Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.
The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).
A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
"Panama" is not a recognized medical term or condition in healthcare and medicine. It might be a reference to a location, but it does not have a specific medical meaning in itself.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
A plant family of the order Theales.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.
A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. M. alternifolia foliage is a source of TEA TREE OIL. The common name of tea tree also refers to LEPTOSPERMUM or KUNZEA. M. vindifolia is a source of niaouli oil. M. cajuputi and M. leucadendra are sources of cajuput oil.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Diseases of plants.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant family of the order Fagales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have simple, serrate, alternate leaves. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. The fruit is usually a small nut or a short-winged samara.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding as "South America" is not a medical term and cannot have a medical definition. It is a geographical term referring to the southern portion of the American continent, consisting of twelve independent countries and three territories of other nations.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
'Fires' is not a recognized medical term for a symptom, diagnosis, or condition in patients.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Head to tail array of covalently joined DNA sequences generated by concatenation. Concatenated DNA is attached end to end in contrast to CATENATED DNA which is attached loop to loop.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees and should not be confused with hemlock plants (CICUTA and CONIUM).
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.
A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.
An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A plant family of the order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are tropical trees which have elongate latex cells. Several members bear sweet edible fruits and produce triterpenoid saponins.
Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.
A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.
Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.
Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".
Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are trees and shrubs of temperate regions that have watery sap and alternate leaves which are lopsided at the base. The flowers lack petals.
The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.

Effects of dispersed recreational activities on the microbiological quality of forest surface water. (1/3351)

The microbiological quality of forest surface waters in the Greenwater River watershed was examined to investigate the influence of heavy motorized camping in an area with no sanitary facilities. Indicator densities increased during weekend human-use periods when compared to weekdays. Increases in indicator densities were also noted downstream from heavily used camping areas when compared to upstream sites. Seasonal, weekly, and diurnal fluctuations in indicator densities were observed. This study suggests that potential health hazards exist in this watershed during periods of human use.  (+info)

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (2/3351)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

The nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer as a target sequence to study intraspecific diversity of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum directly on pinus root systems. (3/3351)

Polymorphism of the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum was studied to evaluate whether this sequence could be used in field studies to estimate the diversity of strains forming mycorrhizas on individual Pinus pinaster root systems. This sequence was amplified by PCR from 125 haploid homokaryotic strains collected in 14 P. pinaster stands along the Atlantic coast of France by using conserved oligonucleotide primers. Restriction enzyme digestion of the amplified 3.4-kbp-long IGS allowed us to characterize 24 alleles whose frequencies differed. Nine of these alleles were found only once, whereas about 60% of the strains contained four of the alleles. Local populations could be almost as diverse as the entire population along a 150-km stretch of coastline that was examined; for example, 13 alleles were found in a single forest stand. The IGS from one strain was partially sequenced, and the sequence data were used to design oligonucleotides which allowed separate PCR amplification of three different segments of the IGS. Most polymorphisms observed among the full-length IGS regions resulted from polymorphisms in an internal ca. 1,500-bp-long sequence characterized by length variations that may have resulted from variable numbers of a T2AG3 motif. This internal polymorphic sequence could not be amplified from the genomes of nine other Hebeloma species. Analysis of this internal sequence amplified from the haploid progenies of 10 fruiting bodies collected in a 70-m2 area resulted in identification of six allelic forms and seven distinct diplotypes out of the 21 possible different combinations. Moreover, optimization of the PCR conditions resulted in amplification of this sequence from more than 80% of the DNA samples extracted from individual H. cylindrosporum infected P. pinaster mycorrhizal root tips, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this sequence for studying the below-ground diversity of mycorrhizas formed by genets belonging to the same fungal species.  (+info)

Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition. (4/3351)

Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase.  (+info)

Evolution of plant defense mechanisms. Relationships of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases to pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases. (5/3351)

Pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductase classes are phylogenetically related, as is a third, the so-called "isoflavone reductase homologs." This study establishes the first known catalytic function for the latter, as being able to engender the NADPH-dependent reduction of phenylcoumaran benzylic ethers. Accordingly, all three reductase classes are involved in the biosynthesis of important and related phenylpropanoid-derived plant defense compounds. In this investigation, the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase from the gymnosperm, Pinus taeda, was cloned, with the recombinant protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme reduces the benzylic ether functionalities of both dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, with a higher affinity for the former, as measured by apparent Km and Vmax values and observed kinetic 3H-isotope effects. It abstracts the 4R-hydride of the required NADPH cofactor in a manner analogous to that of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases. A similar catalytic function was observed for the corresponding recombinant reductase whose gene was cloned from the angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, both pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases catalyze enantiospecific conversions, whereas the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase only shows regiospecific discrimination. A possible evolutionary relationship among the three reductase classes is proposed, based on the supposition that phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases represent the progenitors of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.  (+info)

Process and current status of the epidemiologic studies on cedar pollinosis in Japan. (6/3351)

This paper reviews the present situation and future aspects of epidemiologic studies on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Increase of allergic rhinitis patients is observed in both the Patient Survey and the Reports on the Surveys of Social Medical Care Insurance Services, however, these surveys are conducted when cedar pollens do not pollute the air. Many have reported on the prevalence of pollinosis in limited areas but only a few nationwide epidemiologic surveys have been conducted. Most of the studies were conducted at special medical facilities such as university hospitals. There is a high possibility that patients who visit the specific facilities do not exactly represent the actual number of patients and epidemiologic pictures of pollinosis in Japan. The rapid advances in laboratory test methods may change the diagnostic criteria and increase the number of reported patients. Therefore, the prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan has not been determined yet. Determination of the prevalence of cedar pollinosis and description of the epidemiologic pictures constitute the essential steps toward the control of this clinical entity. Thus it is necessary to conduct an epidemiologic survey on Japanese representative samples with a standardized survey form with clear and concise diagnostic criteria.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of sulfur-containing compounds in Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc. on the aggregation of rabbit platelets. (7/3351)

The inhibitory effects of three pure compounds isolated from wood garlic, 2,4,5-trithiahexane (I), 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane (II), and 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 2,2-dioxide (III), on rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid, U46619, ADP (adenosine 5'-diphosphate), PAF (platelet aggregating factor), and thrombin were studied in vitro. The anti-aggregating activity of 2,4,5,7-tetrathiaoctane 4,4-dioxide (IV) was also measured with collagen and arachidonic acid. I, II, III, and IV inhibited the platelet aggregation induced by all tested agonists. I, II, and III exhibited a stronger inhibitory effect against the thrombin-induced aggregation of GFP (gel-filtered platelets) than against the aggregation induced by the other agonists. Notably, the IC50 value for III was 4 microM, which is approximately 2.5 times stronger than MATS (methyl allyl trisulfide), a major anti-platelet compound isolated from garlic. In inhibiting collagen-induced aggregation, II was as potent as MATS and aspirin, with a marked disaggregation effect on the secondary aggregation by arachidonic acid, at the rate of 47.05%/min at a concentration of 10(-4) M. I, II, and III also suppressed U46619-induced aggregation. These results suggest that sulfur-containing compounds in wood garlic not only inhibit arachidonic acid metabolism but also suppress aggregation in association with the function of the platelet plasma membrane.  (+info)

Towards a kala azar risk map for Sudan: mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis using digital data of environmental variables. (8/3351)

The need to define the geographical distribution of Phlebotomus orientalis results from its importance as the dominant vector of kala azar (visceral Iceishmaniasis) in Sudan. Recent epidermics of this disease in southern and eastern Sudan caused an estimated 100000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of the vector. This information is an essential prerequisite to the production of a risk map for kala azar. This study uses data on the presence and absence of P. orientalis from 44 collecting sites across the central belt of Sudan. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of P. orientalis at each collecting site as a function of climatic and environmental variables (rainfall; temperature; altitude; soil type and the satellite-derived environmental proxies - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and Land Surface Temperature). The logistic regression model indicates mean annual maximum daily temperature and soil type as the most important ecological determinants of P. orientalis distribution. An initial risk map was created in a raster-based geographical information system which delineates the area where P. orientalis may occur. This map was then refined using a mask layer indicating the known rainfall-based boundaries of the distribution of Acacia-Balanites woodland - a woodland type known to be associated with the distribution of this vector. The predictive performance of the risk map is discussed.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

A decision tree is a graphical representation of possible solutions to a decision based on certain conditions. It is a predictive modeling tool commonly used in statistics, data mining, and machine learning. In the medical field, decision trees can be used for clinical decision-making and predicting patient outcomes based on various factors such as symptoms, test results, or demographic information.

In a decision tree, each internal node represents a feature or attribute, and each branch represents a possible value or outcome of that feature. The leaves of the tree represent the final decisions or predictions. Decision trees are constructed by recursively partitioning the data into subsets based on the most significant attributes until a stopping criterion is met.

Decision trees can be used for both classification and regression tasks, making them versatile tools in medical research and practice. They can help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care, identify high-risk patients, and develop personalized treatment plans. However, it's important to note that decision trees are only as good as the data they are trained on, and their accuracy may be affected by biases or limitations in the data.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Tea tree oil, also known as melaleuca oil, is an essential oil derived from the leaves of the tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), which is native to Australia. It has been used traditionally by Aboriginal people for centuries for its medicinal properties. Tea tree oil is known for its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic qualities. It contains a number of compounds, including terpinen-4-ol, that have been shown to kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.

Tea tree oil is often used topically and has been found to be effective in treating various skin conditions such as acne, fungal infections, insect bites, and minor wounds. However, it should not be ingested as it can cause adverse reactions when taken internally. It's important to dilute tea tree oil with a carrier oil before applying it to the skin, as it can cause irritation if used undiluted.

While tea tree oil has many potential benefits, it's essential to use it cautiously and under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it may interact with certain medications or have adverse effects on people with specific health conditions.

Tupaiidae is a family of small mammals commonly known as treeshrews. They are not true shrews (Soricidae) but are included in the order Scandentia. There are about 20 species placed in this family, and they are found primarily in Southeast Asian forests. Treeshrews are small animals, typically weighing between 50 and 150 grams, with a body length of around 10-25 cm. They have pointed snouts, large eyes, and ears, and most species have a long, bushy tail.

Treeshrews are omnivorous, feeding on a variety of plant and animal matter, including fruits, insects, and small vertebrates. They are agile animals, well-adapted to life in the trees, with sharp claws for climbing and a keen sense of sight and smell.

Medically, treeshrews have been used as animal models in biomedical research, particularly in studies of infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV. They are susceptible to these infections and can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of disease and potential treatments. However, they are not typically used in clinical medicine or patient care.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tropical climate" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the climate of tropical regions, which are located around the equator. These regions are characterized by high temperatures and consistent rainfall throughout the year.

However, it's worth noting that certain environmental factors, such as climate, can have an impact on human health. For instance, tropical climates can contribute to the spread of certain diseases, like malaria and dengue fever, due to the presence of mosquitoes that thrive in warm, wet environments. But a "tropical climate" itself is not a medical condition or diagnosis.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pinus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as pine trees, which belong to the family Pinaceae in the kingdom Plantae. These evergreen coniferous resinous trees are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with some species also found in the Southern Hemisphere.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, please feel free to ask!

"Quercus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for oak trees in the plant kingdom, specifically within the family Fagaceae. Some people may confuse it with "Quercetin," which is a type of flavonoid antioxidant commonly found in many plants, including oak trees. Quercetin has been studied for its potential health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, but it is not specific to oak trees.

"Tupaia" is not a term found in general medical terminology. It is most likely referring to a genus of small mammals known as tree shrews, also called "tupaias." They are native to Southeast Asia and are not closely related to shrews, but rather belong to their own order, Scandentia.

However, if you're referring to a specific medical condition or concept that uses the term "Tupaia," I would need more context to provide an accurate definition.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wood" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various hard, fibrous tissues that make up the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, as well as a term used for a wide range of items made from these materials. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

'Fagus' is the genus name for beech trees in the family Fagaceae. It includes several species of deciduous trees that are native to the Northern Hemisphere, primarily in North America and Europe. The most common species is the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and the American beech (Fagus grandifolia).

While 'Fagus' is a valid term in botany, it does not have a medical definition as it is not a term used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Eucalyptus is defined in medical terms as a genus of mostly Australian trees and shrubs that have aromatic leaves and bark, and oil-containing foliage. The oil from eucalyptus leaves contains a chemical called eucalyptol, which has been found to have several medicinal properties.

Eucalyptus oil has been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat various health conditions such as respiratory problems, fever, and pain. It has anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, decongestant, and expectorant properties, making it a popular remedy for colds, coughs, and congestion.

Eucalyptus oil is also used in modern medicine as an ingredient in over-the-counter products such as throat lozenges, cough syrups, and topical pain relievers. It is important to note that eucalyptus oil should not be ingested undiluted, as it can be toxic in large amounts.

In addition to its medicinal uses, eucalyptus trees are also known for their rapid growth and ability to drain swampland, making them useful in land reclamation projects.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

An "ecosystem" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, as it is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of ecology and environmental science. However, I can provide you with the general ecological definition of an ecosystem:

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their non-living environment, including both biotic factors (plants, animals, microorganisms) and abiotic factors (climate, soil, water, and air). These interactions create a complex network of relationships that form the foundation of ecological processes, such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and population dynamics.

While there is no direct medical definition for an ecosystem, understanding the principles of ecosystems can have important implications for human health. For example, healthy ecosystems can provide clean air and water, regulate climate, support food production, and offer opportunities for recreation and relaxation, all of which contribute to overall well-being. Conversely, degraded ecosystems can lead to increased exposure to environmental hazards, reduced access to natural resources, and heightened risks of infectious diseases. Therefore, maintaining the health and integrity of ecosystems is crucial for promoting human health and preventing disease.

A plant stem is not typically defined in a medical context, but rather in the field of botany. However, I can certainly provide a general biological definition for you.

In plants, stems are organs that serve primarily as support structures, holding leaves, flowers, and fruits aloft where they can receive sunlight and exchange gases. They also act as conduits, transporting water, nutrients, and sugars made during photosynthesis between the roots and shoots of a plant.

The stem is usually composed of three main tissue systems: dermal, vascular, and ground. The dermal tissue system forms the outermost layer(s) of the stem, providing protection and sometimes participating in gas exchange. The vascular tissue system contains the xylem (which transports water and nutrients upward) and phloem (which transports sugars and other organic compounds downward). The ground tissue system, located between the dermal and vascular tissues, is responsible for food storage and support.

While not a direct medical definition, understanding the structure and function of plant stems can be relevant in fields such as nutrition, agriculture, and environmental science, which have implications for human health.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Genetic models are theoretical frameworks used in genetics to describe and explain the inheritance patterns and genetic architecture of traits, diseases, or phenomena. These models are based on mathematical equations and statistical methods that incorporate information about gene frequencies, modes of inheritance, and the effects of environmental factors. They can be used to predict the probability of certain genetic outcomes, to understand the genetic basis of complex traits, and to inform medical management and treatment decisions.

There are several types of genetic models, including:

1. Mendelian models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of simple genetic traits that follow Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment. Examples include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance.
2. Complex trait models: These models describe the inheritance patterns of complex traits that are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. Examples include heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
3. Population genetics models: These models describe the distribution and frequency of genetic variants within populations over time. They can be used to study evolutionary processes, such as natural selection and genetic drift.
4. Quantitative genetics models: These models describe the relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic variation in continuous traits, such as height or IQ. They can be used to estimate heritability and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that contribute to trait variation.
5. Statistical genetics models: These models use statistical methods to analyze genetic data and infer the presence of genetic associations or linkage. They can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or traits.

Overall, genetic models are essential tools in genetics research and medical genetics, as they allow researchers to make predictions about genetic outcomes, test hypotheses about the genetic basis of traits and diseases, and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Populus" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for a group of trees commonly known as poplars, aspens, and cottonwoods. If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Forestry" is not a medical term. Forestry is the science and practice of managing forests, plantations, and associated resources for timber, wildlife, recreation, conservation, and other benefits. It involves the application of ecological principles, silvicultural techniques, and management strategies to ensure the sustainability and health of forest ecosystems.

"Likelihood functions" is a statistical concept that is used in medical research and other fields to estimate the probability of obtaining a given set of data, given a set of assumptions or parameters. In other words, it is a function that describes how likely it is to observe a particular outcome or result, based on a set of model parameters.

More formally, if we have a statistical model that depends on a set of parameters θ, and we observe some data x, then the likelihood function is defined as:

L(θ | x) = P(x | θ)

This means that the likelihood function describes the probability of observing the data x, given a particular value of the parameter vector θ. By convention, the likelihood function is often expressed as a function of the parameters, rather than the data, so we might instead write:

L(θ) = P(x | θ)

The likelihood function can be used to estimate the values of the model parameters that are most consistent with the observed data. This is typically done by finding the value of θ that maximizes the likelihood function, which is known as the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The MLE has many desirable statistical properties, including consistency, efficiency, and asymptotic normality.

In medical research, likelihood functions are often used in the context of Bayesian analysis, where they are combined with prior distributions over the model parameters to obtain posterior distributions that reflect both the observed data and prior knowledge or assumptions about the parameter values. This approach is particularly useful when there is uncertainty or ambiguity about the true value of the parameters, as it allows researchers to incorporate this uncertainty into their analyses in a principled way.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

"Acacia" is a scientific name for a genus of shrubs and trees that belong to the pea family, Fabaceae. It includes over 1,350 species found primarily in Australia and Africa, but also in Asia, America, and Europe. Some acacia species are known for their hardwood, others for their phyllodes (flattened leaf stalks) or compound leaves, and yet others for their flowers, which are typically small and yellow or cream-colored.

It is important to note that "Acacia" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a botanical one. While some acacia species have medicinal uses, the name itself does not have a specific medical definition.

"Hevea" is the genus name for the rubber tree, specifically *Hevea brasiliensis*, which is the primary source of natural rubber. The sap from this tree, known as latex, is collected and processed to produce raw rubber. This material can then be used in a wide variety of applications, including medical devices, tires, and various other products.

It's worth noting that some people may have allergic reactions to proteins found in natural rubber latex, which can cause symptoms ranging from mild skin irritation to severe respiratory problems. As such, it's important for healthcare providers and others who work with medical equipment to be aware of the potential risks associated with Hevea-derived products.

"Picea" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of evergreen coniferous trees commonly known as spruces, which are part of the pine family (Pinaceae). These trees are native to the northern hemisphere and are widely distributed in North America, Europe, and Asia.

While spruce trees have some medicinal uses, such as extracts from the needles being used in traditional medicine for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, "Picea" itself is not a medical term or concept.

Coniferophyta is a division of vascular plants that includes the conifers. It is an informal name and not commonly used in modern taxonomy, but it can still be found in some older textbooks and resources. The more widely accepted classification system places conifers within the gymnosperms, which are a group of seed-bearing plants characterized by the absence of fruits or flowers.

Conifers are a diverse group of woody plants that include trees and shrubs such as pines, firs, spruces, hemlocks, cedars, and redwoods. They are known for their cone-bearing seeds and needle-shaped leaves, which are often evergreen. Conifers are widely distributed throughout the world and play important ecological roles in many ecosystems, particularly in temperate and boreal forests.

In summary, while "Coniferophyta" is an outdated term for the division that includes conifers, it refers to a group of plants characterized by their cone-bearing seeds and needle-shaped leaves. Modern classification systems place conifers within the gymnosperms.

"Acer" is a genus name in the plant kingdom, specifically for maple trees. It does not have a medical definition per se, as it is not a term used in human or animal medicine. Acer species are known for their beautiful and distinctive leaves, which can sometimes be used in herbal or traditional medicines, although these uses are not typically recognized by modern evidence-based medicine.

"Abies" is a genus of evergreen trees that are commonly known as firs. They belong to the family Pinaceae and are native to the northern hemisphere, primarily in North America, Europe, and Asia. These trees are characterized by their needle-like leaves, which are flat and shiny, and their conical-shaped crowns.

Firs have been used for various purposes throughout history, including timber production, Christmas tree farming, and ornamental landscaping. Some species of firs also have medicinal properties, such as the use of Abies balsamea (balsam fir) in traditional medicine to treat respiratory ailments and skin conditions. However, it's important to note that the medical use of firs should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to adverse effects.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

'Betula' is the genus name for a group of trees commonly known as birches. These trees belong to the family Betulaceae and are native to the cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere. There are around 30-60 species in this genus, depending on the classification system used.

Birch trees are known for their distinctive bark, which is often white and peels away in thin layers. They also have simple, ovate leaves that are usually toothed or serrated along the edges. Many birches produce catkins, which are long, slender flowering structures that contain either male or female flowers.

Birch trees have a number of uses, both practical and cultural. The wood is lightweight and easy to work with, making it popular for uses such as furniture-making, paper production, and fuel. Birch bark has also been used historically for a variety of purposes, including canoe construction, writing surfaces, and medicinal remedies.

In addition to their practical uses, birch trees have cultural significance in many regions where they grow. For example, they are often associated with renewal and rebirth due to their ability to regrow from stumps or roots after being cut down. In some cultures, birch trees are also believed to have spiritual or mystical properties.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Bark" is not a term with a specific medical definition. In general, the bark refers to the outermost covering of a tree or other plant, which serves as protection and provides a barrier against external threats. It is composed of layers including the inner bark (phloem), which transports nutrients throughout the plant, and the outer bark (periderm), which is made up of dead cells that form a protective layer.

While some plants or plant parts do have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional or alternative medicine, "Plant Bark" by itself does not have any specific medical connotations. If you're referring to a specific type of plant bark with potential medicinal uses, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Panama" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Central America, known for its famous canal and diverse wildlife. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help answer those!

Bayes' theorem, also known as Bayes' rule or Bayes' formula, is a fundamental principle in the field of statistics and probability theory. It describes how to update the probability of a hypothesis based on new evidence or data. The theorem is named after Reverend Thomas Bayes, who first formulated it in the 18th century.

In mathematical terms, Bayes' theorem states that the posterior probability of a hypothesis (H) given some observed evidence (E) is proportional to the product of the prior probability of the hypothesis (P(H)) and the likelihood of observing the evidence given the hypothesis (P(E|H)):

Posterior Probability = P(H|E) = [P(E|H) x P(H)] / P(E)


* P(H|E): The posterior probability of the hypothesis H after observing evidence E. This is the probability we want to calculate.
* P(E|H): The likelihood of observing evidence E given that the hypothesis H is true.
* P(H): The prior probability of the hypothesis H before observing any evidence.
* P(E): The marginal likelihood or probability of observing evidence E, regardless of whether the hypothesis H is true or not. This value can be calculated as the sum of the products of the likelihood and prior probability for all possible hypotheses: P(E) = Σ[P(E|Hi) x P(Hi)]

Bayes' theorem has many applications in various fields, including medicine, where it can be used to update the probability of a disease diagnosis based on test results or other clinical findings. It is also widely used in machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms for probabilistic reasoning and decision making under uncertainty.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fraxinus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for ash trees in the plant kingdom. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

"Prunus" is a term that refers to a genus of plants, which includes many familiar fruits such as plums, cherries, peaches, and almonds. It's not a medical term, but rather a botanical one. The fruit of these plants are often used in food medicine due to their nutritional value and health benefits. For example, prunes (dried plums) are known for their laxative effects. However, the plant itself or its extracts can also have medicinal uses, mainly as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cardioprotective agents.

Biodiversity is the variety of different species of plants, animals, and microorganisms that live in an ecosystem. It also includes the variety of genes within a species and the variety of ecosystems (such as forests, grasslands, deserts, and oceans) that exist in a region or on Earth as a whole. Biodiversity is important for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, providing resources and services such as food, clean water, and pollination, and contributing to the discovery of new medicines and other useful products. The loss of biodiversity can have negative impacts on the functioning of ecosystems and the services they provide, and can threaten the survival of species and the livelihoods of people who depend on them.

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

Arecaceae is the scientific name for the family of plants that includes palm trees. It is a large and diverse family with over 2,600 known species, distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plants in this family are characterized by their long, unbranched stems, which can be underground or aboveground, and their large, compound leaves that are arranged in a crown at the top of the stem.

The fruits of many Arecaceae species are also economically important, including coconuts, dates, and acai berries. In addition to their use as food sources, palm trees have many other uses, such as providing materials for construction, fiber for making ropes and baskets, and shade in tropical environments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

"Ficus" is not a medical term. It is a genus of plants, including the fig tree, which is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of Ficus are used in traditional medicine, but "Ficus" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Xylem is a term used in the field of botany and plant anatomy, but I understand you're asking for a medical definition. In human anatomy, there isn't a direct structure equivalent to xylem. However, I can provide the general definition of xylem from its botanical context:

Xylem is one of the two types of vascular tissues in plants (the other being phloem). It is responsible for transporting water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to various parts of the plant, including stems, leaves, and flowers. Xylem consists of several types of cells, including vessels, tracheids, xylem fibers, and xylem parenchyma. The transportation in xylem occurs due to the cohesion-tension mechanism, where water is pulled up through the plant via transpiration pull.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also known as lateral gene transfer, is the movement of genetic material between organisms in a manner other than from parent to offspring (vertical gene transfer). In horizontal gene transfer, an organism can take up genetic material directly from its environment and incorporate it into its own genome. This process is common in bacteria and archaea, but has also been observed in eukaryotes including plants and animals.

Horizontal gene transfer can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Transformation: the uptake of free DNA from the environment by a cell.
2. Transduction: the transfer of genetic material between cells by a virus (bacteriophage).
3. Conjugation: the direct transfer of genetic material between two cells in physical contact, often facilitated by a conjugative plasmid or other mobile genetic element.

Horizontal gene transfer can play an important role in the evolution and adaptation of organisms, allowing them to acquire new traits and functions rapidly. It is also of concern in the context of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and antibiotic resistance, as it can facilitate the spread of genes that confer resistance or other undesirable traits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Cluster analysis is a statistical method used to group similar objects or data points together based on their characteristics or features. In medical and healthcare research, cluster analysis can be used to identify patterns or relationships within complex datasets, such as patient records or genetic information. This technique can help researchers to classify patients into distinct subgroups based on their symptoms, diagnoses, or other variables, which can inform more personalized treatment plans or public health interventions.

Cluster analysis involves several steps, including:

1. Data preparation: The researcher must first collect and clean the data, ensuring that it is complete and free from errors. This may involve removing outlier values or missing data points.
2. Distance measurement: Next, the researcher must determine how to measure the distance between each pair of data points. Common methods include Euclidean distance (the straight-line distance between two points) or Manhattan distance (the distance between two points along a grid).
3. Clustering algorithm: The researcher then applies a clustering algorithm, which groups similar data points together based on their distances from one another. Common algorithms include hierarchical clustering (which creates a tree-like structure of clusters) or k-means clustering (which assigns each data point to the nearest centroid).
4. Validation: Finally, the researcher must validate the results of the cluster analysis by evaluating the stability and robustness of the clusters. This may involve re-running the analysis with different distance measures or clustering algorithms, or comparing the results to external criteria.

Cluster analysis is a powerful tool for identifying patterns and relationships within complex datasets, but it requires careful consideration of the data preparation, distance measurement, and validation steps to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

"Alnus" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Betulaceae, commonly known as alders. They are deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs with simple, alternate leaves and catkins. The term "Alnus" itself is the genus name and does not have a medical definition. However, various species of alders have been used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, astringent, and diuretic properties. For example, the bark of Alnus glutinosa (common alder) has been used to treat skin diseases, wounds, and diarrhea. It is important to note that the use of alders in modern medicine is limited and further research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Fagaceae is a family of plants that includes beeches, oaks, and chestnuts. It is a group of woody trees and shrubs that are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, with some species also found in South America and Southeast Asia. The family is characterized by simple, lobed leaves and hard, durable woods. Many species in this family produce nuts that are an important food source for both wildlife and humans. In a medical context, Fagaceae may be mentioned in relation to allergies or other health effects associated with exposure to the pollen, leaves, or nuts of these plants.

Genetic speciation is not a widely used term in the scientific literature, but it generally refers to the process by which new species arise due to genetic differences and reproductive isolation. This process can occur through various mechanisms such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, natural selection, or chromosomal changes that lead to the accumulation of genetic differences between populations. Over time, these genetic differences can result in the development of reproductive barriers that prevent interbreeding between the populations, leading to the formation of new species.

In other words, genetic speciation is a type of speciation that involves the evolution of genetic differences that ultimately lead to the formation of new species. It is an essential concept in the field of evolutionary biology and genetics, as it explains how biodiversity arises over time.

Climate, in the context of environmental science and medicine, refers to the long-term average of weather conditions (such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements) in a given region over a period of years to decades. It is the statistical description of the weather patterns that occur in a particular location over long periods of time.

In medical terms, climate can have significant impacts on human health, both physical and mental. For example, extreme temperatures, air pollution, and ultraviolet radiation levels associated with certain climates can increase the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, heat-related illnesses, and skin cancer. Similarly, changes in climate patterns can affect the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases, such as malaria and Lyme disease.

Climate change, which refers to significant long-term changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years, can have even more profound impacts on human health, including increased rates of heat-related illnesses and deaths, worsening air quality, and altered transmission patterns of infectious diseases.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

Euphorbiaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in botany. It refers to the spurge family, which is a large family of flowering plants that includes around 300 genera and 7,500 species. Some members of this family have medicinal uses, but others are toxic or invasive. Therefore, it is important to use caution when handling or consuming any plant material from this family.

Dipterocarpaceae is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in the field of botany. It refers to a family of flowering plants, also known as the dipterocarp family. These trees are primarily found in tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia and Madagascar. They are well-known for their tall stature and valuable timber, which is often used in construction, furniture, and other wood products.

While Dipterocarpaceae may not have a direct medical definition, some species within this family do have medicinal uses. For instance, the resin from certain dipterocarp trees has been traditionally used in Southeast Asia to treat various ailments such as diarrhea, skin diseases, and respiratory infections. However, it is essential to consult with healthcare professionals before using any plant-based remedies, as they can interact with other medications or have potential side effects.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

In the context of medicine and biology, cambium is not a term that is commonly used. However, in botany, cambium refers to a thin layer of cells found between the bark and the wood of a tree or shrub. This tissue is responsible for the growth of the stem by producing new cells that become part of the wood (xylem) or the inner bark (phloem).

The vascular cambium is a meristematic tissue, which means it contains undifferentiated cells that can divide and differentiate into specialized cell types. In addition to the vascular cambium, there is also a cork cambium or phellogen, which produces the outermost layers of the bark.

While not a medical term per se, an understanding of cambium is important in fields such as dendrology (the study of trees) and plant physiology, which have applications in medicine and health.

"Larix" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of trees commonly known as larches, which belong to the family Pinaceae. These deciduous conifers are native to the cooler temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They are known for their needle-like leaves and cone-bearing fruits.

While not directly related to human health or medicine, certain compounds derived from plants in the Larix genus have been studied for potential medicinal properties. For example, extracts from larch bark have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound-healing effects. However, it is important to note that these studies are still in the preliminary stages, and more research is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn about the medicinal applications of Larix species.

"Beetles" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to insects belonging to the order Coleoptera, which is one of the largest orders in the class Insecta. Beetles are characterized by their hardened forewings, known as elytra, which protect their hind wings and body when not in use for flying.

There are many different species of beetles found all over the world, and some can have an impact on human health. For example, certain types of beetles, such as bed bugs and carpet beetles, can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Other beetles, like the Colorado potato beetle, can damage crops and lead to economic losses for farmers. However, it is important to note that most beetles are not harmful to humans and play an essential role in ecosystems as decomposers and pollinators.

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) refers to the genetic material present in the chloroplasts, which are organelles found in the cells of photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, and some bacteria. Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing sunlight energy and converting it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

Chloroplast DNA is circular and contains a small number of genes compared to the nuclear genome. It encodes for some of the essential components required for chloroplast function, including proteins involved in photosynthesis, transcription, and translation. The majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and are imported into the chloroplast after being synthesized in the cytoplasm.

Chloroplast DNA is inherited maternally in most plants, meaning that it is passed down from the maternal parent to their offspring through the egg cell. This mode of inheritance has been used in plant breeding and genetic engineering to introduce desirable traits into crops.

"Cedrus" is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the plant family Pinaceae. It includes several species commonly known as cedars, such as the Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica), the Deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara), and the Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani). These trees are native to the mountains of the Mediterranean region and the Himalayas. They are known for their distinctive, pyramidal shape, thick, scaly bark, and long, needle-like leaves. The wood of Cedrus species is highly valued for its durability, aroma, and resistance to pests, making it a popular choice for use in construction, furniture-making, and essential oil production.

"Salix" is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as willows. These are deciduous trees and shrubs that belong to the family Salicaceae. While "Salix" is not a medical term itself, certain species of willow have been used in medicine for their medicinal properties.

For instance, the bark of white willow (Salix alba) contains salicin, which has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects similar to aspirin. The use of willow bark extract as a natural pain reliever and fever reducer dates back thousands of years in various traditional medicine systems.

However, it's important to note that the modern medical definition of "salicylate" refers to a group of compounds that includes both naturally occurring substances like salicin found in willow bark and synthetic derivatives such as aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). These compounds share similar therapeutic properties and are used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

"Juniperus" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a genus of evergreen coniferous trees and shrubs that belong to the cypress family (Cupressaceae). There are around 50-70 species in this genus, which are native to the northern hemisphere.

Juniperus species have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating digestive disorders, skin conditions, and respiratory ailments. The essential oil extracted from some Juniperus species contains compounds that have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. However, it's important to note that the use of juniper in modern medicine is limited, and its efficacy and safety for specific medical conditions are not well-established.

Therefore, if you're considering using juniper or any of its preparations for medicinal purposes, it's recommended to consult a healthcare professional first to ensure its safe and appropriate use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Meliaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the Mahogany family of plants, which includes around 50 genera and over 1,300 species of trees and shrubs. Some of these plants have medicinal properties, but "Meliaceae" itself does not have a medical definition.

A medical definition for "plant shoots" may not be readily available, as the term is primarily used in botany and horticulture. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Plant shoots refer to the above-ground portion of a plant, which typically includes structures like stems, leaves, flowers, and buds. Shoots originate from the seed or the growing tip of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis, nutrient absorption, and reproduction. In some contexts, "plant shoots" might also refer to new growth that emerges from an existing plant, such as when a leaf or stem sprouts a new branch or flower.

A genetic database is a type of biomedical or health informatics database that stores and organizes genetic data, such as DNA sequences, gene maps, genotypes, haplotypes, and phenotype information. These databases can be used for various purposes, including research, clinical diagnosis, and personalized medicine.

There are different types of genetic databases, including:

1. Genomic databases: These databases store whole genome sequences, gene expression data, and other genomic information. Examples include the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) GenBank, the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA), and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ).
2. Gene databases: These databases contain information about specific genes, including their location, function, regulation, and evolution. Examples include the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database, the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt), and the Gene Ontology (GO) database.
3. Variant databases: These databases store information about genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletions (INDELs), and copy number variations (CNVs). Examples include the Database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (dbSNP), the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), and the International HapMap Project.
4. Clinical databases: These databases contain genetic and clinical information about patients, such as their genotype, phenotype, family history, and response to treatments. Examples include the ClinVar database, the Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB), and the Genetic Testing Registry (GTR).
5. Population databases: These databases store genetic information about different populations, including their ancestry, demographics, and genetic diversity. Examples include the 1000 Genomes Project, the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP), and the Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND).

Genetic databases can be publicly accessible or restricted to authorized users, depending on their purpose and content. They play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of genetics and genomics, as well as improving healthcare and personalized medicine.

The ribosomal spacer in DNA refers to the non-coding sequences of DNA that are located between the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These spacer regions are present in the DNA of organisms that have a nuclear genome, including humans and other animals, plants, and fungi.

In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, there are two ribosomal RNA genes, 16S and 23S, separated by a spacer region known as the intergenic spacer (IGS). In eukaryotic cells, there are multiple copies of ribosomal RNA genes arranged in clusters called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), which are located on the short arms of several acrocentric chromosomes. Each cluster contains hundreds to thousands of copies of the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes, separated by non-transcribed spacer regions known as internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS).

The ribosomal spacer regions in DNA are often used as molecular markers for studying evolutionary relationships among organisms because they evolve more rapidly than the rRNA genes themselves. The sequences of these spacer regions can be compared among different species to infer their phylogenetic relationships and to estimate the time since they diverged from a common ancestor. Additionally, the length and composition of ribosomal spacers can vary between individuals within a species, making them useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Seed Dispersal" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. It is a concept from botany and ecology, referring to the various methods by which plants distribute their seeds away from the parent plant. This can occur through mechanisms such as wind, water, or animal dispersal. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

I'm not aware of a medical definition specifically for "Borneo." Borneo is the third-largest island in the world, located in Southeast Asia and divided among three countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei. It has a rich biodiversity with many plant and animal species, some of which have been studied in medical or scientific research. However, there is no established medical definition for "Borneo" itself.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seedling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an agricultural and horticultural term that refers to a young plant grown from a seed, typically during the early stages of its growth. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Ulmus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of trees commonly known as elms. If you have any questions about a medical term or concept, please provide it and I would be happy to help define it for you.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

Tamaricaceae is not a medical term, but a botanical term referring to a family of flowering plants known as the tamarisk family. It includes trees and shrubs that are often found in dry or saline habitats. Some species in this family have been used in traditional medicine, although it's important to note that the use of botanicals for medicinal purposes should be done under the guidance of a healthcare provider due to potential risks and interactions with other medications.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

'Citrus' is a genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. It includes several species of shrubs and trees that produce fruits known as citrus fruits. Some common examples of citrus fruits are oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruits, and pomelos. These fruits are popular for their juicy pulp and fragrant zest, which are used in a wide variety of culinary applications around the world.

Citrus fruits are also known for their high vitamin C content and other health benefits. They contain various bioactive compounds such as flavonoids and carotenoids, which have antioxidant properties and may help protect against chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular disease. Additionally, citrus fruits are a good source of dietary fiber, which can aid in digestion and help regulate blood sugar levels.

In medical terms, citrus fruits may be recommended as part of a healthy diet to help prevent nutrient deficiencies and promote overall health. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergies or sensitivities to citrus fruits, which can cause symptoms like mouth irritation, hives, or anaphylaxis in severe cases. Additionally, citrus fruits can interact with certain medications, so it's always a good idea to consult with a healthcare provider before making any significant changes to your diet.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

"Melaleuca" is a genus of plants, also known as tea trees, that are native to Australia. The term itself is not typically used in medical contexts, but some Melaleuca species do have medicinal properties. For example, the oil from Melaleuca alternifolia, commonly called tea tree oil, has been found to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects and is sometimes used topically for skin conditions such as acne, fungal infections, and insect bites. However, it's important to note that essential oils should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare provider, as they can cause skin irritation or other adverse reactions in some people.

In medical terms, "wind" is not a widely used or recognized term. It might be used informally to describe symptoms such as abdominal bloating, rumbling, or the sensation of gas moving within the intestines. However, these sensations are more accurately described as related to bowel function and gas in the digestive tract. If you're experiencing persistent or severe symptoms that you're describing as "wind," it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper evaluation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "rain" is not a medical term. In general, rain refers to water droplets that fall from the sky as part of the Earth's weather cycle. These drops form when moisture in the air condenses and cools, creating clouds which eventually become heavy enough to release the collected water.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

"Persea" is a botanical term that refers to a genus of plants in the family Lauraceae, which includes over 150 species. The most well-known member of this genus is Persea americana, which is commonly known as the avocado tree. The fruit of this tree, also called an avocado, is widely consumed for its rich, creamy texture and high nutritional value. Avocados are a good source of healthy fats, fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and have been linked to various health benefits.

Therefore, in a medical or nutritional context, "Persea" may refer specifically to the avocado fruit or its extracts, which have been used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic properties. However, it is important to note that not all species of Persea have similar medicinal or nutritional benefits, so any medical or health claims should be specific to the particular species or extract being used.

Microsatellite repeats, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), are repetitive DNA sequences made up of units of 1-6 base pairs that are repeated in a head-to-tail manner. These repeats are spread throughout the human genome and are highly polymorphic, meaning they can have different numbers of repeat units in different individuals.

Microsatellites are useful as genetic markers because of their high degree of variability. They are commonly used in forensic science to identify individuals, in genealogy to trace ancestry, and in medical research to study genetic diseases and disorders. Mutations in microsatellite repeats have been associated with various neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease and fragile X syndrome.

"Juglans" is a term used in botanical nomenclature, specifically for the genus of plants that includes walnut trees. The Juglans genus belongs to the family Juglandaceae and contains around 21 species of deciduous trees and shrubs, which are native to North and South America, southern Europe, and southern Asia.

The most commonly known species in this genus is Juglans regia, which is the Persian walnut or English walnut. Other notable species include the black walnut (Juglans nigra), the butternut (Juglans cinerea), and the white walnut or butterball (Juglans alba).

The name "Juglans" comes from the Latin words "jugum," meaning yoke, and "lans," meaning lance, which refers to the shape of the seed's kernel. The fruit of Juglans species is a nut that is encased in a hard, thick shell, surrounded by a fleshy husk.

While "Juglans" itself is not a medical term, various parts of Juglans trees have been used in traditional medicine and may have potential health benefits. For example, walnut leaves and bark have been used to treat skin conditions, diarrhea, and inflammation. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these uses is limited, and further research is needed before any definitive medical claims can be made.

Population Genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with the genetic composition of populations and how this composition changes over time. It involves the study of the frequency and distribution of genes and genetic variations in populations, as well as the evolutionary forces that contribute to these patterns, such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.

Population genetics can provide insights into a wide range of topics, including the history and relationships between populations, the genetic basis of diseases and other traits, and the potential impacts of environmental changes on genetic diversity. This field is important for understanding evolutionary processes at the population level and has applications in areas such as conservation biology, medical genetics, and forensic science.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A plant disease is a disorder that affects the normal growth and development of plants, caused by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or nematodes, as well as environmental factors like nutrient deficiencies, extreme temperatures, or physical damage. These diseases can cause various symptoms, including discoloration, wilting, stunted growth, necrosis, and reduced yield or productivity, which can have significant economic and ecological impacts.

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that include conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes. The name "gymnosperm" comes from the Greek words "gymnos," meaning naked, and "sperma," meaning seed. This refers to the fact that the seeds of gymnosperms are not enclosed within an ovary or fruit, but are exposed on the surface of modified leaves called cones or strobili.

Gymnosperms are vascular plants, which means they have specialized tissues for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant. They are also heterosporous, meaning that they produce two types of spores: male microspores and female megaspores. The microspores develop into male gametophytes, which produce sperm cells, while the megaspores develop into female gametophytes, which produce egg cells.

Gymnosperms are an important group of plants that have been around for millions of years. They are adapted to a wide range of environments, from temperate forests to deserts and high mountain ranges. Many gymnosperms are evergreen, with needle-like or scale-like leaves that are able to resist drought and cold temperatures.

Conifers, which include trees such as pines, firs, spruces, and redwoods, are the most diverse and widespread group of gymnosperms. They are characterized by their woody cones and needle-shaped leaves. Cycads are another group of gymnosperms that are found in tropical and subtropical regions. They have large, stiff leaves and produce large seeds that are enclosed in a fleshy covering. Ginkgo is a unique gymnosperm that has been around for over 200 million years. It is a deciduous tree with fan-shaped leaves and large, naked seeds.

Gnetophytes are a small group of gymnosperms that include the ephedra, welwitschia, and gnetum. They have unique features such as vessels in their wood and motile sperm cells, which are not found in other gymnosperms.

Overall, gymnosperms are an important group of plants that have adapted to a wide range of environments and play a crucial role in many ecosystems.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

Betulaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes birch, alder, and hornbeam trees and shrubs. It is commonly known as the birch family. These plants are characterized by their simple, alternate leaves, small catkins (flowers), and woody fruits. They are widely distributed in temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

In a medical context, Betulaceae may be mentioned in relation to the use of certain plant parts for medicinal purposes. For example, the bark of some birch trees contains salicylic acid, which has been used in the treatment of pain and inflammation. However, it is important to note that the use of any herbal remedy should be discussed with a healthcare provider beforehand, as they can interact with other medications and have potential side effects.

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "fruit" is not a medical term per se. It is a common term used to describe the part of a plant that develops from the ovary after flowering and contains seeds. However, in a nutritional or dietary context, "fruits" are often referred to as foods that are typically sweet and juicy, and come from plants' flowers. They are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them an essential part of a healthy diet. But in a strict medical sense, there isn't a specific definition for "fruit."

Plant transpiration is the process by which water vapor escapes from leaves and other aerial parts of plants to the atmosphere. It is a type of evapotranspiration, which refers to both evaporation from land surfaces and transpiration from plants. Water molecules are absorbed by plant roots from the soil, move up through the xylem tissue to the leaves, and then evaporate from the leaf surface through stomatal pores. This process helps in the transportation of nutrients from the soil to various parts of the plant, regulates the temperature of the plant, and maintains the turgor pressure within the cells. Plant transpiration is influenced by environmental factors such as light intensity, temperature, humidity, and wind speed.

Phloem is the living tissue in vascular plants that transports organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, from leaves, where they are produced in photosynthesis, to other parts of the plant such as roots and stems. It also transports amino acids and other substances. Phloem is one of the two types of vascular tissue, the other being xylem; both are found in the vascular bundles of stems and roots. The term "phloem" comes from the Greek word for bark, as it often lies beneath the bark in trees and shrubs.

Gene flow, also known as genetic migration or gene admixture, refers to the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. It occurs when individuals reproduce and exchange genes with members of other populations through processes such as migration and interbreeding. This can result in an alteration of the genetic composition of both populations, increasing genetic diversity and reducing the differences between them. Gene flow is an important mechanism in evolutionary biology and population genetics, contributing to the distribution and frequency of alleles (versions of a gene) within and across populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Gene duplication, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to an event where a segment of DNA that contains a gene is copied, resulting in two identical copies of that gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as unequal crossing over during meiosis, retrotransposition, or whole genome duplication. The duplicate genes are then passed on to the next generation.

Gene duplications can have several consequences. Often, one copy may continue to function normally while the other is free to mutate without affecting the organism's survival, potentially leading to new functions (neofunctionalization) or subfunctionalization where each copy takes on some of the original gene's roles.

Gene duplication plays a significant role in evolution by providing raw material for the creation of novel genes and genetic diversity. However, it can also lead to various genetic disorders if multiple copies of a gene become dysfunctional or if there are too many copies, leading to an overdose effect.

Population dynamics, in the context of public health and epidemiology, refers to the study of the changes in size and structure of a population over time, as well as the factors that contribute to those changes. This can include birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, aging, and other demographic characteristics. Understanding population dynamics is crucial for planning and implementing public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or disease prevention strategies, as they allow researchers and policymakers to identify vulnerable populations, predict future health trends, and evaluate the impact of public health initiatives.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the southern portion of the Americas, which is a continent in the Western Hemisphere. South America is generally defined as including the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, as well as the overseas departments and territories of French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Phylogeography is not a medical term, but rather a subfield of biogeography and phylogenetics that investigates the spatial distribution of genealogical lineages and the historical processes that have shaped them. It uses genetic data to infer the geographic origins, dispersal routes, and demographic history of organisms, including pathogens and vectors that can affect human health.

In medical and public health contexts, phylogeography is often used to study the spread of infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, influenza, or tuberculosis, by analyzing the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of pathogen isolates. This information can help researchers understand how diseases emerge, evolve, and move across populations and landscapes, which can inform disease surveillance, control, and prevention strategies.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

A User-Computer Interface (also known as Human-Computer Interaction) refers to the point at which a person (user) interacts with a computer system. This can include both hardware and software components, such as keyboards, mice, touchscreens, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The design of the user-computer interface is crucial in determining the usability and accessibility of a computer system for the user. A well-designed interface should be intuitive, efficient, and easy to use, minimizing the cognitive load on the user and allowing them to effectively accomplish their tasks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Markov Chains" is a term from the field of mathematics and probability theory, not medicine. Markov Chains are mathematical systems that undergo transitions from one state to another according to certain probabilistic rules. They are named after Russian mathematician Andrey Markov. These chains are used in various fields, including computer science, physics, economics, and engineering, but not commonly in medical definitions or contexts.

Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between fungi and the roots of most plant species. In a mycorrhizal association, fungi colonize the root tissues of plants and extend their mycelial networks into the surrounding soil. This association enhances the nutrient uptake capacity of the host plant, particularly with regards to phosphorus and nitrogen, while the fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant for their own growth and metabolism.

Mycorrhizal fungi can be broadly classified into two types: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae (or arbuscular mycorrhizae). Ectomycorrhizae form a sheath around the root surface, while endomycorrhizae penetrate the root cells and form structures called arbuscules, where nutrient exchange occurs. Mycorrhizal associations play crucial roles in maintaining ecosystem stability, promoting plant growth, and improving soil structure and fertility.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

The term "environment" in a medical context generally refers to the external conditions and surroundings that can have an impact on living organisms, including humans. This includes both physical factors such as air quality, water supply, soil composition, temperature, and radiation, as well as biological factors such as the presence of microorganisms, plants, and animals.

In public health and epidemiology, the term "environmental exposure" is often used to describe the contact between an individual and a potentially harmful environmental agent, such as air pollution or contaminated water. These exposures can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to a range of diseases and disorders, including respiratory illnesses, cancer, neurological disorders, and reproductive problems.

Efforts to protect and improve the environment are therefore critical for promoting human health and preventing disease. This includes measures to reduce pollution, conserve natural resources, promote sustainable development, and mitigate the impacts of climate change.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Fires" is not a medical term that I am aware of. In a general context, a fire refers to the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. If you are asking about a specific medical term or condition, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I'm here to help!

Protein sequence analysis is the systematic examination and interpretation of the amino acid sequence of a protein to understand its structure, function, evolutionary relationships, and other biological properties. It involves various computational methods and tools to analyze the primary structure of proteins, which is the linear arrangement of amino acids along the polypeptide chain.

Protein sequence analysis can provide insights into several aspects, such as:

1. Identification of functional domains, motifs, or sites within a protein that may be responsible for its specific biochemical activities.
2. Comparison of homologous sequences from different organisms to infer evolutionary relationships and determine the degree of similarity or divergence among them.
3. Prediction of secondary and tertiary structures based on patterns of amino acid composition, hydrophobicity, and charge distribution.
4. Detection of post-translational modifications that may influence protein function, localization, or stability.
5. Identification of protease cleavage sites, signal peptides, or other sequence features that play a role in protein processing and targeting.

Some common techniques used in protein sequence analysis include:

1. Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA): A method to align multiple protein sequences to identify conserved regions, gaps, and variations.
2. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool): A widely-used tool for comparing a query protein sequence against a database of known sequences to find similarities and infer function or evolutionary relationships.
3. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs): Statistical models used to describe the probability distribution of amino acid sequences in protein families, allowing for more sensitive detection of remote homologs.
4. Protein structure prediction: Methods that use various computational approaches to predict the three-dimensional structure of a protein based on its amino acid sequence.
5. Phylogenetic analysis: The construction and interpretation of evolutionary trees (phylogenies) based on aligned protein sequences, which can provide insights into the historical relationships among organisms or proteins.

18S rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is the smaller subunit of the eukaryotic ribosome, which is the cellular organelle responsible for protein synthesis. The "18S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of this rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its rate of sedimentation in a centrifuge and is expressed in Svedberg units (S).

The 18S rRNA is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome, and it plays a crucial role in the decoding of messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Specifically, the 18S rRNA helps to form the structure of the ribosome and contains several conserved regions that are involved in binding to mRNA and guiding the movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) during translation.

The 18S rRNA is also a commonly used molecular marker for evolutionary studies, as its sequence is highly conserved across different species and can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships between organisms. Additionally, the analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences has been widely used in various fields such as ecology, environmental science, and medicine to study biodiversity, biogeography, and infectious diseases.

Burseraceae is a family of flowering plants that includes approximately 18 genera and 700 species. These plants are characterized by their resinous sap, which is often aromatic and used in perfumes, incense, and traditional medicines. Many members of this family have thick, exfoliating bark and pinnate leaves. Some well-known examples include the frankincense tree (Boswellia sacra) and the myrrh tree (Commiphora myrrha). The plants in Burseraceae are primarily found in tropical regions of the world, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Central America.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Dendrites are the branched projections of a neuron that receive and process signals from other neurons. They are typically short and highly branching, increasing the surface area for receiving incoming signals. Dendrites are covered in small protrusions called dendritic spines, which can form connections with the axon terminals of other neurons through chemical synapses. The structure and function of dendrites play a critical role in the integration and processing of information in the nervous system.

rRNA (ribosomal RNA) is not a type of gene itself, but rather a crucial component that is transcribed from genes known as ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In cells, rRNA plays an essential role in protein synthesis by assembling with ribosomal proteins to form ribosomes. Ribosomes are complex structures where the translation of mRNA into proteins occurs. There are multiple types of rRNA molecules, including 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNAs in eukaryotic cells, each with specific functions during protein synthesis.

In summary, 'Genes, rRNA' would refer to the genetic regions (genes) that code for ribosomal RNA molecules, which are vital components of the protein synthesis machinery within cells.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "birds." Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterized by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and lightweight but strong skeletons. Some birds, such as pigeons and chickens, have been used in medical research, but the term "birds" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

"Concatenated DNA" is a term used to describe two or more DNA molecules that are linked together in a head-to-tail fashion, forming a continuous double helix. This can occur either naturally or through laboratory manipulation. In the context of molecular biology and genetics, concatenation refers to the joining of multiple DNA fragments into one longer molecule.

Concatenated DNA molecules are often used in various applications, such as cloning large DNA sequences, constructing artificial chromosomes, or studying the recombination and repair of DNA. The process of creating concatemers (the plural form of concatener) typically involves ligating multiple copies of a DNA fragment together using an enzyme called a ligase, which forms covalent bonds between the ends of the fragments to create a single, uninterrupted molecule.

It is important to note that "DNA, concatenated" is not a formal medical term or diagnosis but rather a technical term used in molecular biology and genetics research.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Ecology is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of biology. It refers to the study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment. This includes how organisms interact with each other and with their physical surroundings, such as climate, soil, and water. Ecologists may study the distribution and abundance of species, the flow of energy through an ecosystem, and the effects of human activities on the environment. While ecology is not a medical field, understanding ecological principles can be important for addressing public health issues related to the environment, such as pollution, climate change, and infectious diseases.

"Pyrus" is the genus name for the fruit tree species that includes pears. It is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. The fruits produced by these trees are commonly consumed and can have various health benefits, but "Pyrus" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tsuga" is not a medical term. It is actually the genus name for a group of evergreen trees commonly known as hemlocks, which are found in North America and East Asia. The misconception might arise from the fact that some parts of these trees have been used in traditional medicine, but "Tsuga" itself is not a medical term or concept.

"Drought" is not a medical term. It is a term used in meteorology and environmental science to refer to a prolonged period of abnormally low rainfall, leading to water shortage and scarcity in the affected areas. Droughts can have various impacts on human health, including dehydration, heat-related illnesses, reduced air quality, increased transmission of waterborne diseases, and mental health issues related to stress and displacement. However, drought itself is not a medical condition.

Fabaceae is the scientific name for a family of flowering plants commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family. This family includes a wide variety of plants that are important economically, agriculturally, and ecologically. Many members of Fabaceae have compound leaves and produce fruits that are legumes, which are long, thin pods that contain seeds. Some well-known examples of plants in this family include beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, clover, and alfalfa.

In addition to their importance as food crops, many Fabaceae species have the ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into the soil through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria that live in nodules on their roots. This makes them valuable for improving soil fertility and is one reason why they are often used in crop rotation and as cover crops.

It's worth noting that Fabaceae is sometimes still referred to by its older scientific name, Leguminosae.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Plant Dispersal" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a concept from botany and ecology that refers to the means by which plants distribute their seeds or spores to new locations, enhancing their chances of colonizing new habitats and ensuring genetic diversity.

If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help. Please provide more information so I can better assist you.

"Pseudotsuga" is not a medical term. It is a genus of coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae, commonly known as Douglas firs or Douglas trees. They are native to western North America and eastern Asia. The most widely known species is Pseudotsuga menziesii, which is often simply called the Douglas fir. These trees have important economic value for timber and pulp production.

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "Ceiba." The term "Ceiba" is most commonly used to refer to the large, tropical trees that are native to the Americas and belong to the genus *Ceiba* in the family *Malvaceae*. These trees are also known as kapoks or silk-cotton trees.

While there may not be a direct medical definition for "Ceiba," some parts of the tree, such as its bark and sap, have been used in traditional medicine in various cultures. However, it's important to note that the use of these plant materials as remedies should not replace consultation with a healthcare professional or evidence-based treatments.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Rosales" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term used in the classification of plants. Rosales is an order of flowering plants that includes roses, as well as many other plants such as apples, cherries, almonds, and strawberries. The plants in this group are characterized by having flowers with multiple stamens and styles. I hope this clarifies any confusion. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, please let me know!

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

Computer graphics is the field of study and practice related to creating images and visual content using computer technology. It involves various techniques, algorithms, and tools for generating, manipulating, and rendering digital images and models. These can include 2D and 3D modeling, animation, rendering, visualization, and image processing. Computer graphics is used in a wide range of applications, including video games, movies, scientific simulations, medical imaging, architectural design, and data visualization.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Sapotaceae" is not a medical term. It is a botanical term that refers to a family of flowering plants known as the sapodilla family. This family includes a variety of trees and shrubs, many of which produce edible fruits such as sapote, mamey sapote, and abiu. Some species of Sapotaceae also have commercial importance for their wood, resins, or latex. It is not directly related to medical terminology or human health.

Ecological and environmental processes refer to the complex interactions and relationships between living organisms and their physical surroundings. These processes can be biological, chemical, or physical in nature and they play a critical role in shaping the distribution and abundance of species, as well as the overall health and functioning of ecosystems.

Biological processes include things like predation, competition, and symbiosis, which describe how organisms interact with one another for resources and survival. Chemical processes involve the cycling of nutrients and energy through an ecosystem, such as the carbon cycle or nitrogen cycle. Physical processes include things like weather patterns, geological formations, and water cycles, which can all impact the distribution and diversity of species in an area.

Environmental processes can also refer to human activities that impact the environment, such as pollution, land use changes, and climate change. These processes can have significant consequences for both natural ecosystems and human health, making it essential to understand and manage them effectively.

Sequence homology is a term used in molecular biology to describe the similarity between the nucleotide or amino acid sequences of two or more genes or proteins. It is a measure of the degree to which the sequences are related, indicating a common evolutionary origin.

In other words, sequence homology implies that the compared sequences have a significant number of identical or similar residues in the same order, suggesting that they share a common ancestor and have diverged over time through processes such as mutation, insertion, deletion, or rearrangement. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more closely related the sequences are likely to be.

Sequence homology is often used to identify similarities between genes or proteins from different species, which can provide valuable insights into their functions, structures, and evolutionary relationships. It is commonly assessed using various bioinformatics tools and algorithms, such as BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool), Clustal Omega, and multiple sequence alignment (MSA) methods.

Arthropods are a phylum of animals characterized by the presence of a segmented body, a pair of jointed appendages on each segment, and a tough exoskeleton made of chitin. This phylum includes insects, arachnids (spiders, scorpions, mites), crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimp), and myriapods (centipedes, millipedes). They are the largest group of animals on Earth, making up more than 80% of all described species. Arthropods can be found in nearly every habitat, from the deep sea to mountaintops, and play important roles in ecosystems as decomposers, pollinators, and predators.

Prokaryotic cells are simple, single-celled organisms that do not have a true nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. They include bacteria and archaea. The genetic material of prokaryotic cells is composed of a single circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm, along with small, circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. Prokaryotic cells have a rigid cell wall, which provides protection and support, and a flexible outer membrane that helps them to survive in diverse environments. They reproduce asexually by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. Compared to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and have a simpler structure.

Climate change, as defined medically, refers to the long-term alterations in the statistical distribution of weather patterns caused by changes in the Earth's climate system. These changes can have significant impacts on human health and wellbeing.

Medical professionals are increasingly recognizing the importance of addressing climate change as a public health issue. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified climate change as one of the greatest threats to global health in the 21st century, with potential impacts including increased heat-related mortality, more frequent and severe natural disasters, changes in the distribution of infectious diseases, and decreased food security.

Climate change can also exacerbate existing health disparities, as vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, low-income communities, and those with chronic medical conditions are often disproportionately affected by its impacts. As a result, addressing climate change is an important public health priority, and medical professionals have a critical role to play in advocating for policies and practices that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote adaptation to the changing climate.

Phytoplasmas are tiny, wall-less, bacteria-like organisms that lack a cell wall and have a unique, small circular DNA genome. They are classified in the class Mollicutes and are obligate parasites, meaning they can only survive inside living cells. They infect a wide range of plant species, as well as some insects, and can cause various diseases that affect the growth, development, and yield of crops and ornamental plants.

Phytoplasmas are typically transmitted from plant to plant by sap-sucking insects such as leafhoppers, planthoppers, and psyllids. Once inside a plant host, they manipulate the host's metabolism and cause various symptoms, including yellowing of leaves, stunting, witches' broom (excessive branching), virescence (greening of flowers), and phyllody (transformation of floral parts into leaf-like structures).

Phytoplasmas are difficult to culture in the laboratory, which has made their study challenging. However, advances in molecular biology techniques such as PCR and DNA sequencing have facilitated their identification and characterization. Controlling phytoplasma diseases is also a challenge due to their complex transmission cycles and the lack of effective chemical treatments. Management strategies typically involve integrated pest management (IPM) approaches that combine cultural, biological, and chemical methods to reduce disease incidence and spread.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pinus ponderosa" is not a medical term. It is the scientific name for a species of pine tree commonly known as the western yellow pine or ponderosa pine. This tree is native to North America and is one of the most widely distributed pine species in the continent.

Here's a brief overview of its botanical characteristics:

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Pinaceae
Genus: Pinus
Species: P. ponderosa

The ponderosa pine is a large evergreen tree, reaching heights of 150-250 feet (46-76 meters) tall and trunk diameters up to 8 feet (2.4 meters). Its needle-like leaves are grouped in bundles of three, and its cones are long and slender, typically 3-6 inches (7.6-15.2 cm) in length.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare topics, please feel free to provide them, and I'd be happy to help.

Nut hypersensitivity, also known as nut allergy, is an abnormal immune response to proteins found in certain nuts (such as peanuts, tree nuts like walnuts, almonds, cashews, pistachios, etc.). This reaction can range from mild symptoms (like itching of the mouth or skin) to severe and potentially life-threatening reactions (known as anaphylaxis), which may include difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, and a sudden drop in blood pressure. It's important to note that nut hypersensitivity is not typically outgrown and requires strict avoidance of the offending nuts and often carries the risk of cross-reactivity with other related nuts.

'Citrus sinensis' is the scientific name for the fruit species more commonly known as sweet oranges. These are popular fruits that belong to the Rutaceae family and have originated in Southeast Asia. Sweet oranges are widely cultivated and consumed all over the world, both fresh and as juice. They have a sweet taste and juicy pulp, enclosed in a thick and fragrant orange-colored peel. Some well-known varieties of 'Citrus sinensis' include Navel, Valencia, and Blood oranges.

Ferns are a group of vascular plants that reproduce by means of spores rather than seeds. They are characterized by their frond-like leaves and lack of flowers or fruits. Ferns have been around for millions of years, with some fossilized ferns dating back to the Devonian period, over 360 million years ago.

Ferns are an important part of many ecosystems, particularly in tropical rainforests where they provide habitat and food for a variety of animals. They also play a role in soil erosion control and nutrient cycling.

Medically, some ferns have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as bracken fern which has been used to treat wounds, burns, and skin diseases. However, it is important to note that not all ferns are safe for consumption or use as medicines, and some can be toxic if ingested or applied topically. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant-based remedies.

Ascomycota is a phylum in the kingdom Fungi, also known as sac fungi. This group includes both unicellular and multicellular organisms, such as yeasts, mold species, and morel mushrooms. Ascomycetes are characterized by their reproductive structures called ascus, which contain typically eight haploid spores produced sexually through a process called ascogony. Some members of this phylum have significant ecological and economic importance, as they can be decomposers, mutualistic symbionts, or plant pathogens causing various diseases. Examples include the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea, and morel mushroom Morchella esculenta.

In a medical context, "resins, plant" refer to the sticky, often aromatic substances produced by certain plants. These resins are typically composed of a mixture of volatile oils, terpenes, and rosin acids. They may be present in various parts of the plant, including leaves, stems, and roots, and are often found in specialized structures such as glands or ducts.

Plant resins have been used for centuries in traditional medicine and other applications. Some resins have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, or analgesic properties and have been used to treat a variety of ailments, including skin conditions, respiratory infections, and pain.

Examples of plant resins with medicinal uses include:

* Frankincense (Boswellia spp.) resin has been used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation, arthritis, and asthma.
* Myrrh (Commiphora spp.) resin has been used as an antiseptic, astringent, and anti-inflammatory agent.
* Pine resin has been used topically for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.

It's important to note that while some plant resins have demonstrated medicinal benefits, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some resins can have adverse effects or interact with medications, and it's essential to ensure their safe and effective use.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Bromeliaceae is a family of monocotyledonous plants that includes over 3,000 species, the majority of which are native to the Americas. This family includes a diverse range of plants such as pineapples, Spanish moss, and air plants. Many bromeliads are known for their ability to store water in their leaves, creating a central reservoir that can support a variety of microorganisms and small animals. Some species have evolved to form mutualistic relationships with ants, which live in the hollowed-out leaf bases and help to defend the plant against herbivores.

Bromeliads are popular as ornamental plants due to their attractive foliage and flowers. They vary widely in size, from small, ground-hugging species to large trees that can reach several meters in height. The family is characterized by its unique inflorescences, which often take the form of brightly colored bracts surrounding clusters of small flowers.

Bromeliads have adapted to a wide range of habitats, from dry deserts to humid rainforests. They are known for their ability to absorb nutrients through their leaves, rather than relying solely on roots. This adaptation allows them to survive in nutrient-poor environments and makes them well-suited to life as epiphytes, or plants that grow on other plants without parasitizing them.

Photosynthesis is not strictly a medical term, but it is a fundamental biological process with significant implications for medicine, particularly in understanding energy production in cells and the role of oxygen in sustaining life. Here's a general biological definition:

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy, usually from the sun, into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds, such as glucose (or sugar), using water and carbon dioxide. This process primarily takes place in the chloroplasts of plant cells, specifically in structures called thylakoids. The overall reaction can be summarized as:

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

In this equation, carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are the reactants, while glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2) are the products. Photosynthesis has two main stages: the light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle). The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid membrane and involve the conversion of light energy into ATP and NADPH, which are used to power the Calvin cycle. The Calvin cycle takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts and involves the synthesis of glucose from CO2 and water using the ATP and NADPH generated during the light-dependent reactions.

Understanding photosynthesis is crucial for understanding various biological processes, including cellular respiration, plant metabolism, and the global carbon cycle. Additionally, research into artificial photosynthesis has potential applications in renewable energy production and environmental remediation.

In a medical context, "nuts" are typically referred to as a type of food that comes from dry fruits with one seed in them. They are often high in healthy fats, fiber, protein, and various essential nutrients. Examples include almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, pistachios, and pecans. However, it's important to note that some people may have allergies to certain types of nuts, which can cause serious health problems.

DNA barcoding is a method used in molecular biology to identify and distinguish species based on the analysis of short, standardized gene regions. In taxonomic DNA barcoding, a specific region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene is typically used as the barcode for animals.

The process involves extracting DNA from a sample, amplifying the target barcode region using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then sequencing the resulting DNA fragment. The resulting sequence is then compared to a reference database of known barcode sequences to identify the species of the sample.

DNA barcoding has become a valuable tool in taxonomy, biodiversity studies, forensic science, and other fields where accurate identification of species is important. It can be particularly useful for identifying cryptic or morphologically similar species that are difficult to distinguish based on traditional methods.

Bronchography is a medical imaging technique that involves the injection of a contrast material into the airways (bronchi) of the lungs, followed by X-ray imaging to produce detailed pictures of the bronchial tree. This diagnostic procedure was commonly used in the past to identify abnormalities such as narrowing, blockages, or inflammation in the airways, but it has largely been replaced by newer, less invasive techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans and bronchoscopy.

The process of bronchography involves the following steps:

1. The patient is sedated or given a local anesthetic to minimize discomfort during the procedure.
2. A radiopaque contrast material is introduced into the bronchi through a catheter that is inserted into the trachea, either via a nostril or through a small incision in the neck.
3. Once the contrast material has been distributed throughout the bronchial tree, X-ray images are taken from various angles to capture detailed views of the airways.
4. The images are then analyzed by a radiologist to identify any abnormalities or irregularities in the structure and function of the bronchi.

Although bronchography is considered a relatively safe procedure, it does carry some risks, including allergic reactions to the contrast material, infection, and bleeding. Additionally, the use of ionizing radiation during X-ray imaging should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits of the procedure.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Ulmaceae" is not a medical term. It is actually the botanical name of a family of flowering plants known as the elm family. This family includes trees and shrubs with simple, alternate leaves and small, apetalous flowers arranged in clusters. Examples of genera within this family include Ulmus (elm), Planera (sycamore), and Celtis (hackberry).

The carbon cycle is a biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of carbon atoms between the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. It involves the exchange of carbon between various reservoirs, including the biosphere (living organisms), pedosphere (soil), lithosphere (rocks and minerals), hydrosphere (water), and atmosphere.

The carbon cycle is essential for the regulation of Earth's climate and the functioning of ecosystems. Carbon moves between these reservoirs through various processes, including photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition, combustion, and weathering. Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and convert it into organic matter, releasing oxygen as a byproduct. When plants and animals die, they decompose, releasing the stored carbon back into the atmosphere or soil.

Human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation, have significantly altered the natural carbon cycle, leading to an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and contributing to global climate change. Therefore, understanding the carbon cycle and its processes is crucial for developing strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change and promote sustainable development.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

'Dipteryx' is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It includes several species of large trees that are native to tropical regions of the Americas. Some of these species are known for producing valuable hardwood timber, such as the Brazilian rosewood (Dipteryx odorata) and the bastard rosewood (Dipteryx panamensis).

The name 'Dipteryx' comes from the Greek words "di" meaning two and "pterux" meaning wing, which refers to the distinctive shape of the flowers' petals. The trees in this genus are also known for producing large, hard-shelled seeds called "tonka beans," which contain a chemical compound called coumarin that has been used in perfumes, food flavorings, and traditional medicine.

However, it is important to note that 'Dipteryx' is not a medical term or concept, but rather a scientific name for a group of plants. If you have any specific questions about the medicinal properties or uses of these plants, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or a trained herbalist.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

In the context of medicine and biology, symbiosis is a type of close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms. Generally, one organism, called the symbiont, lives inside or on another organism, called the host. This interaction can be mutually beneficial (mutualistic), harmful to the host organism (parasitic), or have no effect on either organism (commensal).

Examples of mutualistic symbiotic relationships in humans include the bacteria that live in our gut and help us digest food, as well as the algae that live inside corals and provide them with nutrients. Parasitic symbioses, on the other hand, involve organisms like viruses or parasitic worms that live inside a host and cause harm to it.

It's worth noting that while the term "symbiosis" is often used in popular culture to refer to any close relationship between two organisms, in scientific contexts it has a more specific meaning related to long-term biological interactions.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the medical context refers to the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, particularly computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions), and self-correction.

In healthcare, AI is increasingly being used to analyze large amounts of data, identify patterns, make decisions, and perform tasks that would normally require human intelligence. This can include tasks such as diagnosing diseases, recommending treatments, personalizing patient care, and improving clinical workflows.

Examples of AI in medicine include machine learning algorithms that analyze medical images to detect signs of disease, natural language processing tools that extract relevant information from electronic health records, and robot-assisted surgery systems that enable more precise and minimally invasive procedures.

Mammals are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands (which produce milk to feed their young), hair or fur, three middle ear bones, and a neocortex region in their brain. They are found in a diverse range of habitats and come in various sizes, from tiny shrews to large whales. Examples of mammals include humans, apes, monkeys, dogs, cats, bats, mice, raccoons, seals, dolphins, horses, and elephants.

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"Ellis And Howard Imagine A New Kind Of Alien Invasion In 'Trees' #1 [Review] Read More: 'Trees' #1 Comic Book [Review]". Comics ... Trees is a science fiction comic book series by Warren Ellis and Jason Howard, published by American company Image Comics. The ... "Trees: Three Fates #1 Review: The Sci-Fi Epic Returns in the Form of a Murder Mystery [Review]". Comicbook.com. Retrieved 11 ... A murdered body found at the base of a Tree sets off an investigation into the forces and corruption that control the isolated ...
He now has 2 children Francesca and Gabriella Trees with his wife Sharon Trees. Trees played for Witton Albion prior to joining ... Trees also had loan spells at Altrincham for a couple of months in 1999, and at Leigh RMI. Leigh signed him on a permanent ... Trees played for Mossley during the 2002-03 season, but personal issues forced him to take a short break from football in ... Robert Trees, (born 18 December 1977) is an English former footballer. Born in Manchester, England, he began his career as a ...
... is the fifth studio album by post-hardcore band From First to Last, released April 23, 2015, via Sumerian Records. ... "Dead Trees - From First to Last". AllMusic. Retrieved February 20, 2022. (Articles with short description, Short description is ... Crane, Matt (November 24, 2014). "From First to Last release new song, "Dead Trees"". Alternative Press. Retrieved February 20 ... "Review: From First to Last - Dead Trees". Sputnikmusic. April 29, 2015. Retrieved February 20, 2022. ...
"Dancing Trees (2009)". Dancing Trees at IMDb v t e v t e (Use Canadian English from January 2013, All Wikipedia articles ... Dancing Trees (Partners in Crime) is a Canadian drama thriller film directed by Anne Wheeler and written by Joseph Nasser. Its ...
"Trees: Trees (50th Anniversary Edition)". Pitchfork. Retrieved 7 November 2021. Trees discography at Discogs Trees discography ... A four-album box set of Trees' recordings, including demos, remixes, plus live recordings from the Trees' 1998 "reunion" On The ... A second Trees incarnation formed in 1972 and played until 1973; this group featured Celia Humphris, Barry Clarke, Barry Lyons ... Jim Wirth, "Trees", Uncut, No.283, December 2020, pp.40-43 Trainer discogs.com, Accessed 16 February 2018 "At Queen Elizabeth ...
The trees', the trees being weed, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and a representation of people." The mixtape ... "Mick Jenkins - Trees And Truths". DatPiff. Retrieved 2017-05-19. Mick Jenkins - Trees And Truths , Download & Listen [New ... Trees & Truths is the third mixtape by American rapper Mick Jenkins. It was released on April 25, 2013. As of June 2020, it has ... Jenkins described Trees & Truths as his "most lyrical work" and explained the significance of the mixtape's title to its ...
This section opens with the statement, 'For [five] are the trees that are in paradise ... in summer and winter.' On the trees ... the sandalwood tree, which keeps away evil spirits Kalpavriksha, the tree of eternity, which arose from the churning of the ... the specific tree in the garden, Samtanaka, "a tree of wonder having leaves which promote fertility in men" Haricandana ( ... The Five Trees in Paradise is an esoteric or allegorical image from the Coptic Gospel of Thomas, a collection of logia (sayings ...
... and protect the tree canopy of Washington, D.C. The organization plants trees, engages volunteers in tree planting and care, ... 50 per tree. "About Casey Trees". Archived from the original on 2017-05-03. Retrieved 2018-10-25. "Preparing trees to go from ... mulching and monitoring the condition of Casey Trees-planted trees across DC. The students care for newly planted trees that ... Casey Trees helps organize Community Tree Planting projects in the city, which plant approximately 850 trees annually. The ...
"Trees" by Joyce Kilmer. "I think that I shall never see a poem as lovely as a tree; a tree whose branches wide and strong..." ( ... "Trees" (1913) I think that I shall never see A poem lovely as a tree. A tree whose hungry mouth is prest Against the earth's ... or to the trees of any special region. Just any trees or all trees that might be rained on or snowed on, and that would be ... "Trees" was liked immediately on first publication in Poetry: A Magazine of Verse; when Trees and Other Poems was published the ...
... Child Brasilia Gigolo Childless Woman Purdah The Courage of Shutting-Up The Other Stopped Dead The Rabbit Cather ... Winter Trees is a 1971 posthumous collection of poetry by Sylvia Plath, published by her husband Ted Hughes. Along with ... ISBN 978-1-139-47413-9. Sylvia Plath (25 November 2010). Winter Trees. Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-26416-2. v t e (Articles ...
"Trees Lounge". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. Retrieved October 4, 2021. "Trees Lounge (1996)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved June ... "Trees Lounge". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 13, 2010. Ebert, Roger (October 25, 1996). "Trees Lounge". Chicago Sun-Times. ... Trees Lounge is a 1996 American comedy-drama film and the debut of Steve Buscemi as writer and director. It was produced by ... Trees Lounge has an 81% approval rating based on 26 reviews on Rotten Tomatoes. Roger Ebert gave the film 3½ stars out of 4: " ...
The official Screaming Trees page Official Facebook page Screaming Trees discography at Discogs Screaming Trees at AllMusic ... Screaming Trees collaborated with the indie pop band Beat Happening on the EP Beat Happening/Screaming Trees. Screaming Trees' ... "Screaming Trees Biography, Songs, & Albums". AllMusic. Retrieved June 24, 2008. "Mark Lanegan of Screaming Trees and Queens of ... Screaming Trees were chosen by Nirvana band leader Kurt Cobain to appear on the final day of the Reading Festival in the United ...
... announced that from this month the Magic Tree brand will change its name to Little Trees. "The Magic Tree air freshener: where ... The Magic Tree car air freshener - now more commonly known as the Little Trees air freshener - has become a motoring icon. " ... Little Trees are disposable air fresheners shaped like a stylized evergreen tree, marketed for use in motor vehicles, and most ... "Little Trees Europe". little-trees.co.uk. Archived from the original (Shockwave flash) on 2006-05-01. Retrieved 2006-05-13. ...
... is an album by English drummer Ginger Baker, released in 1986. The album is entirely instrumental and contains ... Horses & Trees at AllMusic (Use dmy dates from April 2022, Articles needing additional references from May 2021, All articles ...
... is a studio album by Ukrainian composer and pianist Lubomyr Melnyk. It was released on 7 December 2018, Erased ... Fallen Trees was met with "universal acclaim" reviews from critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average rating out ... Honeybourne, Ray (3 December 2018). "Lubomyr Melnyk channels a strange, majestic dignity on new LP Fallen Trees". The Line of ... Pearl, Max (10 October 2018). "Lubomyr Melnyk returns to Erased Tapes with new album, Fallen Trees". Resident Advisor. ...
... pg 4 Trees Hall on Pitt's virtual Campus Tour Trees Pool at PittsburghPanthers.com Trees Pool Records Trees Hall on Pitt's ... Joseph C. Trees Pool, housed in the left wing of Trees Hall, is home of the men's and women's University of Pittsburgh Swimming ... Trees Hall is named for Pitt alumnus, trustee, benefactor, and prominent athletic supporter Joseph Clifton Trees (M.E. 1895) ... Trees Hall Facility Information - Sports and Recreation Trees Hall computer lab Amato, Nicole; Cuprik, Brad, eds. (2006). 2006 ...
"Neon Trees 2015 An Intimate Night With Neon Trees Tour Schedule". May 6, 2015. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. ... "LNeon Trees Feel Good - Single". Island Records. Retrieved August 4, 2017. "Tyler Glenn Talks Reuniting Neon Trees and Finding ... "Neon Trees comes to the Island Resort". Daily Press. Retrieved April 3, 2015. Heather Phares. "Neon Trees AllMusic Bio". ... "Neon Trees". Billboard. Retrieved November 21, 2020. "Mess Me Up by Neon Trees". Tidal. Retrieved November 21, 2020. "Nights by ...
Tinderbox Music, "Scattered Trees", 2008, accessed June 23, 2011. Chicago Sun Times, "Via Chicago: Scattered Trees, Candy Golde ... Scattered Trees was an American indie rock band from Chicago, Illinois. The band was on the Roll Call/EMI label before their ... Scattered Trees began as a solo project for frontman Nate Eiesland, who moved from Brainerd, MN to Chicago in 2003 and began ... Scattered Trees Website (Articles with hCards, Pages using infobox musical artist with associated acts, Articles with ISNI ...
... is the debut release by Swedish folk duo First Aid Kit. It was released on 9 April 2008 in Sweden via Rabid ... Drunken Trees attracted attention largely from independent music journalists, whose response was generally positive. The Skinny ... "Drunken Trees EP at Wichita Recordings". wichita-recordings.com. Retrieved 2011-11-01. Hoffman, K. Ross. "Allmusic review". ...
"Asset detail: Summer Trees". National Park Service: Focus. Retrieved 2015-11-17. "Summer Trees". National Park Service. ... Summer Trees is a historic mansion near Red Banks, Mississippi. The mansion is located on Mayhome Road near Red Banks, ... "National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form: Summer Trees" (PDF). Mississippi Department of Archives and History. ...
A Witness Tree is a tree that was present during a grand historical or cultural event of America. The trees got their name from ... No trees or shrubs were planted around the station at the time but by 1902 many trees including various Catalpa Trees were ... The cherry trees given were infected with bugs and diseases and so Japan replaced their gift with a new set of Cherry Trees in ... The trees can be found on both sides of the south portico of the White House. These Magnolia trees are the oldest ...
... is a facility consisting of athletic fields located at the upper campus of the University of Pittsburgh located in ... Prior to 1999, Trees Field had undergone greater than $500,000 in renovations that included the installation of an AstroTurf ... The facility contained both a baseball and softball fields, which were often individually referred to as "Trees Field", as well ... Fittipaldo, Ray (2010-05-20). "Pitt's time at Trees Field coming to an end". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh, PA. Retrieved ...
"Mini Trees Signs to Run for Cover Records". BroadwayWorld. Retrieved 1 October 2021. Hakiman, Rob (28 July 2021). "Mini Trees ... Mini Trees". BrooklynVegan. Retrieved 1 October 2021. Russell, Scott. "Mini Trees Announces Spring 2022 U.S. Tour with Hovvdy ... Lexi Vega, better known by her stage name Mini Trees, is an American indie rock musician based in Los Angeles. She has toured ... "Mini Trees Details Debut Album Always In Motion, Shares "Carrying On"". Paste. Retrieved 1 October 2021. Leiber, Sarah. " ...
The Crooked Trees, Crooked Bush, Twisted Trees or the Crooked Trees of Alticane are a grove of deformed trembling aspen trees ... it is likely that all the crooked trees in the grove are clones that originated from a single mutated tree. The grove is ... The trees' unusual appearance was noticed in the 1940s and has attracted the attention of tourists for decades, but more so ... The trees, prominent in Saskatchewan folklore, are dramatically different from the un-twisted aspens just across the road. ...
... (檜図, hinoki-zu) is a Kanō-school byōbu or folding screen attributed to the Japanese painter Kanō Eitoku (1543- ... List of National Treasures of Japan (paintings) 紙本金地著色桧図〈/八曲屏風〉 [Cypress Trees, colour on paper with gold ground (eight-panel ... 紙本金地著色桧図〈/八曲屏風〉 [Cypress Trees, colour on paper with gold ground (eight-panel byōbu)] (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural ... The painting is a polychrome-and-gold screen that depicts a cypress tree against the backdrop of
... were prominent trees used as guides or landmarks along voyageur canoe routes. Branches were lopped (or lobbed) off ... Often the tree was named in recognition of a famous explorer, a bourgeois (trading company official), or a voyageur who had ... Most of the indigenous lob trees were red pine, white pine and periodically white spruce. Though most of them have died, there ... Tallmadge, John (1 January 1985). "Review of Lob Trees in the Wilderness". Environmental Review. 9 (2): 179-181. doi:10.2307/ ...
Information about the endangered Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus and what you can do to save it. ... Nicharongorong: Tree Octopuses of Micronesia - Reports of Palauan tree octopuses that give birth in mangrove trees and eat ... Tree Octopus Sightings - Includes photos of and behavioral research on the Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus and other tree ... Tree Octopus hat from 1923 The history of the tree octopus trade is a sad one. Their voracious appetite for bird plumes having ...
"Swedishcharts.com - David Sylvian - Brilliant Trees". Hung Medien. Brilliant Trees at Discogs (list of releases) (Use dmy dates ... Brilliant Trees was recorded August 1983 at Hansa in Berlin, and over about 6 weeks in London at the end of 1983 and the ... Brilliant Trees is the debut solo studio album by the English musician David Sylvian, released on 25 June 1984 by Virgin ... Brilliant Trees was well received by the contemporary British music press. "Sylvian has grown up," wrote Sounds critic Carole ...
... value in tree do parentIndex := index + lso(index) if parentIndex , size(tree) then tree[parentIndex] += value return tree See ... tree[index] index -= lso(index) return sum function update(tree, index, value) is while index , size(tree) do tree[index] += ... A Fenwick tree or binary indexed tree (BIT) is a data structure that can efficiently update values and calculate prefix sums in ... A Fenwick tree is most easily understood by considering a one-based array A. [. n. ]. {\displaystyle A[n]}. with n. {\ ...
An innovative partnership between TNC and Tree Street Youth connects vulnerable youth with the natural world. ... About Tree Street Youth. Founded in 2011, Tree Street Youth is a Lewiston-based community of youth and adults who use their ... TNC is one of the most wide-reaching environmental organizations in the world, while Tree Street (named for the "Tree Street" ... An important Tree Street Youth approach is to co-create initiatives and programs-whereby the people involved use a unique ...
National estimates for Tree Trimmers and Pruners. Industry profile for Tree Trimmers and Pruners. Geographic profile for Tree ... National estimates for Tree Trimmers and Pruners: Employment estimate and mean wage estimates for Tree Trimmers and Pruners:. ... Prune or treat trees or shrubs using handsaws, hand pruners, clippers, and power pruners. Works off the ground in the tree ... Industry profile for Tree Trimmers and Pruners: Industries with the highest published employment and wages for Tree Trimmers ...
Some varieties of the pecan tree include Elliott, Stuart, Mohawk, Mahan, Cheyenne and Gloria Grande. Pecan trees grow best in ... The pecan tree is the state tree of Texas. ... The pecan tree is the state tree of Texas. Some varieties of ... The tree bears sweet edible nuts that are approximately 1 to 2 inches long. A pecan tree can only produce nuts, however, if it ... Transplant the pecan trees in the winter, usually between December and March for bare rooted trees. However, if you have a ...
It educates people about the benefits trees provide, and how trees make peoples lives better. It connects people who have a ... Plant a Tree *Right Tree, Right Place *Tree Benefits *Programs *Tree City USA *Big Trees *Arbor Day *Project Canopy Communities ... It educates people about the benefits trees provide, and how trees make peoples lives better. It connects people who have a ... Project Canopys role is to get people in different corners talking to each other, so that awareness about trees can grow by ...
See all of trees photos, tips, lists, and friends. ...
a spectrum of mostly tree and a bit of sun to almost pure sun (broke it taking number 3; araldite worked structurally but the ... sunsets & trees a spectrum of mostly tree and a bit of sun to almost pure sun (broke it taking number 3; araldite worked ... Re: sunsets & trees Hi Chris,. Were these taken this evening?. I noticed it was that kind of a sunset whilst driving home ... Re: sunsets & trees I like the blood red/orange hazy sun in 2 but got to say 4 is my favourite. I really like the angle and ...
Cartesian trees are defined using binary trees, which are a form of rooted tree. To construct the Cartesian tree for a given ... To merge the two trees, apply a merge algorithm to the right spine of the left tree and the left spine of the right tree, ... the resulting Cartesian tree will have the same properties as a random binary search tree, a tree computed by inserting the ... a Cartesian tree is a binary tree derived from a sequence of distinct numbers. To construct the Cartesian tree, set its root to ...
Find out more from WebMDs slideshow about which plants and trees might be producing pollen that is causing your itchy eyes and ... This tree grows in all but the coldest northern parts of the continental U.S. and makes pollen in the fall. The American elm, ... These evergreen trees found all over U.S. make a huge amount of pollen in the spring. That thick yellow layer of powder all ... These trees are common in most of the continental U.S. and flower in late spring. Their pollen can be a big trigger for ...
In addition to these widespread species, many other trees are important components of the North American deciduous forests on a ... Deciduous Trees, Conifers, Evergreen: Most of the areas of North American deciduous forest are dominated by oaks (several ... Below the trees a dense layer of dwarf bamboo (Sasa) commonly grows; it may be so thick that it prevents the canopy trees from ... Two other diverse and widespread trees in these forests are Acacia and Casuarina. Many other trees, shrubs, and grasses occupy ...
... an implied trinomial price tree, or a standard trinomial tree. ... of supported instruments based on a binary equity price tree, ... with CRR trees, EQP trees, LR trees, ITT trees, and STT trees and their corresponding option price trees. Follow the ... trees, given that they are all trinomial recombining trees. See Graphical Representation of Trees for an overview on the use of ... trees, given that they are all binary recombining trees. The graphical representations of ITT and STT trees are equivalent to ...
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But so are more urban threats, like tail pipe exhaust, diverted water flows, and declining city budgets for tree maintenance. ... The century-old trees that grace many of our countrys urban centers are under assault. Development, with its encroaching ... He says city trees didnt always have it so tough.. ALLEN: There was a huge explosion of tree planting, especially in the ... Trees are also terrific at preventing floods. They suck up the water that would otherwise be in peoples basements. So trees do ...
"On the plans by the site they seem to be suggesting that the trees are removed and replaced with a row of trees which look like ... Council bosses are worried that the mulberry trees will not just stain the pavement, but that the roots from the trees will ... "How can they get rid of these mature mulberry trees when the whole point of the park is that is that it is tree-lined and meant ... Mulberry trees to be felled as fruit stains pavement. There will be a little less going round the mulberry bush for the ...
Magic Tree House(9,133) Magic Tree House Basket(78) Magic Tree House Bin(61) Magic Tree House Series(729) Mary Pope Osborne(229 ... mth(396) Osborne(142) series(2,995) Series: Magic Tree House(202) time travel(1,570) treehouse(302) treehouses(171) ... Dark Day in the Deep Sea (Magic Tree House, No. 39) by Mary Pope Osborne (2,842 copies) ... Stage Fright on a Summer Night (Magic Tree House #25) by Mary Pope Osborne (3,773 copies) ...
National estimates for Tree Trimmers and Pruners. Industry profile for Tree Trimmers and Pruners. Geographic profile for Tree ... National estimates for Tree Trimmers and Pruners: Employment estimate and mean wage estimates for Tree Trimmers and Pruners:. ... Prune or treat trees or shrubs using handsaws, hand pruners, clippers, and power pruners. Works off the ground in the tree ... Industry profile for Tree Trimmers and Pruners: Industries with the highest published employment and wages for Tree Trimmers ...
Rain trees may attain heights of 80 ft (24 m) with a branch spread of up to 100 ft (30 m). These flat-topped trees are widely ... cultivated throughout the tropics as shade trees for such crops as coffee and cacao. Source for information on rain tree: The ... a large leguminous tropical tree (Albizia saman or Samanea saman) of tropical America belonging to the family Leguminosae ( ... When seen in a horizontal section, s… Monkey-puzzle Tree , monkey-puzzle tree monkey-puzzle tree, evergreen tree (Araucaria ...
change in API! getChildrens[Ids] became getAllChildren[Ids] (since that is proper english ...
Discover tree photography tips in this beginners guide that will help you capture stunning shots of the giants of the plant ... Types of tree photography.. Just as you can find trees in almost any climate, there are myriad ways trees can be photographed. ... "I built tree houses on every tree in the yard. I just enjoy trees immensely, and I think a lot of people do. Theres a very ... Oak trees: With their widely wandering branches, oak trees are majestic subjects that look like the symbolic tree of life. The ...
Apple trees produce fruit at a young age and supply sweet memories for a lifetime. A couple of apple trees will soon turn even ... Apple trees used to be common in home gardens, but they disappeared - along with berry bushes and big vegetable gardens - as ... Apples are one of the easiest and most dependable backyard fruits: plant an apple tree, and you will harvest the delicious ... But new enthusiasm for home-grown vegetables has revived interest in fruit trees, too. Theres no fresher, sweeter, or more ...
... report a problem tree and how to donate a tree. ... making a tree donation to one of our parks. *which trees flower ... Tree Preservation Orders, if a tree is protected and get information about working on trees with Tree Preservation Orders or ... Trees. Information about Tree Preservation Orders, report a problem tree and how to donate a tree. ... 14 trees have had to be destroyed. Our tree experts are dealing with this outbreak as a matter of urgency. ...
Star Wars Christmas Tree: This is a great tree to have while you are watching the classic Star Wars Christmas Special (via ... Pac Man Christmas Tree: Retro video games and X-Mas collide in this awesome Christmas tree from Madrid, Spain (via dragon ... Godzilla Christmas Tree: this tree at the Aqua City Odaiba shopping mall in Tokyo is a true terror-topiary -- even blowing ... LEGO Christmas Tree: This amazing tree standing in Londons St Pancras Station is a brick-builders delight (via The Verge) ...
What is GLOBE Trees?. GLOBE Trees is an app-based tool that will help you estimate tree height. Once you have downloaded the ... Tree height is the most widely used indicator of an ecosystems ability to grow trees. Observing tree height allows NASA ... Tracking how trees are changing over time can help us estimate the number of trees that make up an area. Learn more about the ... Here are a few examples of student research reports related to trees:. "An Assessment of the Role Urban Trees Play in Modifying ...
Dead and dying trees around town show the effects of infestation by the bronze birch borer. ... Birch trees have shallow roots that can be easily damaged. Maintain your tree properly. Birch trees need to be watered in dry ... TREE PERMITS In Portland and most other municipalities, a permit is required to plant, prune or remove a street tree. For ... "If its an important tree, they may want to protect it." You better get with it, though. Once a tree starts to show symptoms, ...
Media in category "Tree hugging". The following 18 files are in this category, out of 18 total. ... Tree Huggers at Huon Bush Retreats, Mount Misery, Huon Valley, Tasmania.jpg 2,048 × 1,536; 1.62 MB. ... Lars Jacob & Agneta Alfsdotter Wigforss 2011 Elm Tree Rescue 40th anniversary.jpg 720 × 540; 105 KB. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Tree_hugging&oldid=305938879" ...
EscapeArtist International Real Estate is part of the EscapeArtist.com network of sites for anyone wanting to live, move, invest, or vacation anywhere in the world. EscapeArtist is one of the worlds oldest leading expatriate and overseas living sites on the internet. Membership is free and we offer many real estate marketing opportunities to Owners, Brokers, and Developers.. ...
Trees can die suddenly or quite slowly.. Fire, flood or wind can cause a quick death by severely damaging a trees ability to ... Afterlife of a tree. Before it topples over, a dead tree can stand for many years, providing a safe home for bees, squirrels, ... A tree leaves a legacy. While alive, it provides shade, home for many animals and a lifeline to fungi and other trees. When it ... Different trees, different life spans. Trees can live an incredibly long time, depending on what kind they are. Some ...
The Aristocrat Pear is an ornamental tree used in garden landscaping. It does not produce pears or any kind of edible fruit, ... Aristocrat pear trees suffer from a few issues based on the way they grow. First, the trees bark is very thin, so it can be ... The trees can be susceptible to attack from aphids and insects that bore into both the fruits and the wood. Aphid attacks have ... The Aristocrat Pear is an ornamental tree used in garden landscaping. It does not produce pears or any kind of edible fruit, ...
  • Although the tree octopus is not officially listed on the Endangered Species List, we feel that it should be added since its numbers are at a critically low level for its breeding needs. (zapatopi.net)
  • Unless immediate action is taken to protect this species and its habitat, the Pacific Northwest tree octopus will be but a memory. (zapatopi.net)
  • Other tree octopus species-including the Douglas octopus and the red-ringed madrona sucker-were once abundant throughout the Cascadia region, but have since gone extinct because of threats similar to those faced by paxarbolis , as well as overharvesting by the now-illegal tree octopus trade. (zapatopi.net)
  • and a day trip to TNC's Saco Heath Preserve for a scavenger hunt that helped participants learn about native plant and tree species. (nature.org)
  • In addition to these widespread species, many other trees are important components of the North American deciduous forests on a local scale. (britannica.com)
  • A wide range of understory shrubs and small trees includes dogwood ( Cornus ), holly ( Ilex ), Magnolia species, and serviceberry ( Amelanchier ). (britannica.com)
  • The dominant trees of the European deciduous forests are generally closely related to their equivalents in North America and Asia, consisting of different species of common genera. (britannica.com)
  • Check here or look on Facebook for any changes in hours and tree species availability. (google.com)
  • Although it's not intuitive to think of a city of almost three million people being anything like a forest, Alexander notes that there are more than 10 million trees of at least 116 different species crammed inside the city limits. (cbc.ca)
  • A few species of trees including some species of oaks have desiccated leaves that are persistent to winter or the dry summer and remain on the plant although they seem dry and shrunk. (worldatlas.com)
  • Works off the ground in the tree canopy and may use truck-mounted lifts. (bls.gov)
  • it may be so thick that it prevents the canopy trees from regenerating from seedlings. (britannica.com)
  • The tunnels girdle branches, reducing the amount of food transported from the tree canopy to the roots. (oregonlive.com)
  • In 2006, the County adopted the Street Tree Master Plan which set the ambitious goal of achieving 30 percent tree canopy. (miamidade.gov)
  • Beyond more nebulous social and environmental impacts, Toronto's lush canopy of trees are worth about $7 billion to the local economy, TD Bank suggests in a report. (cbc.ca)
  • Beyond their more nebulous benefits, Toronto's canopy of trees - such as these cherry blossoms in High Park - are worth at least $7 billion to the city, TD Bank says. (cbc.ca)
  • When you look at an individual tree, the impact that it is having is very modest, but when you add it up in the entire canopy of trees in the city of Toronto and when you think that trees cover 30 per cent of all the square kilometres in the city. (cbc.ca)
  • Industries with the highest published employment and wages for Tree Trimmers and Pruners are provided. (bls.gov)
  • For a list of all industries with employment in Tree Trimmers and Pruners, see the Create Customized Tables function. (bls.gov)
  • See also the qualifier hierarchical tree . (bvsalud.org)
  • The leaves of many deciduous trees in Japan, like those in North America but unlike most in Europe, turn to bright shades of red and yellow before they are shed in autumn, the maples being particularly spectacular. (britannica.com)
  • What Are The Differences Between Evergreen And Deciduous Trees? (worldatlas.com)
  • Using sophisticated climbing and rigging techniques, cut away dead or excess branches from trees or shrubs to maintain right-of-way for roads, sidewalks, or utilities, or to improve appearance, health, and value of tree. (bls.gov)
  • Prune or treat trees or shrubs using handsaws, hand pruners, clippers, and power pruners. (bls.gov)
  • Commonly these trees are accompanied by an understory of evergreen shrubs of tropical affinity . (britannica.com)
  • A varied understory includes many small trees or shrubs such as hornbeam ( Carpinus ), dogwood, service-tree ( Sorbus ), and the shrubs Acanthopanax and Aralia , which are relatives of ivy. (britannica.com)
  • Biometry is the measuring of living things, such as the height of trees or shrubs, and can add valuable information to land cover data needed for planning or research. (globe.gov)
  • Alternatively, trees can be grouped with crops, grasses and shrubs to form a single global plant pool. (globe.gov)
  • Trees, shrubs, and other vegetation can cause safety hazards and power outages if they grow into or near power lines. (sce.com)
  • These include shrubs, trees, and herbaceous perennial. (worldatlas.com)
  • We have hundreds of Christmas Trees to choose from. (google.com)
  • with a brief description of the type of Christmas Trees we grow along with a sample of their branches & needles, where they can be found & our prices. (google.com)
  • Christmas Trees in our mowed fields have a sign telling you what kind of tree they are. (google.com)
  • How Did the Tradition of Christmas Trees Start? (britannica.com)
  • Whether real or artificial, Christmas trees are synonymous with the holiday. (britannica.com)
  • Other decorations were added- Martin Luther reportedly first hung lighted candles on a tree in the 16th century-and paradise trees evolved into Christmas trees. (britannica.com)
  • By the 19th century, Christmas trees were a firmly established tradition in Germany. (britannica.com)
  • As Germans migrated, they took Christmas trees to other countries, notably England. (britannica.com)
  • The couple made Christmas trees a prominent part of the holiday's festivities, and in 1848 an illustration of the royal family around a decorated tree appeared in a London newspaper. (britannica.com)
  • Christmas trees soon became common in English homes. (britannica.com)
  • German settlers also introduced Christmas trees in the United States, though the custom was not initially embraced. (britannica.com)
  • Can I have my own tree trimmer prune my tree? (sce.com)
  • Homeowners who hire their own tree trimmers to prune or remove trees near wires must first notify SCE. (sce.com)
  • As part of this program, SCE will assess and remove portions of trees to a level that would allow other workers to safely remove or prune the rest of the tree. (sce.com)
  • For more research reports related to trees, visit the GLOBE Student Research Reports page (filtered by Biometry/Tree Height protocol). (globe.gov)
  • Known for their white trunks, birch trees grow throughout the northern U.S., and are a popular photography subject in the fall. (adobe.com)
  • People love their chalky white birch trees. (oregonlive.com)
  • These evergreen trees found all over U.S. make a huge amount of pollen in the spring. (webmd.com)
  • Whether that tale is true or not, evergreen trees became part of Christian rites in Germany, and in the Middle Ages "paradise trees" began to appear there. (britannica.com)
  • Meant to represent the Garden of Eden , these evergreen trees were hung with apples and displayed in homes on December 24, the religious feast day of Adam and Eve . (britannica.com)
  • Do Evergreen Trees Lose Their Leaves? (worldatlas.com)
  • rain tree, also called monkeypod, a large leguminous tropical tree ( Albizia saman or Samanea saman ) of tropical America belonging to the family Leguminosae ( pulse family), the leaves of which fold together in cloudy weather and in darkness. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A tree leaves a legacy. (popsci.com)
  • Wrap yourself in a tree tee that leaves you feeling one with nature like a dirty hippy without the pungent odor. (threadless.com)
  • Infected trees show signs in addition to brown leaves. (oregonlive.com)
  • In the carbon cycle, examples of individual pools might include soils, leaves, wood, whole trees and their supporting ecosystems, or the entire biosphere. (globe.gov)
  • Carbon in trees can be considered a single carbon pool, or it can be divided into leaves, wood and roots. (globe.gov)
  • Highway trees are subject to statutory work which requires the removal of obstructions such as the clearance of basal growths and low branches. (brighton-hove.gov.uk)
  • With their widely wandering branches, oak trees are majestic subjects that look like the symbolic tree of life. (adobe.com)
  • Bright sunlight poking through tree branches will overwhelm your camera's sensor and wash out parts of your photo. (adobe.com)
  • We mow our tree fields all summer so we get full bud growth and don't develop sparse lower branches. (google.com)
  • The two men climbed the tree and began removing branches. (cdc.gov)
  • The 2 Billion Trees program will not fund planting activities in areas such as these to maintain the ecological diversity of existing ecosystems. (canada.ca)
  • The reproductive cycle of the tree octopus is still linked to its roots in the waters of the Puget Sound from where it is thought to have originated. (zapatopi.net)
  • Examine the root system of the pecan tree and dig a large enough hold to encompass the roots. (ehow.com)
  • The hole should be large enough to place the roots in a spread position and deep enough that the buds of the pecan tree will start approximately 4 inches above the soil. (ehow.com)
  • Use the same soil that came out of the hole to pack around the roots of the pecan tree. (ehow.com)
  • Council bosses are worried that the mulberry trees will not just stain the pavement, but that the roots from the trees will affect the wiring of the illuminated pillars. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Roots do more than anchor a tree to the ground. (popsci.com)
  • Eventually, roots begin to die, the tree is unable to take up enough water, and it begins to die. (oregonlive.com)
  • The Pacific Northwest tree octopus ( Octopus paxarbolis ) can be found in the temperate rainforests of the Olympic Peninsula on the west coast of North America. (zapatopi.net)
  • And tree wall art and art prints are popular home decor items because of the strong associations people have with these ubiquitous plants. (adobe.com)
  • Companion plants among the trees encourage pollinators and discourage problems. (burpee.com)
  • Of the various kinds of tissues produced by plants, woody stems such as those produced by trees have the greatest ability to store large amounts of carbon through continued growth, because wood is dense and trees can be large. (globe.gov)
  • Collectively, the Earth's plants store approximately 560 petagrams of carbon, with the wood in trees being the largest fraction. (globe.gov)
  • How many of these beneficial plants or trees can you identify? (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Plants and Trees With Real Health Benefits - Medscape - May 30, 2017. (medscape.com)
  • The tree bears sweet edible nuts that are approximately 1 to 2 inches long. (ehow.com)
  • In many gardens, flashy ornamental pears and crabapples replaced edible fruit trees. (burpee.com)
  • nodes where the value of each node in the tree is the prefix sum of the array from the index of the parent (inclusive) up to the index of the node (exclusive). (wikipedia.org)
  • In any tree, the subtree rooted at any node consists of all other nodes that can reach it by repeatedly following parent pointers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cartesian tree for a sequence is a binary tree with one node for each number in the sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • TimespanTree is an extended AVL tree because each node in the tree keeps track of not just the start offsets of PitchedTimespans stored at that node, but also the earliest and latest stop offset of all PitchedTimespans stores at both that node and all nodes which are children of that node. (mit.edu)
  • Draw trees with more than one root node, using PSTricks. (ctan.org)
  • Optional) Initial value at each node of the tree, specified as a scalar numeric. (mathworks.com)
  • Some bristlecone pines , for instance, are among the oldest known trees and are more than 4,000 years old. (popsci.com)
  • In computer science , a Cartesian tree is a binary tree derived from a sequence of distinct numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • AVL trees are a type of binary tree, like Red-Black trees. (mit.edu)
  • The century-old trees that grace many of our country's urban centers are under assault. (loe.org)
  • CURWOOD: The century-old trees that grace many of our countries urban centers are under assault. (loe.org)
  • Much of the area of Chinese deciduous forests is dominated by various oaks, frequently mixed with other trees including maples, alder ( Alnus ), ash, walnut, poplar, and many others. (britannica.com)
  • Observing tree height allows NASA scientists to understand the gain or loss of biomass which can inform calculations of the carbon that trees and forests either take in from or release into the atmosphere. (globe.gov)
  • via reforestation - the regeneration of forests that have temporarily lost their tree cover. (canada.ca)
  • Trees of life : saving tropical forests and their biological wealth / Kenton Miller and Laura Tangley. (who.int)
  • Forest-based proof trees (symbolic logic). (ctan.org)
  • In February 2019, as part of a redesigned monochrome sleeved vinyl reissue batch of his 1980s albums, Brilliant Trees was released in a gatefold sleeve, once again with a new set of type fonts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2019, Lee Pinard was introduced to Julia Sleeper-Whiting, founder/executive director of Tree Street Youth, a Lewiston-based community of youth and adults who use their diverse lived experiences and collective empowerment to co-create youth-centered programs and partnerships that encourage leadership, learning, exploration and growth. (nature.org)
  • The Aristocrat Pear is an ornamental tree used in garden landscaping. (ehow.com)
  • Aristocrat pear trees suffer from a few issues based on the way they grow. (ehow.com)
  • The maintenance of a tree is not a sexy thing. (loe.org)
  • ALLEN: There was a huge explosion of tree planting, especially in the eastern United States and in the Midwest, in the late 19th century. (loe.org)
  • A well-composed photo of a lone tree can be moving, whether it's taken a few miles from downtown Los Angeles or on a hike deep in the forest of a national park. (adobe.com)
  • It wasn't until the 1820s that Christmas began gaining popularity in America, and the country's first Christmas tree reportedly was displayed in the 1830s. (britannica.com)
  • They have also been used in the definition of the treap and randomized binary search tree data structures for binary search problems, in comparison sort algorithms that perform efficiently on nearly-sorted inputs, and as the basis for pattern matching algorithms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, Vuillemin used these structures to analyze the average-case complexity of concatenation and splitting operations on binary search trees . (wikipedia.org)
  • free/2 is more involved as it needs to de-fragment the tree, but that would be done along the same lines as reserve/2, using the gb_trees:search/3 function. (erlang.org)
  • Click on any of the search results and the OIICS tree will expand to show the match. (cdc.gov)
  • See Help with Online Code Trees for search examples. (cdc.gov)
  • Optional steps are taking a photograph of the tree and measuring the circumference of the tree. (globe.gov)
  • Tree circumference can be used by foresters and managers to calculate the approximate age of the tree, and the measurements are also used to estimate the amount of standing timber in a forest. (globe.gov)
  • Both tree height and trunk circumference can also help to measure biomass, the total mass of living material above ground measured across a particular area. (globe.gov)
  • These flat-topped trees are widely cultivated throughout the tropics as shade trees for such crops as coffee and cacao. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tree height is the most widely used indicator of an ecosystem's ability to grow trees. (globe.gov)
  • For example, tree height is the most widely used indicator of an ecosystem's ability to grow trees, so tracking tree height over time can help us to assess the ecological health of a given area. (globe.gov)
  • There are about 70 different kinds of these trees and bushes, including juniper and cypress, and some of them can cause major allergy issues. (webmd.com)
  • The rich, mixed mesophytic (adapted to environments that are neither too dry nor too wet) forest type found north of the Appalachians includes buckeye and tulip tree ( Liriodendron ), while the southern floodplain forest of the Mississippi valley is made up of oaks mixed with sour gum and the evergreen conifer swamp cypress ( Taxodium ). (britannica.com)
  • I just got back from Georgia, shooting the fall colors and the cypress trees," says Filer. (adobe.com)
  • The enormous cypress tree was found to measure 335 feet, making it the second-tallest tree in the world. (newsweek.com)
  • An important Tree Street Youth approach is to co-create initiatives and programs-whereby the people involved use a unique process to identify challenges and develop solutions together. (nature.org)
  • Tree photographs are an important subset of landscape photography. (adobe.com)
  • When a tree dies, it continues to play an important role. (popsci.com)
  • How the wood wide web functions in a forest is still not well understood, but scientists do know that the fungi forming these networks are important for keeping trees healthy. (popsci.com)
  • If it's an important tree, they may want to protect it. (oregonlive.com)
  • Why is it important to plant trees? (canada.ca)
  • Beyond mitigating the need to belch out any more air pollution to cool the city, trees also provide an important role in storing pollutants already out there. (cbc.ca)
  • One method is to process the sequence values in left-to-right order, maintaining the Cartesian tree of the nodes processed so far, in a structure that allows both upwards and downwards traversal of the tree. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vegetation management is a broad term that describes work we do to minimize the impact trees and vegetation have on providing safe and reliable electric service. (sce.com)
  • California regulations require utilities to trim trees or vegetation so they don't grow into or fall into high-voltage power lines, which could not only cause a power outage but could spark a fire or be a danger to the public. (sce.com)
  • State regulations require utilities to trim trees or vegetation which could cause a power outage and spark a fire or be a danger to the public. (sce.com)
  • SCE conducts annual inspections of trees and vegetation near lines. (sce.com)
  • No, all tree trimming is done as part of SCE's vegetation maintenance work with no additional cost to the customer. (sce.com)
  • Due to their large size, they can grow to 150 feet tall at maturity, you will need to space the trees at least 35 feet apart. (ehow.com)
  • Everyone is also welcome to join the Folding Trees Flickr group and share photos of all their crafty paper projects with us! (makezine.com)
  • Apples are one of the easiest and most dependable backyard fruits: plant an apple tree, and you will harvest the delicious rewards for years to come. (burpee.com)
  • The pruning focuses on line clearance and does not necessarily encompass the entire tree or consider the resulting aesthetics. (sce.com)
  • To construct the Cartesian tree, set its root to be the minimum number in the sequence, and recursively construct its left and right subtrees from the subsequences before and after this number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Construct Dynkin tree diagrams. (ctan.org)
  • Construct linguistics trees using a preprocessor. (ctan.org)
  • The tree, found in urban Brazil and called the Ilex sapiiformis, or Pernambuco holly, was first discovered in 1838 and has not been seen since. (newsweek.com)
  • As climate warms and precipitation regimes change regionally, the most suitable sites for germination may be different than they are today, and that may mean that higher elevations and cooler latitudes will provide better conditions for seedlings than the present location of their parent tree. (globe.gov)
  • Trees cool and moisten our air and fill it with oxygen and can help balance our carbon budget. (globe.gov)
  • Large tanks of algae have been set up to harvest carbon dioxide from city air, converting it to oxygen faster than trees can. (newsweek.com)
  • In their research project, they interviewed 56 smallholder farmers about their experiences and perceptions of participating in the carbon offsetting project which, in practice, entails supporting small-holders in Uganda to plant trees on their own land in exchange for financial compensation, to generate carbon sequestration capacity. (lu.se)
  • Almost every area and climate has some type of tree to offer. (adobe.com)
  • Just as you can find trees in almost any climate, there are myriad ways trees can be photographed. (adobe.com)
  • Trees regulate climate at local, regional and continental scales, by producing atmospheric moisture and rainfall, and controlling temperature. (globe.gov)
  • Tree ranges are already changing as a result of changes in climate. (globe.gov)
  • This premier field guide features all characteristics-tree shape, bark, leaf, flower, fruit and twig-for quick identification, making it a superior choice for trail walks, creating displays, and scientific or commercial needs. (macmillan.com)
  • Whenever residents have work carried out on elm trees, it's vital that the material is deposed of correctly by competent tree surgeons or gardeners. (brighton-hove.gov.uk)
  • While alive, it provides shade, home for many animals and a lifeline to fungi and other trees. (popsci.com)
  • While actors and writers strike in Los Angeles, Universal Studios has been accused of illegally trimming trees that were providing shade to picketers. (newsweek.com)
  • It may take a while for an observer to realize a tree has finally died. (popsci.com)
  • Once you have downloaded the GLOBE Observer app and created an account, the Trees tool will guide you through the observation process. (globe.gov)
  • While the contrasts were glaring, they shared an appreciation for the deep healing power of trees, albeit at first very different kinds. (nature.org)
  • Tree-planting has become one of the most popular - albeit most controversial - forms of the strategy, with a marked increase in this type of project in Africa over the past decade. (lu.se)
  • Apple trees used to be common in home gardens, but they disappeared - along with berry bushes and big vegetable gardens - as people turned to ornamental gardening. (burpee.com)
  • Pecan trees grow best in the southern United States, but can be grown in zones 6 to 9. (ehow.com)
  • These trees grow throughout the U.S. and make pollen in the spring. (webmd.com)
  • As you know, mulberries are very slow to grow and these fruiting trees must be a reasonable age. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Trees that are programmed to grow very quickly will be less strong - and shorter lived - than ones that grow very slowly . (popsci.com)
  • Draw family trees. (ctan.org)
  • Family Trees and Family Ties: Can Family Communication Increase Breast Cancer Screening? (cdc.gov)
  • Only thing I would change with pic 4 (which isn't possible in camera) is pull down the background treeline blacks a bit to make midway between what they are now and the foreground silhouetted trees. (cambridgeincolour.com)
  • I left your exif intact so my tweak prob wont show (other than I used cs4 in vista) so all i did is pulled mid/shadow curve down a little and added a sharpening mask to the trees directly in front of sun to make impact more and blur brushed over a few other bits. (cambridgeincolour.com)
  • It starts in January, and some of these trees and bushes can make pollen until May or June. (webmd.com)
  • They're most likely to cause allergy issues in Minnesota and areas in the Southwest, but only the "male" trees make pollen. (webmd.com)
  • I am very keen to make sure that two mature mulberry trees are not cut down in the interests of 'beautifying' the gardens! (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Trees can make great backgrounds for portrait photography , but they can also convey a lot of meaning all on their own. (adobe.com)
  • I have orange trees at my new home a lot of the fruit have brown spots does this mean all the fruit should come off tree and what can I do to make sure this doesn't happen again also I recall not picking until they're orange but they seem to be falling off while still green can you re-educate me its been 30 years? (garden.org)
  • If a tree falls in an urban forest, and it doesn't make a sound, does it have any value? (cbc.ca)
  • In exchange, the tree repays fungi with sugars it makes out of sunlight in a process known as photosynthesis . (popsci.com)
  • If located near a road or pathway, the tree requires large amounts of cutting back so as not to cause an obstruction. (ehow.com)
  • A spokesman added: "If the trees were to remain the entranceway would require redesign work which would delay the project by an estimate of 2 weeks, and cost an additional £1,500 - £2,000. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • In most cases, the participants do not know how much compensation they can expect, even though the project entails their long-term commitment to ceding their land for tree-planting. (lu.se)
  • So celebrate the beauty of nature by using one or two trees as the subject of a photograph. (adobe.com)
  • Carry a tripod with you for a perfect shot and be intentional with your composition, and your tree photo can be worthy of a frame or gallery show . (adobe.com)