Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Echinostomiasis: Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.Heterophyidae: A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.Echinostoma: A genus of intestinal flukes of the family Echinostomatidae which consists of many species. They occur in man and other vertebrates. The intermediate hosts are frequently mollusks.Schistosomatidae: A family of blood flukes of the class Trematoda which is found in animals and man. It Includes the genera Heterobilharzia, Schistosomatium, Schistosoma, Ornithobilharzia, Bilharziella, Trichobilharzia, Pseudobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia.Cercaria: The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Fasciola hepatica: A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Opisthorchis: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Sperm Midpiece: The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Schistosoma mansoni: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.Babesia microti: A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.Patient Access to Records: The freedom of patients to review their own medical, genetic, or other health-related records.Biomphalaria: A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.BrazilFascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Dictyocaulus: Nematodes parasitic in the bronchi of herbivorous animals.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Dictyocaulus Infections: Infection with nematodes of the genus DICTYOCAULUS. In deer, cattle, sheep, and horses the bronchi are the site of infestation.Strongyloidea: A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Capillaria: A genus of trichuroid nematodes parasitic in the liver and intestines of many mammals and birds. Two species, C. hepatica and C. philippinensis, produce often fatal infections in man.Enoplida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA.Murexide: 5,5'-Nitrilodibarbituric acid ammonium derivative. Used as an indicator for complexometric titrations.Iris Diseases: Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.North AmericaSpermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Famous PersonsSkin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Turbellaria: A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Printing

Systemic infection with Alaria americana (Trematoda). (1/297)

Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. Hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness.  (+info)

Functional differentiation in trematode hemoglobin isoforms. (2/297)

The Hbs and the major electrophoretic Hb components (isoHbs) were isolated from three species of the trematodes, Explanatum explanatum (Ee), Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc) and Paramphistomum epiclitum (Pe), that parasitise the common Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The Hbs are monomeric and resemble the so-called nonfunctional mutant hemoglobins that have Tyr at B10 or E7 positions (replacing Leu and the His residues, respectively). However, they are capable of binding with O2 and CO. O2 equilibrium studies of trematode Hb isoforms reveal extremely high O2 affinities, with half-saturation O2 tension (P50) values up to 800 times lower than those of human hemoglobins. This correlates with Tyr residues at B10 and at the distal position (E7) that decrease the O2 dissociation rate by contributing hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) to the bound O2. These substitutions also increase the O2 association rates either due to orientation of E7-Tyr towards the solvent and/or by sterically hindering the entry of water molecules into the heme pocket. The latter may account for the low rate of autoxidation of trematode Hbs. The Hbs and their isoforms from different species exhibited pronounced variation in O2 affinity, which may relate to subtle differences in the structure of the heme pocket. The O2 affinities of the composite (unfractionated) Hbs were intermediate to those of the individual Hb isoform. The P50 values of Hbs here obtained by direct O2 equilibrium measurements differed from those calculated from kinetic data already published [Kiger, L., Rashid, A. K., Griffon, N., Haque, M., Moens, L.,Gibson, Q. H., Poyart, C., & Marden, M. C. (1998). Biophys. J. 75, 990-998.] Intermediate state(s) due to slow reorientation of E7-Tyr may account for this difference. Some Hb isoforms showed slight (either normal or reverse) Bohr effects. The hyperbolic O2 equilibrium curve, Hill coefficient (n) values near unity accord with a monomeric nature of trematode Hbs. In marked contrast to vertebrate Hbs, CO does not seem to compete effectively with O2 in trematode Hbs, as evident from partition coefficient values (M) below 1.  (+info)

Growth and development of Gymnophalloides seoi in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed C3H/HeN mice. (3/297)

The growth and development of Gymnophalloides seoi were studied in C3H/HeN mice and effects of immunosuppression of the host on the worm development were observed. Two hundred metacercariae of G. seoi were orally administered to each mouse, and worms were recovered on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 post-infection (PI). The worm recovery rate was significantly higher in immunosuppressed (ImSP) mice than in immunocompetent (ImCT) mice except on days 1 and 3 PI. The worms attained sexual maturity by day 3 PI with eggs in the uterus, and worm dimensions and the number of uterine eggs continuously increased until day 14 PI in ImSP mice. Worms recovered from ImSP mice were significantly larger in size than those from ImCT mice on days 1 and 3 PI, and the number of uterine eggs was significantly larger in ImSP mice on days 5 and 7 PI. Genital organs such as the ovary, testes, and vitellaria, that were already developed in the metacercarial stage, grew a little in size until day 14 PI. The results show that the C3H/HeN mouse is, though not excellent, a suitable laboratory host for G. seoi.  (+info)

A 54 kDa cysteine protease purified from the crude extract of Neodiplostomum seoulense adult worms. (4/297)

As a preliminary study for the explanation of pathobiology of Neodiplostomum seoulense infection, a 54 kDa protease was purified from the crude extract of adult worms by sequential chromatographic methods. The crude extract was subjected to DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column, and protein was eluted using 25 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 M NaCl in stepwise elution. The 0.2 M NaCl fraction was further purified by Q-Sepharose chromatography and protein was eluted using 20 mM sodium acetate (pH 6.4) containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 M NaCl, respectively. The 0.1M NaCl fraction showed a single protein band on SDS-PAGE carried out on a 7.5-15% gradient gel. The proteolytic activities of the purified enzyme were specifically inhibited by L-trans-epoxy-succinylleucylamide (4-guanidino) butane (E-64) and iodoacetic acid. The enzyme, cysteine protease, showed the maximum proteolytic activity at pH 6.0 in 0.1 M buffer, and degraded extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen and fibronectin with different activities. It is suggested that the cysteine protease may play a role in the nutrient uptake of N. seoulense from the host intestine.  (+info)

The effect of trematode infection on amphibian limb development and survivorship. (5/297)

The causes of amphibian deformities and their role in widespread amphibian declines remain conjectural. Severe limb abnormalities were induced at high frequencies in Pacific treefrogs (Hyla regilla) exposed to cercariae of a trematode parasite (Ribeiroia sp.). The abnormalities closely matched those observed at field sites, and an increase in parasite density caused an increase in abnormality frequency and a decline in tadpole survivorship. These findings call for further investigation of parasite infection as a cause of amphibian deformities in other sites and species.  (+info)

Infection status of dragonflies with Plagiorchis muris metacercariae in Korea. (6/297)

Plagiorchis muris has been found in both house and field rats as well as in humans. The infection status of the second intermediate hosts of P. muris is prerequisite in understanding their biological features in an ecosystem. Six species of dragonflies were caught in a wide range of areas in Korea; and they were Sympetrum darwinianum, S. eroticum, S. pedomontanum, S. infuscatum, Pantala flavoscens, Calopteryx atrata, and Orthetrum albistylum speciosum. The occurrence of P. muris metacercariae in dragonflies was nationwide with various infection rates. The metacercarial burden of P. muris in the surveyed areas was the highest in S. eroticum followed by S. darwinianum, S. pedomontanum, and C. atrata. The highest infection rate by P. muris metacercariae was found in S. darwinianum followed by S. eroticum. The metacercarial burden was particularly heavy in the dragonflies found in Hamyang-gun and Kosong-gun, Kyongsangnam-do. It is, therefore, likely that dragonflies play a significant role as the second intermediate host in the life cycle of P. muris in Korea.  (+info)

Distribution patterns of marine bird digenean larvae in periwinkles along the southern coast of the Barents Sea. (7/297)

An important component of the parasite fauna of seabirds in arctic regions are the flukes (Digena). Different species of digeneans have life cycles which may consist of 1 intermediate host and no free-living larval stages, 2 intermediate hosts and 1 free-living stage, or 2 intermediate hosts and 2 free-living larval stages. This study examined the distribution of such parasites in the intertidal zones of the southern coast of the Barents Sea (northwestern Russia and northern Norway) by investigating 2 species of periwinkles (Littorina saxatilis and L. obtusata) which are intermediate hosts of many species of digeneans. A total of 26,020 snails from 134 sampling stations were collected. The study area was divided into 5 regions, and the number of species, frequency of occurrence and prevalence of different digenean species and groups of species (depending on life cycle complexity) were compared among these regions, statistically controlling for environmental exposure. We found 14 species of digeneans, of which 13 have marine birds as final hosts. The number of species per sampling station increased westwards, and was higher on the Norwegian coast than on the Russian coast. The frequency of occurrence of digeneans with more than 1 intermediate host increased westwards, making up a larger proportion of the digeneans among infected snails. This was significant in L. saxatilis. The prevalence of different species showed the same pattern, and significantly more snails of both species were infected with digeneans with complicated life cycles in the western regions. In L. saxatilis, environmental exposure had a statistically significant effect on the distribution of the most common digenean species. This was less obvious in L. obtusata. The causes of changing species composition between regions are probably (1) the harsh climate in the eastern part of the study area reducing the probability of successful transmission of digeneans with complicated life cycles, and (2) the distribution of different final hosts.  (+info)

Helminth fauna of carnivores distributed in north-western Tohoku, Japan, with special reference to Mesocestoides paucitesticulus and Brachylaima tokudai. (8/297)

In the winter of 1998-1999, we collected parasitological data from 54 wild carnivores in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These consisted of 38 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 14 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) and 2 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica). Collected helminth parasites were 11 nematode, 10 trematode, 3 cestode, and a single acanthocephalan species, including 5 hitherto unknown species for this research area or the mainland of Japan (Honshu). Mesocestoides paucitesticulus was for the first time recorded from martens as well as from carnivores distributed in Honshu. Brachylaima tokudai originally recorded from Urotrichus talpoides in the central part of Honshu was for the first time found from a raccoon dog.  (+info)

  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Cathaemasia cabrerai sp.N. (Trematoda: Cathaemasiidae) a new parasite of man in the Philippines. (
  • Atopkin DM, Shedko MB (2014) Genetic characterization of far eastern species of the genus Crepidostomum (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) by means of 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. (
  • Trematoda: Opecoelidae) - a new trematode species from the Black Sea fishes. (
  • On the systematics of some marine haploporids (Trematoda) with the description of a new species of Megasolena Linton, 1910. (
  • Paragonimus westermani is a species of the family Torglotrematidae of the class Trematoda . (
  • M. I. Hamann , A. I. Kehr , and C. E. González "Niche Specificity of Two Glypthelmins (Trematoda) Congeners infecting Leptodactylus chaquensis (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Argentina," Journal of Parasitology 95(4), 817-822, (1 August 2009). (
  • Platyhelminthes trematoda Phylum platyhelminthese classification-Trematodes Classification-Trematode Character Trematodes megtisztitja a parazitak testet Paraziták a szájüregben, hogyan kell kezelni az enterobiosis gyógymódja, baloldal szél elhelyezkedése bébi férgek kezelése. (
  • Role of Ribeiroia ondatrae (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) Metacercariae in the Development of Malformed Frogs in Minnesota and Wisconsin Home Archived March 16, 2018 (i) USGS Home Contact USGS Search USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center Home Who We Are Director's Overview History of Center Staff Directory Map to Center Organization Chart. (
  • Krasnolobova T. A. Overview of the life cycles of trematodes from the genus Plagiorchis and similar genera Plagioglyphe and Metaplagiorchis (Trematoda, Plagiorchiidae) // Proceedings of Helminth. (
  • Diversity of the genus Bunodera Railliet, 1896 (Trematoda: Allocreadiidae) in the northern part of Eastern Europe and North-eastern Asia, estimated from 28S rDNA sequences, with a description of Bunodera vytautasi sp. (
  • Molecular characterization of Fascioloides magna (Trematoda: Fasciolidae) from south-western Poland based on mitochondrial markers. (
  • Обзор жизненныХ циклов трематоды рода Plagiorchis-и близкиХ к нему родов-Plagioglyphe- и- Metaplagiorchis (Trematoda, Plagiorchiidae) / Труды гельминтол. (
  • Trematoda, Opecoelidae) - новый вид трематод черноморских рыб // Вестник зоологии. (
  • EN] The elimination of Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs in sheep faeces from 4 localities in the upper and middle Porma river basin was recorded at monthly intervals between March 1986 and March 1987. (
  • UETA, Marlene T. e DE ANDRADE, Carlos F. S. . Search of natural occurrence of xiphidiocercariae (Trematoda) in fresh water snails of nine counties from São Paulo State, Brazil. (
  • Observations on the life cycle of Diplodiscus subclavatus (Pallas, 1760) (Trematoda, Diplodiscidae). (
  • EN] Description of a form of Gammarus locusta, frequent in the brackish waters of Northeastern Spain, including the Balearic islands, identified with the ''forme saumâtre" of Rancurel (1949) and with the subsp. (