Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Aphrodisiacs: Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Diphenoxylate: A MEPERIDINE congener used as an antidiarrheal, usually in combination with ATROPINE. At high doses, it acts like morphine. Its unesterified metabolite difenoxin has similar properties and is used similarly. It has little or no analgesic activity.Safrole: A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Pyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.Eugenol: A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.DioxolanesBenzyl CompoundsNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Tea Tree Oil: Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Ulmus: A plant genus of the family ULMACEAE that is susceptible to Dutch elm disease which is caused by the ASCOMYCOTA fungus, Ophiostoma.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Ophiostoma: A genus of fungi in the family Ophiostomataceae, order OPHIOSTOMATALES. Several species are the source of Dutch elm disease, which is spread by the elm bark beetle.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Netherlands Antilles: Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.BelgiumHistory, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Abies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)PanamaGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fraxinus: A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain secoiridoid glucosides.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.TurkeyFicus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Fagaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Dipterocarpaceae: A plant family of the order Theales.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Cambium: A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.EuropeBeetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Juniperus: A plant genus of the family CUPRESSACEAE. The species are slow growing coniferous evergreen trees or shrubs.Occupational Health Physicians: Physicians employed in a company or corporate setting that is generally not in the health care industry.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Familial: A familial disorder marked by AMYLOID deposits in the walls of small and medium sized blood vessels of CEREBRAL CORTEX and MENINGES.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Meliaceae: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Euthanasia, Active: The act or practice of killing for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person or animal from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Distemper Virus, Phocine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in seals.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Tamaricaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Melaleuca: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. M. alternifolia foliage is a source of TEA TREE OIL. The common name of tea tree also refers to LEPTOSPERMUM or KUNZEA. M. vindifolia is a source of niaouli oil. M. cajuputi and M. leucadendra are sources of cajuput oil.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Managed Competition: A strategy for purchasing health care in a manner which will obtain maximum value for the price for the purchasers of the health care and the recipients. The concept was developed primarily by Alain Enthoven of Stanford University and promulgated by the Jackson Hole Group. The strategy depends on sponsors for groups of the population to be insured. The sponsor, in some cases a health alliance, acts as an intermediary between the group and competing provider groups (accountable health plans). The competition is price-based among annual premiums for a defined, standardized benefit package. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Juglans: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Volleyball: A team sport in which two teams hit an inflated ball back and forth over a high net using their hands.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Skating: Using ice skates, roller skates, or skateboards in racing or other competition or for recreation.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Too remote from the centre of the Malukan spice trade, the Dutch destroyed the nutmeg trees on Babar. Bugis and Makarassarese ...
The Dutch monopoly on nutmeg and mace was destroyed by the transfer of nutmeg trees to Ceylon, Grenada, Singapore and other ... and the Dutch destroyed the nutmeg trees. After the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665-1667, England and the United Provinces of ... There are, however, still nutmeg trees growing on Run today. Indonesia portal Banda Neira Bencoolen Presidency 1824 Anglo-Dutch ... Run was of great economic importance because of the value of the spices nutmeg and mace which are obtained from the nutmeg tree ...
During the Dutch colonial era in Indonesia, the Dutch also created many plantages (plantations) of coffee, tea and sugar cane, ... In the colonial time, clove and nutmeg were the most valuable commodities after gold and silver for the most Europeans. ... Plant species, which are not native to this archipelago, such as tea, coffee and rubber tree are then established. Indonesia's ... nutmeg, and pepper. The Maluku Islands were, until the late eighteenth century, the only source of economically significant ...
These islands were the only place in the world where the nutmeg tree was found at that time. The Dutch Antilles (Nederlandse ... The Dutch had several possessions in Western Africa. These included the Dutch Gold Coast, the Dutch Slave Coast, Dutch Loango- ... The Dutch staff moved to Jolfa. In 1747 the Dutch East India Company office was closed. Kerman (1659-1744)* A Dutch trading ... Numerous Dutch ships on their way to the Dutch East Indies such as the Batavia were wrecked off the coast. Later British ...
The nutmeg trees are beautiful but he regrets the ending of the Dutch monopoly in the nutmeg trade, which avoided the need to ... in Dutch) --- 1870? L'archipel malaisien : patrie de l'orang-outang et de l'oiseau de paradis : récits de voyage et étude de ... As for the sago palm, one tree yields 1,800 cakes, enough to feed a man for a year. There is torrential rain; there are savages ... He admires a crimson-flowered tree surrounded with flocks of blue and orange lories. He is given some birds' nest soup, which ...
Now enjoying control of the nutmeg production the VOC paid the perkeniers 1/122nd of the Dutch market price for nutmeg, however ... The outlying island of Run was harder for the VOC to control and they exterminated all nutmeg trees there. The production and ... The Dutch subsequently re-settled the islands with imported slaves, convicts and indentured labourers (to work the nutmeg ... From that moment, the Portuguese preferred to buy nutmeg from traders in Malacca. The Dutch followed the Portuguese to Banda ...
However, "unlike nutmeg and mace, which were limited to the minute Bandas, clove trees grew all over the Moluccas, and the ... As the Dutch East India Company consolidated its control of the spice trade in the 17th century, they sought to gain a monopoly ... The tree is between 350 and 400 years old. Tourists are told that seedlings from this very tree were stolen by a Frenchman ... The clove tree is an evergreen that grows up to 8-12 m tall, with large leaves and crimson flowers grouped in terminal clusters ...
The Dutch purposefully exterminated the native nutmeg trees: a large grove still remained as late as the 1870s but it had ... The Dutch East India Company paid a stipend to the Bacan sultan as compensation for the destruction of Bacan's clove trees that ... The Sultanate of Bacan was treated as a Dutch protectorate; it was replaced by a council of chiefs under a Dutch contrôleur in ... Once the Dutch established hegemony in the 17th century, the Netherlands' power on Bacan was based in Fort Barnaveld. In 1705, ...
The seed is the source of nutmeg, the aril the source of mace. Myristica fragrans was given a binomial name by the Dutch ... Carpellate trees produce smooth yellow ovoid or pear-shaped fruits, 6-9 cm (2.4-3.5 in) long with a diameter of 3.5-5 cm (1.4- ... It is important as the main source of the spices nutmeg and mace. It is widely grown across the tropics including Guangdong and ... Myristica fragrans is a small evergreen tree, usually 5-13 m (16-43 ft) tall, but occasionally reaching 20 m (66 ft). The ...
... the British took temporary control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees, complete with soil, to ... fragrant nutmeg or true nutmeg) is a dark-leaved evergreen tree cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit: nutmeg and ... Nutmeg is the spice made from the seed of the fragrant nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) tree. The spice has a distinctive pungent ... In Dutch cuisine, nutmeg is added to vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and string beans. Nutmeg is a ...
Before the Dutch retook control of the islands, the British removed many nutmeg trees and transplanted them to Ceylon and other ... Dutch mier) spoon : lepe (Dutch lepel) difficult : lastek (Dutch lastig) floor : plur (Dutch vloer) porch: stup (Dutch stoep) ... Now enjoying control of the nutmeg production, the VOC paid the perkeniers 1/122nd of the Dutch market price for nutmeg; ... The islanders were also tortured by the Dutch. The Bandanese chiefs were tortured by the Dutch and Japanese. The Dutch carved ...
... and left behind twenty-two men to stockpile nutmeg so that future Dutch fleets would be able to purchase it without trouble. He ... They left a rooster and seven hens on the island, and also planted many seeds, including some orange and lemon trees. They then ... The Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia was an expedition that took place from 1598 to 1600, one of the Dutch forays into the ... First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia Dutch East India Company in Indonesia European exploration of Australia Janszoon voyage of ...
That year, a delivery of a further 15,000 clove and 1,500 nutmeg trees together with canary nuts and sugar palms arrived from ... the settlement enabled the East India Company to establish a strategic base to challenge the Dutch spice trade and maritime ... By 1802 Smith reported that there were 19,000 nutmeg and 6,250 clove trees under his supervision. In the 1804-05 financial year ... Heritage Trees of Penang. Penang: Areca Books. ISBN 978-967-57190-6-6 "Penang Botanical Gardens Waterfall". www.asiaexplorers. ...
Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the Dutch established the Dutch East Indies; the French Indochina; and the British ... The trees and other plants of the region are tropical; in some countries where the mountains are tall enough, temperate-climate ... and nutmeg. The spice trade initially was developed by Indian and Arab merchants, but it also brought Europeans to the region. ... As a result, the Dutch moved into Indonesia, the British into Malaya and parts of Borneo, the French into Indochina, and the ...
The Dutch prohibited the rearing of the clove-tree in all the other islands subject to their rule, in order to secure the ... Nathaniel's Nutmeg: How one man's courage changed the course of history, Sceptre, 2000, ISBN 0-340-69676-1 Ricklefs, M.C. (1999 ... but once more restored to the Dutch by virtue of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. It then remained, as part of the Dutch East ... The territory was restored to the Dutch at the Peace of Amiens in 1802, but the Dutch East India Company had been nationalized ...
... nutmeg and Eucalyptus tree used for aromatic oil. In the inland areas, they also hunt the wild pig Buru babirusa, deer and ... During the Dutch colonization in the first half of the 17th century, much of Lisela people had been relocated to the eastern ... part of Buru for working at the Dutch plantations; they later became part of Kayeli people. The nation speaks Lisela language, ...
ISBN 981-204-367-5. De Witt, Dennis (2007). History of the Dutch in Malaysia. Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 978-983-43519-0 ... Shelley, Rex (1993). People of the Pear Tree. Singapore: Times Books International. ISBN 981-204-449-3. Shelley, Rex (1991). ... The Dutch Eurasians of Malacca are of Dutch and largely Malay but also Indian or Chinese descent. The Dutch transferred Malacca ... Dutch descendants in Malaysia and Singapore are primarily made up of Eurasians originating from Malacca, as well as others who ...
The Dutch were later able to bypass many of these problems by pioneering a direct ocean route from the Cape of Good Hope to the ... The fame of many spices such as nutmeg and cinnamon are attributed to these early Spice merchants.[not in citation given] The ... Rawlinson 2001: 11-12 Shaw 2003: 426 Simson Najovits, Egypt, trunk of the tree, Volume 2, (Algora Publishing: 2004), p. 258. " ... Getting to know the secret location of the Spice Islands, mainly the Banda Islands, then the world source of nutmeg and cloves ...
... the Dutch prohibited the rearing of the clove tree on all the other islands subject to their rule, in order to secure the ... Nutmeg and cloves were once the dominant export crops but are now produced in limited quantities. Copra is also exported. ... There were also, besides the Dutch, some Arabs, Chinese and a few Portuguese settlers. Ambon city was the site of a major Dutch ... They retook the island in 1810 but once more restored it to the Dutch in 1814. Ambon used to be the world center of clove ...
Dennis de Witt (May 2001). "Malacca, a Dutch conquest forgotten". The Dutch Courier. Malaysian Dutch Descendants Project. ... While he was resting under a tree known as a Malacca tree, he saw his warrior's hunting dogs were challenged and kicked into a ... Nutmeg Publishing. 2010. pp. 19-. ISBN 978-983-43519-2-2. "Vehicle Models". Malacca Taxi. Archived from the original on 21 ... The Dutch Square is an area surrounded by Dutch buildings such as the Stadthuys, Christ Church, British Queen Victoria's ...
With the conquest of Melaka by the Dutch in 1641, the church was reconsecrated for Dutch Reformed use as St. Paul's Church also ... Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 978-983-43519-4-6. Coordinates: 2°11′34″N 102°14′56″E / 2.1928°N 102.2490°E / 2.1928; ... A day after the statue was consecrated, a large casuarina tree fell on it, breaking off its right arm. Incidentally, the right ... The church remained in use as the main church of the Dutch community until the new Bovenkerk (better known today as Christ ...
On 22 September 1955, Hurricane Janet hit Grenada, killing 500 people and destroying 75% of the nutmeg trees. A new political ... In 1675, Dutch privateers captured Grenada, but a French man-of-war arrived unexpectedly and recaptured the island. In 1700, ... Nutmeg was introduced in 1843, when a merchant ship called in on its way to England from the East Indies. In 1857, the first ... The island's major crop, nutmeg, was significantly damaged by Hurricane Ivan in 2004. About 2 million years ago, Grenada was ...
CVs in Orange Tree programmes Orange Tree Theatre website Orange Tree history. ... September 1992 The Dutch Courtesan (John Marston) October 1992 A Penny for a Song (John Whiting), December 1992 The Artifice ( ... February 1991 Nutmeg and Ginger (Julian Slade), June 1991 Little Eyolf (Henrik Ibsen), October 1991 Cerceau (Viktor Slavkin), ... Sam Walters' productions at the Orange Tree Theatre include: Go Tell It on Table Mountain (Evan Jones), the Orange Tree's ...
Despite the Dutch Flat and Donner Lake Wagon Road name, the railhead would not actually reach Dutch Flat (about 60 miles (97 km ... Nearby, trees scarred by ropes, chains and pulleys used to haul the heavy wagons up the precipitous slope, can be seen. ... Condiments like: mustard, cinnamon, nutmeg, vinegar, pepper and other spices were usually included. Ex-trappers, ex-army ... Below Dutch Flat where the original Truckee Trail diverged from modern roads to descend into a steep canyon and use the Bear ...
The whoopie pie, which is also a staple in the Philadelphia/Pennsylvania Dutch cuisine, is the official state treat. Finally, ... Other dishes meant as desserts often contain ingredients such as nutmeg, cinnamon, allspice, cloves, and ground ginger which ... such as the nuts of the black walnut tree, the nuts of the shagbark hickory, popcorn, blueberries, blackberries, and beach ... with a few Caribbean additions such as nutmeg. Use of cream is common, due to the reliance on dairy. The favored cooking ...
"Virgil's Bavarian Nutmeg". Reeds. Retrieved May 12, 2014.. *^ "Virgil's Rootbeer - Spike's Root Beer Reviews and Ratings". Root ... Dutch muisjes, New Mexican bizcochitos, and Peruvian picarones. It is a key ingredient in Mexican atole de anís and champurrado ...
Etc The nutmeg tree, Myristica fragrans, Van Houtte (N.O. Myristicaceoe), is indigenous to the Molucca Islands and a few ... For some time these efforts were successful, and the nutmeg trade remained in the hands of the Dutch; but eventually the trees ... The nutmeg trees of adjacent islands were destroyed, and the nutmegs themselves soaked in a mixture of slaked lime and water to ... Nutmegs (Myristicae Semina, Myristicae, Nux Moschata). Source, Etc. The nutmeg tree, Myristica fragrans, Van Houtte (N.O. ...
Too remote from the centre of the Malukan spice trade, the Dutch destroyed the nutmeg trees on Babar. Bugis and Makarassarese ...
The Dutch monopoly on nutmeg and mace was destroyed by the transfer of nutmeg trees to Ceylon, Grenada, Singapore and other ... and the Dutch destroyed the nutmeg trees. After the Second Anglo-Dutch War of 1665-1667, England and the United Provinces of ... There are, however, still nutmeg trees growing on Run today. Indonesia portal Banda Neira Bencoolen Presidency 1824 Anglo-Dutch ... Run was of great economic importance because of the value of the spices nutmeg and mace which are obtained from the nutmeg tree ...
The Dutch gave us one and a half rupiah for every thousand nutmegs we picked, so on a good day I could earn Rp 15. It was ... Now Kajiri owns over 300 nutmeg trees in the hilltop forests of Run. I still get up at five in the morning to take care of ... This is what s left of the building I lived in when I was 9 years old harvesting nutmeg for the Dutch, says Kajiri, a slender ... The Island s symbol: Made Wianta s giant bronze nutmeg sculpture suggests the oversized role that the nutmegs of Pulau Run ...
... "for collecting the young blossoms or green leaves of the nutmeg trees" to kill them off; and that in plentiful years "the ... He explained that in particularly fertile periods, Dutch colonialists burned "spiceries" or paid natives " ...
... "collect the young blossoms or green leaves of the nutmeg trees" to kill them off; and that in plentiful years "the tobacco- ... He explained that, in particularly fertile periods, Dutch colonialists burned "spiceries" or paid natives to " ...
The nutmeg tree actually produces two spices - nutmeg which comes from the seed inside the fruit, and mace, which is the lacy ... The history of nutmeg is rather interesting so I thought I would include a short blurb about it - Back in the 1600s, the Dutch ... Nutmeg. Another classic Thanksgiving spice. No page on holiday spices would be complete without nutmeg, one of the most popular ... Get A Nutmeg Grinder. Fresh nutmeg is always your best option. Its easy to grind your own at home. ...
Another sweet and aromatic spice, nutmeg, is the seed of a tree deriving from the spice islands of Indonesia. This egg-shaped ... The trade was subsequently dominated for a time by the Dutch during the 17th century. Eventually the British gained control of ... Nutmeg enjoys a long history as a traditional medicine, for indigestion, as a sleep aid, to enhance blood circulation, to ... Grated nutmeg features somewhat prominently in Indonesian, Penang and Indian cookery, but is also popular in European cuisine ...
Tree-Kangaroos, Possums, and Penis Gourds--On the Track of Unknown Mammals in Wildest New Guinea. by Tim Flannery "[Throwim Way ... Perhaps it was the stories my uncle `Gunner Keith told of fighting the Japs in Dutch New Guinea, of spiders the size of dinner ... Before that, it seems likely that Chinese were consuming New Guinean nutmeg, and Indonesians rubbing themselves with oil made ... New Guineas kangaroos, however, live in the trees. Mi bai throwim way leg nau (Im starting my journey now) still has literal ...
Sustainable planter helps trees and plants survive in arid environments. A product developed by Dutch startup Land Life Company ... Using textile design to track the history of nutmeg. Marta Velasco Valesco on what inspired her #Antenna2017 project, Pulau ...
... thus ruining the Dutch monopoly on nutmeg.. Interestingly enough, a nutmeg butter can also be produced - similar in character ... Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), a photo by Ayala Moriel on Flickr.. "I had a little nut tree,. Nothing would it bear. But a silver ... Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) is the fruit of a tropical tree native to the Banda Islands of Indonesia. It is said that birds ... The Dutch used nutmeg and mace in vegetable dishes (Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and green beans), and in most of Europe its ...
... ultimately ending the Dutch monopoly of the spice. Later on, the British East India Company carried the nutmeg tree to Penang, ... The nutmeg tree is indigenous to exotic Indonesia, The fruits of the nutmeg tree enclose the richly flavored nutmeg seeds; mace ... The very first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place 7-9 years after planting, and also the trees reach full production right ... Nutmeg is definitely the seed of the tree, approximately egg-shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.8 to 1.2 in) long as well as 15 to ...
Strains: Agent Orange, Dutch Treat and Ghost Train Haze.. Also Found in: Tea tree, nutmeg, conifers, apples, lilacs and cummin ...
6) This weeks artist, Willie Nelson, can trace his family tree back to the Revolutionary War. Captain John Nelson served with ... The selling of Manhattan to the Dutch. I would be shouting… "Dont do it! You will be sorry.". 7) Before he became a musical ... Dianas Little Corner in the Nutmeg State "So often times it happens that we live our lives in chains. And we never even know ... new Dutch research cautions.. "In light of our results, we urge both physicians and transgender individuals to be aware of this ...
The debate over the nutmegs effectiveness as an antioxidant-and over the effects of antioxidants in general-is proof of … ... Its price was astronomically high and kept so by the Dutch, who burned their own nutmeg warehouses down to assure the laws of ... Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Nutmeg, which is obtained from the seed of the evergreen tree, Myristica fragrans, was once a highly ... Nutmeg has been shown in animal and laboratory studies to act as an antimicrobial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agent. It ...
Fully matured trees grows upto 15 -20m. It is believed to be originated in Maluku Islands in Indonesia. Clove along with nutmeg ... Later the Spanish then the Dutch dominated the trade till the seventeenth century. The French introduced clove to Mauritius in ... The clove tree is a medium sized symmetrically shaped tree with smooth grey bark canopy has a cone shape. ... Tree ripe fruits should be sown immediately since the viability of seeds is rapidly lost within 48 hours of collection. Seeds ...
This tree is a member of the family Myristicaceae, native to the Moluccas, and it produces two distinct spices. Nutmeg is the ... then by the Dutch, and finally by the British, before being broken by worldwide competition.. The tree is dioecious and this ... Chiclé, a tree native to Central America, with cultivars that are propagated vegetatively. The bark is tapped for latex which ... It is incorrect to speak of the banana tree, as it has no woody tissues. The so-called trunk is a pseudostem made up a ...
Nutmeg: A household spice that adds to the shake flavor; derived from the seed of the evergreen tree the Myristica fragrans, ... Natural Dutch cocoa powder: An extract from the beans of the cacao plant used as the main flavoring agent in the Rich Chocolate ... Monk fruit extract: The extract of fruit from the monk tree provides sweetness with fewer calories and helps to decrease the ...
It is found in nutmeg, tea tree, conifers, apples, cumin, and lilacs. It is thought to be useful as an antioxidant, ... Dutch Passion advise their customers to reassure themselves of local applicable laws and regulations before germination. Dutch ... Copyright © 1997 - 2020 Dutch Passion , Disclaimer , Privacy Policy , Terms and Conditions , Sitemap , Contact , ,,, ... Dutch Passions sister company, LED By Passion, are resellers of some of the worlds highest quality LED brands such as Fluence ...
Maintaining the clove monopoly, the Dutch eliminated competition by destroying clove trees outside their control territory. ... Nutmeg - Scientifically proven health and wellness benefits Gallery Nutmeg - Scientifically proven health and wellness benefits ... 1] This evergreen tree grows in tropical climates year round. Clove tree has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine ... Each of these organs has a purpose and all interact in a relationship for overall tree development. This tree example ...
The French broke the Dutch monopoly by stealing cloves, cinnamon, and nutmeg plants from Dutch colonies and planting them on ... Traders on the Silk Road between Asia and the Mediterranean left a trail of almond trees from kernels dropped along the way. ... Portugal had the upper hand at first but was challenged by the Dutch in the 17th century. The Dutch monopolized the spice trade ... Giant, the local company that introduced the supermarket to Washington in 1936 but was bought by Dutch-owned Royal Ahold in ...
All the coffee now grown in the Americas originated from one tree in a Dutch botanical garden. Among other possibilities, it is ... Blends With: Allspice, Cardamom, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, and Vanilla.. Product Abstract: Coffea Arabica is the earliest cultivated ... species of the coffee tree and still the most widely grown. All fine specialty coffees come from Coffea Arabica, which produce ...
Nutmeg comes from the seed of the Myristica fragrans tree, and until the 1800s, the only source of nutmeg was the Banda Islands ... In return for nutmeg, they usually received medicines, silver and steel but the Dutch offered heavy cloth totally unsuitable ... The British gave up Run, effectively granting the Dutch a nutmeg monopoly, and the English could keep the North American island ... However the Dutch came heavily armed so the leaders of the islands, the orang kaya, signed a treaty saying the Dutch could have ...
On the Banda Islands, to the south - the worlds only source of nutmeg - the Dutch used Japanese mercenaries to slaughter ... All clove trees not controlled by the Voc were uprooted and burned.. Anyone caught growing, stealing or possessing clove plants ... BBC article on cloves, the sins of colonialism, and the clove tree that defied empires.. In 1652, after displacing the ... Afo would eventually bring down the Dutch monopoly on cloves.. In 1770, a Frenchman, appropriately named Poivre, stole some of ...
So the Dutch name of Walghvogel gave way to the Portuguese name. Because the Dutch did not know the meaning of dodo. So they ... Calvaria Tree and Dodo. It was believed that the end of an endemic tree of Mauritius known as calvaria or "tambala coque" or ... It was called a dodo by the keeper, who told how the bird swallowed large pebble stones of the size of nutmegs. ... Dutch activities on the shore of Mauritius and, the first published depiction of Dodo on the left, 1601 engraving , Source. ...
  • This is what' s left of the building I lived in when I was 9 years old harvesting nutmeg for the Dutch,' says Kajiri, a slender 75 year old farmer, pointing to a cluster of stones that were once the foundation of a plantation dormitory on Pulau Run in Indonesia' s Banda islands. (thejakartapost.com)
  • The product seen in grocery stores are the dried flower buds of the clove tree known as Syzygium aromaticum, which originated from Maluku Islands in Indonesia. (dupischai.com)
  • Native to Moluccas, the islands of Indonesia, the clove tree can grow up to ten meters tall, producing flower buds with an oily interior and sweet fragrance and taste. (dupischai.com)
  • The major nutmeg growing areas are Indonesia and Granada. (oilandflavours.com)
  • Nutmeg is also cultivated in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the West Indies, especially Grenada. (maceoil.com)
  • During the course of the Portuguese expeditions, the Portuguese went to Indonesia and came away with control over the Indonesian nutmeg trade in the sixteenth century - 1512, to be specific. (essentialoilexchange.com)
  • There was actually a period, prior to British dominance of the trade, when the English believed nutmeg could ward off disease - specifically the bubonic plague - which might give us some understanding as to why they went to Indonesia to get the seedlings in the first place. (essentialoilexchange.com)
  • Whole nutmeg can also be ground at home, and graters specifically designed for grating nutmeg have been in existence - according to U.S. publication The Journal of Antiques & Collectibles - since before 1650. (wikipedia.org)
  • But if you've ever had the pleasure to have a whole nutmeg in a smoothie (which I did, at one time, when ordering a fresh banana & nutmeg smoothie at Bliss in Vicotria). (blogspot.com)
  • Perhaps some of it has to do with the fact that nutmeg also has intoxicant properties -- the consumption of a single whole nutmeg can cause nausea, high blood pressure, flu-like illness, and prolonged hallucinations (Le Couteur/Burreston, p. 31). (fresnostate.edu)
  • People also use whole nutmeg as a candy to stimulate the secretion of digestive enzymes and gastric juices that enhance metabolic functions (Nutmeg is indeed a rock like candy that would never melt or reduce in size but still older people have it in their mouth to stimulate their taste buds and to support digestion). (ayurvedicoils.com)
  • The history of nutmeg is rather interesting so I thought I would include a short blurb about it - Back in the 1600's, the Dutch who had a monopoly on nutmeg would bathe the seed in lime to prevent their growth, send out search and destroy crews to control the spread of the seeds and even burn the nutmeg to keep its supply under control. (hubpages.com)
  • However, the English have captured Bandalontor in 1810 and transferred nutmeg trees to other places (Ceylon, Grenada, Singapore and other colonies) in 1817, thus ruining the Dutch monopoly on nutmeg. (blogspot.com)
  • Very probably the original ' liming ' of nutmegs was intended to protect them from insects and not to destroy the vitality of the seeds, as has been often assumed (Tschirch, 1898). (chestofbooks.com)
  • Nutmeg trees are dioecious plants which are propagated sexually (seeds) and asexually (cuttings or grafting). (wikipedia.org)
  • They went so far as to track the movement of pigeons and other animals that might unwittingly transport the seeds elsewhere, and they burned any trees found off of Run Island. (libretexts.org)
  • Tree ripe fruits should be sown immediately since the viability of seeds is rapidly lost within 48 hours of collection. (gov.lk)
  • In this way, the cacao trees were further disseminated as fertilized seeds made their way into new soil and the populations of cacao grew and spread. (medicinehunter.com)
  • Despite the best efforts of the Dutch to dominate and monopolise the market, clove seeds were eventually smuggled by the French from these islands to others in the Indian Ocean and New World during the 1770's. (quinessence.com)
  • Clove trees are usually grown from seeds and do not flower until around the 6th year. (quinessence.com)
  • Trees usually reproduce using seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palms, bananas, and bamboos also produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • The location of the Banda islands was kept secret by the Arab traders, who sold nutmeg to the Venetian aristocracy until 1511, when Afonso de Albuquerque, an admiral and the colonial governor of Portuguese India, has found their location. (blogspot.com)
  • It is believed that nutmeg was first brought to Europe by the Arabs in the 12th century and it is known that during the Middle Ages the Arabs sold nutmeg to the Italians as a pricey and luxurious item. (essentialoilexchange.com)
  • In the processing of mace, the crimson-colored aril is removed from the nutmeg seed that it envelops and is flattened out and dried for 10 to 14 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutmeg is definitely the seed of the tree, approximately egg -shaped and about 20 to 30 mm (0.8 to 1.2 in) long as well as 15 to 18 mm (0.6 to 0.7 in) broad, and weighing in between 5 and 10 g (0.2 and 0.4 oz) dried, whilst mace is the dried "lacy" reddish covering or even aril of the seed. (healthbenefitstimes.com)
  • Mace is the dried reticulated 'aril' of the fruit and nutmeg is the dried seed kernel of the fruit. (oilandflavours.com)
  • A typical mixture recognized to relieve indigestion, gas as well as nausea is really a tea made from slippery elm bark, mace as well as nutmeg that are coupled with cream as well as boiled, after that drank whenever lukewarm. (healthbenefitstimes.com)
  • The clove tree is a medium sized symmetrically shaped tree with smooth grey bark canopy has a cone shape. (gov.lk)
  • For most trees it is surrounded by a layer of bark which serves as a protective barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inner bark from the shoots of the tree is gathered and distributed as the sticks we use in the kitchen. (momprepares.com)
  • In Indonesian cuisine, nutmeg is used in various dishes, mainly in many spicy soups, such as some variant of soto, konro, oxtail soup, sup iga (ribs soup), bakso and sup kambing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grated nutmeg features somewhat prominently in Indonesian, Penang and Indian cookery, but is also popular in European cuisine as well. (foxnews.com)
  • Eventually the British gained control of Banda island, and spread the cultivation of nutmeg far and wide, thus breaking the Indonesian monopoly. (foxnews.com)
  • While it is important to know that nutmeg is not used as a hallucinogenic in traditional Indonesian culture, it is still no wonder that nutmeg has been traditionally used to combat anxiety and psychosis, given how it has been known to act on the central nervous system with euphoric and hallucinogenic properties. (essentialoilexchange.com)
  • Mace and nutmegs were used for culinary purposes in various international cuisines including the Japanese, Asian, Indonesian, Dutch, European and Middle Eastern. (ayurvedicoils.com)
  • It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly enough, a nutmeg butter can also be produced - similar in character to cocoa butter, only with a faint aroma of nutmeg. (blogspot.com)
  • Nutmeg butter finds its uses mostly in soap and candle-making. (blogspot.com)
  • Several various store-bought products and solutions are in addition constructed right from typically the forest, which includes vital natural oils, taken oleoresins, youth job during land setting up essay nutmeg butter. (freeprepaidcellphones.org)
  • It wasn't until my family moved to Oregon a few years later, and we found ourselves in a new/old house with gnarled old apple trees down at the very back of the property, did we even attempt to make apple butter (there is little in the world that tastes better than apple butter made from antique, windfall apples). (foodinjars.com)
  • The Dutch invaded one of those islands, massacred the Banda population, enslaved the survivors and forced them to work on plantations. (chemistryworld.com)
  • To add insult to injury, in 1810 the British invaded the Banda Islands again, and though it didn't take long for the Dutch to reassert control, it was enough time for the British to steal some nutmeg and plant it across their colonies in Asia, causing the price to plummet. (chemistryworld.com)
  • Sometime during the seventeenth century the Dutch dominated the nutmeg trade and later Britain monopolized the trade, having acquired seedlings from the Banda islands themselves - clearly it was a desirable commodity even back then! (essentialoilexchange.com)
  • Juniper berries are always the primary botanical (which is why some folks say that gin tastes "like a Christmas tree"), but any number of other flavors, including citrus peel, anise, and many others. (thenakedvine.net)
  • Many nutmegs, however, have their fatty parts eaten by certain worms that stay away from the potent essential oils. (blogspot.com)
  • As a shrub it is prostrate or sprawling but as a tree it can get up to 12 feet in height. (blogspot.com)
  • The very first collect connected with nutmeg nutmeg shrub essay can take position 7 in order to 9 a long time goods and also solutions essay seeding, not to mention that flowers arrive at total production following 20 ages. (freeprepaidcellphones.org)
  • Nutmeg oil is primarily made up of the chemical component of monoterpenes hydrocarbons (including camphene, dipentene, pinene, sabinene and cymene) but also includes geraniol, borneol and linalol. (maceoil.com)
  • He has been working for years on a project that will commemorate the 350th anniversary of the Treaty of Breda in which the English and Dutch agreed to trade Manhattan for Run. (thejakartapost.com)
  • in the 1660s, the Dutch were willing to trade their North American colonies for the one of the nutmeg islands the British controlled (Le Couteur/Burreston, p. 4). (fresnostate.edu)
  • Nutmeg infused brandy was prepared by grinding several nuts and infusing them in brandy for 2 weeks. (blogspot.com)
  • In 2011, its rising popularity lead the Fatwa Centre at the General Authority for Islamic Affairs and Endowments in Abu Dhabi to issue an edict saying 'there is no problem adding a little amount of nutmeg to food but it is better and religiously safer to avoid using it altogether. (chemistryworld.com)