Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.United StatesRemission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Implosive Therapy: A method for extinguishing anxiety by a saturation exposure to the feared stimulus situation or its substitute.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Residential Treatment: A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)Retreatment: The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Peer Review, Health Care: The concurrent or retrospective review by practicing physicians or other health professionals of the quality and efficiency of patient care practices or services ordered or performed by other physicians or other health professionals (From The Facts On File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988).Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Orthodontics, Corrective: The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Desensitization, Psychologic: A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.IndiaMagnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Georgia (Republic)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Patient Outcome AssessmentFamily Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Great BritainNasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Endometrial Ablation Techniques: Procedures used for the targeted destruction of the mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. (1/106051)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally fatigued at day 10 after surgery, but at day 30 and 90 the hGH patients were less fatigued than the placebo patients. During the treatment period, patients receiving hGH had reduced loss of limb lean tissue mass, and 3 months after surgery the hGH patients had regained more lean tissue mass than placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative hGH treatment of younger patients undergoing major abdominal surgery preserved limb lean tissue mass, increased postoperative muscular strength, and reduced long-term postoperative fatigue.  (+info)

Single blind, randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment in management of genuine stress incontinence in women. (2/106051)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment for genuine stress incontinence. DESIGN: Stratified, single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Multicentre. PARTICIPANTS: 107 women with clinically and urodynamically proved genuine stress incontinence. Mean (range) age was 49.5 (24-70) years, and mean (range) duration of symptoms 10.8 (1-45) years. INTERVENTIONS: Pelvic floor exercise (n=25) comprised 8-12 contractions 3 times a day and exercise in groups with skilled physical therapists once a week. The electrical stimulation group (n=25) used vaginal intermittent stimulation with the MS 106 Twin at 50 Hz 30 minutes a day. The vaginal cones group (n=27) used cones for 20 minutes a day. The untreated control group (n=30) was offered the use of a continence guard. Muscle strength was measured by vaginal squeeze pressure once a month. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pad test with standardised bladder volume, and self report of severity. RESULTS: Improvement in muscle strength was significantly greater (P=0.03) after pelvic floor exercises (11.0 cm H2O (95% confidence interval 7.7 to 14.3) before v 19.2 cm H2O (15.3 to 23.1) after) than either electrical stimulation (14.8 cm H2O (10. 9 to 18.7) v 18.6 cm H2O (13.3 to 23.9)) or vaginal cones (11.8 cm H2O (8.5 to 15.1) v 15.4 cm H2O (11.1 to 19.7)). Reduction in leakage on pad test was greater in the exercise group (-30.2 g; -43. 3 to 16.9) than in the electrical stimulation group (-7.4 g; -20.9 to 6.1) and the vaginal cones group (-14.7 g; -27.6 to -1.8). On completion of the trial one participant in the control group, 14 in the pelvic floor exercise group, three in the electrical stimulation group, and two in the vaginal cones group no longer considered themselves as having a problem. CONCLUSION: Training of the pelvic floor muscles is superior to electrical stimulation and vaginal cones in the treatment of genuine stress incontinence.  (+info)

Symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: double blind controlled study of intermittent treatment with omeprazole or ranitidine. The European Study Group. (3/106051)

OBJECTIVE: To assess intermittent treatment over 12 months in patients with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. DESIGN: Randomised, multicentre, double blind, controlled study. Patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy results or mild erosive changes received omeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily for 2 weeks. Patients remaining symptomatic had omeprazole 10 mg or ranitidine dose doubled for another 2 weeks while omeprazole 20 mg was continued for 2 weeks. Patients who were symptomatic or mildly symptomatic were followed up for 12 months. Recurrences of moderate or severe heartburn during follow up were treated with the dose which was successful for initial symptom control. SETTING: Hospitals and primary care practices between 1994 and 1996. SUBJECTS: 677 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total time off active treatment, time to failure of intermittent treatment, and outcomes ranked from best to worst. RESULTS: 704 patients were randomised, 677 were eligible for analyses; 318 reached the end of the study with intermittent treatment without recourse to maintenance antisecretory drugs. The median number of days off active treatment during follow up was 142 for the entire study (281 for the 526 patients who reached a treatment related end point). Thus, about half the patients did not require treatment for at least 6 months, and this was similar in all three treatment groups. According to outcome, 378 (72%) patients were in the best outcome ranks (no relapse or one (or more) relapse but in remission until 12 months); 630 (93%) had three or fewer relapses in the intermittent treatment phase. Omeprazole 20 mg provided faster relief of heartburn. The results were similar in patients with erosive and non-erosive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent treatment is effective in managing symptoms of heartburn in half of patients with uncomplicated gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. It is simple and applicable in general practice, where most patients are seen.  (+info)

Optimal thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction--bolus administration. (4/106051)

Optimal strategies for thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) are still being sought because the TIMI 3 flow rates achievable using standard regimens average approximately 60%. Double bolus administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a novel approach with potential for earlier patency combined with ease of administration. We reviewed total patency rates, TIMI 3 patency rates, mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates in the major trials of accelerated infusion tPA/bolus tPA/reteplase in acute myocardial infarction. A direct comparison was performed with results of two recent trials of double bolus (two 50 mg boli, 30 min apart) vs. accelerated infusion tPA: the Double Bolus Lytic Efficacy Trial (DBLE), an angiographic study, and the COBALT Trial, a mortality study. The DBLE trial showed equivalent patency rates for accelerated infusion and double bolus administration of tPA. Reviewing other angiographic trials, total patency and TIMI 3 patency rates achievable with double bolus tPA were comparable to those with accelerated infusion tPA or bolus reteplase administration. The COBALT study demonstrated a 30-day mortality of 7.53% in patients treated with accelerated infusion tPA compared with 7.98% for double bolus tPA treated patients. The small excess in mortality with double bolus treatment was confined to the elderly; in those < or = 75 years, mortality rates were 5.6% and 5.7%, for double bolus and accelerated infusion, respectively, and rates for death or non-fatal stroke were 6.35% and 6.3%, respectively. Comparison with other trials demonstrated mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates with double bolus treatment similar to those associated with either accelerated infusion tPA or bolus reteplase treatment. Double bolus administration of tPA to patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with total patency, TIMI 3 patency, mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates similar to those associated with either accelerated infusion of tPA or bolus reteplase.  (+info)

Late referral of end-stage renal failure. (5/106051)

We studied all new patients accepted for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in one unit from 1/1/96 to 31/12/97 (n = 198), to establish time from nephrology referral to RRT, evidence of renal disease prior to referral and the adequacy of renal management prior to referral. Sixty four (32.3%, late referral group) required RRT within 12 weeks of referral. Fifty-nine (29.8%) had recognizable signs of chronic renal failure > 26 weeks prior to referral. Patients starting RRT soon after referral were hospitalized for significantly longer on starting RRT (RRT within 12 weeks of referral, median hospitalization 25.0 days (n = 64); RRT > 12 weeks after referral, median 9.7 days (n = 126), (p < 0.001)). Observed survival at 1 year was 68.3% overall, with 1-year survival of the late referral and early referral groups being 60.5% and 72.5%, respectively (p = NS). Hypertension was found in 159 patients (80.3%): 46 (28.9%) were started on antihypertensive medication following referral, while a further 28 (17.6%) were started on additional antihypertensives. Of the diabetic population (n = 78), only 26 (33.3%) were on an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) at referral. Many patients are referred late for dialysis despite early signs of renal failure, and the pre-referral management of many of the patients, as evidenced by the treatment of hypertension and use of ACEI in diabetics, is less than optimal.  (+info)

Tumour ablation and hepatic decompensation rates in multi-agent chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma. (6/106051)

Thirty-seven cirrhotic patients with 62 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) foci--most Child-Pugh class B or C and/or with large, inoperable tumours--underwent 148 sessions of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) using lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin. Treatment efficacy was assessed by serial hepatic arteriography in 34/37 (91.9%) patients and abdominal CT scanning in 3/37 (8.1%) patients. Child-Pugh status was determined prior to each treatment session. Varying degrees of control of tumour neovascularity occurred for a median 390 days (range 90 to > 1680 days) in 33/34 (97.1%) patients in whom progress hepatic arteriography was performed. Ablation of tumour neovascularity occurred in 6/6 (100%), 4/12 (33.3%) and 6/16 (37.5%) patients with HCC diameters < 4 cm, 4-7 cm and > 8 cm, respectively (p < 0.02). Significantly more sessions were required for ablation of larger tumours (p < 0.05). Recurrent HCC was detected in 50% of patients after a median 240 days (range 60-1120 days). Deterioration in Child-Pugh status followed a session of TACE on 19/148 (12.8%) occasions but resulted in unscheduled hospitalization on only 4/148 (2.7%) occasions, the highest incidence (8.3%) in Child-Pugh C patients. Actuarial survival was 27/36 (75.0%) at 6 months, 17/34 (50.0%) at 12 months, 14/34 (41.2%) at 18 months, 9/31 (29.0%) at 24 months and 4/27 (14.8%) at 36 months. Multi-agent TACE with lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin provides a useful anti-tumour effect, even in cirrhotic patients with large HCCs. The incidence of clinically significant deterioration in hepatic function due to ischaemia of non-tumorous liver is acceptably low, even in Child-Pugh C patients.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (7/106051)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Economic consequences of the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden. (8/106051)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for analysis of the cost-effectiveness of treatments that affect the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Markov model was developed on the basis of a Swedish cohort of 116 patients with early RA who were followed up for 5 years. The majority of patients had American College of Rheumatology (ACR) functional class II disease, and Markov states indicating disease severity were defined based on Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Costs were calculated from data on resource utilization and patients' work capacity. Utilities (preference weights for health states) were assessed using the EQ-5D (EuroQol) questionnaire. Hypothetical treatment interventions were simulated to illustrate the model. RESULTS: The cohort distribution among the 6 Markov states clearly showed the progression of the disease over 5 years of followup. Costs increased with increasing severity of the Markov states, and total costs over 5 years were higher for patients who were in more severe Markov states at diagnosis. Utilities correlated well with the Markov states, and the EQ-5D was able to discriminate between patients with different HAQ scores within ACR functional class II. CONCLUSION: The Markov model was able to assess disease progression and costs in RA. The model can therefore be a useful tool in calculating the cost-effectiveness of different interventions aimed at changing the progression of the disease.  (+info)

  • Objective: To evaluate whether data acquired from perfusion computed tomography (PCT) parameters can aid in the prediction of treatment outcome after palliative chemotherapy in patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer (AGC). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Treatment response was assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 (i.e., patients who achieved complete or partial response were classified as responders). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Conclusion: Perfusion parameter data acquired from PCT demonstrated predictive value for treatment outcome after palliative chemotherapy, reflected by the significantly higher PS value in the responder group compared with the non-responder group. (elsevierpure.com)
  • We reviewed and analyzed child and adolescent depression treatment studies (1980-2001) through a comprehensive literature search. (usu.edu)
  • Using an algorithm based on genetic testing to guide treatment is sustainable and associated with better clinical outcomes in a real-world clinical practice, although it is difficult to consistently maintain," said Craig R. Lee, Pharm.D., Ph.D., F.A.H.A., associate professor of pharmacy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Eshelman School of Pharmacy. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the MADONNA study (Multiple electrode Aggregometry in patients receiving Dual antiplatelet therapy tO guide treatmeNt with Novel platelet Antagonists), Austrian investigators led by Dr Jolanta Siller-Matula from the Medical University of Vienna and Professor G nter Christ from Kaiser Franz Josef Hospital in Vienna, investigated whether individualized treatment with platelet inhibitors according to the results of whole blood aggregometry improves clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. (medindia.net)
  • Overall, they believe the findings suggest that cannabis use might be linked to worse clinical outcomes for patients with psychosis, partly mediated by the failure of antipsychotic treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of ascertaining cannabis use in people receiving care for psychotic disorders and prompt further study to investigate the mechanisms underlying poor clinical outcomes in people who use cannabis and strategies to reduce associated harms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our study was designed to assess the effectiveness of frenotomy for ankyloglossia as it relates to clinical outcomes as noted in the paper and. (aappublications.org)
  • No statistically significant difference was observed when comparing the clinical outcomes of one treatment over another. (scielo.br)
  • Dr. Pranesh Chakraborty is a physician at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO), Director of Newborn Screening Ontario (NSO), Medical Director of the Better Outcomes Registry and Network (BORN) Ontario, and Associate Professor in the Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine at the University of Ottawa. (gc.ca)
  • With his wife, Alison Jefferies (who has a master's in educational psychology), Cohen wrote a book ( Anticancer Living ) about six lifestyle changes that they've linked to cancer prevention and better outcomes during and post-treatment. (goop.com)
  • Overall, our results showed that it is difficult to use pre-treatment variables as a powerful and reliable tool for predicting treatment outcome, as significant predictors were found to be sample-specific and outcome measure-specific. (springer.com)
  • Ford JD, Kidd P (1998) Early childhood trauma and disorders of extreme stress as predictors of treatment outcome with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. (springer.com)
  • Unless they are following their doctor's instructions, stopping medication or taking less than the amount prescribed can impact how well the medication works and may result in a loss of response and an unfavorable treatment outcome. (lls.org)
  • Financial difficulties may impact the outcome for cancer patients even in countries where the national public health system covers most of the expenses, and therefore, it is our mission to understand what are the determinants of such difficulties and whether some of them may be actionable," said principal investigator Dr. Francesco Perrone, director of the Unità Sperimentazioni Cliniche at the National Cancer Institute of Naples, Italy. (eurekalert.org)
  • This article presents national results on treatment outcome among patients with pulmonary TB reported in France in 2009 and explores determinants of potentially unfavourable outcome. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Of importance in this multisite trial examining the efficacy of client-treatment matching was the cross- and within-site reliability of the structured interview used to assess alcohol treatment outcomes, the Form 90. (nih.gov)
  • In those randomized to CPAP who have a persistent poor clinical response associated with an abnormal residual AHI after 24 weeks of treatment, a further 12 week trial of ASV will be undertaken to assess whether it offers any benefit. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: To systematically assess the functional outcome of patients treated with surgery and irradiation for extremity or truncal sarcomas, and to correlate this outcome with a detailed analysis of the radiation dose distribution and surgical technique. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Objective: To assess the effect of alarm treatment in children with day- and night-time wetting compared to those with night-time wetting only. (tudelft.nl)
  • Each investigator in the group is working to understand how variations in very specific body structures impact and predict outcomes. (umich.edu)
  • In the cases we studied, mutations in the DNMT3A gene trump everything else we've found so far to predict adverse outcomes in intermediate-risk AML. (nih.gov)
  • The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. (uptodate.com)
  • GoodTherapy.org is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis, medical treatment, or therapy. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Medicare-linked data, the researchers evaluated 288 HIV-infected and 307,980 HIV-uninfected patients, ages 65 years or older, who were diagnosed with non-advanced colorectal, lung, prostate or breast cancer and received stage-appropriate cancer treatment during the year after their cancer diagnosis. (news-medical.net)
  • The information on Health24 is for educational purposes only, and is not intended as medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. (health24.com)
  • Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the outlook for most children who receive treatment for ADHD is encouraging. (healthychildren.org)
  • This improvement is due in part to the expansion of newborn screening allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment. (gc.ca)
  • Herein we summarise the prevalence, outcomes and current and future clinical approaches for the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. (medworm.com)
  • The physicians then view the electrocardiogram on a hospital computer screen or on their Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) to confirm the patient's diagnosis and recommend the appropriate treatment, including authorizing paramedics to immediately administer intravenous clot-busting drugs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As both behavioral therapy and child psychoanalytic psychotherapy target self-regulation through the related constructs of emotion regulation and "hot" executive functions ( 9 ), the both modalities' successful outcomes may show similar underlying neural changes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Retrospective review of all eyes to have undergone a re-treatment by LASIK after primary SMILE between September 2013 and January 2016. (healio.com)
  • A total of 254 achieved complete remission after the first course of treatment (127 with DLBCL, 91 with Burkitt lymphoma, 29 with PBL and seven with other non-classifiable B-cell lymphomas). (aidsmap.com)
  • Complete remission from lymphoma was achieved if there was no visible evidence of lymphoma for at least three months after the completion of treatment. (aidsmap.com)
  • Your doctor compares these numbers with the results of the lab test done at the start of your treatment. (lls.org)
  • Personalized antiplatelet treatment involves choosing a therapy based on the results of platelet function testing, a measurement which shows how effective an antiplatelet drug such as clopidogrel is at inhibiting platelet aggregation. (medindia.net)
  • The results of the proposed project may provide increased understanding of the physiological variables that respond to successful trauma treatment, relationships between physiological and psychological variables associated with trauma exposure, and relationships between the physiological variables and chronic pain and/or chronic health conditions. (nova.edu)
  • The results were similar when analysed by treatment actually received. (bmj.com)
  • The paper showcases the rapid evolvement of the Austin based, data-driven company which has taken empirical outcomes data, interpreted the results, and has begun to demonstrate effective means in which treatment providers can extend the care continuum for discharged patients rendering successful treatment results. (prweb.com)
  • The results show that 78% (764 of 975) of these children had successful treatment outcomes when treated with second-line MDR-TB drugs. (news-medical.net)
  • Although these results were used to update the WHO guidelines, further rigorously collected evidence is needed to help guide the management of MDR-TB treatment in children globally. (news-medical.net)
  • Re-treatment after SMILE by LASIK achieved excellent visual and refractive outcomes, although these results indicate that myopic LASIK retreatment after primary myopic SMILE requires a different nomogram than for myopic LASIK re-treatment after primary myopic LASIK. (healio.com)
  • From accessing medicines to intellectual property to drug safety, PhRMA is devoted to advancing public policies that support innovative medical research, improve treatments and yield real results. (phrma.org)
  • The technology enables us to give better treatment quicker by shifting the initial treatment from the emergency room to the ambulance," Dr. Cantor said, estimating that the time savings translates to about an hour, which research has shown results in substantially improved survival. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It's also a relief to mental health professionals to know that the research results on which we base treatment decisions for voluntary treatment can now be used with greater confidence to also guide treatment for people having involuntary ECT. (tcd.ie)
  • A dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and an ADP receptor inhibitor such as clopidogrel is the standard antiplatelet treatment in patients undergoing angioplasty. (medindia.net)
  • Cocaine accounted for 46.9% of all treatment admissions for drug dependence in Spain, and 62.5% of the total if we consider only those cases treated for the first time in the person's life," said researchers from Spain. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis may endure worse treatment outcomes if they use cannabis, say researchers, after finding that such patients are 50% more likely to be admitted to the hospital after initial treatment than non-users of cannabis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers assessed patients' cannabis use within a month of their first treatment visit and tracked any subsequent treatment and outcomes for the following 5 years. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What is more, the researchers found that cannabis users were more likely to be prescribed a drug called clozapine - commonly used for hard-to-treat schizophrenia - and had a higher number of prescriptions for a range of other antipsychotic medications in the 5 years after first treatment, compared with non-users. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In an article published in BMC Medicine in May 2015, researchers Sedelaar and Schalken from Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, suggested that using genetic and molecular classifiers to personalize treatment could have positive outcome and better survival chances for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers Sedelaar and Schalken conclude that genomic classifiers could possibly be used with positive outcomes for a personalized approach to cancer treatment and care. (medindia.net)
  • Perrone said the researchers had expected to find an impact on quality of life from financial hardship, but were surprised to see that worsening financial problems during treatment was associated with a higher risk of death over the course of treatment. (eurekalert.org)
  • and a section that introduces the concept of meaningful changes in drinking behavior and then offers specific recommendations for clinicians and researchers on how to evaluate the magnitude of behavior changes associated with treatment. (nih.gov)
  • As part of our mission to eliminate cancer, MD Anderson researchers conduct hundreds of clinical trials to test new treatments for both common and rare cancers. (mdanderson.org)
  • The researchers reviewed the health outcomes of more than 62,000 single babies and nearly 30,000 twins born with the help of assisted reproduction. (mentalhelp.net)
  • In the DECISION trial, researchers randomly assigned 417 treatment-naive patients with radioactive iodine-refractory locally advanced or metastatic DTC that had progressed within the past 14 months to sorafenib 400 mg twice daily or placebo. (healio.com)
  • Researchers continue to focus on meeting the unmet needs of patients with the progressive form of MS, who presently lack available treatment options. (phrma.org)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Single-cell sequencing can help reveal karyotype heterogeneity and may someday inform cancer treatment approaches, according to researchers led by the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. (genomeweb.com)
  • During treatment, relapse is correlated with number of pretreatment stones. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of paired pretreatment and end of treatment (EOT) liver biopsies from SVR patients showed that viral clearance was accompanied by decreased expression of type II and III IFNs, but unexpectedly increased expression of the type I IFN IFNA2 . (jci.org)
  • Of note, the number of CD68 + cells in pretreatment biopsies was not only associated with primary treatment failure, but also with failure of subsequent secondary therapies including autologous stem cell transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • We included only case-patients with clear documentation of the village of residence, contact history, yaws clinical stage, clinical outcome, pretreatment titer, and at least 1 follow-up titer 12-15 months after treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Prostate cancer is closely linked to genes which makes it important to personalize prostate cancer treatment and management . (medindia.net)
  • Given prostate cancer's link to hereditary genes, it is important to take a personalized approach to treatment rather than the "one-size fits all" approach. (medindia.net)
  • Elderly cancer patients who are HIV-positive, particularly those with prostate and breast cancers, have worse outcomes compared to cancer patients in the same age range who do not have HIV. (news-medical.net)
  • As the HIV population continues to age, the association of HIV infection with poor breast and prostate cancer outcomes will become more important, especially because prostate cancer is projected to become the most common malignancy in the HIV population by 2020,' said Coghill. (news-medical.net)
  • We observed a narrower variation for fasting insulin (−34·2%) and for homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) (−38·9%) after 2 years of individualized GH treatment in comparison with standard GH dose treatment. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Under these conditions the evaluator has a clear responsibility to select assessment tools with demonstrated reliability and validity that are also sensitive to, and theoretically consistent with, treatment program objectives. (nih.gov)
  • This book includes an argument for the development of a common core of assessment instruments with the addition of treatment specific instruments, to measure specific improvements and the influence on general clinical course. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Information about the impact of HIV treatment on viral load, the immune system, other health conditions, mortality and quality of life. (aidsmap.com)
  • The health records revealed that around 46.3% of the patients were using cannabis within 1 month of initiating treatment for a first psychotic episode, with use of the drug most common among single men aged 16-25. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Given the increased chance of negative health outcomes in trauma-related disorders, there is a great deal of interest in this disorder and its impact on the immune system. (nova.edu)
  • Improved understanding of health outcomes associated with psychotherapy would provide insight into the mechanisms that may help to prevent premature illness among individuals experiencing posttraumatic stress reactions. (nova.edu)
  • It is important for health care providers to have an understanding of the variety of different agents and their device options in order to optimize personalized care of this group of patients and help them to experience increased adherence to the treatment plan (Anzueto & Miravitlles, 2018) . (emaxhealth.com)
  • Therefore, establishing minimum effective antimicrobial treatment durations is an important public health goal. (nih.gov)
  • MAP Clinical Directors recap five years of outcomes data collection and look to the future of behavioral health. (prweb.com)
  • MAP Health Management, the nation's leader in the advancement of data-driven technology to improve clinical and financial outcomes in behavioral health, has released its first clinically-focused white paper. (prweb.com)
  • Due to its advanced algorithm-driven technologies and population health management platform, MAP has quickly established itself as a pioneer in the behavioral health space utilizing telehealth resources to improve the outcomes of people treated for addiction and substance use disorder. (prweb.com)
  • The data demonstrated by MAP has sparked the attention of major health insurance payers motivated to contain the rising costs of increased recidivism in addiction treatment and who have begun to express interest in reimbursing providers for extending the care continuum. (prweb.com)
  • Based on the knowledge gleaned from its initial data gathering, MAP has evolved to delivering population health management solutions, predictive analytics, risk management and care coordination - all components to improving outcomes. (prweb.com)
  • From its position on the forefront of the behavioral health field, we can expect to see future white papers that expound on the importance of collecting and demonstrating outcomes data to addiction treatment providers, health insurance payers and healthcare consumers. (prweb.com)
  • Network members are able to differentiate themselves to behavioral health consumers and health insurance payers by demonstrating treatment success rates. (prweb.com)
  • This paper uses the abrupt changes in health insurance coverage at age 65 arising from the Medicare program eligibility rules to evaluate the impact of insurance status on treatment intensity and health outcomes. (rand.org)
  • Tracking health-related outcomes of the group, they find significant increases in treatment intensity at the age 65 barrier, including increases in the number of procedures performed, and total list charges. (rand.org)
  • Card, David, Carlos Dobkin, and Nicole Maestas, The Impact of Health Insurance Status on Treatment Intensity and Health Outcomes. (rand.org)
  • These regimens are frequently hard to tolerate, particularly in children, due to the length of treatment, drug toxicity and the lack of child-friendly formulations,' said one of the authors Prof. Anneke Hesseling from the Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University. (news-medical.net)
  • Over the past several decades, health care and outcomes for children who are born with rare genetic diseases that affect the body's ability to break down substances - known as inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) - have greatly improved in Canada. (gc.ca)
  • The CIMDRN network brings together clinicians and health evaluative scientists to both generate knowledge and immediately translate this into better health care and outcomes for Canadian children with IEM, and their families. (gc.ca)
  • Psychological treatments for schizophrenia are increasingly popular with mental health practitioners and people with schizophrenia, and also with their families. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Typically, clinicians will either perform an eyeball test on patients before surgery or before embarking on a course of treatment, or they will use BMI to gauge relative health. (umich.edu)
  • People who suffer from severe depression may lose the capacity to make decisions and require treatment under mental health law in order to recover. (tcd.ie)
  • Treatment based on public health issues N 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • First-week Dimensions of Change Instrument (DCI) assessments from a cohort of 519 adults entering six therapeutic communities (TCs) were used to predict treatment retention and outcomes. (rand.org)
  • This FOA will address a significant need in the field, one that is especially apparent in efforts to develop pharmacological treatments for these populations. (nih.gov)
  • For patients with CML, adhering to treatment is associated with the probability of achieving and improving long-term outcomes, including achieving a major molecular response and improved survival. (lls.org)
  • Part I - Long Term Treatment in The Context of contemporary Discussions. (wiley.com)
  • This thesis aims to evaluate (1) the long-term outcome in adulthood of ARMs in relation to the modern Krickenbeck classification, and (2) scope for treating FI with transanal injection with dextranomer in non-animal stabilised hyaluronic acid (NASHA/Dx), in patients both with and without ARMs. (diva-portal.org)
  • Treatment plans for ADHD usually require long-term efforts on the part of families and schools. (healthychildren.org)
  • However, there is still a lot we don't know about the long-term outcomes and the impacts of treatment variation for these children and their families. (gc.ca)
  • new insight in old dilemmas' we describe the short and long term effects of misoprostol and curettage in the treatment of first trimester miscarriage. (uva.nl)