Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne
Water Pollutants, Radioactive
Culture of Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae from human samples: a 5-year experience (1993 to 1998). (1/63)Bartonella quintana and Bartonella henselae are fastidious gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever, cat scratch disease, and endocarditis. During a 5-year period, we received 2,043 samples for culture of Bartonella sp. We found Bartonella sp. to be the etiologic agent in 38 cases of endocarditis, 78 cases of cat scratch disease, 16 cases of bacteremia in homeless people, and 7 cases of bacillary angiomatosis. We correlated the results of positive cultures with the clinical form of the disease, type of sample, culture procedure, PCR-based genomic detection, and antibody determination. Seventy-two isolates of B. quintana and nine isolates of B. henselae from 43 patients were obtained. Sixty-three of the B. quintana isolates and two of the B. henselae isolates, obtained from patients with no prior antibiotic therapy, were stably subcultured. The sensitivity of culture was low when compared with that of PCR-based detection methods in valves of patients with endocarditis (44 and 81%, respectively), skin biopsy samples of patients with bacillary angiomatosis (43 and 100%, respectively), and lymph nodes of cat scratch disease (13 and 30%, respectively). Serological diagnosis was also more sensitive in cases of endocarditis (97%) and cat scratch disease (90%). Among endocarditis patients, the sensitivity of the shell vial culture assay was 28% when inoculated with blood samples and 44% when inoculated with valvular biopsy samples, and the sensitivity of both was significantly higher than that of culture on agar (5% for blood [P = 0.045] and 4% for valve biopsy samples [P < 0.0005]). The most efficient culture procedure was the subculture of blood culture broth into shell vials (sensitivity, 71%). For patients with endocarditis, previous antibiotic therapy significantly affected results of blood culture; no patient who had been administered antibiotics yielded a positive blood culture, whereas 80% of patients with no previous antibiotic therapy yielded positive blood cultures (P = 0.0006). Previous antibiotic therapy did not, however, prevent isolation of Bartonella sp. from cardiac valves but did prevent the establishment of strains, as none of the 15 isolates from treated patients could be successfully subcultured. For the diagnosis of B. quintana bacteremia in homeless people, the efficiency of systematic subculture of blood culture broth onto agar was higher than that of direct blood plating (respective sensitivities, 98 and 10% [P < 10(-7)]). Nevertheless, both procedures are complementary, since when used together their sensitivity reached 100%. All homeless people with positive blood cultures had negative serology. The isolation rate of B. henselae from PCR-positive lymph nodes, in patients with cat scratch disease, was significantly lower than that from valves of endocarditis patients and skin biopsy samples from bacillary angiomatosis patients (13 and 33%, respectively [P = 0.084]). In cases of bacillary angiomatosis for which an agent was identified to species level, the isolation rate of B. henselae was lower than the isolation rate of B. quintana (28 and 64%, respectively [P = 0.003]). If culture is to be considered an efficient tool for the diagnosis of several Bartonella-related diseases, methodologies need to be improved, notably for the recovery of B. henselae from lymph nodes of patients with cat scratch disease. (+info)
Survey of three bacterial louse-associated diseases among rural Andean communities in Peru: prevalence of epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. (2/63)Typhus and other louse-transmitted bacterial infections in Peruvian sierra communities are known to occur but have not recently been assessed. In this study, 194 of 1,280 inhabitants of four villages in Calca Province in the Urubamba Valley were included. Thirty-nine (20%) of the 194 volunteers had antibodies to Rickettsia prowazekii, whereas 24 (12%) had antibodies to Bartonella quintana and 2 against Borrelia recurrentis. There was a significant correlation between the presence of infesting ectoparasites and antibodies to R. prowazekii, as well as between antibodies to R. prowazekii and ectoparasite infestation and fever in the previous 6 months. The proportion of inhabitants infested with ectoparasites was significantly higher in the highest-altitude village than in the other three villages. Two volunteers' antibody levels suggested a recent typhus infection, but only B. quintana DNA was amplified from lice. Epidemic typhus remains extant in the area, and B. quintana infections were encountered and documented for the first time in South America. (+info)
The body louse as a vector of reemerging human diseases. (3/63)The body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, is a strict human parasite, living and multiplying in clothing. Louse infestation is associated with cold weather and a lack of hygiene. Three pathogenic bacteria are transmitted by the body louse. Borrelia recurrentis is a spirochete, the agent of relapsing fever, recently cultured on axenic medium. Historically, massive outbreaks have occurred in Eurasia and Africa, but currently the disease is found only in Ethiopia and neighboring countries. Bartonella quintana is now recognized as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis bacteremia, trench fever, endocarditis, and chronic lymphadenopathy among the homeless. Rickettsia prowazekii is the agent of epidemic typhus. The most recent outbreak (and the largest since World War II) was observed in Burundi. A small outbreak was also reported in Russia in 1997. Louse infestation appears to become more prevalent worldwide, associated with a decline in social and hygienic conditions provoked by civil unrest and economic instability. (+info)
Bartonella quintana and urban trench fever. (4/63)Contemporary Bartonella quintana infections have emerged in diverse regions of the world, predominantly involving socially disadvantaged persons. Available data suggest that the human body louse Pediculus humanus is the vector for transmission of B. quintana. Descriptions of the clinical manifestations associated with contemporary B. quintana infections have varied considerably and include asymptomatic infection, a relapsing febrile illness, headache, leg pain, "culture-negative" endocarditis, and, in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons, bacillary angiomatosis. Laboratory diagnosis is most convincing when B. quintana is isolated in blood culture, but growth often takes 20-40 days; problems exist with both sensitivity and specificity of serological assays. On the basis of available information, use of doxycycline, erythromycin, or azithromycin to treat B. quintana infections is recommended. Treatment of uncomplicated B. quintana bacteremia for 4-6 weeks and treatment of B. quintana endocarditis (in a person who does not undergo valve surgery) for 4-6 months are recommended, with the addition of a bactericidal agent (such as a third-generation cephalosporin or an aminoglycoside) during the initial 2-3 weeks of therapy for endocarditis. (+info)
Detection and culture of Bartonella quintana, Serratia marcescens, and Acinetobacter spp. from decontaminated human body lice. (5/63)As part of a survey for trench fever among homeless people in Marseilles, France, we attempted isolation of Bartonella quintana from body lice. A decontamination protocol of immersion in 70% ethanol with 0.2% iodine was devised and was tested with a laboratory colony of body lice. Lice which had been experimentally contaminated with either Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Acinetobacter spp. were successfully decontaminated, and this process did not prevent the culture of B. quintana from these lice. One hundred sixty-one lice obtained from homeless patients were studied by the protocol. B. quintana was isolated on axenic medium from 15 of 161 body lice and was detected in 41 of 161 lice by PCR. Acinetobacter spp. and Serratia marcescens were also isolated from body lice. The sensitivities of PCR and culture of B. quintana were 98 and 36%, respectively. These procedures may be useful for epidemiologic studies of trench fever and for the recovery of strains for characterization and comparison. (+info)
Prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Bartonella quintana. (6/63)We describe the first case of Bartonella quintana endocarditis affecting a prosthetic valve in a person with no known risk factors for this infection. Bartonella should be considered as a cause of endocarditis in any clinical setting. (+info)
Bartonella quintana Bacteremia among Homeless People. (7/63)Bartonella quintana infections have recently reemerged, predominantly among the homeless populations in cities in both Europe and the United States. B. quintana can cause trench fever, endocarditis, and chronic bacteremia; the human body louse is the only known vector. Homeless people who presented to the emergency departments of University Hospital in Marseilles, France, were studied, as were those who had been admitted to other medical facilities in the city since 1 January 1997. Samples of blood and body lice were collected for culture for B. quintana and for serological testing. Bartonella bacteremia was associated with sweats, evidence of louse infestation, serological tests that were positive for B. quintana, and high titers of B. quintana antibody. Bacteremia was also associated with being homeless for <3 years. Asymptomatic, prolonged bacteremia (duration, up to 78 weeks) and intermittent bacteremia were found to occur. Data obtained regarding antibiotic regimens showed that treatment with gentamicin and doxycycline was effective in preventing relapses of bacteremia. (+info)
Comparison of in-house and commercial slides for detection by immunofluorescence of immunoglobulins G and M against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana. (8/63)We compared the sensitivities and specificities of indirect fluorescent antibody tests developed in our laboratory and commercially available from Focus Technologies (FT; formerly MRL Diagnostic) for detection of serum antibodies to Bartonella spp. Serum samples tested were from patients with culture- or PCR-confirmed Bartonella quintana or B. henselae infections causing cat scratch disease (CSD), chronic bacteremia, or endocarditis. At a cutoff titer of 64, the FT test had higher sensitivity than our in-house test in detecting anti-B. henselae immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in CSD patients (91.2 versus 52.9%; P < 0.001). The specificity in serum samples from 85 control patients was, however, lower with the FT test (87%) than with the in-house test (98.8%) (P = 0.002). A cutoff titer of 128 improves the specificity for the FT test but lowers the sensitivity to 85%. For patients infected with B. henselae, our in-house test, but not the FT test, enabled endocarditis to be detected more reliably. With the in-house test, titers of IgG against B. henselae of >/=1,024 were found only in endocarditis patients and not in CSD patients. With the FT test, 19.1% of CSD patients had titers of IgG against B. henselae of >/=1,024 (P < 0.001). Our in-house technique also improved detection of anti-B. quintana antibodies in homeless patients with endocarditis. IgG titers of >/=1,024 were present in 75% of serum samples, but only in 16.7% of serum samples with the FT test (P = 0.004). Since each test has advantages over the other, the serological diagnosis of Bartonella infections would benefit if both tests were used concurrently. (+info)
What are some ways that modern medicine has improved upon the treatment of trench fever from World War I?
Modern medicine has made significant improvements in the treatment of trench fever since World War I. Here are some of the key advancements:
1. Antibiotics: During World War I, sulfonamides were used to treat trench fever, but these drugs were not very effective and often caused allergic reactions. Today, we have a range of more effective antibiotics, such as doxycycline and ciprofloxacin, which can effectively treat trench fever.
2. Supportive care: In World War I, supportive care was limited, and patients often had to endure severe symptoms with little relief. Today, supportive care has improved significantly, including the use of pain management techniques, hydration, and nutritional support to help manage symptoms and speed up recovery.
3. Diagnostic advancements: In World War I, trench fever was often misdiagnosed or undiagnosed, leading to inadequate treatment. Today, we have more sophisticated diagnostic tools, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests, which can quickly and accurately diagnose trench fever.
4. Better understanding of the disease: We now know more about the bacteria that cause trench fever and how it spreads, which has led to improved prevention and control measures. This includes the use of insecticides to kill body lice and the development of vaccines to protect against Bartonella infections.
5. Improved sanitation and hygiene: Good sanitation and hygiene practices are critical in controlling the spread of trench fever. In World War I, these practices were often lacking, leading to the spread of disease. Today, we have a much greater emphasis on proper handwashing, clean water, and waste disposal, which helps reduce the risk of infection.
In conclusion, while trench fever is still a serious illness today, advances in medicine and public health have significantly improved our ability to prevent, diagnose, and treat it. This has saved countless lives and reduced the impact of this disease on military personnel and civilian populations alike.
A group of infectious diseases caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected body lice. The three forms of epidemic typhus are:
1. Classic typhus fever, which is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, headache, myalgia, and a rash that appears on the fourth or fifth day of illness.
2. Brilliant's disease, which is similar to classic typhus fever but with a more rapid onset and a higher mortality rate.
3. Endemic typhus, which is a mild form of the disease that occurs in areas where the disease is constantly present.
Epidemic louse-borne typhus has been known to occur in areas of poverty, poor hygiene, and overcrowding, such as refugee camps, homeless shelters, and prisons. The disease is typically treated with antibiotics, and prevention measures include using insecticides to kill body lice and improving living conditions to reduce the risk of transmission.
Immersion foot can occur in people who are exposed to wet environments for extended periods, such as soldiers in humid climates, sailors, and individuals who work in wet industries, such as fishing or agriculture. It can also be a complication of other conditions, such as diabetes or peripheral artery disease, that affect the blood flow to the feet.
Treatment for immersion foot typically involves keeping the feet dry and clean, avoiding tight clothing and shoes, and using antifungal medications to prevent infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to treat underlying infections or other complications. Prevention is key, and individuals who are at risk for immersion foot should take steps to keep their feet dry and clean, and avoid exposure to wet environments whenever possible.
There are different types of fever, including:
1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.
The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:
* Elevated body temperature
* Muscle aches
* Loss of appetite
In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.
Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.
In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.
Preventive measures for fever include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.
The disease is primarily transmitted through inhalation of infected particles, such as dust or aerosols, which contain the bacterium. People working in close contact with animals, such as veterinarians and farmers, are at higher risk of contracting Q fever.
Symptoms of Q fever typically develop within 2-3 weeks after exposure and may include fever, headache, fatigue, muscle pain, and respiratory symptoms such as cough and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the heart, liver, and other organs, leading to life-threatening complications.
Diagnosis of Q fever is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and epidemiological investigations. Laboratory confirmation of the disease requires the isolation of Coxiella burnetii from blood or other bodily fluids.
Treatment of Q fever typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection if administered early. However, treatment is not always necessary for mild cases, and some people may recover without any treatment.
Prevention of Q fever primarily involves avoiding exposure to infected animals or their tissues, as well as practicing good hygiene practices such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling animals or their tissues. Vaccination is also available for high-risk groups, such as veterinarians and farmers.
Overall, Q fever is an important zoonotic disease that can cause significant illness in humans and a range of animal species. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical to preventing complications and ensuring effective management of the disease.
Yellow fever is a serious and sometimes fatal disease, with a high mortality rate in unvaccinated individuals. However, it can be prevented through vaccination, which is recommended for all travelers to areas where the virus is present. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) both recommend that travelers to these areas receive a yellow fever vaccine at least 10 days before travel to ensure adequate protection.
Yellow fever is not contagious, meaning it cannot be spread from person to person through casual contact. However, infected mosquitoes can transmit the virus to other animals and humans. The virus is most commonly found in monkeys and other primates, which can become carriers of the disease without showing any symptoms.
There are several strains of the yellow fever virus, with some being more virulent than others. The most common strain is the Asibi strain, which is found in West Africa and is responsible for most outbreaks of the disease. Other strains include the Central African, East African, and South American strains.
Yellow fever was first identified in the 17th century in West Africa, where it was known as "yellow jack" due to the yellowish tint of the skin of infected individuals. The disease spread throughout the Americas during the colonial period, where it caused devastating outbreaks and killed millions of people. In the United States, yellow fever was eradicated in the early 20th century through vaccination and mosquito control measures. However, it still remains a significant public health threat in many parts of the world today.
Prevention of yellow fever is primarily achieved through vaccination, which is recommended for travelers to areas where the disease is common. Vaccines are available in different forms, including injectable and oral versions, and they provide long-lasting protection against the virus. In addition to vaccination, other measures can be taken to prevent the spread of yellow fever, such as using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites.
There is no specific treatment for yellow fever, and treatment is primarily focused on managing symptoms and supporting the body's immune response. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide intravenous fluids and other supportive care. Antiviral medications may also be used in some cases to help reduce the severity of the disease.
Prevention is key to avoiding yellow fever, and vaccination is the most effective way to protect against this deadly disease. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and prevention methods for yellow fever, individuals can take steps to protect themselves and their loved ones from this potentially deadly illness.
The diagnosis of typhoid fever is based on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can significantly reduce the duration of illness and the risk of complications. Prevention measures include vaccination against typhoid fever, proper sanitation and hygiene practices, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.
* High fever
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Intestinal hemorrhage
* Multi-organ failure
* Salmonella Typhi bacteria
* Contaminated food or water
* Poor sanitation and hygiene practices
* International travel or contaminated food imports
* Supportive care (fluids, electrolytes, pain management)
* Vaccination against typhoid fever
* Proper sanitation and hygiene practices
* Avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water.
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- Bartonella quintana causes trench fever . (medscape.com)
- Cat-scratch disease and trench fever are forms of bartonellosis caused by different Bartonella species infecting humans. (scitechdaily.com)
- In the last set of experiments, we performed similar studies in a related bacterium called Bartonella quintana, the bacterium that causes trench fever, and we found that it produces its own version of BafA that also causes human endothelial cells to multiply," explains Dr. Tsukamoto. (scitechdaily.com)
- Studies have shown that head lice can transmit Rickettsia prowazekii (a bacillus bacterium that is the cause of epidemic typhus) and Bartonella quintana (causative agent of trench fever). (heine.com)
- 8. The epidemic typhus and trench fever are risk for public health due to increased migration in southeast of Turkey. (nih.gov)
- 13. Survey of three bacterial louse-associated diseases among rural Andean communities in Peru: prevalence of epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. (nih.gov)
- Rickettsiology is the study of Rickettsial diseases, which include typhus, spotted fever, trench fever, and Q fever, and are all very serious infectious diseases. (nih.gov)
Bringing Rocky Mount1
- You can help prevent this problem from developing in your community by supporting effective animal control programs and treating your pets appropriately for ticks before they begin bringing Rocky Mountain spotted fever home. (cdc.gov)
- He also contracted trench fever, a bacterial infection transmitted by lice. (cummingsstudyguides.net)
- After reviewing what led to the war, it is time to dig in deep and discuss trench warfare! (thepensivesloth.com)
- The YouTube video above does a great job of explaining trench warfare. (thepensivesloth.com)
- In the spring of 1917, he exhibited symptoms of shell shock after experiencing the hell of trench warfare. (cummingsstudyguides.net)
- A signal given in the trenches that the enemy is about to attack, frequently false. (military-quotes.com)
- An intermittent fever characterized by intervals of chills, fever, and splenomegaly each of which may last as long as 40 hours. (nih.gov)
- We discuss the sacrifices the soldiers made and what life was like for them in the trenches. (thepensivesloth.com)
- Some believe that fever helps to eradicate infecting organisms that cannot survive in a hot environment. (unboundmedicine.com)
- What new weapons made the war so deadly and the chances of survival for those that fought-would they get trench foot? (thepensivesloth.com)
- Wilfred Owen wrote it in 1917 while under treatment for psychological trauma and trench fever (as explained in the paragraph above) at a war hospital in Craiglockhart, Scotland, then a suburb of Edinburgh and now part of the city. (cummingsstudyguides.net)
- yet some researchers have speculated about adverse effects of this common practice, e.g., whether there is a link to suppression of fever and autistic disorders. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Most of them will give you an idea about life in the trenches. (military-quotes.com)
- We traveled to eastern Arizona last summer to join with a group of concerned community members to tackle Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a serious public health threat in this region. (cdc.gov)
- I read the book "Christmas in the Trenches" by John McCutcheon. (thepensivesloth.com)
- Patients with fever frequently seek professional medical attention. (unboundmedicine.com)
- When the choice is made to suppress a fever, it is probably most comfortable to give antipyretics on a regular basis (every 4 or 6 hr) rather than intermittently. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Have never seen him but he is supposed to help the D. M. S. and pass on cases where Tommy is posted as 'unfit for trench service. (military-quotes.com)