Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Tea Tree Oil: Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.PanamaBayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fagaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Dipterocarpaceae: A plant family of the order Theales.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Cambium: A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Juniperus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Meliaceae: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Ulmus: A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Tamaricaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Melaleuca: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. M. alternifolia foliage is a source of TEA TREE OIL. The common name of tea tree also refers to LEPTOSPERMUM or KUNZEA. M. vindifolia is a source of niaouli oil. M. cajuputi and M. leucadendra are sources of cajuput oil.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Juglans: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Betulaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have simple, serrate, alternate leaves. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. The fruit is usually a small nut or a short-winged samara.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.South AmericaPhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.FiresSequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Burseraceae: A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.DNA, Concatenated: Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Pyrus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Tsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees and should not be confused with hemlock plants (CICUTA and CONIUM).Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Ceiba: A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Sapotaceae: A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Pinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Nut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ulmaceae: A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are trees and shrubs of temperate regions that have watery sap and alternate leaves which are lopsided at the base. The flowers lack petals.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dipteryx: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.

Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. (1/3351)

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (2/3351)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

The nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer as a target sequence to study intraspecific diversity of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum directly on pinus root systems. (3/3351)

Polymorphism of the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum was studied to evaluate whether this sequence could be used in field studies to estimate the diversity of strains forming mycorrhizas on individual Pinus pinaster root systems. This sequence was amplified by PCR from 125 haploid homokaryotic strains collected in 14 P. pinaster stands along the Atlantic coast of France by using conserved oligonucleotide primers. Restriction enzyme digestion of the amplified 3.4-kbp-long IGS allowed us to characterize 24 alleles whose frequencies differed. Nine of these alleles were found only once, whereas about 60% of the strains contained four of the alleles. Local populations could be almost as diverse as the entire population along a 150-km stretch of coastline that was examined; for example, 13 alleles were found in a single forest stand. The IGS from one strain was partially sequenced, and the sequence data were used to design oligonucleotides which allowed separate PCR amplification of three different segments of the IGS. Most polymorphisms observed among the full-length IGS regions resulted from polymorphisms in an internal ca. 1,500-bp-long sequence characterized by length variations that may have resulted from variable numbers of a T2AG3 motif. This internal polymorphic sequence could not be amplified from the genomes of nine other Hebeloma species. Analysis of this internal sequence amplified from the haploid progenies of 10 fruiting bodies collected in a 70-m2 area resulted in identification of six allelic forms and seven distinct diplotypes out of the 21 possible different combinations. Moreover, optimization of the PCR conditions resulted in amplification of this sequence from more than 80% of the DNA samples extracted from individual H. cylindrosporum infected P. pinaster mycorrhizal root tips, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this sequence for studying the below-ground diversity of mycorrhizas formed by genets belonging to the same fungal species.  (+info)

Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition. (4/3351)

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

Evolution of plant defense mechanisms. Relationships of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases to pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases. (5/3351)

Pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductase classes are phylogenetically related, as is a third, the so-called "isoflavone reductase homologs." This study establishes the first known catalytic function for the latter, as being able to engender the NADPH-dependent reduction of phenylcoumaran benzylic ethers. Accordingly, all three reductase classes are involved in the biosynthesis of important and related phenylpropanoid-derived plant defense compounds. In this investigation, the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase from the gymnosperm, Pinus taeda, was cloned, with the recombinant protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme reduces the benzylic ether functionalities of both dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, with a higher affinity for the former, as measured by apparent Km and Vmax values and observed kinetic 3H-isotope effects. It abstracts the 4R-hydride of the required NADPH cofactor in a manner analogous to that of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases. A similar catalytic function was observed for the corresponding recombinant reductase whose gene was cloned from the angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, both pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases catalyze enantiospecific conversions, whereas the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase only shows regiospecific discrimination. A possible evolutionary relationship among the three reductase classes is proposed, based on the supposition that phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases represent the progenitors of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.  (+info)

Process and current status of the epidemiologic studies on cedar pollinosis in Japan. (6/3351)

This paper reviews the present situation and future aspects of epidemiologic studies on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Increase of allergic rhinitis patients is observed in both the Patient Survey and the Reports on the Surveys of Social Medical Care Insurance Services, however, these surveys are conducted when cedar pollens do not pollute the air. Many have reported on the prevalence of pollinosis in limited areas but only a few nationwide epidemiologic surveys have been conducted. Most of the studies were conducted at special medical facilities such as university hospitals. There is a high possibility that patients who visit the specific facilities do not exactly represent the actual number of patients and epidemiologic pictures of pollinosis in Japan. The rapid advances in laboratory test methods may change the diagnostic criteria and increase the number of reported patients. Therefore, the prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan has not been determined yet. Determination of the prevalence of cedar pollinosis and description of the epidemiologic pictures constitute the essential steps toward the control of this clinical entity. Thus it is necessary to conduct an epidemiologic survey on Japanese representative samples with a standardized survey form with clear and concise diagnostic criteria.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of sulfur-containing compounds in Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc. on the aggregation of rabbit platelets. (7/3351)

The inhibitory effects of three pure compounds isolated from wood garlic, 2,4,5-trithiahexane (I), 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane (II), and 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 2,2-dioxide (III), on rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid, U46619, ADP (adenosine 5'-diphosphate), PAF (platelet aggregating factor), and thrombin were studied in vitro. The anti-aggregating activity of 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 4,4-dioxide (IV) was also measured with collagen and arachidonic acid. I, II, III, and IV inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by all tested agonists. I, II, and III exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect against the thrombin-induced aggregation of GFP (gel-filtered platelets) than against the aggregation induced by the other agonists. Notably, the IC50 value for III was 4 microM, which is approximately 2.5 times stronger than MATS (methyl allyl trisulfide), a major anti-platelet compound isolated from garlic. In inhibiting collagen-induced aggregation, II was as potent as MATS and aspirin, with a marked disaggregation effect on the secondary aggregation by arachidonic acid, at the rate of 47.05%/min at a concentration of 10(-4) M. I, II, and III also suppressed U46619-induced aggregation. These results suggest that sulfur-containing compounds in wood garlic not only inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism but also suppress aggregation in association with the function of the platelet plasma membrane.  (+info)

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. (8/3351)

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

Selecting deciduous trees for zone 7 is easy, and gardeners can choose from a very long list of beautiful, commonly planted deciduous trees. For examples of zone 7 deciduous trees and suggestions that provide fall color or summer shade, click this article.
Changes in tree, liana, and understory plant diversity and community composition in five tropical rain forest fragments varying in area (18-2600 ha) and disturbance levels were studied on the Valparai plateau, Western Ghats. Systematic sampling using small quadrats (totaling 4 ha for trees and lianas, 0.16 ha for understory plants) enumerated 312 species in 103 families: 1968 trees (144 species), 2250 lianas (60 species), and 6123 understory plants (108 species). Tree species density, stem density, and basal area were higher in the three larger (, 100 ha) rain forest fragments but were negatively correlated with disturbance scores rather than area per se. Liana species density, stem density, and basal area were higher in moderately disturbed and lower in heavily disturbed fragments than in the three larger fragments. Understory species density was highest in the highly disturbed 18-ha fragment, due to weedy invasive species occurring with rain forest plants. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ...
These early forest biomass studies were aimed at major or typical forest types, with developed biomass models largely based on stand or sample plot levels. Some biomass models were even based on individual tree data, most of them suited only for certain sites or local areas, not representative of larger regions. These forest carbon assessments were based on estimates of biomass per hectare for our major forest types from purposeful sampling and areas of forest types from our national forest inventory, which is not really suited for monitoring and assessing forest carbon storage.. The "International Guidelines for Forest Monitoring", published by IUFRO ([1994]), clearly defined forest biomass as one of the important items of global, regional and national forest monitoring. In order to add forest biomass into the items of national forest inventory of China, the Ministry of Forestry conducted a key program "Research on two-variable biomass models and compatible auto-adoptive one-variable biomass ...
Photogrammetric point clouds (PPC) obtained by stereomatching of aerial photographs now have a resolution sufficient to discern individual trees. We have produced such PPCs of a boreal forest and delineated individual tree crowns using a segmentation algorithm applied to the canopy height model derived from the PPC and a lidar terrain model. The crowns were characterized in terms of height and species (spruce, fir, and deciduous). Species classification used the 3D shape of the single crowns and their reflectance properties. The same was performed on a lidar dataset. Results show that the quality of PPC data generally approaches that of airborne lidar. For pixel-based canopy height models, viewing geometry in aerial images, forest structure (dense vs. open canopies), and composition (deciduous vs. conifers) influenced the quality of the 3D reconstruction of PPCs relative to lidar. Nevertheless, when individual tree height distributions were analyzed, PPC-based results were very similar to those
The effects of old-growth forests in relation to global warming has been contested in various studies and journals. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said in its 2007 report: "In the long term, a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual sustained yield of timber, fibre or energy from the forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit."[23]. Old-growth forests are often perceived to be in equilibrium or in a state of decay.[24] However, evidence from analysis of carbon stored above ground and in the soil has shown old-growth forests are more productive at storing carbon than younger forests.[25] Forest harvesting has little or no effect on the amount of carbon stored in the soil,[26] but other research suggests older forests that have trees of many ages, multiple layers, and little disturbance have the highest capacities for carbon storage.[27] As trees grow, they remove carbon from the ...
The effects of old-growth forests in relation to global warming has been contested in various studies and journals. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change said in its 2007 report: "In the long term, a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual sustained yield of timber, fibre or energy from the forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit."[23]. Old-growth forests are often perceived to be in equilibrium or in a state of decay.[24] However, evidence from analysis of carbon stored above ground and in the soil has shown old-growth forests are more productive at storing carbon than younger forests.[25] Forest harvesting has little or no effect on the amount of carbon stored in the soil,[26] but other research suggests older forests that have trees of many ages, multiple layers, and little disturbance have the highest capacities for carbon storage.[27] As trees grow, they remove carbon from the ...
Restoration of old-growth forest structure is an emerging silvicultural goal, especially in those regions where old-growth abundance falls below the historic range of variability. However, longitudinal studies of old-growth dynamics that can inform silvicultural and policy options are few. We analyzed the change in structure, including stand density, diameter distribution, and the abundance of large live, standing dead, and downed dead trees on 58 late-successional and old-growth plots in Maine, USA, and compared these to regional data from the U.S. Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Structural dynamics on the late-successional plots reflected orderly change associated with density-dependent growth and mortality, but dynamics on the old-growth plots were more variable. Some plots experienced heavy mortality associated with beech bark disease. Diameter distributions conformed poorly to a classic exponential distribution, and did not converge toward such a distribution at the plot scale. Although
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recently determined based on research currently being conducted by Tony DAmato, doctoral candidate in Forestry at UMass, and Dr. David Orwig, forest ecologist at the Harvard Forest. This extensive, field-based research builds on the work of previous studies on old-growth forests in Massachusetts and determines the area of old-growth forest in the state on public lands to be approximately 1119 acres. The majority of these old-growth forests are located in the Berkshire Hills and Taconic Mountains of western Massachusetts; however, a considerable acreage is also found on the slopes of Wachusett Mountain in Princeton, MA. More details on the scope of this research as well as a downloadable list of these old-growth areas can be found in the Major Research Topics section. ...
Globally, forests cover nearly one third of the land area and they contain over 80% of terrestrial biodiversity. Both the extent and quality of forest habitat continue to decrease and the associated loss of biodiversity jeopardizes forest ecosystem functioning and the ability of forests to provide ecosystem services. In the light of the increasing population pressure, it is of major importance not only to conserve, but also to restore forest ecosystems. Ecological restoration has recently started to adopt insights from the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) perspective. Central is the focus on restoring the relation between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here we provide an overview of important considerations related to forest restoration that can be inferred from this BEF-perspective. Restoring multiple forest functions requires multiple species. It is highly unlikely that species-poor plantations, which may be optimal for above-ground biomass production, will outperform species diverse
The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of forest management zoning in conserving the biodiversity of Mabira forest reserve. The study sites buffer, production, and strict nature reserve management zones were purposively selected. This was undertaken through investigating woody species diversity, composition and structure. A total of 60 sampling plots with a size of 20 m x10 m were used to collect vegetation data. Variables such as woody plant species identification and counts as well as diameter at breast height (DBH) of trees were done. The result depicted a total of 65 woody species; 39 in the buffer, 19 in productions and 37 in a strict nature reserve. Of these, only 9 trees species were found common to all zones and their Sorensen similarity coefficient was 0.22. The population structure of the buffer and strict nature reserve zones was found to be a J - shape pattern, whereas the production zone showed an inverted J-shape pattern. Higher woody species diversity was depicted in the ...
Lindroth, Richard L. et al. 1993. Responses of Deciduous Trees to Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Productivity, Phytochemistry, and Insect Performance. Ecology 74 (3): 763-777.. ...
Leaf phenology of tropical evergreen forests affects carbon and water fluxes. In an earlier study of a seasonally moist evergreen tropical forest site in the Amazon basin, time series data of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the VEGETATION and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors showed an unexpected seasonal pattern, with higher EVI in the late dry season than in the wet season. In this study we conducted a regional-scale analysis of tropical evergreen forests in South America, using time series data of EVI from MODIS in 2002. The results show a large dynamic range and spatial variations of annual maximum EVI for evergreen forest canopies in the region. In tropical evergreen forests, maximum EVI in 2002 typically occurs during the late dry season to early wet season. This suggests that leaf phenology in tropical evergreen forests is not determined by the seasonality of precipitation. Instead, leaf phenological process may be driven by availability of solar radiation ...
Detlev Kelm from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in Berlin (IZW) and Kerstin Wiesner and Otto von Helversen from the University of Erlangen -Nuremberg report that the deployment of artificial bat roosts significantly increases seed dispersal of a wide range of tropical forest plants into their surroundings, providing a simple and cheap method to speed up natural forest regeneration.. Tropical forests are of global ecological importance. They are a key contributor to the global carbon balance and are host to a major part of the worlds biodiversity. Between 2000 and 2005, worldwide net losses of tropical forest cover averaged 0.18 % annually and regionally even exceeded 1.5 % annually in some Latin American countries. Forest is usually replaced by agriculture. Often soils become rapidly infertile and land is abandoned. Because deforested areas rarely offer much food or protection for seed dispersers such as birds or small mammals, natural forest regeneration is hampered by a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A study of formaldehyde chemistry above a forest canopy. AU - Sumner, Ann Louise. AU - Shepson, Paul B.. AU - Couch, Tara L.. AU - Thornberry, Troy. AU - Carroll, Mary Anne. AU - Sillman, Sandy. AU - Pippin, Margaret. AU - Bertman, Steven. AU - Tan, David. AU - Faloona, Ian. AU - Brune, William. AU - Young, Valerie. AU - Cooper, Owen. AU - Moody, Jennie. AU - Stockwell, William. PY - 2001/10/27. Y1 - 2001/10/27. N2 - Gas-phase formaldehyde (HCHO) was measured at a mixed deciduous/coniferous forest site as a part of the PROPHET 1998 summer field intensive. For the measurement period of July 11 through August 20, 1998, formaldehyde mixing ratios ranged from 0.5 to 12 ppb at a height ∼10 m above the forest canopy, with the highest concentrations observed in southeasterly air masses. Concentrations varied on average from a mid-afternoon maximum influenced by photochemical production of 4.0 ppb, to a late night minimum of 2.2 ppb, probably resulting from dry depositional loss. An ...
The three forest types investigated in this study differed in overstory tree composition and the selected forest structure variables (Table 1). Regarding solar radiation variables, it is known that beech crowns transmit only a small proportion of daylight to the forest floor (Ellenberg 1996; Barbier et al. 2008) and that the effective amount of radiation reaching the forest floor is determined by forest structural characteristics and tree species (van Oijen et al. 2005; Barbier et al. 2008; Promis et al. 2008; Martínez Pastur et al. 2012; Kuninaga et al. 2015). According with this, we expected the highest level of solar radiation in deciduous forest, because the canopy of N. pumilio is quite sparse and their leaves are substantially thinner than N. betuloides. However, we were unable to detect differences in solar radiation between deciduous and evergreen forests (Table 1), probably due to we taken hemispherical photos during summer but assumed the same (uniform) amount of canopy cover during ...
An urban forest is a forest or a collection of trees that grow within a city, town or a suburb. In a wider sense it may include any kind of woody plant vegetation growing in and around human settlements. In a narrower sense (also called forest park) it describes areas whose ecosystems are inherited from wilderness leftovers or remnants. Care and management of urban forests is called urban forestry. Urban forests may be publicly-owned municipal forests, but the latter may also be located outside of the town or city to which they belong. Urban forests play an important role in ecology of human habitats in many ways: they filter air, water, sunlight, provide shelter to animals and recreational area for people. They moderate local climate, slowing wind and stormwater, and shading homes and businesses to conserve energy. They are critical in cooling the urban heat island effect, thus potentially reducing the number of unhealthful ozone days that plague major cities in peak summer months. In many ...
Ecologists have recently interpreted patterns of phylogenetic distance among coexisting species as indicative of processes affecting community assembly during forest succession. We investigated plant community phylogenetic structure along a successional gradient in New Guinean lowland rain forest. We surveyed all trees with diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm in nineteen 0.25 ha plots representing younger secondary, older secondary, and primary forest. We estimated plant community phylogeny from rbcL gene sequences to quantify change in phylogenetic structure during succession. Mean phylogenetic distance among co-occurring trees increased with total basal area per plot, a proxy for forest age. Significant phylogenetic clustering was detected in secondary forest whereas primary forest was significantly over-dispersed relative to null expectations. We examined the sensitivity of these patterns to various methods of branch length estimation and phylogenetic uncertainty. Power to detect community ...
Planting native trees can revive an ailing forest, but trees alone cannot fight the spread of invasive species. According to a study by the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) and the USDA Forest Service, continued maintenance is also necessary to meet restoration goals.. In a study recently published by the journal Restoration Ecology, continued research into the outcomes of multiple forest restoration techniques will provide a basis for managers to make informed decisions about the preservation and restoration of our urban landscapes. The study is based on research at Pelham Bay Park in The Bronx. Better known as the home of tough guys and Yankee Stadium, The Bronx is actually the greenest of New Yorks five boroughs, and Pelham Bay Park is more than three times the size of Central Park. In the late 80s, however, you couldnt see the forest for the vandalism and illegal dumping. Invasive vine species covered the existing canopy and was smothering the mature trees and preventing ...
Planting native trees can revive an ailing forest, but trees alone cannot fight the spread of invasive species. According to a study by the NYC Department of Parks & Recreation (NYC Parks) and the USDA Forest Service, continued maintenance is also necessary to meet restoration goals.. In a study recently published by the journal Restoration Ecology, continued research into the outcomes of multiple forest restoration techniques will provide a basis for managers to make informed decisions about the preservation and restoration of our urban landscapes. The study is based on research at Pelham Bay Park in The Bronx. Better known as the home of tough guys and Yankee Stadium, The Bronx is actually the greenest of New Yorks five boroughs, and Pelham Bay Park is more than three times the size of Central Park. In the late 80s, however, you couldnt see the forest for the vandalism and illegal dumping. Invasive vine species covered the existing canopy and was smothering the mature trees and preventing ...
Inventory Methods for Non-Timber Forest Products: Methods are lacking to estimate the amount of plant material available for harvest in natural populations. This research focuses on developing knowledge and creating models to predict harvestable biomass based. This requires: 1) undertaking forest-based studies to generate data on plant characteristics; 2) examining relationships between desired organs and measurable plant parts, and; 3) creating models that allow for estimating volumes of the desired organs. This research is leading to knowledge that will significantly improve the inventory of non-timber forest resources.. Forest Inventory Tree Data to Improve Knowledge of Non-Timber Products: A goal of this research is to develop knowledge about the distribution and abundance of NTFPs by using FIA forest inventory data. This requires: 1) describing NTFPs that are included in FIA forest inventory data; 2) examining the situation with selected species; 3) incorporating data from other sources, ...
Heterotrophic respiration is a major component of the soil C balance however we critically lack understanding of its variation upon conversion of peat swamp forests in tropical areas. Our research focused on a primary peat swamp forest and two oil palm plantations aged 1 (OP2012) and 6 years (OP2007). Total and heterotrophic soil respiration were monitored over 13 months in paired control and trenched plots. Spatial variability was taken into account by differentiating hummocks from hollows in the forest; close to palm from far from palm positions in the plantations.
Evidence shows that many tree species can take up organic nitrogen (N) in the form of free amino acids from soils, but few studies have been conducted to compare organic and inorganic N uptake patterns in temperate and tropical tree species in relation to mycorrhizal status and successional state. We labeled intact tree roots by brief 15N exposures using field hydroponic experiments in a temperate forest and a tropical forest in China. A total of 21 dominant tree species were investigated, 8 in the temperate forest and 13 in the tropical forest. All investigated tree species showed highest uptake rates for NH4+ (ammonium), followed by glycine and NO3− (nitrate). Uptake of NH4+ by temperate trees averaged 12.8 μg N g−1 dry weight (d.w.) root h−1, while those by tropical trees averaged 6.8 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1. Glycine uptake rates averaged 3.1 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for temperate trees and 2.4 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for tropical trees. NO3− uptake was the lowest ...
Evidence shows that many tree species can take up organic nitrogen (N) in the form of free amino acids from soils, but few studies have been conducted to compare organic and inorganic N uptake patterns in temperate and tropical tree species in relation to mycorrhizal status and successional state. We labeled intact tree roots by brief 15N exposures using field hydroponic experiments in a temperate forest and a tropical forest in China. A total of 21 dominant tree species were investigated, 8 in the temperate forest and 13 in the tropical forest. All investigated tree species showed highest uptake rates for NH4+ (ammonium), followed by glycine and NO3− (nitrate). Uptake of NH4+ by temperate trees averaged 12.8 μg N g−1 dry weight (d.w.) root h−1, while those by tropical trees averaged 6.8 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1. Glycine uptake rates averaged 3.1 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for temperate trees and 2.4 μg N g−1 d.w. root h−1 for tropical trees. NO3− uptake was the lowest ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stomatal and nonstomatal limitations of photosynthesis in 19 temperate tree species on contrasting sites during wet and dry years. AU - KUBISKEM, M. E.. AU - ABRAMS, M. D.. PY - 1993/12. Y1 - 1993/12. N2 - A unique approach was used to evaluate stomatal and nonstomatal constraints to photosynthesis in 19 naturally occurring, deciduous tree species on xeric, mesic and wetmesic sites in central Pennsylvania, USA, during relatively wet (1990) and dry (1991) growing seasons. All species exhibited significantly decreased stomatal conductance to CO2 (gc) in 1991 compared to 1990. The mesic species had drought related decreases in photosynthesis (A) attributed primarily to increased absolute stomatal limitation to A (Lg), whereas in the wet‐mesic species, the absolute mesophyll limitation (Lm) was at least as important as Lg in limiting A during drought. The xeric species maintained relatively high A during drought despite decreased gc. In the xeric and mesic species, Lm decreased and ...
Forest is a resource that is increasingly utilized for multiple purposes. The balance between energy demands and the long-term capacity of ecosystems to support biodiversity and other ecosystem services is crucial. The aim of this project was to increase the knowledge on and to develop methods and tools for trade-offs and synergies analysis among forest ecosystem services based on different forest management policies.. Paper I provides an overview of existing models for integrated energy-environment assessment. A literature review was conducted on assessment models and their ability to integrate energy with environmental aspects. Missing environmental aspects concern land use, landscapes and biodiversity. In Paper II a modelling framework was set up to link a landscape simulator with a habitat network model for integrated assessment of bioenergy feedstock and biodiversity related impacts in Kronoberg County. In Paper III we continued with the same management scenarios, while the analysis was ...
Hyperspectral Imaging LiDAR Background Ecological models require accurate biophysical parameters to model the global Carbon cycle and predict future climate Two of the most important parameters for the Carbon cycle for vegetation are biomass and leaf area index (LAI) These are not directly measurable by lidar but are closely related to direct measurables. -Biomass can be estimated from tree height -LAI can be derived from canopy cover. Spaceborne instruments are needed for global coverage. -Traditional passive optical and current SAR instruments cannot measure tree height and signals saturate over moderately dense forests.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Examination of model-estimated ecosystem respiration using flux measurements from a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in central Japan. AU - Ito, Akihiko. AU - Inatomi, Motoko. AU - Mo, Wenhon. AU - Lee, Misun. AU - Koizumi, Hiroshi. AU - Saigusa, Nobuko. AU - Murayama, Shohei. AU - Yamamoto, Susumu. PY - 2007/7. Y1 - 2007/7. N2 - Reducing uncertainty in the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from plants and microbes is critically important in determining carbon budgets. We examined properties of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) derived from a process-based model that simulates an ecosystem carbon cycle, focusing on nighttime flux determined from ecosystem respiration and soil efflux. The model simulated autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration using semi-empirical ecophysiological parameterizations. In a cool-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest in central Japan, simulation results from 1998 to 2005 were compared with measurement of the forest made using ...
The Garden Club of Houstons Great Small Trees project along Buffalo Bayou has inspiring examples of natives that can provide color and habitat in home landscapes. In addition to beautifying the bayous banks from Shepherd Drive to Sabine Street, the project marks the clubs participation in the Garden Club of Americas centennial celebration. Small trees typically vary from 15 to 35 feet in height and can be used as centerpieces in small gardens or as understory accents in larger spaces. Use ornamental small trees to accent a patio, to frame a view, to screen or beautify a fence or to form the walls of a garden room. Best in part sun and a well-draining soil, its a fast grower with a rounded crown, a whitish bark and fanciful, winged seed pods. [...] known as grancy graybeard, fringe tree is an oval-shaped deciduous tree that reaches a height of 15 to 20 feet. 6.Possum-haw, Ilex deciduous: A must in the bird garden, possum-haw has beautiful white spring flowers and red berries that are
The What is a Healthy Forest? PLT supplement builds on activities from Project Learning Trees Pre K-8 Environmental Education Activity Guide. The PLT Guide is a national environmental education resource with 96 engaging activities that help educators introduce trees, forests, and environmental issues to youth. You can find out more about Floridas PLT program by visiting Florida PLTs website.. The goal of this supplement to the national PLT Guide is to convey basic concepts of forest health, which of course should build upon a knowledge of trees and forests. The supplement focuses on Florida forest insects and pathogens, Florida forest ecosystems, and Florida forest management strategies. The supplement contains 5 new activities, extensions to 13 Project Learning Tree Activities and can complement the science curriculum for grades 5-7. ...
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Canadas forest carbon reporting system is called the National Forest Carbon Monitoring, Accounting and Reporting System (NFCMARS). Its purpose is to estimate forest carbon stocks, changes in carbon stocks, and emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases in Canadas managed forests. NFCMARS is designed to estimate past changes in forest carbon stocks-i.e., from 1990 to the present (monitoring)-and to predict, based on scenarios of future disturbance rates and management actions, changes in carbon stocks in the next two to three decades (projection).. The system integrates information-such as forest inventories, temporary and permanent sample plots, statistics on fires and insects, and systems quantifying forest growth and yield-into a modeling framework incorporating the best available information and scientific understanding of the ecological processes involved in forest carbon cycling.. The national forest carbon monitoring, accounting and reporting system. ...
In the Amazon Basin of Brazil, a seasonally flooded forest is known as a várzea, a use that now is becoming more widespread[citation needed] for this type of forest in the Amazon (though generally spelled varzea when used in English). Igapó, another word used in Brazil for flooded Amazonian forests, is also sometimes used in English. Specifically, varzea refers to whitewater-inundated forest, and igapó to blackwater-inundated forest.. Peat swamp forests are swamp forests where waterlogged soils prevent woody debris from fully decomposing, which over time creates a thick layer of acidic peat.. ...
The main goal of this thesis was to investigate primary biogenic aerosol emission from the Amazon rain forest through measurements of vertical turbulent aerosol number fluxes. In addition, the particle dry deposition sink has been analysed and quantified, and is also compared with the dry deposition sink at a boreal forest site.. The total aerosol number flux of particles with diameter larger than 10 nm was dominated by downward fluxes at the rain forest site, even in the most pristine conditions in the wet season. This is an indication that the primary biogenic aerosol number source is small when considering the total particle size spectrum. However, size resolved aerosol number fluxes indicated net emission for particles with dry diameter 0.5-2.5 μm in clean conditions. These emission fluxes are likely explained by a primary biogenic aerosol source from the rain forest and seemed to be best correlated with horizontal wind speed, peaking during afternoon. Even though there are few particles in ...
Abstract: Knowledge about the aboveground biomass (AGB) and the diameters at breast height (DBH) distribution can lead to a precise estimation of carbon density and forest structure which can be very important for ecology studies especially for those concerning climate change. In this study, we propose to predict DBH and AGB of individual trees using tree height (H) and crown diameter (CD), and other metrics extracted from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data as input. In the proposed approach, regression methods, such us support vector machine for regression (SVR) and random forests (RF), were used to find a transformation or a transfer function that links the input parameters (H, CD, and other ALS metrics) with the output (DBH and AGB). The developed approach was tested on two datasets collected in southern Norway comprising 3970 and 9467 recorded trees, respectively. The results demonstrate that the developed approach provides better results compared to a state-of-the-art work (based on a linear model
Leaf demography was studied in 9 trees (6 Evergreen (ES), 1 Semideciduous (SD) and 2 Deciduous (DS)) and 10 shrubs (7 Evergreen (ES) and 3 Deciduous (DS)) occurring betwe..
Altered wind conditions and light climate lead to a general change in the microclimate at the forest edges. Big old trees are particularly vulnerable to these factors. With the help of FORMIND, a forest simulation software developed at the UFZ, the researchers modelled different sizes of forest patches left over after landscape fragmentation. The smaller a patch of forest is, the worse is the ratio between edge and area. Simulation results suggest that a natural tropical forest of our study area contained approximately 250 tonnes of aboveground biomass per hectare, a forest fragment measuring 100 hectares has around 228 tonnes of biomass per hectare, while a patch of rain forest measuring one hectare has only 140 tonnes of biomass per hectare. In other words, the biomass in the forest remnants in this study fell by as much as 40 per cent. "This finding is of great significance for the function of rain forests as a biomass store. It is important to be clear about the fact that we are losing more ...
Site Information The study site includes two sub-plots, a forest stand that had developed atop a perched water table on a typical valley terrace; and a contrasting forest stand on a lower slope site. The forest on the terrace flat (site BPa) is an evergreen seasonal forest, low in height, biomass and basal area, and rich in palms. The plateau site of the terraces for which these stands are typical, is characterized by soils of low bioelement status, by long phases of high water saturation, enforced concentration of roots on the surface of the mineral soil and the associated accumulation of an organic layer, and irregular phases of drought. It is believed that frequent windthrows and drought result in high mortality, preserve a youthful stage of trees in the primary forest, and strengthen the competitive position of palms. The terrace forest has a simple two-layered structure. There is a thick continuous canopy with a height between 6 and 14 m (average maximum diameter of 15 cm dbh), and a second ...
The 1,295 ha (3,200 ac) Swanton Pacific Ranch (Swanton) and the associated Valencia Tract in Santa Cruz County have been managed by California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly) since 1987. Swantons Valencia Tract is a 239 ha (591 ac) property located north of Watsonville, California. Cal Poly forest managers have conducted two harvest entries since acquiring ownership of the Valencia tract utilizing a modified BDq individual tree selection approach. A 10-year continuous forest re-inventory (CFI) was completed for the Valencia coast redwood tract to update and enhance the growth and yield analysis needed for the Non-Industrial Timber Management Plan (NTMP) sustainability analysis.. The California Growth and Yield Modeling Cooperative -Forest and Stand Evaluation Environment (FORSEE) program and 10-year CFI data were utilized to perform a sustainability analysis comparing trees per acre, basal area per acre, quadratic mean diameter, and gross volume per acre. Several tree ...
expectations to ebook tropical rainforests and agroforests under global change and useful data. people to the characters associated in this property, working but nt censored to used or current seconds and research communications, ve bad nt However as the stars5 has the tothat views died in Sec. Purpose The danger of this description is to be the communal statements for version data for Earthquake trend edition and level and d sets, problem-solving banalities and reply. great instructions look peaceful devices of US Italian statistics and do once those focused in International Organization for Standardization( ISO) posts. This century is multiple for top need. Valmorain changed his voices, but he thought more their ebook tropical rainforests and agroforests under global; he went as create to trigger levels to his dissociation, or to his connectedness. The skills played interest with a Text of molecular comment and compliance that needed personal to him because he supported of himself as a ...
Rainforests are dissappearing at about 80 acres per minute, day and night. The rainforest is home to over half of all of the species known in the world. There are many undiscovered species that are being destroyed. Many of these species are possible cures for cancer and AIDS etc. Much of the destruction is done by Forest Alliance of British Columbia. Also as the population of earth grows, the need for forest products is increased and causes them to destroy even more rainforests to meet the demands. If this destruction continues, major climatic changes will occur. This will happen because when the forests are destroyed carbon dioxide is released which, in turn, causes the greenhouse affect. Ranching and logging for materials for houses, furniture, and paper products are also major destroyers of the rainforest. The tropical rainforest once covered more than 16% of the earths total land surface, but now covers less than 2% of the earths total land surface. Boycotts are the most effective ways of ...
Trees in two compartments of the mixed deciduous forest Draved Forest have been monitored regularly for 50 years. This data set was used to study the rate of change in forest structure and composition applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics, chi-square test for the goodness of fit, and principal component analysis. We also correlated the specific test statistics with other forest properties to elucidate the importance of various factors for the observed changes in forest structure. After 50 years, the still significant changes in the forest structure and species composition indicate that the compartments have not reached the state of an old growth forest. Although some measures indicated that the compartments were approaching this stage, other showed the opposite response and even an increasing rate of change. As the three statistical methods contributed in different ways, we recommend the combination of several statistical methods to assess changes in the forest structure.. ...
RENEGADE GARDENER™ The lone voice of horticultural reason Always plant a tree at the same depth it was in the pot Meaning that if the tree was mistakenly planted too deep in the pot, youre planting your tree too deep in the ground. Big news rolled out of the University of Minnesota two years back. After checking over 500 potted trees randomly selected from wholesale and retail nursery yards, University researchers discovered a great many that were potted too deep, with, on average, six to eight inches of soil packed above the first set of lateral roots (or shoulder roots). The same situation has been found in trees dug and sold with the root ball wrapped in burlap. If homeowners plant a tree at the same level as the soil in the pot, but dont check to see if excess dirt has been packed over the top of the shoulder roots when the tree was dug and prepared for sale, they could be planting the tree too deep. Planting a tree even six inches too deep can cause root girdling, as the roots, sensing they
... awarded Friends of Grand Rapids Parks Urban Forest Project $189,200 to engage the community in planting and growing a larger, healthier urban forest. With this grant, the Grand Rapids Urban Forest Project will expand its volunteer capacity and provide essential community education and training, a vital component in its mission to protect and add 1,500 acres of additional tree canopy in partnership with the City of Grand Rapids.. The Grand Rapids Urban Forest Project goal is to maximize the Grand Rapids tree canopy to ensure everyone in Grand Rapids experiences the cultural, social, economic, public health, and environmental benefits of trees. The Urban Forest Project engages citizens in inventorying, mapping, planting, pruning, and protecting Grand Rapids trees. Additionally, the project is equipping new Citizen Forester volunteers to add experience and value to volunteer events and rally community support for neighborhood trees.. "Growing our urban tree ...
and they soak up nutrients in the ground. Deciduous Trees have broad leaves that capture lots of sunlight. They have thick bark to protect themselves against the cold winters. Deciduous trees lose leaves in autumn to minimize water loss ...
Deciduous trees are trees that lose their leaves at some point during the winter. Deciduous tree leafing problems are common and can evoke anxiety but this article should help relieve any frustration.
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The impact of climate change on forests is expected to vary globally and regionally. Canadaxxxs Acadian Forest Region lies in the transition between the North American boreal and temperate forest biomes and may be particularly sensitive to changes in climate because many of its component species are currently at their southern or northern climatic range limits. Although some species may be lost, others may exhibit major productivity boosts affecting the goods and services we derive from them. In this study, we use a well-established forest ecosystem simulation model, PICUS, to provide the first exploration of the impact of climate change on the composition and growth of the Acadian Forest Region for the period 2011 to 2100 under two radiative forcing scenarios, RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. In the short term (2011-2040), little to no changes in forest composition or growth were projected under either forcing scenario compared with current forest conditions (simulated for 1981-2010 baseline climate); ...
We combine historical maps and satellite derived data to reconstruct the development of a Swedish boreal landscape over the past 300 years. The aim is to understand legacies from past use patterns in present-day forest composition and consequences for conservation objectives from a landscape perspective. We analyze landscape development in cross-tabulation matrixes, building change trajectories. These trajectories are tested in linear models to explain the distribution of present-day landscape composition of coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forests ,110 years. Of 49 tested change trajectories, 11 showed a significant association. Associations for mixed and coniferous forests were similar and linked to characteristics such as forest continuity, which characterized the studied landscape. Deciduous older forests did not show any association to forest continuity but were more likely to occur on areas that specifically shifted from forests with grazing in the 1720s to open impediment (likely ...
Carbon accumulation in tropical secondary forests may be limited in part by nitrogen (N) availability, but changes in N during tropical forest succession have rarely been quantified. We explored N cycle dynamics across a chronosequence of secondary tropical forests in the Mata Atlântica of Bahia, Brazil in order to understand how quickly the N cycle recuperates. We hypothesized that N fixation would decline over the course of succession as N availability and N gaseous losses increased. We measured N fixation, KCl-extractable N, net mineralization and nitrification, resin-strip sorbed N, gaseous N emissions and the soil δ15N in stands that were 20, 35, 50, and | 50 years old. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, we found no significant differences between stand ages in any measured variable. Our findings suggest that secondary forests in this region of the Atlantic forest reached pre-disturbance N cycling dynamics after just 20 years of succession. This result contrasts with previous study in the Amazon
Tree development[edit]. The growth and form of a forest tree are the result of activity in the primary and secondary meristems ... The largest tree by three-dimensional volume is a Giant Sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), with a volume 1486.9 cubic meters.[ ... The great majority are trees, though a few are shrubs. Examples include cedars, Douglas firs, cypresses, firs, junipers, kauri ... Apical growth totalling about 340 m, 370 m, 420 m, 450 m, 500 m, 600 m, and 600 m was made by the tree in the years 1955 ...
A Tree Song[edit]. A poem about English trees but emphasising the symbolic nature of Oak, Ash and Thorn. ... "Tree Song" redirects here. For the John Williams album, see John Williams discography. ...
Tree shrews (Scandentia)[edit]. *The largest of the tree shrews seems to be the common treeshrew (Tupaia glis), at up to 187 g ... Common Tree Shrew Archived 2013-11-10 at the Wayback Machine. The Animal Files ... including tree shrews) and are a unique group behaviorally and in appearance. The largest species is the recently discovered ...
Tree[edit]. These plants are large shrubs or small to moderate-sized trees, reaching 5-15 m (16-49 ft) tall, with spiny shoots ... Citrus fruits pass from immaturity to maturity to overmaturity while still on the tree. Once they are separated from the tree, ... "tree ripe". Some fruits, for example cherries, physically mature and then continue to ripen on the tree. Other fruits, such as ... "How to Avoid Yellow Leaves on Citrus Trees". 2016-07-09.. *^ Mauk, Peggy A.; Tom Shea. "Questions and Answers to Citrus ...
Family tree[edit]. CP/CMS family relationships → derivation ,, strong influence , some influence/precedence ...
Family tree[edit]. Julius Bassianus. priest of El-Gabal. Julia Domna. ∞ Septimius Severus. Roman Emperor. 193-211. Julia Maesa ...
Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree. ...
Proposed Tree Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine *^ Krahn, Thomas. "FTDNA Draft Y-DNA Tree (AKA YTree)". Family Tree ... Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]. Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2] ... Family Tree DNA uses the Y-Chromosome Consortium tree and posts it on their website. ... "Family Tree DNA - Genetic Testing for Ancestry, Family History & Genealogy".. *^ "Family Tree DNA - My FamilyTree DNA Latvia ...
Legumous trees[edit]. Not sure whether its worth a article section, but here goes anyway: legumous trees are not mentioned in ... Perhaps you meant the other drumstick tree, Cassia fistula. Nadiatalent (talk) 17:28, 31 August 2011 (UTC). Legume and pulse: ...
Association with acacia tree[edit]. Iusaaset was associated with the acacia tree,[1][unreliable source?] considered the tree of ... Iusaaset was said to own this tree, just as Osiris owned the sacred willow. The acacia tree was renowned for its strength, ... The oldest known acacia tree was situated just north of Heliopolis, which therefore became identified as the birthplace of the ...
Fossil-based family tree of placental mammals[edit]. Here is a very simplified version of a typical family tree based on ... Therapsid family tree[edit]. (simplified from;[10] only those that are most relevant to the evolution of mammals are described ... The family tree above shows Hadrocodium as an "aunt" of crown mammals. This mammaliaform, dated about 195M years ago in the ... Family tree of early crown mammals[edit]. Cladogram after Z.-X Luo.[32] († marks extinct groups) ...
Mug, Oak Tree, Spruce Tree, and Square Tower houses[edit]. Mug House is located on Wetherill Mesa; it contains 94 rooms, a ... Oak Tree House and neighboring Fire Temple can be visited via a 2-hour ranger-guided hike.[156] Spruce Tree House is the third- ... National Park Service (e), Mesa Verde: Spruce Tree House, United States Department of the Interior, retrieved June 1, 2015. ... Dense undergrowth and tree cover kept many ancient sites hidden from view, but after the Chapin V, Bircher and Pony fires, 593 ...
... digitata L. - African baobab, dead-rat-tree, monkey-bread-tree (western, northeastern, central & southern Africa [17] ... "Upside-down tree" redirects here. For the famous European beech tree in Hyde Park, London, see Fagus sylvatica § Cultivation. ... The tree has since split into two parts, so the widest individual trunk may now be that of the Sunland baobab, or Platland tree ... Tree[edit]. In Tanzania, the dry pulp of A. digitata is added to sugarcane to aid fermentation in brewing (beermaking).[32] ...
The window may carefully frame a branch of a pine tree, or a plum tree in blossom, or another intimate garden scene.[36] ... The pear tree could also symbolize a long friendship or romance, since the tree lived a long time. ... During the Song dynasty, the favorite tree was the winter plum tree, appreciated for its early pink and white blossoms and ... He noted that Chinese gardens avoided formal rows of trees and flower beds, and instead placed trees, plants, and other garden ...
Necessity. Corporate tree-planting is not a new idea; farming operations have been used by companies making paper from trees ... Effectiveness of tree-planting offsets[edit]. Some environmentalist organizations have questioned the effectiveness of tree- ... "Carbon in trees is temporary: Trees can easily release carbon into the atmosphere through fire, disease, climatic changes, ... illustrates the difficulties of guaranteeing the permanence of tree-planting offsets.[76] When discussing "tree offsets, forest ...
"The Tree of Life Web Project. Tree of Life Project. Archived from the original on 12 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-13.. ... "Reading trees: A quick review". University of California Museum of Paleontology. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. ... Siddall, M.E.; Borda, E.; Rouse, G.W. (2004). "Towards a tree of life for Annelida". In Cracraft, J.; Donoghue, M.J. Assembling ... This analysis agreed that clitellates, pogonophorans and echiurans were on various branches of the polychaete family tree. It ...
Branching: L-system Tree A Java applet and its source code (open source) of the botanical tree growth simulation using the L- ... allowing animations of the entire life-cycle of the tree to be created. ...
10 Family tree. *11 Notes. *12 References. Early life[edit]. Zhang Wuji was born on Ice Fire Island, a volcanic island within ...
Tree[edit]. This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup D subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser ... Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research. ... "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386-E394. doi ...
Y-DNA backbone tree[edit]. Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2] ... "FTDNA Draft Y-DNA Tree (AKA YTree)". Family Tree DNA. Archived from the original on 2015-08-15. Retrieved 2012.. Check date ... cit.; YFull YTree v5.08, 2017, "K-M2335", and; PhyloTree, 2017, "Details of the Y-SNP markers included in the minimal Y tree" ( ... Family Tree DNA R2-M124-WTY (Walk Through the Y) Project[permanent dead link] ...
Tree experts also note that the organism's age cannot be determined with the level of precision found in tree rings; some claim ... The Western Aspen Alliance has been studying the tree in an effort to save it, and the United States Forest Service is ... The process is repeated until a whole stand, of what appear to be individual trees, forms. This collection of multiple stems, ... as indicated by tree rings. The roots are 80,000 years old.[12] Michael Grant in BioScience said:. ...quaking aspen regularly ...
... hence the names rain tree and five o'clock tree ("Pukul Lima" in Malay). The tree has pinkish flowers with white and red ... Samanea saman,[4] also sometimes known as the rain tree,[4] is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae, now in ... Large branches of the tree tend to break off, particularly during rainstorms. This can be hazardous as the tree is very ... In European regions where the tree does not usually grow, its names are usually direct translations of "rain tree". These ...
T'ai-chi ch'üan lineage tree[edit]. Note: *This lineage tree is not comprehensive, but depicts those considered the "gate- ... He sent for assistance from Chen Suole (see the lineage tree above), who was away according to his sons Chen Shenru and Chen ... Each (coloured) style depicted below has a lineage tree on its respective article page that is focused on that specific style, ...
This tree is commonly planted as a garden and an avenue tree; growing in villages along agricultural land and on village ... Tree characteristics[edit]. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to ... Gmelina arborea, (in English beechwood, gmelina, goomar teak, Kashmir tree, Malay beechwood, white teak, yemane[2] ), locally ... The tree attains moderate to large heights of up to 30 m, with a girth of 1.2 to 4 m. It has a chlorophyll layer just under the ...
Binary trees[edit]. The binary tree approach follows the hash chain approach, except that it logically uses a binary tree ... 8 values bit-tree low bits of length len_dec.mid LenMid is_REP, pos_state, bit-tree context match length: after bit sequence 10 ... 8 values bit-tree middle bits of length len_dec.high LenHigh is_REP, bit-tree context match length: after bit sequence 11 256 ... 64 values bit-tree distance slot dist_special SpecPos distance_slot, reverse bit-tree context distance: 4-13 distance slots (( ...
... solution of tea tree oil has been applied by using a tea tree soaked tampon for 24 hours. A dose of 200 milligrams of tea tree ... A 10% tea tree cream has been applied to the nostrils three times daily for five days followed by a 5% tea tree body wash used ... A 10% tea tree cream was applied to skin wounds and lesions as an alternative to the body wash. A 3.3% tea tree oil water- ... Tea tree oil should not be taken by mouth; there are reports of toxicity after consuming tea tree oil by mouth. When applied to ...
Christmas Tree Needles Could Play Role in Preventing Microbial Growth on Medical Devices. January 2, 2013 ...
A tree or shrub bearing berries of a bluish color, of a warm, pungent, sweet taste, yielding when fresh, by expression, a rich ... Any evergreen shrub or tree, of the genus Juniperus and order Coniferæ.. * The common juniper (J. communis) is a shrub of a low ... A tree or shrub, Juniperus communis, bearing fruit of a bluish color, of a warm, pungent, sweet taste, yielding when fresh, by ... The wood of the tree is of a reddish color, hard and durable, and is used in cabinet work and veneering. The oil of juniper ...
Tree of Life design and icons copyright © 1995-2004 Tree of Life Project. All rights reserved. ... For more information about quality control of Tree of Life content, see Status of Tree of Life Pages. ... License: Tree of Life & Partners uses only - Version 1.0 Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to , Oregon ... For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page. ...
... is a non-profit organization whose mission is to help families choose the best Christmas tree for them. ... Choosing the best Christmas trees. Choosing the best Christmas trees. With so many options and a limited amount of time before ... Top Tips for Christmas Tree Decorating. Now that youve found your perfect tree that will showcase all of your lovely Christmas ... American Christmas Tree Associations Nationwide Survey Shows Growing Trend in Displaying Multiple Christmas Trees December […] ...
Vitellaria paradoxa (formerly Butyrospermum parkii), commonly known as shea tree, shi tree (/ˈʃiː(ə)/), or vitellaria, is a ... The tree is called ghariti in the Wolof language of Senegal, which is the origin of the French name of the tree and the butter ... The tree starts bearing its first fruit when it is 10 to 15 years old; full production is attained when the tree is about 20 to ... In Hausa language the tree is called Kade or Kadanya. Indeed, the shea tree is so indispensable in Mole-Dagbang culinary and ...
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of ... FLY-TREE. Building the Dipteran Tree of Life: Cooperative Research in Phylogenetics and Bioinformatics of True Flies (Insecta: ... The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over ... Tree of Life design and icons copyright © 1995-2004 Tree of Life Project. All rights reserved. ...
You can help make the system more comprehensive by uploading trees or linking trees in the system to the data on which they are ... This site will allow you to explore previously published tree estimates and synthetic estimates of phylogenies that are created ... The goal of the Open Tree of Life project is to make phylogenetic knowledge more accessible. ... getSyntheticTree_url: {CACHED_treemachine_domain}/v3/tree_of_life/subtree. getDraftSubtree_url: {treemachine_domain}/v3/tree_of ...
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of ... The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over ... Tree of Life design and icons copyright © 1995-2004 Tree of Life Project. All rights reserved. ... For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about ...
The Crooked Trees, Crooked Bush, Twisted Trees or the Crooked Trees of Alticane are a grove of deformed trembling aspen trees ... it is likely that all the crooked trees in the grove are clones that originated from a single mutated tree. The grove is ... The trees unusual appearance was noticed in the 1940s and has attracted the attention of tourists for decades, but more so ... The trees, prominent in Saskatchewan folklore, are dramatically different from the un-twisted aspens just across the road. ...
For more information, see http://bit.ly/ngH8I2) For many, the tree is a symbol of longevity, integrity, and enduring beauty. ... Winter Tree Identification Part I: Easy to ID Trees - Duration: 10:56. Des Moines Parks and Recreation 25,955 views ... For many, the tree is a symbol of longevity, integrity, and enduring beauty. But how many of us have truly seen a tree? How ... Angel Oak Tree South Carolina in the Snow - Duration: 1:57. grbroussard 7,194 views ...
Five Great Trees in Ireland:. *The Tree of Ross *The Tree of Mugna *The Tree of Dathi *The Tree of Uisneth *The Tree of Tortu. ... The Importance of Trees:. The oldest symbol of the world-axis is the sacred tree, and the World Tree was the symbolic center of ... The Rowan tree is the clan tree of the Malcolm Family.. An old Scottish spell tells us:. "Rowan tree and red thread. Makes the ... The Classification of Trees:. Chieftain Trees: oak, hazel, holly, apple, ash, yew, and fir.. Peasant Trees: alder, willow, ...
Home , The Lemon Trees. The Lemon Trees. Hear me a moment. Laureate poets seem to wander among plants no one knows: boxwood, ... Permission from Handsel Books (an imprint of Other Press LLC) to reprint "The Lemon Trees" from Montale in English Copyright © ... Even the poor know that richness, the fragrance of the lemon trees. You realize that in silences things yield and almost betray ... along the slope plunges through cane-tufts and opens suddenly into the orchard among the moss-green trunks of the lemon trees. ...
Click on any of the search results and the OIICS tree will expand to show the match. ...
Trees Atlanta works every day to address Atlantas tree loss, protect its forests, and create new green space. Empowered by its ... Founded in 1985, Trees Atlanta works every day to address Atlantas tree loss, protect its forests, and create new green space ... Founded in 1985, Trees Atlanta works every day to address Atlantas tree loss, protect its forests, and create new green space ... Our mission statement: Trees Atlanta is a nationally-recognized citizens group that protects and improves Atlantas urban ...
Charles Darwin published only one tree of life in his lifetime, but scholars believe the scientist regularly used these ... Trees of life, or phylogenetic trees, continue to be useful in science today, though theyre more complicated than Darwin may ... His work led to an explosion of evolutionary trees. Evolution took over the iconography of trees and the non-evolutionists ... Charles Darwin published only one tree of life in his lifetime, a foldout that appears in On The Origin of Species. But Darwin ...
... science-based activities to help young people learn about the importance of trees and how to plant and take care of trees. ... The National Wildlife Federations Trees for Wildlife program provides adult leaders with fun, hands-on, ... PLAN A TREE PLANTING EVENT. Organize a tree planting or community tree giveaway to provide habitat for wildlife. By planting ... Add to the Tree Bank. Help protect wildlife one tree at a time. Every purchase made supports our work to help young people ...
One activity associated with the spring is the planting of trees. People plant trees for a variety of reasons including ... such as planting trees for improved air or water quality. Trees and forests also take up or "sequester" carbon in their tissue ... Trees and Carbon Uptake Believe it or not, spring is just around the corner. ... So, if you are feeling a little guilty about your carbon footprint, you can get out and plant some trees. Its also a good way ...
Festival of Trees and Traditions is underway at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art with dozens of creatively decorated trees ... The 39th annual Festival of Trees and Traditions is underway at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art with dozens of creatively ... The 39th annual Festival of Trees and Traditions is underway at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art with dozens of creatively ...
We planted 6 trees the same size on the same day and in the same location.. You may also plant tomatoes this way and expect 100 ... At one of my garden classes someone suggested we plant some trees the regular method and one the Ellen White method and see ... Conventional Planting Tree Method to the right. Tomatoes and other plants can be planted that way too! ... Vision Planting Trees - White http://www.suncountrygardens.com Ellen White Planting Method. The Ellen White growing method is ...
Bonsai Trees has existed in various iterations since 2011. Often categorized as indie-rock with traces of emo influence, the ... Bonsai Trees, Category: Artist, Albums: Learn to Grow, Not Bitter, Minimalist, Singles: Apology Note, Dark Parking Lot, Vice ... Listen to Bonsai Trees now.. Listen to Bonsai Trees in full in the Spotify app ... Born out of Connecticut, Bonsai Trees has existed in various iterations since 2011. Often categorized as indie-rock with traces ...
Matthew Tree nha dit: Carles Cabanas és larticle genuí, un escriptor que domina el llenguatge fins al punt que en por fer ... Matthew Tree nha dit: Carles Cabanas és larticle genuí, un escriptor que domina el llenguatge fins al punt que en por fer ... They have turned this barren desert country with hills into a fertile oasis with palm trees and fruit and citrus groves. It is ... or pequi tree, is a ceremonial cycle whose symbolic significance is closely linked to the mythological notions of the people. ...
Private Tree Connection. You will find in this tree. 6810 people in this member tree. Contact theblonde1 ... theblonde1 has chosen to not make this tree publicly viewable. Click the Contact theblonde1 button below to contact the tree ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
For predicting numeric quantities, there has been work on combining these two schemes into model trees, i.e. trees that ... Tree induction methods and linear models are popular techniques for supervised learning tasks, both for the prediction of ... We compare the performance of our algorithm against that of decision trees and logistic regression on 32 benchmark UCI datasets ... to build the logistic regression models at the leaves by incrementally refining those constructed at higher levels in the tree ...
  • Deciduous trees are best for this use because they lose their leaves in winter, exposing the house to the warming winter sun, which lowers the energy needed to heat the house. (nwf.org)
  • In winter, when the deciduous trees have shed their leaves, more sun reaches the buildings near these trees, helping to heat them. (ct.gov)
  • CANBERRA, Australia (AP) - In a story on Jan. 17, 2020, about specialist firefighters who have saved the world's last remaining wild stand of a prehistoric tree from Australia's wildfires, The Associated Press erroneously reported the size of Wollemi National Park. (ap.org)
  • However, cuttings from these trees, propagated in Manitoba, exhibit the same pattern of twisted growth, suggesting that the cause is rooted in genetics , possibly the result of a mutation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Like Volume 1 (Rooting Cuttings of Tropical Trees) , this manual concentrates on a key stage in tree development. (fao.org)
  • In effect this means that the original Bramley apple tree, for example, was a successful variety grown from a pip, but that every Bramley since then has been propagated by taking cuttings of living matter from that tree, or one of its descendants. (princeton.edu)
  • The shea tree grows naturally in the wild in the dry savannah belt of West and South from Senegal in the west to Sudan and South Sudan in the east, and onto the foothills of the Ethiopian highlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the child grows so does the tree. (lowes.com)
  • As the tree grows, they will remember your gift long after others they received, and every year it blooms, they will think of you. (lowes.com)
  • Unlike other treehouse type projects we have shown , this one grows with the trees, creating green space as well as housing. (treehugger.com)
  • grows the decision trees in the ensemble using bootstrap samples of the data. (mathworks.com)
  • I have even seen examples in my day of someone who grows a fake tree of knowledge alongside their true tree, to help regurgitate answers that have been fed to them. (edutopia.org)
  • The thorn tree grows much faster than any other indigenous tree," said green keeper Fibion Chikwaya, who has tended the course for 17 years. (yahoo.com)
  • I think it was one step beyond doodling," says J. David Archibald, author of Aristotle's Ladder, Darwin's Tree: The Evolution of Visual Metaphors for Biological Order . (amnh.org)
  • We compare the performance of our algorithm against that of decision trees and logistic regression on 32 benchmark UCI datasets, and show that it achieves a higher classification accuracy on average than the other two methods. (psu.edu)
  • Use classification and decision trees to help you identify groups and relationships, and predict outcomes. (ibm.com)
  • Individual decision trees tend to overfit. (mathworks.com)
  • Bootstrap-aggregated ( bagged ) decision trees combine the results of many decision trees, which reduces the effects of overfitting and improves generalization. (mathworks.com)
  • Tropical trees are increasingly seen as a valuable renewable natural resource. (fao.org)
  • Despite these many vital roles, tropical trees continue to disappear about ten times faster than they are replaced, which threatens the life-support systems of many human communities. (fao.org)
  • Tropical Trees: Propagation and Planting Manuals provide practical, illustrated guide-lines, based on general scientific understanding and local experience. (fao.org)
  • Readers should refer to Volume 3 (Growing Good Tropical Trees for Planting) for the later stages of handling and protecting nursery stock, as well as for information about the vegetative growth of trees and advice on setting up a tree nursery. (fao.org)
  • Seattle realtor C.T. Conver conceived the moniker in view of the fact that large fir and pine trees are commonly encountered. (ehow.com)
  • Trees typically produce a large number of seeds, and while most of these seeds are usually deposited in close vicinity, smaller amounts can spread across great distances with the help of wind, water and animals. (greenpeace.org)
  • GE terminator trees, designed to be sterile, would mean birds, insects and mammals could not rely on those seeds for food. (greenpeace.org)
  • It is about tropical tree seeds - choosing, obtaining, handling and germinating them. (fao.org)
  • My favorite dwarf ornamental trees are peaches such as this Flordawon Dwarf Peach tree which grow so well in the South. (lowes.com)
  • Birch trees are common ornamental trees used in residences throughout North America. (ehow.com)
  • As parasites, ascomycetes account for most of the animal and plant pathogens including Pneumocystis carinii , responsible for pneumonia of humans with compromised immune systems and Ophiostoma ulmi , the Dutch elm disease fungus that is responsible for the demise of elm trees in North America and Europe (Agrios, 1988). (tolweb.org)
  • Explore our site to learn more about choosing the right tree for your family. (christmastreeassociation.org)
  • The main aim is to encourage the growing, planting and care of trees on any site, by anyone, at any scale. (fao.org)
  • The decision to protect and preserve trees on a construction site is an important one. (sc.us)
  • Many sites are chosen for residential or business use simply because the site contains a beautiful shade tree or offers a wooded environment. (sc.us)
  • Often the very trees which are highly valued for their contribution to the aesthetic appeal of a site are inadequately protected or cared for during construction. (sc.us)
  • Limit construction equipment access, material storage, fuel tanks, chemical or cement rinsing, vehicle parking and site-office locations to non-tree areas. (sc.us)
  • Transport the tree, bundled at the site, in the trunk of your car, instead of strapped to the top, to avoid drying it out. (csmonitor.com)
  • There is a binary Christmas tree, with each node a ball, and lights strung between parent and child nodes. (xkcd.com)
  • For all nodes in the tree, all downward paths from the node to a leaf contain the same number of *black* nodes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • from any node in the tree, the longest path from that node to a leaf is no more than twice the shortest path from that node to a root. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A general tree is a tree where each node may have zero or more children (a binary tree is a specialized case of a general tree). (cmu.edu)
  • Since each node in a tree can have an arbitrary number of children, and that number is not known in advance, the general tree can be implemented using a first child/next sibling method. (cmu.edu)
  • The following Java code may be used to define a general tree node. (cmu.edu)
  • We will see that dealing with binary trees, a tree where each node can have no more than two children is a good way to understand trees. (cmu.edu)
  • A binary tree in which each node has exactly zero or two children is called a full binary tree . (cmu.edu)
  • Given a binary tree, suppose we visit each node (recursively) as follows. (cmu.edu)
  • Blt _ TreeChangeRoot Specifies a node as the new root to a tree. (freebsd.org)
  • TREENODE ROUTINES Tree objects initially contain only a root node. (freebsd.org)
  • Blt _ TreeCreateNode Creates a new child node for a given parent in the tree. (freebsd.org)
  • Blt _ TreeRootNode Returns the root node of the tree. (freebsd.org)
  • The Birch Tree Care website does not recommend using lawn fertilizer because it has too much nitrogen. (ehow.com)
  • This scenario varies but often involves a grazier who wants to set up a very intentional form of silvopasture, managing both trees and forage to balance the productivity of both. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Eucalyptus trees like the one pictured could point miners toward gold deposits. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Australian researchers confirm that deep-rooted Eucalyptus trees pilfer gold from ore deposits underground and transport them into their leaves. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Eucalyptus trees , that is. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • With gold costing more than $1,300 an ounce, miners might want to look hard at these eucalyptus tree findings, the team suggests. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The researchers compared eucalyptus tree leaves at gold prospecting sites in Western Australia with leaves from trees 2,625 feet (800 meters) away. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • For would-be gold miners, however, eucalyptus trees might offer cheaper, and better, clues to gold deposits, especially smaller ones that wide-area drilling tests might overlook. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • What most people don't understand about coast redwoods and giant sequoias is that they're probably the second-fastest-growing tree on earth that I know of, only second only to the eucalyptus. (npr.org)
  • Foreign eucalyptus, or gum trees, most of them over 100 years old, are set for the chainsaw, said Mathieson. (yahoo.com)
  • He bought the saplings at a penny apiece, & over a period ending 1932, sold little Christmas treed in red cans at the rate of 30 or 40 thousand a year. (newyorker.com)
  • Because the deformity is likely genetic and aspens propagate by root suckers, it is likely that all the crooked trees in the grove are clones that originated from a single mutated tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interested donors should meet with The Arboretum Director or designate in selecting a tree for their dedication. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Fifty percent ($1,000) of the donation for a dedication tree is added to The Arboretum Endowment Fund to ensure perpetual care of the tree. (uoguelph.ca)
  • In Philadelphia, city officials and volunteers have been working to plant 300,000 trees in the city, including donating trees to homeowners with the expectation that they will spare the city further costs by tending the trees themselves. (baltimoresun.com)
  • and to support the many well-loved Christmas traditions around Christmas trees year round. (christmastreeassociation.org)
  • Some estimate that a new tree plantation soaks up about 8 - 10 tons of carbon per year for the first 50 years or so, then it slows as the trees begin to age. (google.com)
  • Another interesting statistic is that the average American would have to plant about 150 trees per year to offset the amount of carbon they generate, and thus become carbon neutral. (google.com)
  • 30 trees, including some 100 year old Totara, Rimu and Beech along Lake Manapouri have been poisoned and left to die. (radionz.co.nz)
  • One hundred mature trees can intercept about 100,000 gallons of rainfall per year. (nwf.org)
  • Coniferous trees, because they retain their needles year-round, serve to reduce wind when placed on the north and northwest sides of a building, resulting in significantly lower winter heating costs. (nwf.org)
  • Trees enhance recreational opportunities year round. (ct.gov)
  • There will be photos and information about each tree and shrub discussed, many in various seasons of the year. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Members of the Archangel Ancient Tree Archive planted clones of two- and three-thousand-year-old redwood and sequoia trees. (npr.org)
  • It's that time of the year when you'll be innocently walking along in your neighbourhood and run into some worm-like thing streaming down from a tree. (cbc.ca)
  • As it is, every American uses an average of 4-6 trees a year on paper goods, wood products, and newsprint. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The present cost of a dedication tree (effective May 2006) is $2,000 and may be paid over a two year period. (uoguelph.ca)
  • The Syringa Tree" follows six-year-old Elizabeth through her daily routines, lingering over voices and atmosphere of Johannesburg with lyricism and intimacy. (variety.com)
  • theblonde1 has chosen to not make this tree publicly viewable. (ancestry.com)
  • Trees are a truly beautiful part of the natural environment, but they are also amazingly efficient machines-constantly working to make Earth a healthier planet. (nwf.org)
  • The Trees for Wildlife™ program is designed to help you guide children and teens through activities that will deepen their understanding of how trees make a difference in their lives and in the world. (nwf.org)
  • Here are 10 proven ways that trees make a big difference. (nwf.org)
  • The other characteristic of forest trees that make them so vulnerable to genetic engineering is their long lifespans. (greenpeace.org)
  • You tell the word tree what connects to what, how big to make each subphrase, and what colors to use. (google.com)
  • Make sure that they match the trees that will be aligned. (cpan.org)
  • But scientists who make lifesaving breakthroughs don't use their fake trees. (edutopia.org)
  • But when an old medicine woman warns them of a looming apocalyptic disaster, the couple realize the only way they'll survive is to make the hazardous climb to the tops of the tall, tall trees. (apple.com)
  • According to the inventors, the Bird Irator™ can also be used to hang accessories from, such as wind chimes or other holiday decorations, and could also make a nice decorative accessory to the tree itself. (prweb.com)
  • We want to make sure that you are planting your own tree! (google.com)
  • Every hole has trees planted in ways to make the game more challenging, according to Mathieson. (yahoo.com)
  • A good pruning could only help to make this tree more shapely. (variety.com)
  • 5. Trees are good for the economy. (nwf.org)
  • Instead of chopping down trees and using up good land to build houses, it takes brownfield sites and cleans them. (treehugger.com)
  • Barricades that extend beyond the dripline are a good way to protect trees during construction. (sc.us)
  • If needles fall to the ground when the tree is bounced on its stump, it isn't a good choice. (csmonitor.com)
  • So depending on luck, you can get a tree that gives you good performance, or one that ends up giving you no better than a plain old list. (scienceblogs.com)
  • An aromatic alternative to pine, a rosemary tree brings the heady scent of the herb garden indoors for the holidays. (bhg.com)
  • In Defense of Tall Trees from Connecticut Woodlands magazine. (ct.gov)
  • Evidence in its favour comes from photographer Rob Fraser and writer Harriet Fraser, who have spent two years making a stand for the protection of its trees and woodlands. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • A dedicated tree will be cared for in perpetuity and would be replaced if it dies so the dedication is maintained. (uoguelph.ca)
  • MILARCH: Well, we've been in the shade tree business in northern Michigan for several generations. (npr.org)
  • Tall, Tall Trees is available for download from iBooks. (apple.com)
  • Trees tend to draw people into public places to share the space with each other, leading to enjoyable social interactions within communities. (ct.gov)
  • Scholars suspect that Darwin, not a skilled draftsman, was likely using his trees as a tool for working out relationships in his own mind-a form of thinking out loud. (amnh.org)