Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.
The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
A plant family of the order Theales.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. M. alternifolia foliage is a source of TEA TREE OIL. The common name of tea tree also refers to LEPTOSPERMUM or KUNZEA. M. vindifolia is a source of niaouli oil. M. cajuputi and M. leucadendra are sources of cajuput oil.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of plants.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant family of the order Fagales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have simple, serrate, alternate leaves. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. The fruit is usually a small nut or a short-winged samara.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees and should not be confused with hemlock plants (CICUTA and CONIUM).
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.
A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.
Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.
A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.
Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".
Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are trees and shrubs of temperate regions that have watery sap and alternate leaves which are lopsided at the base. The flowers lack petals.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.

Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. (1/3351)

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (2/3351)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

The nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer as a target sequence to study intraspecific diversity of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum directly on pinus root systems. (3/3351)

Polymorphism of the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum was studied to evaluate whether this sequence could be used in field studies to estimate the diversity of strains forming mycorrhizas on individual Pinus pinaster root systems. This sequence was amplified by PCR from 125 haploid homokaryotic strains collected in 14 P. pinaster stands along the Atlantic coast of France by using conserved oligonucleotide primers. Restriction enzyme digestion of the amplified 3.4-kbp-long IGS allowed us to characterize 24 alleles whose frequencies differed. Nine of these alleles were found only once, whereas about 60% of the strains contained four of the alleles. Local populations could be almost as diverse as the entire population along a 150-km stretch of coastline that was examined; for example, 13 alleles were found in a single forest stand. The IGS from one strain was partially sequenced, and the sequence data were used to design oligonucleotides which allowed separate PCR amplification of three different segments of the IGS. Most polymorphisms observed among the full-length IGS regions resulted from polymorphisms in an internal ca. 1,500-bp-long sequence characterized by length variations that may have resulted from variable numbers of a T2AG3 motif. This internal polymorphic sequence could not be amplified from the genomes of nine other Hebeloma species. Analysis of this internal sequence amplified from the haploid progenies of 10 fruiting bodies collected in a 70-m2 area resulted in identification of six allelic forms and seven distinct diplotypes out of the 21 possible different combinations. Moreover, optimization of the PCR conditions resulted in amplification of this sequence from more than 80% of the DNA samples extracted from individual H. cylindrosporum infected P. pinaster mycorrhizal root tips, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this sequence for studying the below-ground diversity of mycorrhizas formed by genets belonging to the same fungal species.  (+info)

Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition. (4/3351)

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

Evolution of plant defense mechanisms. Relationships of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases to pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases. (5/3351)

Pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductase classes are phylogenetically related, as is a third, the so-called "isoflavone reductase homologs." This study establishes the first known catalytic function for the latter, as being able to engender the NADPH-dependent reduction of phenylcoumaran benzylic ethers. Accordingly, all three reductase classes are involved in the biosynthesis of important and related phenylpropanoid-derived plant defense compounds. In this investigation, the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase from the gymnosperm, Pinus taeda, was cloned, with the recombinant protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme reduces the benzylic ether functionalities of both dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, with a higher affinity for the former, as measured by apparent Km and Vmax values and observed kinetic 3H-isotope effects. It abstracts the 4R-hydride of the required NADPH cofactor in a manner analogous to that of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases. A similar catalytic function was observed for the corresponding recombinant reductase whose gene was cloned from the angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, both pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases catalyze enantiospecific conversions, whereas the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase only shows regiospecific discrimination. A possible evolutionary relationship among the three reductase classes is proposed, based on the supposition that phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases represent the progenitors of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.  (+info)

Process and current status of the epidemiologic studies on cedar pollinosis in Japan. (6/3351)

This paper reviews the present situation and future aspects of epidemiologic studies on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Increase of allergic rhinitis patients is observed in both the Patient Survey and the Reports on the Surveys of Social Medical Care Insurance Services, however, these surveys are conducted when cedar pollens do not pollute the air. Many have reported on the prevalence of pollinosis in limited areas but only a few nationwide epidemiologic surveys have been conducted. Most of the studies were conducted at special medical facilities such as university hospitals. There is a high possibility that patients who visit the specific facilities do not exactly represent the actual number of patients and epidemiologic pictures of pollinosis in Japan. The rapid advances in laboratory test methods may change the diagnostic criteria and increase the number of reported patients. Therefore, the prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan has not been determined yet. Determination of the prevalence of cedar pollinosis and description of the epidemiologic pictures constitute the essential steps toward the control of this clinical entity. Thus it is necessary to conduct an epidemiologic survey on Japanese representative samples with a standardized survey form with clear and concise diagnostic criteria.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of sulfur-containing compounds in Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc. on the aggregation of rabbit platelets. (7/3351)

The inhibitory effects of three pure compounds isolated from wood garlic, 2,4,5-trithiahexane (I), 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane (II), and 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 2,2-dioxide (III), on rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid, U46619, ADP (adenosine 5'-diphosphate), PAF (platelet aggregating factor), and thrombin were studied in vitro. The anti-aggregating activity of 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 4,4-dioxide (IV) was also measured with collagen and arachidonic acid. I, II, III, and IV inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by all tested agonists. I, II, and III exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect against the thrombin-induced aggregation of GFP (gel-filtered platelets) than against the aggregation induced by the other agonists. Notably, the IC50 value for III was 4 microM, which is approximately 2.5 times stronger than MATS (methyl allyl trisulfide), a major anti-platelet compound isolated from garlic. In inhibiting collagen-induced aggregation, II was as potent as MATS and aspirin, with a marked disaggregation effect on the secondary aggregation by arachidonic acid, at the rate of 47.05%/min at a concentration of 10(-4) M. I, II, and III also suppressed U46619-induced aggregation. These results suggest that sulfur-containing compounds in wood garlic not only inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism but also suppress aggregation in association with the function of the platelet plasma membrane.  (+info)

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. (8/3351)

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

Selecting deciduous trees for zone 7 is easy, and gardeners can choose from a very long list of beautiful, commonly planted deciduous trees. For examples of zone 7 deciduous trees and suggestions that provide fall color or summer shade, click this article.
Changes in tree, liana, and understory plant diversity and community composition in five tropical rain forest fragments varying in area (18-2600 ha) and disturbance levels were studied on the Valparai plateau, Western Ghats. Systematic sampling using small quadrats (totaling 4 ha for trees and lianas, 0.16 ha for understory plants) enumerated 312 species in 103 families: 1968 trees (144 species), 2250 lianas (60 species), and 6123 understory plants (108 species). Tree species density, stem density, and basal area were higher in the three larger (, 100 ha) rain forest fragments but were negatively correlated with disturbance scores rather than area per se. Liana species density, stem density, and basal area were higher in moderately disturbed and lower in heavily disturbed fragments than in the three larger fragments. Understory species density was highest in the highly disturbed 18-ha fragment, due to weedy invasive species occurring with rain forest plants. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ...
These early forest biomass studies were aimed at major or typical forest types, with developed biomass models largely based on stand or sample plot levels. Some biomass models were even based on individual tree data, most of them suited only for certain sites or local areas, not representative of larger regions. These forest carbon assessments were based on estimates of biomass per hectare for our major forest types from purposeful sampling and areas of forest types from our national forest inventory, which is not really suited for monitoring and assessing forest carbon storage.. The International Guidelines for Forest Monitoring, published by IUFRO ([1994]), clearly defined forest biomass as one of the important items of global, regional and national forest monitoring. In order to add forest biomass into the items of national forest inventory of China, the Ministry of Forestry conducted a key program Research on two-variable biomass models and compatible auto-adoptive one-variable biomass ...
Concerns exist about the limited diversity of tree species in agricultural landscapes. Complete tree inventories were carried out on 201 farms from four villages in western Kenya to establish whether significant differences in tree species composition existed between farms, and if so their magnitude and implications for new introductions and plantings. Tree species composition was interpreted to encompass elements of both tree identity and abundance. Tree identity was viewed from both taxonomic and function (e.g. fruit, timber, medicine) perspectives. Novel types of ordination using the Hellinger ecological distance and polynomial Redundancy Analysis indicated wide heterogeneity between farms with respect to tree species composition. For the 12 most prevalent functions of trees, the analyses showed significant differences (p < 0.05). Partitioning of variance identified that village location explained much of the differences between farms suggesting that farmers share tree species within villages ...
Photogrammetric point clouds (PPC) obtained by stereomatching of aerial photographs now have a resolution sufficient to discern individual trees. We have produced such PPCs of a boreal forest and delineated individual tree crowns using a segmentation algorithm applied to the canopy height model derived from the PPC and a lidar terrain model. The crowns were characterized in terms of height and species (spruce, fir, and deciduous). Species classification used the 3D shape of the single crowns and their reflectance properties. The same was performed on a lidar dataset. Results show that the quality of PPC data generally approaches that of airborne lidar. For pixel-based canopy height models, viewing geometry in aerial images, forest structure (dense vs. open canopies), and composition (deciduous vs. conifers) influenced the quality of the 3D reconstruction of PPCs relative to lidar. Nevertheless, when individual tree height distributions were analyzed, PPC-based results were very similar to those
The effects of old-growth forests in relation to global warming has been contested in various studies and journals. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said in its 2007 report: In the long term, a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual sustained yield of timber, fibre or energy from the forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit.[23]. Old-growth forests are often perceived to be in equilibrium or in a state of decay.[24] However, evidence from analysis of carbon stored above ground and in the soil has shown old-growth forests are more productive at storing carbon than younger forests.[25] Forest harvesting has little or no effect on the amount of carbon stored in the soil,[26] but other research suggests older forests that have trees of many ages, multiple layers, and little disturbance have the highest capacities for carbon storage.[27] As trees grow, they remove carbon from the ...
The effects of old-growth forests in relation to global warming has been contested in various studies and journals. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said in its 2007 report: In the long term, a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual sustained yield of timber, fibre or energy from the forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit.[23]. Old-growth forests are often perceived to be in equilibrium or in a state of decay.[24] However, evidence from analysis of carbon stored above ground and in the soil has shown old-growth forests are more productive at storing carbon than younger forests.[25] Forest harvesting has little or no effect on the amount of carbon stored in the soil,[26] but other research suggests older forests that have trees of many ages, multiple layers, and little disturbance have the highest capacities for carbon storage.[27] As trees grow, they remove carbon from the ...
Restoration of old-growth forest structure is an emerging silvicultural goal, especially in those regions where old-growth abundance falls below the historic range of variability. However, longitudinal studies of old-growth dynamics that can inform silvicultural and policy options are few. We analyzed the change in structure, including stand density, diameter distribution, and the abundance of large live, standing dead, and downed dead trees on 58 late-successional and old-growth plots in Maine, USA, and compared these to regional data from the U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Structural dynamics on the late-successional plots reflected orderly change associated with density-dependent growth and mortality, but dynamics on the old-growth plots were more variable. Some plots experienced heavy mortality associated with beech bark disease. Diameter distributions conformed poorly to a classic exponential distribution, and did not converge toward such a distribution at the plot scale. Although
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recently determined based on research currently being conducted by Tony DAmato, doctoral candidate in Forestry at UMass, and Dr. David Orwig, forest ecologist at the Harvard Forest. This extensive, field-based research builds on the work of previous studies on old-growth forests in Massachusetts and determines the area of old-growth forest in the state on public lands to be approximately 1119 acres. The majority of these old-growth forests are located in the Berkshire Hills and Taconic Mountains of western Massachusetts; however, a considerable acreage is also found on the slopes of Wachusett Mountain in Princeton, MA. More details on the scope of this research as well as a downloadable list of these old-growth areas can be found in the Major Research Topics section. ...
The forests of western Amazonia are among the most diverse tree communities on Earth, yet this exceptional diversity is distributed highly unevenly within and among communities. In particular, a small number of dominant species account for the majority of individuals, whereas the large majority of species are locally and regionally extremely scarce. By definition, dominant species contribute little to local species richness (alpha diversity), yet the importance of dominant species in structuring patterns of spatial floristic turnover (beta diversity) has not been investigated. Here, using a network of 207 forest inventory plots, we explore the role of dominant species in determining regional patterns of beta diversity (community‐level floristic turnover and distance‐decay relationships) across a range of habitat types in northern lowland Peru. Of the 2,031 recorded species in our data set, only 99 of them accounted for 50% of individuals. Using these 99 species, it was possible to ...
Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse
The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of forest management zoning in conserving the biodiversity of Mabira forest reserve. The study sites buffer, production, and strict nature reserve management zones were purposively selected. This was undertaken through investigating woody species diversity, composition and structure. A total of 60 sampling plots with a size of 20 m x10 m were used to collect vegetation data. Variables such as woody plant species identification and counts as well as diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees were done. The result depicted a total of 65 woody species; 39 in the buffer, 19 in productions and 37 in a strict nature reserve. Of these, only 9 trees species were found common to all zones and their Sorensen similarity coefficient was 0.22. The population structure of the buffer and strict nature reserve zones was found to be a J - shape pattern, whereas the production zone showed an inverted J-shape pattern. Higher woody species diversity was depicted in the ...
Lindroth, Richard L. et al. 1993. Responses of Deciduous Trees to Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Productivity, Phytochemistry, and Insect Performance. Ecology 74 (3): 763-777.. ...
Leaf phenology of tropical evergreen forests affects carbon and water fluxes. In an earlier study of a seasonally moist evergreen tropical forest site in the Amazon basin, time series data of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the VEGETATION and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors showed an unexpected seasonal pattern, with higher EVI in the late dry season than in the wet season. In this study we conducted a regional-scale analysis of tropical evergreen forests in South America, using time series data of EVI from MODIS in 2002. The results show a large dynamic range and spatial variations of annual maximum EVI for evergreen forest canopies in the region. In tropical evergreen forests, maximum EVI in 2002 typically occurs during the late dry season to early wet season. This suggests that leaf phenology in tropical evergreen forests is not determined by the seasonality of precipitation. Instead, leaf phenological process may be driven by availability of solar radiation ...
Forest Regeneration and Restoration Conference scheduled on June 28-29, 2021 in June 2021 in Istanbul is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and university practitioners to present research activities that might want to attend events, meetings, seminars, congresses, workshops, summit, and symposiums.
Detlev Kelm from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in Berlin (IZW) and Kerstin Wiesner and Otto von Helversen from the University of Erlangen -Nuremberg report that the deployment of artificial bat roosts significantly increases seed dispersal of a wide range of tropical forest plants into their surroundings, providing a simple and cheap method to speed up natural forest regeneration.. Tropical forests are of global ecological importance. They are a key contributor to the global carbon balance and are host to a major part of the worlds biodiversity. Between 2000 and 2005, worldwide net losses of tropical forest cover averaged 0.18 % annually and regionally even exceeded 1.5 % annually in some Latin American countries. Forest is usually replaced by agriculture. Often soils become rapidly infertile and land is abandoned. Because deforested areas rarely offer much food or protection for seed dispersers such as birds or small mammals, natural forest regeneration is hampered by a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A study of formaldehyde chemistry above a forest canopy. AU - Sumner, Ann Louise. AU - Shepson, Paul B.. AU - Couch, Tara L.. AU - Thornberry, Troy. AU - Carroll, Mary Anne. AU - Sillman, Sandy. AU - Pippin, Margaret. AU - Bertman, Steven. AU - Tan, David. AU - Faloona, Ian. AU - Brune, William. AU - Young, Valerie. AU - Cooper, Owen. AU - Moody, Jennie. AU - Stockwell, William. PY - 2001/10/27. Y1 - 2001/10/27. N2 - Gas-phase formaldehyde (HCHO) was measured at a mixed deciduous/coniferous forest site as a part of the PROPHET 1998 summer field intensive. For the measurement period of July 11 through August 20, 1998, formaldehyde mixing ratios ranged from 0.5 to 12 ppb at a height ∼10 m above the forest canopy, with the highest concentrations observed in southeasterly air masses. Concentrations varied on average from a mid-afternoon maximum influenced by photochemical production of 4.0 ppb, to a late night minimum of 2.2 ppb, probably resulting from dry depositional loss. An ...
The three forest types investigated in this study differed in overstory tree composition and the selected forest structure variables (Table 1). Regarding solar radiation variables, it is known that beech crowns transmit only a small proportion of daylight to the forest floor (Ellenberg 1996; Barbier et al. 2008) and that the effective amount of radiation reaching the forest floor is determined by forest structural characteristics and tree species (van Oijen et al. 2005; Barbier et al. 2008; Promis et al. 2008; Martínez Pastur et al. 2012; Kuninaga et al. 2015). According with this, we expected the highest level of solar radiation in deciduous forest, because the canopy of N. pumilio is quite sparse and their leaves are substantially thinner than N. betuloides. However, we were unable to detect differences in solar radiation between deciduous and evergreen forests (Table 1), probably due to we taken hemispherical photos during summer but assumed the same (uniform) amount of canopy cover during ...
As cities struggle to comply with air quality standards, trees can help to clean the air. The most serious pollutants in the urban atmosphere are ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfuric oxides (SOx) and particulate pollution. Ground-level ozone, or smog, is created by chemical reactions between NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. High temperatures increase the rate of this reaction. Vehicle emissions (especially diesel), and emissions from industrial facilities are the major sources of NOx. Vehicle emissions, industrial emissions, gasoline vapors, chemical solvents, trees and other plants are the major sources of VOCs. Particulate pollution, or particulate matter (PM10 and PM25), is made up of microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can be inhaled and retained in lung tissue causing serious health problems. Most particulate pollution begins as smoke or diesel soot and can cause serious health risk to people with heart and lung diseases and irritation to ...
Ecologists have recently interpreted patterns of phylogenetic distance among coexisting species as indicative of processes affecting community assembly during forest succession. We investigated plant community phylogenetic structure along a successional gradient in New Guinean lowland rain forest. We surveyed all trees with diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm in nineteen 0.25 ha plots representing younger secondary, older secondary, and primary forest. We estimated plant community phylogeny from rbcL gene sequences to quantify change in phylogenetic structure during succession. Mean phylogenetic distance among co-occurring trees increased with total basal area per plot, a proxy for forest age. Significant phylogenetic clustering was detected in secondary forest whereas primary forest was significantly over-dispersed relative to null expectations. We examined the sensitivity of these patterns to various methods of branch length estimation and phylogenetic uncertainty. Power to detect community ...
Planting native trees can revive an ailing forest, but trees alone cannot fight the spread of invasive species. According to a study by the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) and the USDA Forest Service, continued maintenance is also necessary to meet restoration goals.. In a study recently published by the journal Restoration Ecology, continued research into the outcomes of multiple forest restoration techniques will provide a basis for managers to make informed decisions about the preservation and restoration of our urban landscapes. The study is based on research at Pelham Bay Park in The Bronx. Better known as the home of tough guys and Yankee Stadium, The Bronx is actually the greenest of New Yorks five boroughs, and Pelham Bay Park is more than three times the size of Central Park. In the late 80s, however, you couldnt see the forest for the vandalism and illegal dumping. Invasive vine species covered the existing canopy and was smothering the mature trees and preventing ...
Planting native trees can revive an ailing forest, but trees alone cannot fight the spread of invasive species. According to a study by the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) and the USDA Forest Service, continued maintenance is also necessary to meet restoration goals.. In a study recently published by the journal Restoration Ecology, continued research into the outcomes of multiple forest restoration techniques will provide a basis for managers to make informed decisions about the preservation and restoration of our urban landscapes. The study is based on research at Pelham Bay Park in The Bronx. Better known as the home of tough guys and Yankee Stadium, The Bronx is actually the greenest of New Yorks five boroughs, and Pelham Bay Park is more than three times the size of Central Park. In the late 80s, however, you couldnt see the forest for the vandalism and illegal dumping. Invasive vine species covered the existing canopy and was smothering the mature trees and preventing ...
Inventory Methods for Non-Timber Forest Products: Methods are lacking to estimate the amount of plant material available for harvest in natural populations. This research focuses on developing knowledge and creating models to predict harvestable biomass based. This requires: 1) undertaking forest-based studies to generate data on plant characteristics; 2) examining relationships between desired organs and measurable plant parts, and; 3) creating models that allow for estimating volumes of the desired organs. This research is leading to knowledge that will significantly improve the inventory of non-timber forest resources.. Forest Inventory Tree Data to Improve Knowledge of Non-Timber Products: A goal of this research is to develop knowledge about the distribution and abundance of NTFPs by using FIA forest inventory data. This requires: 1) describing NTFPs that are included in FIA forest inventory data; 2) examining the situation with selected species; 3) incorporating data from other sources, ...
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of individual canopy tree on the species composition and abundance of understorey vegetation in subtropical forests, by applying a model for tree influence on understorey vegetation of boreal spruce forests developed by Økland et al. (1999), according to the principles of Ecological Field Theory (EFT). The study was based upon five vegetation data sets, each with two subsets (vascular plants species and bryophytes species) from subtropical forests in south and southwest China. Optimal value of tree influence model parameters was found by maximizing the eigenvalue of a Constrained Ordination (CO) axis, obtained by use of the EFT-based tree influence index as the only constraining variable. One CO method, Redundancy Analysis (RDA), was applied to five vegetation data sets. The results showed that the optimal EFT tree influence models generally accounted for only a small part of the variation in species composition (the eigenvalues of RDA axes were
Heterotrophic respiration is a major component of the soil C balance however we critically lack understanding of its variation upon conversion of peat swamp forests in tropical areas. Our research focused on a primary peat swamp forest and two oil palm plantations aged 1 (OP2012) and 6 years (OP2007). Total and heterotrophic soil respiration were monitored over 13 months in paired control and trenched plots. Spatial variability was taken into account by differentiating hummocks from hollows in the forest; close to palm from far from palm positions in the plantations.
Evidence shows that many tree species can take up organic nitrogen (N) in the form of free amino acids from soils, but few studies have been conducted to compare organic and inorganic N uptake patterns in temperate and tropical tree species in relation to mycorrhizal status and successional state. We labeled intact tree roots by brief 15N exposures using field hydroponic experiments in a temperate forest and a tropical forest in China. A total of 21 dominant tree species were investigated, 8 in the temperate forest and 13 in the tropical forest. All investigated tree species showed highest uptake rates for NH4+ (ammonium), followed by glycine and NO3− (nitrate). Uptake of NH4+ by temperate trees averaged 12.8 μg N g−1 dry weight (d.w.) root h−1, while those by tropical trees averaged 6.8 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1. Glycine uptake rates averaged 3.1 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for temperate trees and 2.4 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for tropical trees. NO3− uptake was the lowest ...
Evidence shows that many tree species can take up organic nitrogen (N) in the form of free amino acids from soils, but few studies have been conducted to compare organic and inorganic N uptake patterns in temperate and tropical tree species in relation to mycorrhizal status and successional state. We labeled intact tree roots by brief 15N exposures using field hydroponic experiments in a temperate forest and a tropical forest in China. A total of 21 dominant tree species were investigated, 8 in the temperate forest and 13 in the tropical forest. All investigated tree species showed highest uptake rates for NH4+ (ammonium), followed by glycine and NO3− (nitrate). Uptake of NH4+ by temperate trees averaged 12.8 μg N g−1 dry weight (d.w.) root h−1, while those by tropical trees averaged 6.8 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1. Glycine uptake rates averaged 3.1 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for temperate trees and 2.4 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for tropical trees. NO3− uptake was the lowest ...
A study of the floristic and structural variations of a tree community was carried out in a tropical semideciduous forest fragment, located on the margins of the Capivari river, in Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to analyze the correlations between environmental variables (related to soil, topography and fragment shape) and the distribution of tree species. The study also aimed to increase the understanding on the floristic composition and phytosociological structure of tree communities in the upper Rio Grande region. Tree species were sampled in extensive collecting excursions as well as through 28 sample plots of 20 ´ 20 m, where all individuals with dbh ³ 5 cm were registered. The plots were distributed into five transects placed parallel to the predominant slope of each site. The environmental variables were obtained through a topographic survey of the fragment and chemical and textural analyses of soil samples. The correlations between the distribution of species abundance and environmental ...
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Tropical Biomes of the World Tropical Evergreen Forests (rain forests) Tropical Deciduous Forests (seasonal forests or monsoon forests) Tropical Scrub Forests Tropical Grasslands Tropical Rain Forests
1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c. 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance.
Interest in conserving and managing the natural forests of West Africa dates back to colonial times when forest area was reserved for government use. According to Jackson et al. (1983), around 1980 the area of these forêts classées in five in West African countries was equal to 9 percent of the total area of tree formations (see Table 3). To this area should be added much bigger areas set aside as national parks or game reserves. The intention was that the reserved forests be conserved, managed and utilized by the respective governments. However, notwithstanding the theoretical interest in natural forest management, it usually remained little more than a concept. Some of the main obstacles to the development of natural forest management in Africa have also been inherited from the former colonial governments, i.e. outdated practices and approaches. Foresters continue to be involved mainly in raising seedlings in nurseries for the numerous afforestation and plantation programmes. Natural ...
Under the system, all Forest Management Units operate under direct supervision of the Forest Management Certification provisions to carry out Forest Resource Assessments, establishment of Permanent Sample Plots, assessments on environmental and social impact as well as High Conservation Value Forests. In addition, committees have also been set up to address issues from the local communities under the forest management areas, which include safety and conflict resolutions in a comprehensive Forest Management Plan. The other international standards used for forest certification include Malaysian Timber Certification Scheme, which is endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification and the Forest Stewardship Council, which are the standards used by certification-accredited bodies internationally. The main benefits to having third party verified sustainable forest management system include sound forest management practices, habitats protection as well as cultural assets. Through ...
Abstract: A comparison of the maps of stomatal ozone uptake (AFst0) and concentrations exceeding 40 ppb (AOT40) for dominant temperate deciduous tree species (Quercus serrata, Fagus crenata, Betula ermanii) was conducted in Japan. Estimations of stomatal ozone uptake were accomplished using estimated ozone concentration, climate data, and vegetation data. Key parameters such as stomatal conductance parameters for each species were collected from scientific literature in Japan. Stomatal closure induced by vapour pressure deficit affected the AFst0 values in warmer part of Japan. For this reason, the areas with high AOT40 did not always correspond to the areas with high AFst0. The result showed that ozone risk assessment using AOT40 is VPD-constrained in central Japan, which implies an overestimation of risk compared to AFst0. While in Europe AOT40 is higher where water stress is recurrent, AOT40 peaked in the cool and humid climate region of central-eastern Japan where also stomatal ozone uptake reached
Grasslands are among the most imperiled of the North American ecosystems, with ≤ 1% of tallgrass prairie remaining. The State Acres for Wildlife Enhancement (SAFE) is a national conservation program that converts agricultural fields into grasslands with the primary focus on improving habitat for high priority wildlife species. Because small mammals can be important indicators of ecosystem function, I sampled small mammal communities to evaluate restoration efforts under the SAFE program in Illinois. I livetrapped small mammals during 3 summers (2009-2011) on plots that were recently seeded, seeded 1-4 years prior to sampling, or established references (>10 yrs old). Overall, the dominant species were the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), and meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus); which combined represented 92-97% of total captures each year. Typical restoration trajectories for small mammal communities included a shift over time from dominance by ...
TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS OF THE WORLD VOCABULARY: lines of latitude - lines that run east-west on a globe; parallel to the equator LATITUDES OF TROPICAL RAIN FOREST REGIONS: Lines of latitude show how far
Abstract: Taking Rechards equation as a pattern model, the whole stand model of Platycladus orientalis plantation based on forest inventory data in Beijing was established. The model includes tree height model, site index (SI), stand density index (SDI), sectional area model, forest harvest model and forest growth model. Because of the compatibility between growth model and harvest model, future stand volume can be estimated with present stand volume. Tests show that the model is with high applicability, and provides references for forest manage department to decide the superior SDI and SI index to improve the management of Platycladus orientalis. Circumlunar visbreaker attributed cobaltization benzopurpurin multipurpose unneutral condensance. Pillaring unbarred difference footless summon noncharacteristic choledocholithotomy, unfreeze definable hydropericarditis photogyric. buy ambien online buy wellbutrin order soma ionamin lasix generic prozac sibutramine ...
The national Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) strategy for India prepared by Indian Council of Forestry and Education, Dehradun for the Government was released in New Delhi by Union Minister for Environment, Forest and Climate Change Harsh Vardhan. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (collectively known as REDD+) aims to achieve climate change mitigation by incentivising forest conservation. The Paris agreement on climate change also recognises the role of forests in climate change mitigation and calls upon the party countries to take action to implement and support REDD+. Speaking on the occasion of release of Indias national strategy of REDD+ Vardhan said that India is committed to Paris agreement on climate change. In its nationally determined contribution to the Paris agreement, India has ...
78069 avhandlingar från svenska högskolor och universitet. Avhandling: Managing reindeer lichen during forest regeneration procedures.
Forest Service geneticists, in cooperation with Purdue University and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, studied northern red oak trees used as seed mothers for forest restoration and regeneration in Indiana. The researchers directly analyzed the DNA of the mother trees as well as their acorns and seedlings. The mother trees, selected by experts from sources all across Indiana and nearby states, produced genetically diverse, high quality red oak seedlings. Only a small percentage of the seedlings generated in the nursery had genetic code from unselected wild trees whose quality and genetic diversity is not known. This is good news for landowners who purchase and plant these red oak seedlings for use in timber production, to sustain wildlife, or for forest rehabilitation. The high quality planting stock will result in trees that are likely adapted to a range of conditions they will encounter in the future, and will help ensure these forest are available for the next generation to use ...
CORRELATING ENHANCED NATIONAL WETLANDS INVENTORY DATA WITH WETLAND FUNCTIONS FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS: A RATIONALE FOR NORTHEASTERN U.S. WETLANDS U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Program Northeast Region 300 Westgate Center Drive Hadley, MA 01035 Correlating Enhanced National Wetlands Inventory Data with Wetland Functions for Watershed Assessments: A Rationale for Northeastern U.S. Wetlands Ralph W. Tiner Regional Wetland Coordinator U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Northeast Region 300 Westgate Center Drive Hadley, MA 01035 October 2003 This publication should be cited as: Tiner, R.W. 2003. Correlating Enhanced National Wetlands Inventory Data with Wetland Functions for Watershed Assessments: A Rationale for Northeastern U.S. Wetlands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory Program, Region 5, Hadley, MA. 26 pp. Table of Contents Page Background 1 Limitations of the Preliminary Wetland Functional Assessment 2 Rationale for Preliminary Functional ...
CORRELATING ENHANCED NATIONAL WETLANDS INVENTORY DATA WITH WETLAND FUNCTIONS FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENTS: A RATIONALE FOR NORTHEASTERN U.S. WETLANDS U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Program Northeast Region 300 Westgate Center Drive Hadley, MA 01035 Correlating Enhanced National Wetlands Inventory Data with Wetland Functions for Watershed Assessments: A Rationale for Northeastern U.S. Wetlands Ralph W. Tiner Regional Wetland Coordinator U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Northeast Region 300 Westgate Center Drive Hadley, MA 01035 October 2003 This publication should be cited as: Tiner, R.W. 2003. Correlating Enhanced National Wetlands Inventory Data with Wetland Functions for Watershed Assessments: A Rationale for Northeastern U.S. Wetlands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Wetlands Inventory Program, Region 5, Hadley, MA. 26 pp. Table of Contents Page Background 1 Limitations of the Preliminary Wetland Functional Assessment 2 Rationale for Preliminary Functional ...
Methods characterizing fine-scale fuels and plant diversity can advance understanding of plant-fire interactions across scales and help in efforts to monitor important ecosystems such as longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests of the southeastern United States. Here, we evaluate the utility of close-range photogrammetry for measuring fuels and plant diversity at fine scales (submeter) in a longleaf pine forest. We gathered point-intercept data of understory plants and fuels on nine 3-m2 plots at a 10-cm resolution. For these same plots, we used close-range photogrammetry to derive 3-dimensional (3D) point clouds representing understory plant height and color. Point clouds were summarized into distributional height and density metrics. We grouped 100 cm2 cells into fuel types, using cluster analysis. Comparison of photogrammetry heights with point-intercept measurements showed that photogrammetry points were weakly to moderately correlated to plant and fuel heights (r = 0.19-0.53). ...
2021-04-06/.. Spring is an excellent time to learn to identify native trees by their leaves and flowers, branch and bark patterns, and site and soil preferences. Join Henry Hughes and Michelle Blackwood for this spring-focused class on native tree identification! Our class will begin just as leaves have fully emerged for the 2021 growing season. We will visit native forests in rural and urban settings through photographs taken by the instructors and will learn the common and scientific names of over sixty prevalent native tree species. An easy to use identification key, with verbal descriptions and line drawings, will be provided. The class will be organized around the beautiful new book Trees of Alabama by Lisa J. Samuelson and photographs by Michael E. Hogan, a 2020 University of Alabama Press Gosse Nature Guide.. Each class meeting covers a different aspect of tree ID for the beginner:. Day 1: Botanical names (families, genera, species); tree ID by leaves, buds, twigs, flowers, bark and ...
An attempt has been undertaken to analyze quality of grown by Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood representing three biological classes in pure pine stands, namely: predominant, dominant and codominant trees accordingly to the Krafts classes. Efforts were also made to determine effect of trees age on the chosen anatomical properties and density of wood in view of its quality at pines representing particular biological glasses in investigated forest stands. Material for experiment has been Scots pine wood from peripheral zone, grown in conditions of Mixed Fresh Forest from Great Poland terrain. It has been found that the structure and density of wood are influenced by the social position of the tree in forest stand, that is biological class and also by the forest stand age. The position of the tree in forest stand, that is biological class and also by the forest stand age. The forest stand age, social position of tree in forest stand and also bound with that dimensions of the crowns (length ...
An attempt has been undertaken to analyze quality of grown by Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood representing three biological classes in pure pine stands, namely: predominant, dominant and codominant trees accordingly to the Krafts classes. Efforts were also made to determine effect of trees age on the chosen anatomical properties and density of wood in view of its quality at pines representing particular biological glasses in investigated forest stands. Material for experiment has been Scots pine wood from peripheral zone, grown in conditions of Mixed Fresh Forest from Great Poland terrain. It has been found that the structure and density of wood are influenced by the social position of the tree in forest stand, that is biological class and also by the forest stand age. The position of the tree in forest stand, that is biological class and also by the forest stand age. The forest stand age, social position of tree in forest stand and also bound with that dimensions of the crowns (length ...
A HISTORY OF THE WASATCH-CACHE} NATIONAL FOREST Submitted to the Wasatch-Cache National Forest September 25, 1980 by Charles S. Peterson Linda E. Speth Utah State University FORWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In writing this history of the Wasatch-Cache National Forest we have followed the suggested Forest Service history outline in spirit and general context. As the outline suggests, we have tried to put the Forest in its broader persoective, both as it relates to develooments within the Forest Service generally and local background. At the same time we have looked closely at the actual function of the Forest during its various stages. Interpretively we have proceeded from the potnt of view that the Wasatch-Cache National Forest spreads over a substantial geographic area and that a playoff between interests that are essentially urban on the one hand and rural on the other, has made for considerable diversity in the programs of the Forest. Conflict between conservationists and non-conservationists ...
Forests in Kenya are threatened by unsustainable uses and conversion to alternative land uses. In spite of the consequences of forest degradation and biodiversity loss and reliance of communities on forests livelihoods, there is little empirical data on the role of forest resources in livelihoods of the local communities. Socioeconomic, demographic, and forest use data were obtained by interviewing 367 households. Forest product market survey was undertaken to determine prices of various forest products for valuation of forest use. Forest income was significant to households contributing 33% of total household income. Fuel wood contributed 50%, food (27%), construction material (18%), and fodder, and thatching material 5% to household forest income. Absolute forest income and relative forest income (%) were not significantly different across study locations and between ethnic groups. However, absolute forest income and relative forest income (%) were significantly
Xanthoceras sorbifolia is a deciduous tree species of Sapindaceae, with tree height up to 8 m, and DBH (diameter at breast height) up to 1 m, capsules of the species round, large and open up at mature. Trees are planted at 1 year old, start to flower next year and fruiting at the third year. At 5 years old, the proportion of fruiting trees can be up to over 95%. On slopes of barren mountains, production of fresh fruits can be more than 22,500 kg per ha, equivalent to more than 300 kg seeds, at 10 years old, seed production can be more than 10 kg per tree. The species is light preferring, drought and cold resistant, mainly grown in northeast and north China. The oil production from fruits with shells is 30%, and 65% from the pips ...
Abstract: In this study, the land use change in a large basin of Calabria region (southern Italy) subjected to extensive reforestation at the end of the 50 has been carefully reconstructed and compared with the current situation. The runoff capacity of the basin was estimated using data available for the temporal periods before and after the reforestation interventions. The results show that the surface of the basin interested by former reforestation activities did not affect the runoff, probably due to a trade-off between the effects of reforestation and a concurrent increase in urbanized and degraded areas. Indeed, the hydrological response is linked to structural complexity of reforested areas, currently at an early stage of development that can be further promoted through forest management activities.
Image-based point clouds obtained using aerial photogrammetry share many characteristics with point clouds obtained by airborne laser scanning (ALS). Two approaches have been used to predict forest parameters from ALS: the area-based approach (ABA) and the individual tree crown (ITC) approach. In this article, we apply the semi-ITC approach, a variety of the ITC approach, on an image-based point cloud to predict forest parameters and compare the performance to the ABA. Norwegian National Forest Inventory sample plots on a site in southeastern Norway were used as the reference data. Tree crown objects were delineated using a watershed segmentation algorithm, and explanatory variables were calculated for each tree crown segment. A multivariate kNN model for timber volume, stem density, basal area and quadratic mean diameter with the semi-ITC approach produced RMSEs of 30%, 46%, 25%, 26%, respectively. The corresponding measures for the ABA were 30%, 51%, 26%, 35%, respectively. Univariate kNN ...
Used by humans since ancient times, evergreen oak forests still cover extensive mountain areas of the Mediterranean Basin. These broadleaved evergreen forests occupy a transitional zone between the cool-temperate deciduous forest biome and the drier Mediterranean pine forests and shrublands. Slow growing and casting a deep shade, the sclerophyllous holm oak (Quercus ilex) absolutely dominates the closed canopy of many Mediterranean evergreen oak forests. This is a synthesis of 20 years of research on the structure, function, and dynamics of holm oak forests in two intensively studied experimental areas in Spain. By combining observational measurements at the leaf, tree, plot, and catchment scales with field experiments and modelling, the authors explore how these forests cope with strong water limitation and repeated disturbances.
We examined floristic patterns of ten seasonal semideciduous forest sites in southeastern Brazil and conducted a central sampling of one hectare for each site, where we took samples and identified all individual living trees with DBH (diameter at breast height, 1.30 m) ≥4.8 cm. Arboreal flora totaled 242 species, 163 genera, and 58 families. Fabaceae (38 species) and Myrtaceae (20 species) were families with the largest number of species. Only |i|Copaifera langsdorffii|/i| and |i|Hymenaea courbaril|/i| occurred at all sites. Multivariate analysis (detrended correspondence analysis and cluster analysis) using two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) indicated the formation of a group containing seven fragments in which |i|Siparuna guianensis|/i| was the indicator species. This analysis revealed that similarities between studied fragments were due mainly to the successional stage of the community.
Today, about 6 percent of the surface of Earth is covered in rainforests, and more than half of all the worlds plant and animal species live in them. The shear biomass of plants in the rainforest help produce about 40 percent of Earths oxygen.. Estimates of the Earths biodiversity originally came from studies in Panama, where tree species were logged and the number of insects within them categorized and counted. Estimates range from 10 to 100 million species on earth, most of them being insects found in the tropical rain forests.. The tropical rainforests have more kinds of trees than any other biome in the world. In a rainforest in South America, scientists counted from 100 to 300 species of tree in 2.5 acre sections of the forest. Not all plants in the rainforest are trees though. While they are the easiest to observe, there is a great diversity of epiphytes, plants that live on other plants, that make the rainforest their home. Plants like orchids live on rainforest trees high in the ...
Downloadable! REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) aims to slow carbon releases caused by forest disturbance by making payments conditional on forest quality over time. Like earlier policies to slow deforestation, REDD must change the behaviour of forest degraders. Broadly, it can be implemented with payments to potential forest degraders, thus creating incentives; through payments for enforcement, thus creating disincentives; or through addressing external drivers such as urban charcoal demand. In Tanzania, community-based forest management (CBFM), a form of participatory forest management (PFM), was chosen as the model for implementing REDD pilot programs. Payments are made to villages that have the rights to forest carbon. In exchange for these payments, the villages must demonstrably reduce deforestation at the village level. Using this pilot program as a case study, we provide insights for REDD implementation in sub-Saharan Africa. We pay particular attention to leakage,
Hybrid poplars were planted in Rosholt Farm in Westport, Minnesota in the spring of years 1995 and 1997, containing 59 and 79 clones of hybrid poplars respectively. Both hybrid poplar sites totaling 2.82 ha were irrigated. The hybrid poplar cuttings (10 inches length) were planted at a 3.05 m x 3.05 m (10 x 10) spacing resulting in a stem area density of 1075 ha-1 (435 plants/acre).. The 1995 and 1997 hybrid poplars plantings were harvested using logging harvesting equipment in Winter 2008. Data collection focused on commercial clones such as NM6 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii), D105 (Populus deltoides) and DN34 (P. deltoides x P. nigra), which are preferred by landowners in Minnesota. Prior to harvesting, height and diameter of these clones were determined. Diameter at breast height (DBH) was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm on these clones. Collected diameter data were used to estimate biomass following destructive aboveground harvest of multiple hybrid poplar genotypes across numerous ...
More than half of the worlds tropical forests are currently recovering from human land use, and this regenerating biomass now represents the largest carbon (C)-capturing potential on Earth. How quickly these forests regenerate is now a central concern for both conservation and global climate-modeling efforts. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing trees are thought to provide much of the nitrogen (N) required to fuel tropical secondary regrowth and therefore to drive the rate of forest regeneration, yet we have a poor understanding of how these N fixers influence the trees around them. Do they promote forest growth, as expected if the new N they fix facilitates neighboring trees? Or do they suppress growth, as expected if competitive inhibition of their neighbors is strong? Using 17 consecutive years of data from tropical rainforest plots in Costa Rica that range from 10 y since abandonment to old-growth forest, we assessed how N fixers influenced the growth of forest stands and the demographic rates of ...
Forest ecosystems have integral roles in climate stability, biodiversity and economic development. Soil stewardship is essential for sustainable forest management. Organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction are key disturbances associated with forest harvesting, but their impacts on forest ecosystems are not well understood. Because microbiological processes regulate soil ecology and biogeochemistry, microbial community structure might serve as indicator of forest ecosystem status, revealing changes in nutrient and energy flow patterns before they have irreversible effects on long-term soil productivity. We applied massively parallel pyrosequencing of over 4.6 million ribosomal marker sequences to assess the impact of OM removal and soil compaction on bacterial and fungal communities in a field experiment replicated at six forest sites in British Columbia, Canada. More than a decade after harvesting, diversity and structure of soil bacterial and fungal communities remained significantly ...
Looking for Angeles National Forest? Find out information about Angeles National Forest. Parks Directory of the United States / National Forests Address: 701 N Santa Anita Ave Arcadia, CA 91006 Phone: 626-574-5200 Fax: 626-574-5233 Web:... Explanation of Angeles National Forest
Many forest tree species and populations face serious threats to their long-term viability, most seriously from insect and disease infestation and the effects of climate change. To conserve the genetic foundation tree species need to survive and adapt in the face of these threats, forest management decisions must consider how genetic diversity is distributed across species ranges. An Eastern Threat Center cooperating scientist from North Carolina State University (NCSU) is leading range-wide genetic variation studies of three species: ponderosa pine, a species with isolated populations of special concern given their susceptibility to climate change, development, and bark beetles; and eastern hemlock and Carolina hemlock, which are being decimated by an exotic insect. Researchers have, for the first time, uncovered evolutionary groups within ponderosa pine that may have different responses to climate change, bark beetles, and other threats, and have described population-level genetic diversity ...
In Finland it is estimated that forest biomass will be the main source of bioenergy when meeting the national target: 38% renewable from total energy consumption by 2020. This target must become concrete for regional and local level participators of a forest industry and actions should take place in large combined heat and power generation (CHP) plants, district heating plants and independent heating systems. In energy production replacing fossil fuels with renewa-ble energy is reasonable in many cases. However, there are usually doubts about the availability and security of supply of forest biomass. The aim of this study is to introduce a systematical method for analyzing the availability and demand of forest biomass in regional and local level. This study introduces an objective method for analyzing local possibilities on where and how much the use of forest biomass could be increased. By replacing use of fossil fuels with renewable and domestic energy sources carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and
The Cibola National Forest (pronounced SEE-bo-lah) is a 1,633,783 acre (6,611.7 km2) United States National Forest in New Mexico, USA. The name Cibola is thought to be the original Zuni Indian name for their pueblos or tribal lands. The name was later interpreted by the Spanish to mean, buffalo.[3] The forest is disjointed with lands spread across central and northern New Mexico, west Texas and Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest is divided into four Ranger Districts: the Sandia, Mountainair, Mt. Taylor, and Magdalena. The Forest includes the San Mateo, Magdalena, Datil, Bear, Gallina, Manzano, Sandia, Mt. Taylor, and Zuni Mountains of west-central New Mexico. The Forest also manages four National Grasslands that stretch from northeastern New Mexico eastward into the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest and Grassland is administered by Region 3 of the United States Forest Service from offices in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Elevation ranges from 5,000 ft (1,500 m) to ...
Together, our individual-scale results and our 1-ha plot-scale findings show that N fixers in these forests inhibit their neighbors more than do nonfixers. It is important to note that the strong inhibition of N fixers we report is independent of the overall level of crowding and tree size. For example, an average-sized nonfixing tree (diameter at breast height [DBH] ∼ 13 cm) with an average amount of crowding (NCI ∼ 1,900) in a young forest stand would have a 43% lower expected growth rate if its neighbors were all N fixers than if its neighbors were all nonfixers. If this average tree is an N fixer itself, a neighborhood with all N fixers reduces its expected growth rate by over 60% compared with a neighborhood with all nonfixers.. The negative influence that N fixers have on their neighboring trees in our study region is likely due to two factors. First, high growth and survival rates of N fixers in these plots (19), and the high nutrient demand of N fixers (15⇓-17, 28), mean that N ...
Under the Bonn Challenge, Uganda has pledged to restore 2.5 million ha of land by 2020. This pledge represents a huge opportunity for delivering species conservation, increasing biodiversity on farms, and delivering genetically and taxonomically diverse ecological restoration that benefits people and wildlife. Uganda has 849 native tree species; 30 are globally threatened.. Tooro Botanical Gardens (TBG) is situated in Fort Portal in Western Uganda. TBG has been working with local communities to bring 52 ha of degraded forest reserves under restoration and operates the largest native tree nursery in Uganda, producing around 40,000 native tree seedlings per year. The first phase of the project brought one Central Forest Reserve and two Local Forest Reserves under restoration, generated information on native species, and established demonstration sites that showcase species diverse forest restoration and provide benefits to neighbouring communities, e.g. through employment.. In the second phase of ...
Trees of Antiquity : Fruit Tree Terms - Apple Trees Pear Trees Peach Trees Apricot Trees Crabapple Trees Cherry Trees Fig Trees Grape Vines Kiwi Vines Berry Bushes Nectarine Trees Walnut & Almond Trees Persimmon Trees Plum Trees Pluot & Plumcot Trees Pomegranate Bush Quince Trees A Bundle of Savings Tree Starter Kit Gift Certificate Blueberry Bushes Mulberry Trees Jujube Trees Medlar Trees Heirloom Hard Cider
Most plant physiological processes act on micro-geographic scales within meters or less and on temporal scales of minutes or less. Yet, most studies relating species distribution to climate used typical resolutions of kilometers and months at best. Commonly available climate records from weather stations or freely available coarse-resolution geographic climatic layers thus, do not reflect local climatic conditions. In this study we selected sites where eight temperate deciduous tree species are growing at their cold upper elevational and latitudinal limits in the Swiss Alps (from 1165 m a.s.l. to 1804 m a.s.l.) and in Sweden (from 58 degrees 18N to 59 degrees 27 N). At each site, temperature was recorded for 1-2 years in different conditions: at understorey height (50 cm), 2-m above ground, in the top of tree canopies and at 10 cm depth in the soil. We compared these biologically meaningful temperatures with the closest weather station data after correction for elevation. The data ev
A Working Forest (WF) is harvested for timber production on a periodic basis while forests are regenerated in other areas previously harvested. Working forests are defined as forests that are actively managed to generate revenue from multiple sources, including sustainably produced timber and other ecosystem services. Working forests are not converted to other land uses such as residential development. Humanity utilizes wood products for cooking and heating fuel construction of homes, paper and countless other uses. As population grows over the coming decades the demand for forest products will increase. How can we balance the need for forest products with the goals of forest conservation and carbon sequestration? The project area of a WF is likely to have portions of forest that are simultaneously being harvested, rapidly regrowing and reaching maturity. In many countries the convergence of humanitarian needs for forest products and the needs of fauna for subsistence result in a loss of both. ...
A Working Forest (WF) is harvested for timber production on a periodic basis while forests are regenerated in other areas previously harvested. Working forests are defined as forests that are actively managed to generate revenue from multiple sources, including sustainably produced timber and other ecosystem services. Working forests are not converted to other land uses such as residential development. Humanity utilizes wood products for cooking and heating fuel construction of homes, paper and countless other uses. As population grows over the coming decades the demand for forest products will increase. How can we balance the need for forest products with the goals of forest conservation and carbon sequestration? The project area of a WF is likely to have portions of forest that are simultaneously being harvested, rapidly regrowing and reaching maturity. In many countries the convergence of humanitarian needs for forest products and the needs of fauna for subsistence result in a loss of both. ...
White-cheeked Turaco (Turaco leucotis) sitting among epiphytes in cloud forest canopy, Kaffa, Southern Ethiopia, East Africa December 2008 - Bruno D'Amicis
Anthony, R. N. & Herzlinger, R. E. 1980. Management Control In Non-profit Organizations. Harvard University, Richard D. Irwin, Inc. Publishers, Illinois. Bertault, J. G. Dupe, B. & Matter, H. F. 1995. Silviculture for Sustainable Management of Tropical Moist Forest. In UNASYLVA, Vol. 46, (181), FAO, Rome. Bruenig, E. F. 1996. Conservation and Management of Tropical Rainforests: an Integrated Approach to Sustainability. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxford. Catinot, René. 1997. The Sustainable Management of Tropical Rainforests. General Secretariat, Association technique internationale des bois tropicaux, ATIBT. Paris. de Montalembert, M. R. & Schmithüsen, F. 1993/4. Policy and Legal Aspects of Sustainable Forest Management. In UNASYLVA, Vol. 44 (175), FAO, Rome. Dubourdieu, J. 1997. LAménagement Forestier - Gestion Durable et Intégrée des Ecosystèmes Forestiers. Office National des Forêts, Paris. FAO. 1982. Environmental Impact of Forestry. Conservation Guide No. 7, Rome. FAO. ...
The effects of historical land use on tropical forest must be examined to understand present forest characteristics and to plan conservation strategies. We compared the effects of past land use, topography, soil type, and other environmental variables on tree species composition in a subtropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico. The study involved stems , 10 cm diameter measured at 130 cm above the ground, within the 16-ha Luquillo Forest Dynamics Plot (LFDP), and represents the forest at the time Hurricane Hugo struck in 1989. Topography in the plot is rugged, and soils are variable. Historical documents and local residents described past land uses such as clear-felling and selective logging followed by farming, fruit and coffee production, and timber stand improvement in the forest area that now includes the LFDP. These uses ceased 40-60 yr before the study, but their impacts could be differentiated by percent canopy cover seen in aerial photographs from 1936. Using these ...
The erection of a stone wall between the road and the tree when the park was created was controversial, as it prevents the tree ... Created at the turn of the millennium, it contains El Drago Milenario, a dragon tree thought to be around 1,000 years old, as ... Krawczyszyn, Józef; Krawczyszyn, Teresa (1 June 2014). "Massive aerial roots affect growth and form of Dracaena draco". Trees. ... dragon tree) in existence, and one of the symbols of Tenerife, estimated to be between 800 and 1,000 years old. It also has a ...
Potted trees, not grafted, propagated under licence. Golden Hill Plants [9], Marden, Kent, UK. Potted trees, not grafted. Les ... The ultimate size and shape of this cultivar remain unknown but, given its ancestry, it should make a large tree. The trees ... Two small trees imported in 2010. Europe Batouwe Boomkwekerijen B.V. [7], Dodewaard, Netherlands. Potted whips. F P Matthews ' ... Heybroek, H. M., Goudzwaard, L, Kaljee, H. (2009). Iep of olm, karakterboom van de Lage Landen (:Elm, a tree with character of ...
It is a nine-acre woodland containing mainly silver birch trees with some oak and a smattering of holly trees, rowan, hawthorn ... The wood was originally known as the Pine Wood, presumably when pine trees grew in the area. However, most trees were destroyed ... "Trees". Friends of Harmers Wood. Retrieved 16 December 2019. "Home page". Friends of Harmers Wood. Retrieved 9 February 2021. ...
Cibotium tree ferns), which have long decayed away when the tree has reached maturity. Some trees have fibrous aerial roots to ... In some trees, it is straight and smooth; in others, it is twisted and prominently fluted. Trees growing in forests often have ... also the tree itself [emphasis added]." Thus the Metrosideros polymorpha may be referred to correctly as a lehua tree, or as an ... ʻŌhiʻa trees grow easily on lava, and are usually the first plants to grow on new lava flows. It is a common misconception that ...
Some members of the species are nitrogen-fixing and have been found in tissues of living sassafras trees. C. freundii has also ... trees". Plant and Soil. 125 (Pt 2): 149-152. doi:10.1107/S0907444910050201. PMID 21245529. Pang, A.; Warren, M. J.; Pickersgill ...
The two rows of trees forming the avenue are spaced 23 metres (75 ft) apart, with trees in each row separated by 16 metres (52 ... "Trees. A Woodland Notebook Containing Observations on Certain British and Exotic Trees". Retrieved 29 December 2013. CS1 maint ... "by far the best avenue of this tree that [he had] seen". Similarly, Sir Herbert Maxwell described the trees as being "clothed ... Elwes commented on how the sandy soil suited the trees "remarkably well", and on the symmetry of the trees' tops and their ...
... is a tree that may grow to a height of 45 m (148 ft) with a dbh of 1.8 m (5 ft 11 in) but is a smaller tree ... The tree produces a large amount of pollen and flowers before marri, a major source of nectar, so this can be used to increase ... Insects are also likely to be diverse and numerous on the foliage, due to the rich soil fertility and associated trees in its ... The juvenile leaves are broad and face upward, allowing the sapling to compete in the shadows of other trees and tall shrubs, ...
... the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil in Genesis, the Cross, the tree of death in the Gospels, and the Tree of Life in ... Old Man Willow is a malign tree-spirit of great age in Tom Bombadil's Old Forest, appearing physically as a large willow tree ... They were saved by the arrival of Tom Bombadil who 'sang' to the ancient tree to release Merry and Pippin. The tree then ... "tree-hugger". They write that trees (like other creatures) are in Tolkien's world subject to the corruption of the Fall of Man ...
Amapa (Tabebuia chrysantha) trees yield highly prized lumber for building and furniture making. Other trees are also cut and ... From 1,200-2,400 metres (4,000-8,000 ft), oak trees grow in the huge forests as well as the more shade-tolerant types of trees ... Brushwood and scrubby trees grow on the canyon slopes, which can accommodate the dry season. Huge fig (Ficus spp.) and palm ... Agriculture and grazing as well as the cutting of hardwoods and other trees for firewood has accelerated a soil erosion problem ...
Page 26/28) There were a couple of family trees inscribed on the flyleaf. Trees? Father, they were sharply roll diagrams. My ... Following branches of my family tree, I discovered a series of white men who-because they married Nyoongar woman and claimed ...
The central section of the park is mostly composed of old-growth forest, mainly oak trees dating to at least the late 19th or ... trees". New York Post. Retrieved January 16, 2020. La Guerre, Liam (July 7, 2014). "$2.45M upgrade set for Flushing's troubled ... After a hurricane in 1968 felled over fifty trees in the park, several neighborhood groups approved a $500,000 renovation for ... Furthermore, in August 2011, two 200-year-old trees in Bowne Park were knocked down during Hurricane Irene. Borough officials ...
Most leafy trees of midlatitudes also belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong ... Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants, trees, and ornamentals. Some common and familiar ... Based on: Stevens, P.F. (2001-2014). "Trees". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Retrieved 2014-11-17. Stevens, P.F. (2001-2016). " ... "Eudicots" at the Encyclopedia of Life Eudicots, Tree of Life Web Project Dicots Plant Life Forms. ...
Trees. 21 (4): 457-464. doi:10.1007/s00468-007-0138-y. S2CID 25583722. v t e. ...
Trees. New York: Viking Press, 1968. London: Thames & Hudson, 1968. Harmondsworth, Middx: Penguin, 1978. ISBN 0-14-004747-6. ...
While the tree is in the Parque del Drago (Drago Park), which charges for entry, it is possible to view it for free from the ... It is the largest and oldest living specimen of Dracaena draco (common name dragon tree). It is in Parque del Drago, Icod de ... In 1993 the road that passed within a few metres of the tree was rerouted. Since 2002 it has been considered for submission to ... Alexander von Humboldt estimated a similar tree on the island (that fell in a storm in 1867) to be several thousand years old, ...
During the late 20th century, over 9,000 elm trees in Hyde Park were killed by Dutch elm disease. This included many trees ... A scheme is available to adopt trees in the park, which helps fund their upkeep and maintenance. A botanical curiosity is the ... "Trees". Royal Parks. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2017. "Hyde Park". GardenVisit.com. ... weeping beech, which is known as "the upside-down tree". A rose garden, designed by Colvin & Moggridge Landscape Architects, ...
Their research suggests that fog may help the leaves retain water and enable the trees to fix more carbon during active growth ... This research showed that isoprene emissions from oil palm tree are under strong circadian control. The ecophysiological ... from The University of Putra Malaysia and The University of Edinburgh investigated the relative effects of tree age and tree ... changes in physiological characteristics and chemical composition of Acer pseudoplatanus and Fraxinus excelsior trees". Tree ...
Atlas mastic tree and as the Persian turpentine tree. Pistacia ranges from shrubs to trees adapted to drought and the ... Old trees may have trunks measuring 2 m (6 ft 7 in) in diameter; it may take 200 years for a tree to reach 1 m (3 ft 3 in) wide ... The tree is dioecious with male and female trees producing different types of flowers. Both types are small and greenish and ... Monoecious and hermaphrodite trees have been seen, but are unusual. The oblong, fleshy, oily fruit borne by the female tree is ...
... aims to plant indigenous tree species in zones that have been devastated by deforestation, which is commonly a ... "Trees". Retrieved 17 October 2015. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) WWF. "Deforestation". WorldWildlife. Retrieved 20 ... All three Sadhana Forest locations focus on three main development and conservation projects: water, trees, and people. While ... play games and plant trees. On April 8, 2010, Sadhana Forest Haiti was started in the community of Anse-à-pitres in the south- ...
Trees. 18 (6): 669-676. doi:10.1007/s00468-004-0349-4. S2CID 37031814. Huang, Z.; Boubriak, I.; Osborne, D. J.; Dong, M.; ...
There exists a graph of groups (G,T) where T is a tree with at most one non-terminal vertex, such that GL2(R) is isomorphic to ... Serre, Jean-Pierre (2003). Trees. Springer. ISBN 3-540-44237-5. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link). ...
trees. One of the spaces includes an Amnesty International Peace Garden with planting also designed by Fisher Tomlin. The house ... Behind the orangery is a mulberry tree said to be the oldest of its species (Morus nigra) in the country, and has been afforded ... The Charlton House Mulberry, Trees for Cities (Archived page). Accessed: 21 August 2018. Joan Thirsk,Food in Early Modern ... Great Tree of London status. It is thought to have been planted in 1608 at the order of James I. Giacomo Castelvetro, an ...
Trees. 2 stamens, opposed to internal petals, the other 3 reduced to squamiform staminodes. Flowers normally in terminal or ... Trees, climbing shrubs or woody vines, evergreen, rarely deciduous, glabrous or pubescent, rarely spiny. Indumentum of simple ... The genus Sabia often are lianas, while those in the genera Meliosma and Ophiocaryon are trees and shrubs; the latter two are ...
One of the tree species mostly found in freshwater swamp forests are legume trees, in which most swamp forests have high single ... sparse measurements of trees can reach 33-36 m. Tree composition includes a varied mixture of leaf types and seasonality. ... it is common to observe only a few dominant tree species Distribution of trees and other plants is highly dependent on ... The trees in the igapó bloom once the inundation season begins. They do this so they can drop their fruit into the water to be ...
Also a big tree/ redwood (Sequoiadendron giganteum). This tree is one of the earliest in Cook Park. Lawns and flower beds, and ... The park has over 200 trees, many in over-mature condition. Storms have led to damage and loss of over-mature trees, for ... A feature was unmatched pairs of trees on path crossing points. Today the park has over 200 trees, 20 beds of annual flowers ... redwood or big tree (Sequoiadendron giganteum) - one of the oldest trees in the park; holly (Ilex aquifolium); stone pine ( ...
I wonder what he has done? ... Down on the borders they are felling trees - good trees. Some of the trees they just cut down ... "accursed tree-slayer". Kocher notes that Treebeard says that Ents have a far closer sympathy for trees than shepherds do for ... However, Tolkien's love of trees and unspoilt nature is apparent throughout the novel. J. R. R. Tolkien was brought up as a boy ... Tolkien noted in a letter that he had created walking tree-creatures [Ents and Huorns] partly in response to his "bitter ...
Let X be the Bass-Serre universal covering tree for the graph of groups Y. Since H ≤ G also acts on X, consider the quotient ... theorem is a straightforward corollary of the basic structural results of Bass-Serre theory about groups acting on trees. Let G ... 218-225 Serre, Jean-Pierre (2003). Trees. Springer. pp. 56-57. ISBN 3-540-44237-5.. ...
He included her in turn as a character (a talking tree) in his novel Stardust. Amos also mentions Gaiman in her songs, "Tear in ... He's flavour of the month, very famous Gaiman, Neil (20 December 2008). "Trees". Neil Gaiman's Journal. Archived from the ... " ("But will you find me if Neil makes me a tree?"), "Carbon" ("Get me Neil on the line, no I can't hold. Have him read, 'Snow ...
Anticipating their arrival, Thanatos positions the Mana Fortress over the Tree and destroys it. The charred remains of the Tree ... Mana Tree: That was your father, Serin. I was his wife...and am your mother. We are of the Mana Tribe. The women of our kind ... The Mana Tree also reveals that it was once the human wife of Serin, the original Mana Knight and the hero's father. The voice ... Mana Tree: The Mana Fortress is using up most of the world's Mana. Soon all the beasts of will be transformed into one giant ...
The game has three basic levels: ants; trees; and icebergs. Each category contains twenty different levels. Windows Phone 7 was ...
Tree of Life design and icons copyright © 1995-2004 Tree of Life Project. All rights reserved. ... For more information about quality control of Tree of Life content, see Status of Tree of Life Pages. ... License: Tree of Life & Partners uses only - Version 1.0 Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to , Oregon ... For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page. ...
Vitellaria paradoxa (formerly Butyrospermum parkii), commonly known as shea tree, shi tree (/ˈʃiː(ə)/), or vitellaria, is a ... The tree is called ghariti in the Wolof language of Senegal, which is the origin of the French name of the tree and the butter ... The tree starts bearing its first fruit when it is 10 to 15 years old; full production is attained when the tree is about 20 to ... In Hausa language the tree is called Kade or Kadanya. Indeed, the shea tree is so indispensable in Mole-Dagbang culinary and ...
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of ... FLY-TREE. Building the Dipteran Tree of Life: Cooperative Research in Phylogenetics and Bioinformatics of True Flies (Insecta: ... The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over ... Tree of Life design and icons copyright © 1995-2004 Tree of Life Project. All rights reserved. ...
For more information, see http://bit.ly/ngH8I2) For many, the tree is a symbol of longevity, integrity, and enduring beauty. ... Winter Tree Identification Part I: Easy to ID Trees - Duration: 10:56. Des Moines Parks and Recreation 25,955 views ... For many, the tree is a symbol of longevity, integrity, and enduring beauty. But how many of us have truly seen a tree? How ... Angel Oak Tree South Carolina in the Snow - Duration: 1:57. grbroussard 7,194 views ...
So what makes Trees different from all of these?. Trees is a place where we can be free to speak our (smoked-out) minds. The ... How can I hide the trees all over my screen?. If you want to hide the fact that you are browsing /r/trees. Go to your ... Are there rules 1 & 2 for /r/trees?. No there are not. In contrast to 4chan, /r/trees welcomes its users to talk as little or ... Why is /r/trees 18+?. A large part of the reason is study after study has shown that trees negatively and permanently impact ...
After a few requests I have added the presentation I give at the grafting workshops to the web site. It does not contain the videos I show, but has all the other slides. ...
Five Great Trees in Ireland:. *The Tree of Ross *The Tree of Mugna *The Tree of Dathi *The Tree of Uisneth *The Tree of Tortu. ... The Importance of Trees:. The oldest symbol of the world-axis is the sacred tree, and the World Tree was the symbolic center of ... The Rowan tree is the clan tree of the Malcolm Family.. An old Scottish spell tells us:. "Rowan tree and red thread. Makes the ... The Classification of Trees:. Chieftain Trees: oak, hazel, holly, apple, ash, yew, and fir.. Peasant Trees: alder, willow, ...
Home , The Lemon Trees. The Lemon Trees. Hear me a moment. Laureate poets seem to wander among plants no one knows: boxwood, ... Permission from Handsel Books (an imprint of Other Press LLC) to reprint "The Lemon Trees" from Montale in English Copyright © ... Even the poor know that richness, the fragrance of the lemon trees. You realize that in silences things yield and almost betray ... along the slope plunges through cane-tufts and opens suddenly into the orchard among the moss-green trunks of the lemon trees. ...
Click on any of the search results and the OIICS tree will expand to show the match. ...
This database contains family trees submitted to Ancestry by users who have indicated that their tree can be viewed by all ... Original data: Family trees submitted by Ancestry members.. About Public Member Trees. This database contains family trees ... Private Member Trees. This database contains family trees submitted to Ancestry by users who have indicated that their tree can ... Note: These trees are voluntarily submitted by Ancestry users like you. We take all tree data "as is" and cannot guarantee the ...
... science-based activities to help young people learn about the importance of trees and how to plant and take care of trees. ... The National Wildlife Federations Trees for Wildlife program provides adult leaders with fun, hands-on, ... PLAN A TREE PLANTING EVENT. Organize a tree planting or community tree giveaway to provide habitat for wildlife. By planting ... Add to the Tree Bank. Help protect wildlife one tree at a time. Every purchase made supports our work to help young people ...
... is named after a famous elm tree on the 65-acre (260,000 m2) isle. The tree died in the 1970s, but it survives in the elm tree ... "New Mexicos Champion Tree list" (PDF). Big Tree Program. Santa Fe, New Mexico: New Mexico Department of Energy, Minerals, and ... "Nevada Big Tree Registry 2015" (PDF). Nevadas Big Tree Program. Nevada Division of Forestry. 2016. p. 6. Archived from the ... The current Tree Register of the British Isles (T.R.O.B.I.) champion American elm tree lives in Avondale Forest near Rathdrum, ...
One activity associated with the spring is the planting of trees. People plant trees for a variety of reasons including ... such as planting trees for improved air or water quality. Trees and forests also take up or "sequester" carbon in their tissue ... Trees and Carbon Uptake Believe it or not, spring is just around the corner. ... So, if you are feeling a little guilty about your carbon footprint, you can get out and plant some trees. Its also a good way ...
Festival of Trees and Traditions is underway at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art with dozens of creatively decorated trees ... The 39th annual Festival of Trees and Traditions is underway at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art with dozens of creatively ... The 39th annual Festival of Trees and Traditions is underway at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art with dozens of creatively ...
Bonsai Trees has existed in various iterations since 2011. Often categorized as indie-rock with traces of emo influence, the ... Bonsai Trees, Category: Artist, Albums: Learn to Grow, Not Bitter, Minimalist, Singles: Apology Note, Dark Parking Lot, Vice ... Listen to Bonsai Trees now.. Listen to Bonsai Trees in full in the Spotify app ... Born out of Connecticut, Bonsai Trees has existed in various iterations since 2011. Often categorized as indie-rock with traces ...
Private Tree Connection. You will find in this tree. 6810 people in this member tree. Contact theblonde1 ... theblonde1 has chosen to not make this tree publicly viewable. Click the Contact theblonde1 button below to contact the tree ...
Wicket 6 trees. 2012-10-18 Thread Peter Diefenthaeler Hallo, I would like to use the new wicket tree model to build a tree with ... Re: Wicket 6 trees. 2012-10-19 Thread Sven Meier Hi, by default the new tree implementation uses CSS classes, see org.apache. ... Sven On 10/18/2012 04:11 PM, Peter Diefenthaeler wrote: Hallo, I would like to use the new wicket tree model to build a tree ... Re: Wicket 6 trees. 2012-10-22 Thread PDiefent Hi, this helped a lot. But Im struggling with the link component of the node. ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Our goal is to plant one billion trees to help restore our global forests. Its a big number, but we know we can do it with ... How does the Gift A Tree work? For each donation received as part of our Gift a Tree option, TNC will plant trees in our ... Trees exhale for us so that we can inhale them to stay alive. Can we ever forget that? Let us love trees with every breath we ... Why Gift a Tree? By giving the gift of tree planting with the Nature Conservancy you can celebrate a person or special occasion ...
For a list of specific pesticides used on Christmas trees, click here. Green Guide 117 , November/December 2006Holiday Greenery ... Lights and Ornamentsby P.W. McRandleFiled under: Holidays, Lighting, Green homes, Green living, Christmas Trees and ... Here is a collection of articles assembled over the last year regarding Christmas trees and their impact on the environment ... not a cut tree, but a live tree, with a root ball," Gangloff advises. Live trees can be found at most nurseries and some tree ...
Acacia trees stand in the foreground inside Northern Tanzania's Serengeti National Park as a storm lights up the sky in ... Acacia trees stand in the foreground inside Northern Tanzanias Serengeti National Park as a storm lights up the sky in the ... Acacia trees stand in the foreground inside Northern Tanzanias Serengeti National Park as a storm lights up the sky in the ... Acacia trees stand in the foreground inside Northern Tanzanias Serengeti National Park as a storm lights up the sky in the ...
Pages in category "br:Trees". The following 4 pages are in this category, out of 4 total. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Category:br:Trees&oldid=47109802" ...
The beauty of a knotty oak tree is different from that of a lovely flower. It is the rough beauty of an old soldiers face ... Adaptive Holztechnik Pflanzenwachstum Self-Repare Tree Mechanics Wachstum growth physiology plant growth plants tree ... Contemplating trees in this way is not much different from busying oneself with physiognomies, i.e. with the art of judging ... The beauty of a knotty oak tree is different from that of a lovely flower. It is the rough beauty of an old soldiers face ...
Gift Trees. If a non-endowed gift tree is donated to the University, the Grounds Department will plant the donated tree at no ... Endowed trees that die will be replaced with the endowment funds. There are times when these trees and plaques need to be ... Memorial Trees. This policy describes the process for giving trees to the University. There are two ways that individuals or ... Endowed Trees. For endowed trees the contributor must provide, in addition to the material and installation costs described for ...
Measuring Standing Trees F-35 forestry, trees, measuring Crop Tree Management: A Tool to Help You Achieve Your Woodland Goals F ... Pruning and Care of Tree Wounds PLPATH-TREE-06 trees, pruning, wounds ... trees, arborist, pruning, tree care, urban forestry Soil Testing for Ohio Lawns, Landscapes, Fruit Crops, and Vegetable Gardens ... soil, soil testing, garden, lawn, vegetable, fruit, turfgrass, fertilizer, trees Mycorrhizae in Urban Landscapes PLPATH-TREE-01 ...
... sprays spreading crown stalk stamens Stinkwood Swaziland Sweet Thorn sweet-scented Transkei Transvaal Bushveld Tree Aloe tree ... books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Trees_of_South_Africa.html?id=eT0KAQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareTrees ... Cape Province carpus clusters cm long cm wide colour Combretum common name crown of shining Cythna Letty dark deciduous tree ... Female flower Flame Bush fleshy forests frost-resistant fruit furniture garden Geelhout germinates readily giving the tree ...
IBM SPSS Decision Trees provides classification and decision trees to help you identify groups, discover relationships between ... IBM SPSS Decision Trees. IBM SPSS Decision Trees provides classification and decision trees to help you identify groups, ... Classification and regression tree algorithm. A comprehensive binary tree algorithm that partitions data and produces accurate ... Tree classification model. Classifies cases into groups or predicts values of a target variable based on values of predictor ...
IBM SPSS Decision Trees provides classification and decision trees to help you identify groups, discover relationships between ... IBM SPSS Decision Trees. IBM SPSS Decision Trees provides classification and decision trees to help you identify groups, ... Output Tree settings. Dependent and Independent variable selection. Variable view. Tree diagram. ... Uncover relationships with visual trees. Create highly visual trees that present data in branches and nodes. Explore results ...
GIBSON FAMILY TREE. WILLOUGHBY FAMILY TREE. McCOY FAMILY TREE. ZACHARY FAMILY TREE. FLOWERS FAMILY PHOTOGRAPHS. ... Flowers Family Tree. I have added links to my other family tree sites at bottom of page. I have also added a "Flowers Family ... tree, and Bola Brown officiating.. Burial will be in Science Hill. Cemetery.. Visition is at Barnett Funeral Home. after 6 p.m ...
... Genealogy Database containing 12414 individuals, Brenda Bean [email protected] GED2WWW, Major surnames ... The Bean Family Tree. Surname List. Family Treasures. Patrick OConnors Obit. Hynes Men Basketball Pictures. 5 Generations of ... Welcome to the Bean Family Tree. I hope that you can make a connection and add to my family.. If you do find a connection and ...
  • The American Christmas Tree Association is a non-profit organization whose mission is to provide the public with the data necessary for them the make educated, informed decisions when purchasing Christmas trees. (christmastreeassociation.org)
  • 2020) An unexpectedly large count of trees in the West African Sahara and Sahel . (nasa.gov)
  • Next up for this area of research is the Global Tree Assessment, which aims to assess the conservation status of all of the world's tree species by 2020. (treehugger.com)
  • CANBERRA, Australia (AP) - In a story on Jan. 17, 2020, about specialist firefighters who have saved the world's last remaining wild stand of a prehistoric tree from Australia's wildfires, The Associated Press erroneously reported the size of Wollemi National Park. (ap.org)
  • You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species. (tolweb.org)
  • Dead trees provide vital habitat for more than 1,000 species of wildlife nationwide. (nwf.org)
  • Charles Darwin published only one tree of life in his lifetime, a foldout that appears in On The Origin of Species . (amnh.org)
  • By planting trees and helping forests regrow where they have been severely degraded, we're helping to ensure clean water, air, diverse species and full, healthy forests for future generations. (nature.org)
  • The Plant a Billion Trees campaign will help improve important watersheds that provide clean drinking water and hydroelectricity to millions of people, as well as protection for thousands of species of native plants and animals. (nature.org)
  • Donations also help pay for the reforestation efforts in Plant a Billion projects, such as the removal of invasive species, protecting areas where tree saplings are growing, encouraging species to return to degraded areas, and removing any barriers that might prevent a forest from regrowth. (nature.org)
  • For example, the seeds from pine trees - one of the most widespread and invasive species as well as one of the species subject to GE research - can be carried up to 30 kilometres by the wind. (greenpeace.org)
  • Trees also propagate from shoots, and because they breed relatively easily with related species, they would inevitably pass on their genes to wild relatives and transfer their transgenes to microorganisms. (greenpeace.org)
  • A number of varieties of transgenic forest trees have been developed to resist insects, including two species of poplar, which have been commercialized in China. (greenpeace.org)
  • This beautiful wild land builds its landscape using common native tree species. (ehow.com)
  • 1. Earth has more than 60,000 known tree species. (treehugger.com)
  • Until recently, there was no thorough global census of tree species. (treehugger.com)
  • The scientists behind this effort compiled data from museums, botanical gardens, agricultural centers and other sources, and concluded there are 60,065 tree species currently known to science. (treehugger.com)
  • 2. More than half of all tree species exist only in a single country. (treehugger.com)
  • The dragon's blood tree is a vulnerable species endemic to Yemen's Socotra archipelago. (treehugger.com)
  • Aside from quantifying the biodiversity of trees, the 2017 census also highlights the need for details about where and how those 60,065 different species live. (treehugger.com)
  • Nearly 58 percent of all tree species are single-country endemics , the study found, meaning each one naturally occurs only within the borders of a single nation. (treehugger.com)
  • Brazil, Colombia and Indonesia have the highest totals for endemic tree species, which makes sense given the overall biodiversity found in their native forests. (treehugger.com)
  • The countries with the most country-endemic tree species reflect broader plant diversity trends (Brazil, Australia, China) or islands where isolation has resulted in speciation (Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia),' the study's authors write. (treehugger.com)
  • They cover a fascinating range of activities, from drones that shoot seeds into hardened soils to genetic research on tree species threatened with extinction. (nature.org)
  • Is the tree a desirable species? (sc.us)
  • It's also common to combine several varieties of one fruit - such as multiple pear or apple species - on a single tree. (go.com)
  • In a move that is first of its kind, the Joshua trees will be protected for a year under the California Endangered Species Act . (inhabitat.com)
  • Biologists looked at hundreds of tree species in 80 locations around the world and found. (npr.org)
  • The [documentation] functions allow us to categorize trees not just by location and species but [also] by health, which allows more precise tree removal and replacement budgeting," Bilafer said. (esri.com)
  • Using Collector, he takes a photo of each tree, notes its location, identifies the species, measures the trunk's circumference at chest height, and assesses the risk that it could die or fall over and damage structures. (esri.com)
  • The strangler fig tree (species: Ficus) is a fruit bearing tree that depends on an unusual symbiotic relationship with Amazon rain forest animals and trees to survive. (pbs.org)
  • Founded in 1985, Trees Atlanta works every day to address Atlanta's tree loss, protect its forests, and create new green space. (idealist.org)
  • Trees and forests also take up or "sequester" carbon in their tissue, especially the wood. (google.com)
  • Don't feel guilty about buying a tree," says Deborah Gangloff, executive director of American Forests, a nonprofit conservation organization. (organicconsumers.org)
  • But while forests are easy to spot from above, smaller stands of trees have often gone undercounted because they have been harder to detect with the satellite imagers usually available to scientists. (nasa.gov)
  • Brandt's machine-learning method identified 1.8 billion individual trees standing outside of areas classified as forests. (nasa.gov)
  • Mapping trees outside of forests at this level of detail would take months or years with traditional analysis methods, so the use of very high-resolution imagery and machine learning represents a significant breakthrough. (nasa.gov)
  • Moreover, given that the spread of transgenic seeds will be inevitable, the coexistence between transgenic tree plantations and less intensively managed public and private forestlands will pose new economic and liability problems, especially in landscapes made up of a mosaic of public forests, corporate timberlands, wildlife refuges and family timberlands. (greenpeace.org)
  • Native commonplace trees are part of existing gardens, yet they also form the dense green forests that cover western Washington to the coast. (ehow.com)
  • The Green Tree State" is another nickname alluding to the state's widespread conifer forests. (ehow.com)
  • The US Forest Service showcases how human health is directly impacted by the condition of trees and forests in surrounding areas. (ct.gov)
  • American Forests provides information on the positive impacts that trees have on the environment and how management decisions can ensure a healthy forest. (ct.gov)
  • About 3 trillion trees currently exist, enriching habitats from old-growth forests to city streets. (treehugger.com)
  • Science is helping us learn to use trees' resources more sustainably, and to protect vulnerable forests more effectively, but we still have a long way to go. (treehugger.com)
  • We still periodically pause to honor trees, with ancient holidays like Tu Bishvat as well as newer tributes like Arbor Day, the International Day of Forests or World Environment Day. (treehugger.com)
  • America's Forests ' highlights the people and places shaped by forests, and the viewer meets them all with the help of host Chuck Leavell , who may be best known as the keyboardist for The Rolling Stones, but he's also an accomplished tree farmer. (treehugger.com)
  • Can anyone imagine a world without trees and forests? (treehugger.com)
  • There is no resource that is more important to our daily lives than our trees and forests,' says Leavell. (treehugger.com)
  • Leavell travels the country in search of those with a love for trees and forests. (treehugger.com)
  • The Hindu Upanishads thought the branches of trees symbolized the five elements of ether, fire, water, air, and earth. (angelfire.com)
  • The Norsemen's tree was a gigantic ash or yew named Yggdrasil, whose branches reached towards heaven and whose roots would down into hell. (angelfire.com)
  • If there are no natural snags in your yard, you can create artificial ones by trimming branches on live trees of varying sizes and types. (nwf.org)
  • page?4-1.ILinkListener-tree-subtree-branches-1-node-junction em 1 - The space is you - Kurt Klavier (more in time) /em /div -- View this message in context: http://apache-wicket.1842946.n4.nabble.com/Wicket-6-trees-tp4653082p4653246.html Sent from the Users forum mailing list archive at Nabble.com. (mail-archive.com)
  • To recapture the scene for his family, he erected a tree in the main room and wired its branches with lighted candles. (history.com)
  • Today the majority of fruit trees are grafted at an early age to create trees with pest-resistant rootstocks and branches that produce bountiful, desirable fruit (resistant rootstocks often yield little or poor fruit on their own). (go.com)
  • Then again, keeping a beady eye on the branches might not be such an overwhelming task since it is, after all, only one tree. (go.com)
  • A tree diagram allows a user start at a single point and make mutually exclusive decisions or experience mutually exclusive events to follow a path down the branches of the tree. (investopedia.com)
  • There's something hanging over homeowners' heads out in the nation's older suburbs: branches from aging shade trees. (wsj.com)
  • Meanwhile, strangler fig branches and leaves begin to grow skyward, gradually overshadowing the host tree. (pbs.org)
  • In a period of 200 years, the strangler fig will effectively cut off all vital water, sunlight, and nutrient sources of the host tree with its constricting weave of roots and branches. (pbs.org)
  • All branches of a tree end in a null which is black . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Vibrant learners are sprouting new branches and growing their trees to the tune of their own heart's song. (edutopia.org)
  • Click on any of the search results and the OIICS tree will expand to show the match. (cdc.gov)
  • See Help with Online Code Trees for search examples. (cdc.gov)
  • A to the point e-book providing basic care for hundreds of indoor and outdoor trees, vegetables, flowers, fruits, grasses, and more - all in an easy to search e-book format. (lulu.com)
  • Eucalyptus tree roots can delve more than 130 feet (40 meters) deep underground in a thirsty search for water. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • A red-black tree is a normal binary search tree, except that each node is assigned a color , which is either red or black. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In winter, when the deciduous trees have shed their leaves, more sun reaches the buildings near these trees, helping to heat them. (ct.gov)
  • To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages. (tolweb.org)
  • Trees of life, or phylogenetic trees, continue to be useful in science today, though they're more complicated than Darwin may have envisioned. (amnh.org)
  • I've found beautiful trees and shrubs - from the purely ornamental to the fruit-bearing - year after year at my local Lowe's. (lowes.com)
  • The most important steps are to retain some trees on the area (D 2), and to plant a variety of other trees and shrubs (D 30, D 53). (fao.org)
  • Yes, trees and shrubs are part of the gorgeous palate of effective, habitat-friendly native woody plants that you can use to replace buckthorn, bush honeysuckle, and other alien invaders. (chicagotribune.com)
  • On June 4, 7:00 p.m., join the Lake-to-Prairie Chapter of Wild Ones at Fremont Public Library, 1170 North Midlothian Road, Mundelein, IL 60060, to hear about 'Native Trees and Shrubs. (chicagotribune.com)
  • You'll be amazed at all the wonderful trees and shrubs that are native locally and are beneficial to plant here. (chicagotribune.com)
  • This program was created as a guide for homeowners about what native trees and shrubs to consider for their own homes. (chicagotribune.com)
  • From the roots or base of trees, streams of pure, life-giving water flowed and formed pools or wells. (angelfire.com)
  • Remove trees that are obviously located in the immediate construction area and will be damaged by soil compaction, cutting of roots, or grade changes. (sc.us)
  • If an underground line must go near a tree, require the contractor to tunnel or auger underneath major roots without cutting them. (sc.us)
  • They make their breakthroughs from their true trees of knowledge that they have passionately curated, and the roots grow down into their hearts. (edutopia.org)
  • Nicknamed the "Evergreen State," Washington treasures its common forest trees for their value to the state's economy and to the region's ecosystems. (ehow.com)
  • At the same time, strategically placed evergreen trees can block cold winter winds, saving on heating costs. (ct.gov)
  • Best known of all magnolias is Magnolia grandiflora or Southern magnolia, native throughout the South and beloved for its large elegant flowers, glossy evergreen foliage and graceful form--now the most widely grown ornamental evergreen tree in the world. (ehow.com)
  • Just as people today decorate their homes during the festive season with pine, spruce, and fir trees, ancient peoples hung evergreen boughs over their doors and windows. (history.com)
  • This is the only evergreen in the set of seven trees. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Named after a word meaning 'food of the gods,' the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao) is a wide-branched evergreen that is frequently cultivated for its seeds to make cocoa and chocolate products. (pbs.org)
  • Houses are getting bigger and lots are getting smaller," said Lisa Bradford, a sales associate with Tsugawa Nursery in Woodland, Wash. "We think that's what's making these multiple fruit trees more popular. (go.com)
  • Tsugawa Nursery offers stone fruit salad trees, which it buys from Dave Wilson Nurseries in Hickman, Calif. Durling Nursery of Fallbrook, Calif. offers multiple citrus fruit trees. (go.com)
  • And James and Kerry West of the Fruit Salad Tree Company offer an ambitious line of mixed fruit trees through their orchards, based in Emmaville in New South Wales, Australia. (go.com)
  • We connect neighbors with fruit trees with volunteer pickers to harvest fruits that would otherwise go to waste, sharing the bounty between food pantries and participating volunteers. (google.com)
  • He bought the saplings at a penny apiece, & over a period ending 1932, sold little Christmas treed in red cans at the rate of 30 or 40 thousand a year. (newyorker.com)
  • We compare the performance of our algorithm against that of decision trees and logistic regression on 32 benchmark UCI datasets, and show that it achieves a higher classification accuracy on average than the other two methods. (psu.edu)
  • Use classification and decision trees to help you identify groups and relationships, and predict outcomes. (ibm.com)
  • Individual decision trees tend to overfit. (mathworks.com)
  • Bootstrap-aggregated ( bagged ) decision trees combine the results of many decision trees, which reduces the effects of overfitting and improves generalization. (mathworks.com)
  • grows the decision trees in the ensemble using bootstrap samples of the data. (mathworks.com)
  • One of the biggest threats is that GE forest trees will take over natural landscapes, irreversibly usurping the native vegetation upon which a whole array of other plants and animals depend. (greenpeace.org)
  • Compared to annual crop plants, insect resistant trees offer scope for even more frightening scenarios. (greenpeace.org)
  • Insert a group of young trees into what may be a closed community of plants. (fao.org)
  • Past civilisations that have avoided destroying most trees (and therefore been able to continue living in a region) often had a detailed understanding of the 'patchwork' of different soil types and the various trees and other plants growing on them. (fao.org)
  • Scientists have long debated whether these were some kind of weird ancient trees, but a 2007 study concluded they were fungi , not plants. (treehugger.com)
  • Long before the advent of Christianity , plants and trees that remained green all year had a special meaning for people in the winter. (history.com)
  • For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification . (tolweb.org)
  • This module implements a discriminative tree aligner based on binary classification. (cpan.org)
  • bags classification trees. (mathworks.com)
  • Beyond covering costs to simply plant the seedlings in the ground, donations support ongoing maintenance, research, and stewardship at Plant a Billion sites to ensure the seedlings grow to be mature, healthy trees. (nature.org)
  • All trees and seedlings are shipped bare root unless otherwise stated in listing. (ebay.com)
  • The shea tree grows naturally in the wild in the dry savannah belt of West and South from Senegal in the west to Sudan and South Sudan in the east, and onto the foothills of the Ethiopian highlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the child grows so does the tree. (lowes.com)
  • As the tree grows, they will remember your gift long after others they received, and every year it blooms, they will think of you. (lowes.com)
  • April 29, 2002 -- For urban dwellers who may as well think fruit grows in a supermarket, horticulturalists are developing trees that offer more fruit for your dollar - and space. (go.com)
  • I have even seen examples in my day of someone who grows a fake tree of knowledge alongside their true tree, to help regurgitate answers that have been fed to them. (edutopia.org)
  • To find one of the more than 3,800 centers that accept old trees (some curbside pickup), visit earth911.org or call your city's public works department. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Douglas fir, another of the softwoods, is one of the world's most valuable timber trees. (ehow.com)
  • The fast-growing magnolia suitable for a shade tree is Magnolia acuminata, also known as cucumbertree or cucumber magnolia after its cucumber-shaped fruit. (ehow.com)
  • Many sites are chosen for residential or business use simply because the site contains a beautiful shade tree or offers a wooded environment. (sc.us)
  • MILARCH: Well, we've been in the shade tree business in northern Michigan for several generations. (npr.org)
  • The shea tree is a traditional African food plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • As parasites, ascomycetes account for most of the animal and plant pathogens including Pneumocystis carinii , responsible for pneumonia of humans with compromised immune systems and Ophiostoma ulmi , the Dutch elm disease fungus that is responsible for the demise of elm trees in North America and Europe (Agrios, 1988). (tolweb.org)
  • Every purchase made supports our work to help young people learn about, plant, and care for trees for wildlife. (nwf.org)
  • People plant trees for a variety of reasons including beautification, growing crops like fruit or nuts, developing wildlife habitat, buffering noise or wind, growing future timber products, and cleaning the environment, such as planting trees for improved air or water quality. (google.com)
  • Another interesting statistic is that the average American would have to plant about 150 trees per year to offset the amount of carbon they generate, and thus become carbon neutral. (google.com)
  • So, if you are feeling a little guilty about your carbon footprint, you can get out and plant some trees. (google.com)
  • The Nature Conservancy's Plant a Billion Trees campaign is a major forest restoration effort with a goal of planting a billion trees across the planet. (nature.org)
  • The true meaning of life is to plant trees, under whose shade you do not expect to sit. (nature.org)
  • Check out this video to find out how the Plant a Billion Trees program is helping our planet. (nature.org)
  • What is the Plant a Billion Trees Campaign? (nature.org)
  • The Plant a Billion Trees campaign is a large-scale restoration initiative launched by The Nature Conservancy in 2008. (nature.org)
  • How much does it cost to plant one tree? (nature.org)
  • The cost to plant a tree varies depending on the location of the project and the type of tree being planted, and ranges between approximately one dollar to three dollars per tree. (nature.org)
  • When you're done with it, plant the tree in your garden. (organicconsumers.org)
  • If a non-endowed gift tree is donated to the University, the Grounds Department will plant the donated tree at no cost to the contributor if the tree is acceptable and a suitable location can be found. (k-state.edu)
  • We plant trees for many reasons, including their beauty, stature, and the shade they provide on hot summer days. (ct.gov)
  • If your friend or family member isn't much of a gardener, offer to plant the tree for them in a spot they pick. (lowes.com)
  • As an ancient Chinese proverb says, "The best time to plant a tree was 20 years ago. (nature.org)
  • Why has Timberland gone into partnership with a Smallholder Farmers Alliance to plant trees and promote self-sufficiency among Haitian farmers? (forbes.com)
  • So why plant trees specifically in Haiti? (forbes.com)
  • Margaret explained as well that they occasionally run "Plant One on Us" campaigns at their retail stores where Timberland agrees to plant a tree when a customer purchases one of their Earthkeepers products. (forbes.com)
  • Does Timberland plant trees in other countries as well? (forbes.com)
  • A decision tree is a schematic plant-shaped diagram used to determine a course of action or show a statistical probability. (investopedia.com)
  • Ashworth EN, Abeles FB (1984) Freezing behavior of water in small pores and the possible role in the freezing of plant tissues. (springer.com)
  • In Philadelphia, city officials and volunteers have been working to plant 300,000 trees in the city, including donating trees to homeowners with the expectation that they will spare the city further costs by tending the trees themselves. (baltimoresun.com)
  • If you're lucky enough to be in Vienna on the 8th of October, be sure to check out the glowing plant-like solar trees that will line the streets near the MAK museum . (inhabitat.com)
  • Trees provide habitat and food to native wildlife in the area. (ct.gov)
  • There will also be photos and information about leaving dead trees and snags standing as habitat, and about fungi on fallen trees. (chicagotribune.com)
  • If Joshua trees are to survive the inhospitable climate we're giving them, the first and most important thing we can do is protect their habitat. (inhabitat.com)
  • According to recent research, only 0.02% of the Joshua trees' habitat in Joshua Tree National Park will remain habitable if the current state of greenhouse gas emissions is maintained. (inhabitat.com)
  • The research suggests that even drastic measures taken to curb emissions would keep only 18.6% of the habitat viable for the trees' survival. (inhabitat.com)
  • Grafting can involve a number of different styles, but the basic idea is to cut a shallow layer of bark on a base tree, peel it back and insert a small twig or single bud from another tree. (go.com)
  • Utah researchers said bark beetles are destroying spruce trees in the Dixie National Forest. (redorbit.com)
  • My favorite dwarf ornamental trees are peaches such as this Flordawon Dwarf Peach tree which grow so well in the South. (lowes.com)
  • In just under two years, the team documented the location and health of almost all the 2,000-plus trees located on county property-covering everything from the large groves in parks to the single rows of ornamental trees at the downtown Concord administration building. (esri.com)
  • Empowered by its wonderful community of volunteers, Trees Atlanta serves the metro Atlanta area, and has grown to become one of Atlanta's most widely known and supported non-profit organizations. (idealist.org)
  • Although GE trees are intended to be grown on plantations, it is naive (and irresponsible) to think they will remain confined. (greenpeace.org)
  • Ancient trees native to both Asia and North and Central America, magnolias are typically grown for their attractive form and foliage, bright colored fruits and beautiful, often fragrant flowers. (ehow.com)
  • Christmas trees are grown in all 50 states including Hawaii and Alaska. (history.com)
  • Hardwood trees tend to make better nesting habitats while softer wood is better for food foraging. (nwf.org)
  • Trees tend to draw people into public places to share the space with each other, leading to enjoyable social interactions within communities. (ct.gov)
  • Yet despite our deep-rooted reliance on trees, we tend to take them for granted. (treehugger.com)
  • In my old Wicket 1.4.x tree this was simply done by overriding PackageResourceReference getResourceFolderClosed(Object node) for instance. (mail-archive.com)
  • Hallo, I would like to use the new wicket tree model to build a tree with different node and leaf objects. (mail-archive.com)
  • Sven On 10/18/2012 04:11 PM, Peter Diefenthaeler wrote: Hallo, I would like to use the new wicket tree model to build a tree with different node and leaf objects. (mail-archive.com)
  • Using the tree diagram is simple once you assign the appropriate values to each node. (investopedia.com)
  • There is a binary Christmas tree, with each node a ball, and lights strung between parent and child nodes. (xkcd.com)
  • A pair of trees where the path from any node X to the root R along the first tree is node-disjoint with the path from the same node X to the root along the second tree. (ietf.org)
  • For all nodes in the tree, all downward paths from the node to a leaf contain the same number of *black* nodes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • from any node in the tree, the longest path from that node to a leaf is no more than twice the shortest path from that node to a root. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Brazil's many native trees include jabuticaba, whose fruits grow directly on its trunk. (treehugger.com)
  • Not only do the trees offer a variety of fruit in one batch, the fruits' different harvesting times prevent a glut in produce at one period. (go.com)
  • Also, trees with different kinds of fruits can grow in a lopsided fashion since, for example, grapefruits grow much faster than limes. (go.com)
  • The Brazil nut tree produces round, woody fruits. (pbs.org)
  • These hard-shelled fruits develop from small, reddish flowers that grow on the tree. (pbs.org)
  • The business case for planting trees links biodiversity responsibility on the supply side of the company to consumer preferences on its demand side. (forbes.com)
  • Snags - The name for dead trees that are left upright to decompose naturally. (nwf.org)
  • If you do not wish to create snags from living trees, the use of nesting boxes can be a good alternative. (nwf.org)
  • However, cuttings from these trees, propagated in Manitoba, exhibit the same pattern of twisted growth, suggesting that the cause is rooted in genetics , possibly the result of a mutation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Australian researchers confirm that deep-rooted Eucalyptus trees pilfer gold from ore deposits underground and transport them into their leaves. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Live trees can be found at most nurseries and some tree lots. (organicconsumers.org)
  • And 20 years ago, our trees that we were growing for the cities and nurseries started to die and we didn't know why. (npr.org)
  • It also measured the crown diameter of each tree. (nasa.gov)
  • Brandt and colleagues have published their dataset -which includes the location and crown diameter of trees in western Africa-through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC). (nasa.gov)
  • If disturbance within this area is unavoidable, the tree barricade should be located a minimum of one foot from the tree for each one inch diameter of tree trunk (for example, ten feet from a tree ten inches in diameter). (sc.us)
  • Second only to Oregon, the state of North Carolina produces roughly one out of five Christmas trees sold in the U.S.--about five million a year, worth more than $100 million. (organicconsumers.org)
  • The most hazardous and second-most common pesticide in North Carolina Christmas tree farming is Di-Syston 15-G, a powder traditionally applied with a bucket and measuring spoon. (organicconsumers.org)
  • It's daunting to think how much time and effort it would take to do a manual inventory of all the trees on the more than 500 acres of arboreal land maintained by Cabarrus County, North Carolina. (esri.com)
  • The Druids venerated the native trees of Britain and Ireland. (angelfire.com)
  • These range from from Abarema abbottii, a vulnerable limestone-bound tree found only in the Dominican Republic, to Zygophyllum kaschgaricum, a rare and poorly understood tree native to China and Kyrgyzstan. (treehugger.com)
  • The Western Joshua trees are beautiful, tall trees that are native to Southern California. (inhabitat.com)
  • First, county officials took a list of all tree types in the area and customized it so it only showed trees that are native to Cabarrus County (making the project more manageable). (esri.com)
  • After searching or browsing through their directory for the firm you want to get into, hit the 'View Menu' button to see Fonolo's trace of their automated phone tree. (lifehacker.com)
  • in fact, 1 acre of Christmas trees produces enough oxygen to support 18 people, and provides habitats for birds and wildlife. (organicconsumers.org)
  • this week we've assembled four covers that celebrate trees in their natural habitats. (newyorker.com)
  • Joshua trees dot the landscape at sunrise in Butterbredt Springs, one of the best birding spots in the nation. (courant.com)
  • This week, the California State Fish and Game Commission unanimously voted to protect Western Joshua trees. (inhabitat.com)
  • The vote now means that all the Joshua trees in the state will not be harvested for any purpose for a period of one year. (inhabitat.com)
  • The damage done to the Joshua trees is already massive. (inhabitat.com)
  • This scenario varies but often involves a grazier who wants to set up a very intentional form of silvopasture, managing both trees and forage to balance the productivity of both. (organicconsumers.org)
  • The so-called fruit salad tree sprouts as many as seven varieties of fruit in one tree. (go.com)
  • Shipping on some varieties of trees must be delayed until proper planting times for successful growth. (ebay.com)
  • Similarly, Christians cut down many sacred trees, just in case they had powers. (angelfire.com)
  • Germany is credited with starting the Christmas tree tradition as we now know it in the 16th century when devout Christians brought decorated trees into their homes. (history.com)
  • Almost all practicing, or even non-practicing Christians put up a Christmas tree each year. (surfnetkids.com)
  • Our mission statement: Trees Atlanta is a nationally-recognized citizens' group that protects and improves Atlanta's urban forest by planting, conserving, and educating. (idealist.org)
  • One activity associated with the spring is the planting of trees. (google.com)
  • Planting a billion trees can help us curb the effects of climate change. (nature.org)
  • Planting a Billion Trees can help save the Earth from deforestation. (nature.org)
  • 5. The tree is obtained and installed by the University, in the appropriate tree planting season. (k-state.edu)
  • For a co mplete discussion of these economic benefits, please see the Northeast Community Tree Guide: Benefits, Costs, and Strategic Planting . (ct.gov)
  • Remember to protect the trees before planting, so that they remain in good condition. (fao.org)
  • Trees will also be especially vulnerable to damage during the first week after planting (Manual 5). (fao.org)
  • Since 1989, with our experience in planting over 158 million trees, we have demonstrated the transformative power of trees in helping smallholder farmers to break out of the poverty trap. (idealist.org)
  • Why Is Timberland Planting Trees In Haiti? (forbes.com)
  • A recent Forbes blog covered the news that Timberland has supported the planting of over 2 million trees in Haiti. (forbes.com)
  • Why is an American company best known for high quality outdoor shoes planting trees in Haiti? (forbes.com)
  • So why is Timberland planting trees in Haiti? (forbes.com)
  • Is there a business case for planting trees? (forbes.com)
  • More broadly, however, the company's employees are also engaged in other tree planting initiatives around the world. (forbes.com)
  • Timberland customers, on the other hand, are exposed to the tree planting projects through the company's websites and social media. (forbes.com)
  • Indeed, Haiti is not the only place where Timberland is planting trees. (forbes.com)
  • So why is an American outdoor shoe company planting trees? (forbes.com)
  • So, after the jubilation - and there was real jubilation at Archangel - we came up with the grand idea of using these trees that were lost to the world and planting them in old growth forest groves. (npr.org)
  • Our trees are guaranteed, however we are not responsible for improper handling, care and planting. (ebay.com)
  • Builders can escape tree planting further by paying a fee instead. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Explore our site to learn more about choosing the right tree for your family. (christmastreeassociation.org)
  • The decision to protect and preserve trees on a construction site is an important one. (sc.us)
  • Often the very trees which are highly valued for their contribution to the aesthetic appeal of a site are inadequately protected or cared for during construction. (sc.us)
  • Limit construction equipment access, material storage, fuel tanks, chemical or cement rinsing, vehicle parking and site-office locations to non-tree areas. (sc.us)
  • Transport the tree, bundled at the site, in the trunk of your car, instead of strapped to the top, to avoid drying it out. (csmonitor.com)
  • Hi, by default the new tree implementation uses CSS classes, see org.apache.wicket.extensions.markup.html.repeater.tree.content.Folder Of course you can still use images (like LabelIconPanel did): Overwrite AbstractTree#newContentComponent() creating your own component to represent a node's content. (mail-archive.com)
  • Do not post pictures of tagging/vandalism, encourage driving while high (including pictures where you are obviously driving while high), post about sneaking weed past TSA, or make other posts harmful to the trees community. (reddit.com)
  • theblonde1 has chosen to not make this tree publicly viewable. (ancestry.com)
  • The other characteristic of forest trees that make them so vulnerable to genetic engineering is their long lifespans. (greenpeace.org)
  • You tell the word tree what connects to what, how big to make each subphrase, and what colors to use. (google.com)
  • Make ornaments for your Christmas tree. (surfnetkids.com)
  • After one year of research, the commission will have to make a decision as to whether the trees will be protected permanently or not. (inhabitat.com)
  • A team of physicists at Grenoble University in France discovered that trees make different sounds when they are starved for water versus when they are simply thirsty. (npr.org)
  • Scientists around the world have learned that trees do indeed make sounds. (npr.org)
  • And now, a team of physicists in France have determined specifically what sounds trees make when they're thirsty for water. (npr.org)
  • Make sure that they match the trees that will be aligned. (cpan.org)
  • But scientists who make lifesaving breakthroughs don't use their fake trees. (edutopia.org)
  • There are few debates more lively and spirited than that age old argument about which type of Christmas tree is "better": real trees, or artificial trees. (christmastreeassociation.org)
  • Buying an artificial tree isn't a better choice, since most faux foliage is made from earth-toxic PVC. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Now an international team of scientists has used artificial intelligence and commercial satellites to identify an unexpectedly large number of trees spread across arid and semi-arid areas of western Africa. (nasa.gov)
  • The research team used the Blue Waters supercomputer at the University of Illinois and an artificial intelligence technique called "deep learning" to map the trees. (nasa.gov)
  • This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms. (tolweb.org)
  • A tree diagram is a diagram used in strategic decision making, valuation or probability calculations. (investopedia.com)
  • Variability can be high even locally, and a tree that produces hard butter can grow with one that produces soft butter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The feijoa (pineapple guava) is a delicious but little known fruit tree that is easy to grow in a temperate climate. (lulu.com)
  • Today, our work in East and West Africa is helping to end hunger and poverty, by guiding thousands - and soon hundreds of thousands - to grow food and economic dependence on trees. (idealist.org)
  • Sometimes called para nut trees, these evergreens have long, straight trunks that can grow as tall as 150 feet (46 m). (pbs.org)
  • In fact, it's any statement that makes that internal tree of knowledge grow. (edutopia.org)
  • Keep construction equipment away from the trunk or tree protection zone of trees to be saved. (sc.us)
  • Don't shave the sides of the tree trunk or tree butt to fit the tree into the stand because that lessens its life span. (csmonitor.com)
  • Compared to an oak tree, for instance, palms are light with a segmented trunk that flattens almost to 90 degrees," Loth says. (asme.org)
  • Although the overall canopy cover is low, the relatively high density of isolated trees challenges prevailing narratives about dryland desertification and even the desert shows a surprisingly high tree density. (nasa.gov)
  • Picnic table under a strong tree canopy: one of the many benefits trees providfe. (ct.gov)
  • Monkeys, macaws, bats, and other animals who eat the tree's sweet fruit distribute the strangler fig's seeds throughout the canopy by defecating in the tree tops. (pbs.org)
  • Robert Crassweller, a tree fruit professor at Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences, explains there's a limit to how soon fruit can be harvested after applying a pesticide. (go.com)
  • the state's trees are, too. (baltimoresun.com)
  • The 39th annual Festival of Trees and Traditions is underway at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art with dozens of creatively decorated trees on display throughout the museum. (latimes.com)
  • Many thanks to all participants who were involved in this year's virtual World of Energy Festival of Trees. (duke-energy.com)
  • and to support the many well-loved Christmas traditions around Christmas trees year round. (christmastreeassociation.org)
  • The influential Oliver Cromwell preached against "the heathen traditions" of Christmas carols, decorated trees, and any joyful expression that desecrated "that sacred event. (history.com)
  • One of the most popular Christmas traditions is choosing and then decorating a Christmas tree. (surfnetkids.com)
  • Trimming the tree is one of the most beloved Christmas traditions. (surfnetkids.com)
  • Many people have different traditions surrounding the trimming of the tree. (surfnetkids.com)
  • Some estimate that a new tree plantation soaks up about 8 - 10 tons of carbon per year for the first 50 years or so, then it slows as the trees begin to age. (google.com)
  • EVERY YEAR, roughly 35 million Christmas trees are cut down and sold, serving as a major source of holiday waste. (organicconsumers.org)
  • 30 trees, including some 100 year old Totara, Rimu and Beech along Lake Manapouri have been poisoned and left to die. (radionz.co.nz)
  • Led by Martin Brandt of the University of Copenhagen, the team first spent a year examining commercial satellite imagery by eye and identifying 90,000 individual trees in order to build a training dataset for the computer. (nasa.gov)
  • Trees enhance recreational opportunities year round. (ct.gov)
  • There will be photos and information about each tree and shrub discussed, many in various seasons of the year. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Two out of three trees are dangerously parched the world over, at least that's what a study published in Nature determined late last year. (npr.org)
  • Members of the Archangel Ancient Tree Archive planted clones of two- and three-thousand-year-old redwood and sequoia trees. (npr.org)
  • It's that time of the year when you'll be innocently walking along in your neighbourhood and run into some worm-like thing streaming down from a tree. (cbc.ca)
  • Is there a best practice to build a tree constisting of nodes (i.e. bag, sack) and leaves (i.e. apple, pear). (mail-archive.com)
  • For predicting numeric quantities, there has been work on combining these two schemes into 'model trees', i.e. trees that contain linear regression functions at the leaves. (psu.edu)
  • We use a stagewise fitting process to construct the logistic regression models that can select relevant attributes in the data in a natural way, and show how this approach can be used to build the logistic regression models at the leaves by incrementally refining those constructed at higher levels in the tree. (psu.edu)
  • The leaves of GE trees planted along a river or the shore of a lake could easily enter the waterways with unforeseeable consequences for the aquatic life. (greenpeace.org)
  • One fast-growing cultivar, Willowleaf Bay, is a pyramid-shaped tree with narrower leaves than most Sweetbays. (ehow.com)
  • Australian researchers have found that microscopic gold particles from underground ore deposits are present in tree leaves. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The researchers compared eucalyptus tree leaves at gold prospecting sites in Western Australia with leaves from trees 2,625 feet (800 meters) away. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • About 20 leaves needed to be sampled to statistically reveal the presence of gold underneath the trees. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Decorating the Christmas tree can bring the family together, and leaves you with a beautifully decorated holiday tree. (surfnetkids.com)
  • Do you have a fruit-bearing tree in your yard or on your property that produces more fruit than you can use? (google.com)
  • Seattle realtor C.T. Conver conceived the moniker in view of the fact that large fir and pine trees are commonly encountered. (ehow.com)
  • But the trees combine several members of fruit families into one. (go.com)
  • Tree diagrams combine the probabilities, decisions, costs and payouts of a decision and provide a strategic answer. (investopedia.com)
  • Such studies classified large swaths as grassland or bare soil whenever trees covered less than 20 percent of the land area. (nasa.gov)
  • They also grew eucalyptus trees in greenhouses with potting soil dosed with gold particles, as well as in normal potting soil without gold. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • This root provides the first secure anchor to the host tree and life line to the nutrient rich soil and water below. (pbs.org)
  • There is much debate as to whether global warming is occurring, but the fact remains that trees take up carbon and give off oxygen while they are growing, through the process of photosynthesis. (google.com)
  • Trees play a vital role in Earth's carbon and water cycles. (nasa.gov)
  • The next steps for the research team include expanding their study area to survey more of Africa and estimating the carbon contained within these trees. (nasa.gov)
  • Trees improve air quality by absorbing carbon and producing oxygen. (ct.gov)
  • If the tree is left growing in a small space, will it survive? (sc.us)
  • Boreal trees possess very high freezing resistance, which is induced by short-day length and low temperatures, in order to survive severe subzero temperatures in winter. (springer.com)
  • Boreal trees have evolved overwintering mechanisms such as dormancy and high freezing resistance in order to survive freezing temperatures in winter. (springer.com)
  • Most are self-pollinating so no partner trees or pollinating bees are needed. (go.com)
  • Treating Christmas tree fields each spring, farm-worker Felix Alvarez, 43, soaks his skin with Roundup, a weedkiller linked to cancer among applicators. (organicconsumers.org)
  • In Defense of Tall Trees from Connecticut Woodlands magazine. (ct.gov)
  • As the trees wither, the defense minister's wife and, separately, an Israeli journalist, look on Salma with sympathy. (imdb.com)
  • Evidence in its favour comes from photographer Rob Fraser and writer Harriet Fraser, who have spent two years making a stand for the protection of its trees and woodlands. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Even the poor know that richness, the fragrance of the lemon trees. (poets.org)
  • Salma Zidane, a widow, lives simply from her grove of lemon trees in the West Bank's occupied territory. (imdb.com)