis, which is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. In this stage, individuals who have been infected with syphilis do not show any symptoms of the disease. However, the bacteria remain in their body and can be passed on to others through sexual contact.

Latent syphilis is typically divided into two stages: early latent syphilis and late latent syphilis. Early latent syphilis is defined as occurring within the first year of infection, while late latent syphilis occurs more than a year after the initial infection. During the early latent stage, individuals may still have a positive blood test for syphilis and can still transmit the disease to others through sexual contact. In contrast, during the late latent stage, the risk of transmitting the disease is much lower, but it is still possible.

It's important to note that if left untreated, latent syphilis can progress to more serious stages of the disease, including tertiary syphilis, which can cause severe damage to the heart, brain, and other organs. Therefore, it's essential for individuals who have been diagnosed with latent syphilis to receive appropriate treatment and follow-up care from a healthcare provider.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Pinta is a mild form of cutaneous leishmaniasis, a tropical infection caused by the Leishmania parasite. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected sandfly.

The disease primarily affects the skin and mucous membranes, causing lesions that can vary in size and appearance. In the case of pinta, these lesions are typically characterized by their red, blue or brown discoloration.

Pinta is endemic in certain parts of Central and South America, but it's relatively rare compared to other forms of leishmaniasis. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent complications and the development of severe, disfiguring lesions.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

... pinta-causing Treponema) "Ca. Treponema faecavium" Gilroy et al. 2021 Treponema paraluisleporis Lumeij et al. 1994 Treponema ... Treponema carateum is the cause of pinta. Treponema paraluiscuniculi is associated with syphilis in rabbits. Treponema ... Treponema suis" Molbak et al. 2006 Treponema refringens (Schaudinn and Hofmann 1905) Castellani and Chalmers "Treponema ... Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria. The major treponeme species of human pathogens is Treponema pallidum, whose ...
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... is a species of Treponema. It is implicated as a pathogen in chronic periodontitis which can induce bone ... This motile bacillus is a gram negative, facultative anaerobe and a spirochaete.[citation needed] "Treponema maltophilum". ...
It is one of four species of oral spirochetes to be reliably cultured, the others being Treponema pectinovorum, Treponema ... Treponema denticola is one of three bacteria that form the Red Complex, the other two being Porphyromonas gingivalis and ... Treponema denticola attaches to fibroblasts and epithelial cells as well as to extracellular matrix components which are found ... Treponema denticola, a subgingival oral spirochete has been associated with many periodontal disease conditions such as: the ...
... is a Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium. It is the etiologic agent of "Rabbit Syphilis". This ... "Treponema paraluiscuniculi (Jacobsthal, 1920) Smibert, 1974". Catalogue of Life. Species 2000: Leiden, the Netherlands. ... The lesions associated with Treponema paraluiscuniculi include edema, erythema, and papules of the mucocutaneous junctions of ... ISBN 978-1-1188-2424-5. "Treponema paraluiscuniculi" (PDF). criver.com/resources. Charles River. Retrieved 27 May 2021. ( ...
... is a species of spirochete bacteria within the genus Treponema. This species is an obligate anaerobe and is ... Parte, A.C. "Treponema". LPSN. Stanton, TB (May 1984). "Glucose metabolism of Treponema bryantii, an anaerobic rumen spirochete ... Type strain of Treponema bryantii at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e (Articles with short description, ... H., Kudo; K-J, Cheng; J. W., Costerton (March 1987). "Interactions between Treponema bryantii and cellulolytic bacteria in the ...
... subsp. socranskii subsp. nov. Treponema socranskii subsp. buccale subsp. nov., and Treponema socranskii ... Parte, A.C. "Treponema". LPSN. Smibert, R. M., Johnson, J. L., & Ranney, R. R. (October 1984). "Treponema socranskii sp. nov. ... Treponema, socranskii. The subspecies were named socranskii, buccale, and paredis. Treponema socranskii is unique to its genus ... Treponema socranskii is found in the space between the teeth and gums of patients with the varying forms of periodontitis. Of ...
"Treponema isoptericolens" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Treponema isoptericolens at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Treponema isoptericolens is a spirochaete from the hindgut of the termite Incisitermes tabogae. Its cells are motile, helical ... Berlanga, Mercedes (2010). "Pathogenic Treponema. Molecular and cellular biology". International Microbiology. 10 (1): 72. " ... "Treponema isoptericolens sp. nov., a novel spirochaete from the hindgut of the termite Incisitermes tabogae". International ...
... is a bacterium, the first termite gut spirochete to be isolated, together with Treponema azotonutricium. ... Graber, J. R.; Leadbetter, J. R.; Breznak, J. A. (2004). "Description of Treponema azotonutricium sp. nov. and Treponema ... "Treponema primitia" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata ... "Pathogenic Treponema. Molecular and cellular biology."International Microbiology 10.1 (2010): 72. Graber, J. R.; Breznak, J. A ...
... is a species of Treponema. It is implicated as a pathogen in chronic periodontitis which can induce ... "Treponema lecithinolyticum". Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Retrieved 20 June 2021. Wyss, C; Choi, BK; Schüpbach, P ... Moter, A; Guggenheim, B; Göbel, UB (1999). "Treponema lecithinolyticum sp. nov., a small saccharolytic spirochaete with ...
Treponema carateum, the cause of pinta, remains a separate species because no isolate is available for DNA analysis. Disease ... The genus Treponema has ribbons of cytoskeletal cytoplasmic filaments that run the length of the cell just underneath the ... Treponema pallidum pallidum is a motile spirochaete that is generally acquired by close sexual contact, entering the host via ... Radolf JD (1996). "Treponema". In Baron S (ed.). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical ...
... is found in the gut microbiome of some human populations, but is not found in humans living in urban ... Treponema succinifaciens is an anaerobic spirochete bacterium first discovered in the intestines of swine in 1981. The helical ... January 2019). "Treponema species enrich the gut microbiota of traditional rural populations but are absent from urban ... Cwyk WM, Canale-Parola E (September 1979). "Treponema succinifaciens sp. nov., an anaerobic spirochete from the swine intestine ...
... is a bacterium, the first termite gut spirochete to be isolated, together with Treponema primitia. ... "Treponema azotonutricium" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Treponema azotonutricium at BacDive - the Bacterial ... Graber, J. R.; Leadbetter, J. R.; Breznak, J. A. (2004). "Description of Treponema azotonutricium sp. nov. and Treponema ... "Pathogenic Treponema. Molecular and cellular biology."International Microbiology 10.1 (2010): 72. " ...
... is a species of Treponema. It is implicated as a pathogen in chronic periodontitis which can induce bone ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Treponema, ... It was previously known as Borrelia vincentii (Blanchard, 1906). "Treponema vincentii". National Center for Biotechnology ...
The Putative Treponema 4 TMS Holin (Tre4Hol) Family (TC# 1.E.49) consists of several proteins from Treponema species. They ... The Putative Treponema 4 TMS Holin (Tre4Hol) Family", which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons ... The Putative Treponema 4 TMS Holin (Tre4Hol) Family". TCDB. Retrieved 2016-03-29. Portal: Biology As of this edit, this article ... A fragment has been sequenced from Treponema phage Phi td1 (D2ECI8) and was designated a putative holin (41 aas and 1 TMS; TC# ...
The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (also called TPPA test) is an indirect agglutination assay used for ... An evaluation of the relative sensitivities of the venereal disease research laboratory test and the Treponema Pallidum ... Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.[citation needed] In the test, red blood cells (erythrocytes) are sensitized with ... A similar specific treponemal test for syphilis is the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay or TPHA. TPHA is an indirect ...
Treponema denticola • Trigeminal ganglion • Trismus • Tuftelin • Tufts University School of Dental Medicine • Turner's ...
Treponema spp. Porphyromonas gingivalis Fusobacterium nucleatum is found between the early and late colonisers, linking them ...
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum). Bennett J, Dolin R, Blaser M, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of ... The CSF is tested for antibodies for specific Treponema pallidum antigens. The preferred test is the VDRL test, which is ... Within days to weeks after initial infection, Treponema pallidum disseminates via blood and lymphatics. The organism may ...
Treponema pallidum pertenue), bejel (Treponema pallidum endemicum), and pinta (Treponema carateum). Haemophilus ducreyi ... All other Treponema pallidum subspecies probably evolved from Treponema pallidum pertenue. Yaws is believed to have originated ... The genetic analysis of the yaws causative bacteria-Treponema pallidum pertenue-has led to the conclusion that yaws is the most ... Yaws is a tropical infection of the skin, bones, and joints caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum pertenue. The ...
"Treponema - an overview , ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2022-10-12. Portal: Biology v t e (Articles ... The clade includes a number of significant pathogens, such as Treponema pallidum, the cause of human syphilis. Robinson GH. ( ...
Syphilis (Treponema palladium)". In Jong, Elaine C.; Stevens, Dennis L. (eds.). Netter's Infectious Diseases (2nd ed.). ... It is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum when it infects the baby after crossing the placenta or ...
Klingmüller, G (December 1983). "[Treponema pallidum or Spirochaeta pallida?]". Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, ... also known as Treponema pallidum). The work was carried out at the Berlin Charité. Among Schaudinn's other contributions to ...
Fantry, Lori E.; Tramont, Edmund C. "Treponema Pallidum (Syphilis)". Archived from the original on 2015-03-12. Retrieved 2015- ...
2022 Genus Treponema Schaudinn 1905 em. Abt et al. 2013 List of bacteria genera List of bacterial orders Bacteriology Borrelia ... Borrelia recurrentis, which causes relapsing fever Treponema pallidum subspecies which cause treponematoses such as syphilis ... Brevinema andersonii Flagellum Lyme disease microbiology Pinta (disease) Prokaryote Syphilis Treponema pallidum Yaws Paster BJ ...
The causative organism, Treponema pallidum, was first identified by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann, in 1905. The first ... 2006). Pathogenic Treponema: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-10-3. Alexander, JM; ... Syphilis (/ˈsɪfəlɪs/) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The ... Other diseases caused by Treponema bacteria include yaws (T. pallidum subspecies pertenue), pinta (T. carateum), and ...
Sometimes tonsillitis is caused by an infection of spirochaeta and treponema, which is called Vincent's angina or Plaut-Vincent ... Treponema pallidum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Anaerobic bacteria have been implicated in tonsillitis, and a possible role in ...
"The binary protein interactome of Treponema pallidum--the syphilis spirochete". PLOS ONE. 3 (5): e2292. Bibcode:2008PLoSO... ... "Genome scale identification of Treponema pallidum antigens". Infection and Immunity. 73 (7): 4445-4450. doi:10.1128/IAI.73.7. ...
Treponema pallidum is a complicated bacterium to grow; it is propagated by passage in rabbits and it has a very fragile surface ... Lukehart identified that there was variation in the surface antigen of Treponema pallidum that could explain how it evades ... Her doctoral research introduced her to Treponema pallidum and syphilis, which would fascinate her throughout her career. She ... She studied the development of macrolide resistance in strains of Treponema pallidum, and showed that the bacterium frequently ...
Pinta is caused by the bacterium Treponema carateum. It is related to the more well-known T. pallidum, which can cause endemic ... is a human skin disease caused by infection with the spirochete Treponema carateum, which is morphologically and serologically ...
... pinta-causing Treponema) "Ca. Treponema faecavium" Gilroy et al. 2021 Treponema paraluisleporis Lumeij et al. 1994 Treponema ... Treponema carateum is the cause of pinta. Treponema paraluiscuniculi is associated with syphilis in rabbits. Treponema ... Treponema suis" Molbak et al. 2006 Treponema refringens (Schaudinn and Hofmann 1905) Castellani and Chalmers "Treponema ... Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria. The major treponeme species of human pathogens is Treponema pallidum, whose ...
Šmajs D, Zobaníková M, Strouhal M, Čejková D, Dugan-Rocha S, Pospíšilová P, et al. Complete genome sequence of Treponema ... Most Treponema spp. are not cultivable, except for T. palllidum subsp. pallidum and T. phagedenis. T. pallidum subsp. pallidum ... Long-term in vitro culture of the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. MBio. 2018;9:. e01153. . DOIPubMed ... Treponema [trep′′o-ne′mə]. Figure. Figure. Tissue sample stained with Steiner silver stain. Image shows numerous, corkscrew- ...
This website provides an overview of the business activities and products of EUROIMMUN AG worldwide. Not all products are registered and approved in all countries or regions. Please contact your country representative for product availability and information ...
Taxonomy information for Treponema sp. oral taxon 508. Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds ...
Treponema pallidum protein was purified by proprietary chromatographic technique.. Purity. Treponema pallidum protein is >90% ... Treponema pallidum sub sp. pallidum has one of the smallest bacterial genomes at 1.14 million base pairs (Mb) and has limited ... Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. There are at least ... Treponema pallidum is suitable for ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for detection of T. Pallidum with minimal ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Analysis of serum IgG against Treponema pallidum protein antigens in experimentally infected rabbits. ... Analysis of serum IgG against Treponema pallidum protein antigens in experimentally infected rabbits. ... were used to monitor the serum IgG response of experimentally infected rabbits against key protein antigens of Treponema ...
Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum with an Artificially Impaired TprK Antigenic Variation System is Attenuated in the Rabbit ... Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum with an Artificially Impaired TprK Antigenic Variation System is Attenuated in the Rabbit ... Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum with an Artificially Impaired TprK Antigenic Variation System is Attenuated in the Rabbit ... Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum with an Artificially Impaired TprK Antigenic Variation System is Attenuated in the Rabbit ...
Personalabs offers treponema pallidum antibodies tests at more than 4,000 affiliated locations nationwide. Order online and get ... Treponema Pallidum Antibody Test Preparation. You dont need to follow any specific instructions before taking the FTA-ABS test ... Personalabs offers you privacy and discretion when you order a Treponema pallidum AB test or any of our other STD tests. With a ... Who Should Take a Treponema Pallidum AB Test?. With syphilis, early testing is always better because swift treatment of an ...
Treponema Pallidum) antibodies Manufacturer Chi Shing Biotech Co. Ltd., Hong Kong Origin Hong Kong Window Period 45 days ...
Base of the evolutionary tree for Treponema denticola ATCC 35405. ← parent Species Treponema denticola ATCC 35405 ...
nov., Treponema stenostrepta comb. nov., and Treponema zuelzerae comb. nov., and emendation of the genus Treponema. Stand ... nov., Treponema stenostrepta comb. nov., and Treponema zuelzerae comb. nov., and emendation of the genus Treponema. Stand ... Treponema caldarium corrig. (Pohlschröder et al. 1995) Abt et al. 2013 corrected spelling of name, validly published under the ... Parent taxon: Treponema Schaudinn 1905 (Approved Lists 1980) Assigned by: Abt B, Goker M, Scheuner C, Han C, Lu M, Misra M, ...
Agglutination of Treponema pallidum in syphilitic serums Cite CITE. Title : Agglutination of Treponema pallidum in syphilitic ... Title : Agglutination of Treponema pallidum by reagin antibody Personal Author(s) : McLeod, Charlotte P.;Stokes, Peggie S.; ... McLeod, Charlotte P. and Stokes, Peggie S. "Agglutination of Treponema pallidum by reagin antibody" 70, no. 4 (1955). McLeod, ... McLeod, Charlotte P. and Magnuson, Harold J. "Agglutination of Treponema pallidum in syphilitic serums" vol. 68, no. 8, 1953. ...
Treponema pallidum). Risk of infection from oral sex:. *Giving oral sex to a partner with a syphilis sore or rash on the ...
... is an aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium in the Spirochaetaceae family which is spiral in shape. It may elicit ... Treponema pallidum. (bacterium). Curved, straight or bean-shaped: bacilli come in many variants and are widely spread. ... Treponema pallidum is an aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium in the Spirochaetaceae family which is spiral in shape. ...
Treponema pallidum) case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
Treponema pallidum. (bacterium). Treponema pallidum is an aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium in the Spirochaetaceae family which ...
https://www.metabiom.org/microbiota/1697/treponema-phagedenis. Keywords: Microbiome, Dysbiosis, Microbiota, Organism, Bacteria ...
We evaluated a PCR assay for the diagnosis of Treponema pallidum using swabs of suspected early syphilis lesions in ...
Treponema pallidum illustration for Sekisui Diagnostics. By We created a piece of art for Sekisui Diagnostics who produce ... This kit is for syphillis, which is caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum.. We used reference electron micrographs to ...
Treponema borrelia is a spirochete with a cell wall whereas leptospira does not have a cell wall. ... Are you interested to know more about Difference between treponema borrelia and leptospira,in which it explains the differences ... Characteristics of treponema borrelia. Treponema Borrelia and Leptospira are two types of spirochetes, a type of bacteria that ... Treatment options for treponema borrelia and leptospira. Treponema borrelia and Leptospira are two infectious bacteria that can ...
Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) is a dreaded condition in all sexual lifestyle. Keep yourself safe. Get tested, with your partner. Its a two way interaction that could lead to disaster. Dont allow STI to limit fulfilling your joy and unforgettable, out of this world, moments.
The most famous of which is Treponema pallidum, which we call The Lady Proxima of Organisms. Why do we call treponema pallidum ... Treponema pallidum also is not thought to possess a T3SS (type three secretion system = bacterial artillery). Many pathogens ... Treponema spp. are bacteria classified as a spirochete. Spirochetes are worm-like in shape, often visualized as corkscrews or ... Why is Treponema pallidum, the causal agent of Syphilis, also deemed the Lady Proxima of Organisms in our book? Well for a few ...
... antibodies to Treponema pallidum), a marker of syphilis without a visit to the laboratory from Lab24, quickly and qualitatively ... The causative agent of syphilis is Treponema pallidum (pale treponema), a bacterium from the family of spirochetes. Syphilis is ... Lab24 Infectious panel Treponemal test TPHA (antibodies to Treponema pallidum), a marker of syphilis ... Treponemal test TPHA (antibodies to Treponema pallidum), a marker of syphilis 58 zł ...
... well look into the fascinating world of treponema pallidum, exploring the many facts you should know about it. ... Treponema Pallidum: A Comprehensive Guide to the Stealthy Invader. September 6, 2023. August 5, 2023. by Yash Mason ... Treponema pallidum, a name that might not be familiar to many, is the causative agent of syphilis, a disease that has been both ... Can Treponema pallidum be Cultivated in the Laboratory?. Long-term cultivation of T. p. pallidum in a tissue-culture system has ...
Treponema Pallidum. Biologie, patogenie si ghid de diagnostic la preturi mici ... Treponema Pallidum. Biologie, patogenie si ghid de diagnostic : acceseaza rubrica noastra Medicina pentru cele mai multe oferte ...
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  • Human syphilis is a multistage disease, with diverse and wide-ranging manifestations caused by Treponema pallidum. (unipd.it)
  • Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum. (nih.gov)
  • Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, with human beings as the only host. (medscape.com)
  • Long-term in vitro culture of the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • Treponema borrelia is a spiral-shaped bacterium that is known to cause Lyme disease, while leptospira is a species of spirochete bacteria that can cause leptospirosis. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Cryo-electron tomography (CET) was used to examine the native cellular organization of Treponema pallidum, the syphilis spirochete. (nebraska.edu)
  • One of the human pathogens known to harbor chromosomal integrons, the Treponema spirochetes are the only clade among spirochete species found to carry integrons. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • These tests measure antibody directed against a lipoidal antigen that results from the interaction of host tissues with Treponema pallidum or to the spirochete itself. (medscape.com)
  • Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. (prospecbio.com)
  • Genome sequence of the thermophilic fresh-water bacterium Spirochaeta caldaria type strain (H1 T ), reclassification of Spirochaeta caldaria , Spirochaeta stenostrepta , and Spirochaeta zuelzerae in the genus Treponema as Treponema caldaria comb. (dsmz.de)
  • Treponema pallidum is an aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium in the Spirochaetaceae family which is spiral in shape. (hartmann-science-center.com)
  • This kit is for syphillis, which is caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. (e-nox.net)
  • The causative agent of syphilis is Treponema pallidum (pale treponema), a bacterium from the family of spirochetes. (lab24.pl)
  • With this study, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that Treponema pallidum induces a regulatory T (Treg) response in patients with secondary syphilis and we found that the miniferritin TpF1, produced by the bacterium, is able to expand this response and promote the production of TGF-β. (unipd.it)
  • Here, nonhuman primates (NHPs) are infected by Treponema pallidum (TP), a bacterium known to cause conspicuous genital ulcerations in both males and females. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infectious (STI) disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum . (medlineplus.gov)
  • But did you know that syphilis is caused by a bacteria called Treponema pallidum ? (personalabs.com)
  • Bioinformatics and homology modeling indicated that the MotB proteins of T. pallidum, Treponema denticola, and Borrelia burgdorferi have membrane topologies and PG binding sites highly similar to those of their well-characterized Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori orthologs. (nebraska.edu)
  • We also find that the lengths of the integron attC sites shortened through Treponema speciation, and that the integron gene cassettes of T. denticola are highly strain specific. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Treponema denticola (Td) are the main etiology of alveolar bone loss. (ui.ac.id)
  • The presence and quantification of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola were determined using RT-PCR. (nih.gov)
  • Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the Greek trepo (rotate, turn) and ne¯ma (thread), Treponema is a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Treponema pallidum, is the bacteria that just keeps giving and giving. (microbigals.com)
  • Treponema Borrelia and Leptospira are two types of spirochetes, a type of bacteria that can cause infection in humans and animals. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Treponema Borrelia is a Gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria, while Leptospira is a Gram-positive, spindle-shaped bacteria. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Treponema borrelia and leptospira are two different types of bacteria found in nature, though they may have some similarities they have distinct differences. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Treponema Borrelia and Leptospira are two types of bacteria that cause a range of diseases. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • While both bacteria can cause serious illnesses, understanding the difference between Treponema Borrelia and Leptospira can help prevent and treat them more effectively. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Treponema borrelia and Leptospira are two infectious bacteria that can cause a variety of illnesses. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Treponema borrelia is a type of spiral-shaped bacteria that is typically spread through the bites of ticks or other arthropods. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • A highly contagious infection caused by the Treponema pallidum bacteria, Syphilis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STD). (walkinlab.com)
  • The first bacteria sequenced using next-generation technologies included very few that cause sexually transmitted infections (STI) like Chlamydia trachomatis , Treponema pallidum , and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) . (cdc.gov)
  • Syphilis in Newborns Syphilis is an infection caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum . (msdmanuals.com)
  • A treponemal test, such as the FTA-ABS test, looks for the specific Treponema pallidum antibodies to help confirm a syphilis infection. (personalabs.com)
  • The Serodia TP-PA test is a treponemal test for the serologic detection of antibodies to the various species and subspecies of pathogenic Treponema , the causative agents of syphilis, yaws, pinta, bejel, and endemic syphilis. (cdc.gov)
  • A 38-kDa lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum subsp. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Weigel, LM, Brandt, ME & Norgard, MV 1992, ' Analysis of the N-terminal region of the 47-kilodalton integral membrane lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum ', Infection and immunity , vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1568-1576. (elsevierpure.com)
  • We investigated Treponema pallidum infection in 8 nonhuman primate species (289 animals) in Tanzania during 2015-2017. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • In the rabbit model of syphilis, infection phenotypes associated with the Nichols and Chicago strains of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), though similar, are not identical. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The major treponeme species of human pathogens is Treponema pallidum, whose subspecies are responsible for diseases such as syphilis, bejel, and yaws. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results: We find that the Treponema spirochetes implicated in human periodontal diseases and those isolated from cow and swine intestines contain chromosomal integrons, but not the Treponema species isolated from termite guts. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • By examining the species tree of selected spirochetes (based on 31 phylogenetic marker genes) and the phylogenetic tree of predicted integron integrases, and assisted by our analysis of predicted integron recombination sites, we found that all integron systems identified in Treponema spirochetes are likely to have evolved from a common ancestor - a horizontal gain into the clade. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • The close genetic relationship of simian and human TP strains, and the growing habitat encroachment of the human-NHP interface, supports the call for a more multidisciplinary approach linking humans and wildlife when investigating the impact of shared pathogens like Treponema pallidum. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Treponema paraluiscuniculi is associated with syphilis in rabbits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unassigned species: Treponema calligyrum Noguchi 1913 Treponema carateum Brumpt 1939 (pinta-causing Treponema) "Ca. Treponema faecavium" Gilroy et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2018 Notes: ♦ Type strain lost or not available The species Treponema hyodysenteriae and Treponema innocens have been reclassified into Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Serpulina innocens. (wikipedia.org)
  • This blog post will explore the differences between two of the most important bacterial species in the family: Treponema Borrelia and Leptospira. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive study to characterize the chromosomal integron systems in Treponema species. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Treponema pallidum, a name that might not be familiar to many, is the causative agent of syphilis, a disease that has been both feared and misunderstood throughout history. (pathwaymedicine.org)
  • Title : Agglutination of Treponema pallidum by reagin antibody Personal Author(s) : McLeod, Charlotte P.;Stokes, Peggie S. (cdc.gov)
  • This test includes a reflexive qualitative RPR Screen on positive Treponema Pallidum Antibody results. (walkinlab.com)
  • However, if the RPR Screen is non-reactive, then Treponema Pallidum Antibody, Particle Agglutination will be performed. (walkinlab.com)
  • Reclassification of Treponema hyodysenteriae and Treponema innocens in a new genus, Serpula gen. nov., as Serpula hyodysenteriae comb. (wikipedia.org)
  • nov., and emendation of the genus Treponema . (dsmz.de)
  • With the recent release of many new Treponema genomes, we were able to study the distribution of chromosomal integrons in this genus. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Subsequent to this event, the integron system was lost in the branch leading to the speciation of T. pallidum and T. phagedenis (the Treponema sps. (tmu.edu.tw)
  • 1994 Treponema paraluiscuniculi ♦ (Jacobsthal 1920) Smibert 1974 Treponema pertenue ♦ (Castellani 1905) Castellani & Chalmers 1910 "Ca. Treponema suis" Molbak et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete genome sequence of Treponema paraluiscuniculi , strain Cuniculi A: the loss of infectivity to humans is associated with genome decay. (cdc.gov)
  • In terms of size, Treponema Borrelia is a bit larger in size than Leptospira. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • While Treponema Borrelia can cause Lyme disease, Leptospira can cause leptospirosis. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Lastly, in terms of environmental adaptation, Treponema Borrelia is more resistant to environmental stressors, while Leptospira is more sensitive. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Leptospira is related to, but distinct from, the genera Treponema and Borrelia, two of the most important causes of human diseases. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Leptospira has two flagella, while Treponema and Borrelia have only one. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Additionally, Treponema borrelia is known to cause neurological symptoms, while leptospira can cause liver and kidney damage. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • While many of the diseases they cause are similar, there are key differences between Treponema Borrelia and Leptospira. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Treponema Borrelia is responsible for causing Lyme disease and relapsing fever, while Leptospira is the cause of Weil's disease, also known as leptospirosis. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • Treponema Borrelia is transmitted through tick bites, while Leptospira can be spread through direct contact with the urine of an infected animal, such as a rat or cow. (relationshipbetween.com)
  • 2006 Treponema refringens (Schaudinn and Hofmann 1905) Castellani and Chalmers "Treponema scoliodonta" (Hoffmann 1920) Noguchi 1928 ex Smibert 1984 "Ca. Treponema teratonymphae" Noda et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1905, microbiologist Fritz Richard Schaudinn and dermatologist Paul Erich Hoffmann described Treponema pallidum subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • Treponema pallidum protein was purified by proprietary chromatographic technique. (prospecbio.com)
  • Treponema pallidum protein is >90% pure as determined by 10% PAGE (coomassie staining). (prospecbio.com)
  • Analysis of serum IgG against Treponema pallidum protein antigens in experimentally infected rabbits. (bmj.com)
  • Sensitive and highly specific radioimmunoprecipitation and gel electrophoreses-fluorography were used to monitor the serum IgG response of experimentally infected rabbits against key protein antigens of Treponema pallidum. (bmj.com)
  • Background The TprK protein of the syphilis agent, Treponema pallidum subsp. (biorxiv.org)
  • The 47-kDa lipoprotein is an abundant integral membrane protein and dominant immunogen of Treponema pallidum subsp. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Epidemiology, molecular strain types, and macrolide resistance of Treponema pallidum in Japan, 2017-2018. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treponema succinifaciens has been found in the gut microbiome of traditional rural human populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treponema pallidum is suitable for ELISA and Western blots, excellent antigen for detection of T. Pallidum with minimal specificity problems. (prospecbio.com)
  • What is the Significance of Treponema pallidum's Genome Sequencing? (pathwaymedicine.org)
  • Whole genome sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. (muni.cz)
  • The in vitro cultivation of Treponema pallidum. (bmj.com)
  • CSlide: H. Noguchi, 'Morphological and Pathogenic Variations in Treponema Pallidum,' Journal of Experimental Medicine 15 (2) (1912), pp. 201-204. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The 2 types of serologic tests for syphilis are nontreponemal reaginic tests and treponema-specific tests. (medscape.com)
  • A positive nontreponemal reaginic test must be confirmed by a treponema-specific test. (medscape.com)
  • Treponema pallidum is a complex and elusive organism, responsible for a disease that has challenged humanity for centuries. (pathwaymedicine.org)
  • Who Should Take a Treponema Pallidum AB Test? (personalabs.com)
  • Personalabs offers you privacy and discretion when you order a Treponema pallidum AB test or any of our other STD tests . (personalabs.com)
  • The Treponema Pallidum (Syphilis) Screening Cascade test screens for and diagnoses syphilis. (walkinlab.com)
  • Molecular typing was performed by analyzing Treponema pallidum arp, tpr, and tp0548 genes , with partial sequencing of the 23S rRNA genes for macrolide resistance. (bvsalud.org)
  • Why is Treponema pallidum, the causal agent of Syphilis, also deemed the Lady Proxima of Organisms in our book? (microbigals.com)