Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Tuberculosis resistant to ISONIAZID and RIFAMPIN and at least three of the six main classes of second-line drugs (AMINOGLYCOSIDES; polypeptide agents; FLUOROQUINOLONES; THIOAMIDES; CYCLOSERINE; and PARA-AMINOSALICYLIC ACID) as defined by the CDC.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Buprenorphine: A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Monarda: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MELISSA. The common name of bergamot is also used for Citrus bergamia (CITRUS).Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Implosive Therapy: A method for extinguishing anxiety by a saturation exposure to the feared stimulus situation or its substitute.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Dextrorphan: Dextro form of levorphanol. It acts as a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, among other effects, and has been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. It is also a metabolite of DEXTROMETHORPHAN.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Residential Treatment: A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)Retreatment: The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Peer Review, Health Care: The concurrent or retrospective review by practicing physicians or other health professionals of the quality and efficiency of patient care practices or services ordered or performed by other physicians or other health professionals (From The Facts On File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988).Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Hypermedia: Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Orthodontics, Corrective: The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Fetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Desensitization, Psychologic: A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.IndiaMagnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Georgia (Republic)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Esthetics: The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Patient Outcome AssessmentFamily Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Great BritainNasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Alcohol Abstinence: Non-consumption of ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Cardiovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. (1/106051)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally fatigued at day 10 after surgery, but at day 30 and 90 the hGH patients were less fatigued than the placebo patients. During the treatment period, patients receiving hGH had reduced loss of limb lean tissue mass, and 3 months after surgery the hGH patients had regained more lean tissue mass than placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative hGH treatment of younger patients undergoing major abdominal surgery preserved limb lean tissue mass, increased postoperative muscular strength, and reduced long-term postoperative fatigue.  (+info)

Single blind, randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment in management of genuine stress incontinence in women. (2/106051)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of pelvic floor exercises, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no treatment for genuine stress incontinence. DESIGN: Stratified, single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Multicentre. PARTICIPANTS: 107 women with clinically and urodynamically proved genuine stress incontinence. Mean (range) age was 49.5 (24-70) years, and mean (range) duration of symptoms 10.8 (1-45) years. INTERVENTIONS: Pelvic floor exercise (n=25) comprised 8-12 contractions 3 times a day and exercise in groups with skilled physical therapists once a week. The electrical stimulation group (n=25) used vaginal intermittent stimulation with the MS 106 Twin at 50 Hz 30 minutes a day. The vaginal cones group (n=27) used cones for 20 minutes a day. The untreated control group (n=30) was offered the use of a continence guard. Muscle strength was measured by vaginal squeeze pressure once a month. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pad test with standardised bladder volume, and self report of severity. RESULTS: Improvement in muscle strength was significantly greater (P=0.03) after pelvic floor exercises (11.0 cm H2O (95% confidence interval 7.7 to 14.3) before v 19.2 cm H2O (15.3 to 23.1) after) than either electrical stimulation (14.8 cm H2O (10. 9 to 18.7) v 18.6 cm H2O (13.3 to 23.9)) or vaginal cones (11.8 cm H2O (8.5 to 15.1) v 15.4 cm H2O (11.1 to 19.7)). Reduction in leakage on pad test was greater in the exercise group (-30.2 g; -43. 3 to 16.9) than in the electrical stimulation group (-7.4 g; -20.9 to 6.1) and the vaginal cones group (-14.7 g; -27.6 to -1.8). On completion of the trial one participant in the control group, 14 in the pelvic floor exercise group, three in the electrical stimulation group, and two in the vaginal cones group no longer considered themselves as having a problem. CONCLUSION: Training of the pelvic floor muscles is superior to electrical stimulation and vaginal cones in the treatment of genuine stress incontinence.  (+info)

Symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: double blind controlled study of intermittent treatment with omeprazole or ranitidine. The European Study Group. (3/106051)

OBJECTIVE: To assess intermittent treatment over 12 months in patients with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. DESIGN: Randomised, multicentre, double blind, controlled study. Patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy results or mild erosive changes received omeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily for 2 weeks. Patients remaining symptomatic had omeprazole 10 mg or ranitidine dose doubled for another 2 weeks while omeprazole 20 mg was continued for 2 weeks. Patients who were symptomatic or mildly symptomatic were followed up for 12 months. Recurrences of moderate or severe heartburn during follow up were treated with the dose which was successful for initial symptom control. SETTING: Hospitals and primary care practices between 1994 and 1996. SUBJECTS: 677 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total time off active treatment, time to failure of intermittent treatment, and outcomes ranked from best to worst. RESULTS: 704 patients were randomised, 677 were eligible for analyses; 318 reached the end of the study with intermittent treatment without recourse to maintenance antisecretory drugs. The median number of days off active treatment during follow up was 142 for the entire study (281 for the 526 patients who reached a treatment related end point). Thus, about half the patients did not require treatment for at least 6 months, and this was similar in all three treatment groups. According to outcome, 378 (72%) patients were in the best outcome ranks (no relapse or one (or more) relapse but in remission until 12 months); 630 (93%) had three or fewer relapses in the intermittent treatment phase. Omeprazole 20 mg provided faster relief of heartburn. The results were similar in patients with erosive and non-erosive disease. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent treatment is effective in managing symptoms of heartburn in half of patients with uncomplicated gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. It is simple and applicable in general practice, where most patients are seen.  (+info)

Optimal thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction--bolus administration. (4/106051)

Optimal strategies for thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) are still being sought because the TIMI 3 flow rates achievable using standard regimens average approximately 60%. Double bolus administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a novel approach with potential for earlier patency combined with ease of administration. We reviewed total patency rates, TIMI 3 patency rates, mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates in the major trials of accelerated infusion tPA/bolus tPA/reteplase in acute myocardial infarction. A direct comparison was performed with results of two recent trials of double bolus (two 50 mg boli, 30 min apart) vs. accelerated infusion tPA: the Double Bolus Lytic Efficacy Trial (DBLE), an angiographic study, and the COBALT Trial, a mortality study. The DBLE trial showed equivalent patency rates for accelerated infusion and double bolus administration of tPA. Reviewing other angiographic trials, total patency and TIMI 3 patency rates achievable with double bolus tPA were comparable to those with accelerated infusion tPA or bolus reteplase administration. The COBALT study demonstrated a 30-day mortality of 7.53% in patients treated with accelerated infusion tPA compared with 7.98% for double bolus tPA treated patients. The small excess in mortality with double bolus treatment was confined to the elderly; in those < or = 75 years, mortality rates were 5.6% and 5.7%, for double bolus and accelerated infusion, respectively, and rates for death or non-fatal stroke were 6.35% and 6.3%, respectively. Comparison with other trials demonstrated mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates with double bolus treatment similar to those associated with either accelerated infusion tPA or bolus reteplase treatment. Double bolus administration of tPA to patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with total patency, TIMI 3 patency, mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates similar to those associated with either accelerated infusion of tPA or bolus reteplase.  (+info)

Late referral of end-stage renal failure. (5/106051)

We studied all new patients accepted for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in one unit from 1/1/96 to 31/12/97 (n = 198), to establish time from nephrology referral to RRT, evidence of renal disease prior to referral and the adequacy of renal management prior to referral. Sixty four (32.3%, late referral group) required RRT within 12 weeks of referral. Fifty-nine (29.8%) had recognizable signs of chronic renal failure > 26 weeks prior to referral. Patients starting RRT soon after referral were hospitalized for significantly longer on starting RRT (RRT within 12 weeks of referral, median hospitalization 25.0 days (n = 64); RRT > 12 weeks after referral, median 9.7 days (n = 126), (p < 0.001)). Observed survival at 1 year was 68.3% overall, with 1-year survival of the late referral and early referral groups being 60.5% and 72.5%, respectively (p = NS). Hypertension was found in 159 patients (80.3%): 46 (28.9%) were started on antihypertensive medication following referral, while a further 28 (17.6%) were started on additional antihypertensives. Of the diabetic population (n = 78), only 26 (33.3%) were on an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) at referral. Many patients are referred late for dialysis despite early signs of renal failure, and the pre-referral management of many of the patients, as evidenced by the treatment of hypertension and use of ACEI in diabetics, is less than optimal.  (+info)

Tumour ablation and hepatic decompensation rates in multi-agent chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma. (6/106051)

Thirty-seven cirrhotic patients with 62 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) foci--most Child-Pugh class B or C and/or with large, inoperable tumours--underwent 148 sessions of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) using lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin. Treatment efficacy was assessed by serial hepatic arteriography in 34/37 (91.9%) patients and abdominal CT scanning in 3/37 (8.1%) patients. Child-Pugh status was determined prior to each treatment session. Varying degrees of control of tumour neovascularity occurred for a median 390 days (range 90 to > 1680 days) in 33/34 (97.1%) patients in whom progress hepatic arteriography was performed. Ablation of tumour neovascularity occurred in 6/6 (100%), 4/12 (33.3%) and 6/16 (37.5%) patients with HCC diameters < 4 cm, 4-7 cm and > 8 cm, respectively (p < 0.02). Significantly more sessions were required for ablation of larger tumours (p < 0.05). Recurrent HCC was detected in 50% of patients after a median 240 days (range 60-1120 days). Deterioration in Child-Pugh status followed a session of TACE on 19/148 (12.8%) occasions but resulted in unscheduled hospitalization on only 4/148 (2.7%) occasions, the highest incidence (8.3%) in Child-Pugh C patients. Actuarial survival was 27/36 (75.0%) at 6 months, 17/34 (50.0%) at 12 months, 14/34 (41.2%) at 18 months, 9/31 (29.0%) at 24 months and 4/27 (14.8%) at 36 months. Multi-agent TACE with lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin provides a useful anti-tumour effect, even in cirrhotic patients with large HCCs. The incidence of clinically significant deterioration in hepatic function due to ischaemia of non-tumorous liver is acceptably low, even in Child-Pugh C patients.  (+info)

Interferon-alpha does not improve outcome at one year in patients with diffuse cutaneous scleroderma: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (7/106051)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) reduces the severity of skin involvement in early (<3 years) diffuse scleroderma. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 35 patients with early scleroderma received subcutaneous injections of either IFNalpha (13.5 x 10(6) units per week in divided doses) or indistinguishable placebo. Outcomes assessed were the modified Rodnan skin score, as determined by a single observer at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months, as well as data on renal, cardiac, and lung function. Pre- and posttreatment skin biopsy samples were analyzed and blood was obtained for assessment of procollagen peptide levels. RESULTS: There were 11 withdrawals from the IFNalpha group and 3 from the placebo group due to either toxicity, lack of efficacy, or death. In the intent-to-treat analysis, there was a greater improvement in the skin score in the placebo group between 0 and 12 months (mean change IFNalpha -4.7 versus placebo -7.5; P = 0.36). There was also a greater deterioration in lung function in patients receiving active therapy, as assessed by either the forced vital capacity (mean change IFNalpha -8.2 versus placebo +1.3; P = 0.01) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (mean change IFNalpha -9.3 versus placebo +4.7; P = 0.002). Skin biopsy showed no significant decrease in collagen synthesis in the IFNalpha group, and no significant differences in the levels of procollagen peptides were seen between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that IFNalpha is of no value in the treatment of scleroderma, and that it may in fact be deleterious.  (+info)

Economic consequences of the progression of rheumatoid arthritis in Sweden. (8/106051)

OBJECTIVE: To develop a simulation model for analysis of the cost-effectiveness of treatments that affect the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: The Markov model was developed on the basis of a Swedish cohort of 116 patients with early RA who were followed up for 5 years. The majority of patients had American College of Rheumatology (ACR) functional class II disease, and Markov states indicating disease severity were defined based on Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) scores. Costs were calculated from data on resource utilization and patients' work capacity. Utilities (preference weights for health states) were assessed using the EQ-5D (EuroQol) questionnaire. Hypothetical treatment interventions were simulated to illustrate the model. RESULTS: The cohort distribution among the 6 Markov states clearly showed the progression of the disease over 5 years of followup. Costs increased with increasing severity of the Markov states, and total costs over 5 years were higher for patients who were in more severe Markov states at diagnosis. Utilities correlated well with the Markov states, and the EQ-5D was able to discriminate between patients with different HAQ scores within ACR functional class II. CONCLUSION: The Markov model was able to assess disease progression and costs in RA. The model can therefore be a useful tool in calculating the cost-effectiveness of different interventions aimed at changing the progression of the disease.  (+info)

*Anorexia nervosa

Alexithymia influences treatment outcome. Recovery is also viewed on a spectrum rather than black and white. According to the ... Various forms of family-based treatment have been proven to work in the treatment of adolescent AN including conjoint family ... there is enough evidence to suggest that early intervention and treatment are more effective. Treatment for anorexia nervosa ... Treatment of people with AN is difficult because they are afraid of gaining weight. Initially developing a desire to change may ...

*Docrates Cancer Center

They improve the treatment outcome. One of the recent methods in radiation therapy related to cancer care is called HDR (High ... New treatments make the radiation therapy curing cancer almost harmless without serious side effects of treatments. ... Even before that a stereotactic treatment was developed where the treatment is directed tridimensionally with the help of ... The synthesis of the IMRT and the stereotactic treatment is known as the Rapid Arc® -technique developed in Finland that speeds ...

*Bedwetting alarm

Successful outcome of enuresis alarm treatment is associated with optimal motivation of the child and family, higher frequency ... The treatment effect and response are not immediate and treatment should be continued for 2-3 months or until the child is dry ... access-date= requires ,url= (help) Devlin, J.B.; O'Cathain, C (Nov 1990). "Predicting treatment outcome in nocturnal enuresis ... Most researchers of the enuresis alarm credit the treatment effect to the classical conditioning paradigm as was explained in ...

*Ben Bridgewater

"Consultant treatment outcomes". NHS England. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014. [not in ... Measuring clinical outcomes in cardiac surgery has led to a 50% reduction in mortality rates over the past 10 years. He has ... Ben Bridgewater: measuring outcomes for surgery Kings Fund 2011 Fourth EACTS Adult Cardiac Surgical Database Report: Towards ... Bridgewater is a member of Heart Valve Voice, an organisation which aims to address the under-diagnosis and under-treatment of ...

*Zinc deficiency

Nin T, Umemoto M, Miuchi S, Negoro A, Sakagami M (2006). "[Treatment outcome in patients with taste disturbance]". Nippon ... The use of zinc in the treatment of anorexia has been advocated since 1979 by Bakan. At least 15 clinical trials have shown ... A 1994 trial showed that zinc doubled the rate of body mass increase in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Deficiency of other ... Shah D, Sachdev HP (2006). "Zinc deficiency in pregnancy and fetal outcome". Nutr. Rev. 64 (1): 15-30. doi:10.1111/j.1753- ...

*Evidence-based practice

... the outcome of a treatment performed under ideal conditions) or to effectiveness (the outcome of the treatment performed under ... 2: What Works? A summary of alcohol treatment outcome research". In Hester, R.; Miller, W.R. Handbook of alcoholism treatment ... For example, EBP may be defined as treatment choices based not only on outcome research but also on practice wisdom (the ... "Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity: Project MATCH posttreatment drinking outcomes". J. Stud. Alcohol. 58 (1 ...

*Vered Slonim-Nevo

Slonim-Nevo, V.; Anson, Y. (1998-06-01). "Evaluating practice: Does it improve treatment outcome?". Social Work Research. 22 (2 ... Her diverse areas of research are: Youth at risk and AIDS prevention; immigration and refugees; polygamy; treatment evaluation ... Slonim-Nevo, Vered (2004). Treatment evaluation: Single-case designs and other methods. Beer Sheva: Ben-Gurion University Press ... treatment evaluation, and integrating diverse interventions for the well-being of individuals and families. The populations ...

*Orthodontics

However the treatment outcome does not differ. When there is a maxillary overjet, or Class II occlusion, functional appliances ... "An assessment of treatment outcome in American Board of Orthodontics cases". American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial ... This type of index compares outcomes of orthodontic treatment as it primarily observes the results of a group of patients, ... This treatment comes in three stages. Prior to surgery there is orthodontic treatment to align teeth into their post-surgery ...

*Toothache

Generally, there is no difference in outcomes between whether the root canal treatment is completed in one or multiple ... The treatment of a toothache depends upon the exact cause, and may involve a filling, root canal treatment, extraction, ... The treatment of a periodontal abscess is similar to the management of dental abscesses in general (see: Treatment). However, ... There are no specific treatments for nondental pain (each treatment is directed at the cause of the pain, rather than the ...

*Telepsychiatry

Frueh BC, Monnier J, Elhai JD, Grubaugh AL, Knapp RG (2004). "Telepsychiatry Treatment Outcome Research Methodology: Efficacy ... Frueh BC, Monnier J, Elhai JD, Grubaugh AL, Knapp RG (2004). "Telepsychiatry Treatment Outcome Research Methodology: Efficacy ... Psychiatric treatment of patients who are at home or in another private setting is called home-based telepsychiatry or direct- ... Ikelheimer, Douglas M. "Treatment of Opioid Dependence via Home-Based Telepsychiatry". Psychiatric Services. doi:10.1176/appi. ...

*Gestational trophoblastic disease

Hoekstra AV, Lurain JR, Rademaker AW, Schink JC (August 2008). "Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: treatment outcomes". ... Treatment is always necessary.[citation needed] The treatment for hydatidiform mole consists of the evacuation of pregnancy. ... Their treatment usually includes chemotherapy. Radiotherapy can also be given to places where the cancer has spread, e.g. the ... No specific treatment or follow up is necessary. Placental site nodules are lesions of chorionic type intermediate trophoblast ...

*Periapical periodontitis

1 January 2012). "Diabetes mellitus, periapical inflammation and endodontic treatment outcome". Medicina Oral Patología Oral y ... Millions of root canal treatments are carried out in the United States each year, although the total number of root canal ... Treatment options include antibiotic therapy (not a permanent solution), endodontic (root canal) therapy, or extraction. Segura ... since it is the likely outcome of untreated dental caries, although not always. In some cases, periapical periodontitis can ...

*Signs and symptoms of Graves' disease

Clinical features and treatment outcomes". Med. J. Aust. 164 (4): 200-3. PMID 8604186. Vogel A, Elberling TV, Hørding M, et al ... Risedronate treatment has been demonstrated to help restore bone mass in osteopenia/osteoporosis associated with Graves' ... The body's need for thyroid hormone can also change over time, like in the first months after radioactive iodine treatment (RAI ... Treatment of hyperthyroidism typically leads to improvement in cognitive and behavioral impairments. Agitation, inattention, ...

*Covert conditioning

Marshall, W. L.; Jones, R.; Ward, T.; Johnston, P.; Barbaree, H. E. (1991). "Treatment outcomes with sex offenders". Clinical ... Covert conditioning is an approach to mental health treatment that uses the principles of behavior modification, which emerged ... Effective covert conditioning is said to rely upon careful application of behavioral treatment principles such as a thorough ...

*Cecil C. Steiner

"Steiner cephalometric analysis: predicted and actual treatment outcome compared". Orthodontic and Craniofacial Journal. ... Use of Cephalometrics as an Aid to Planning and Assessing Orthodontic Treatment (1960). He worked at Angle School of ...

*Cancer Drugs Fund

"NHS failed to collect data on cancer treatment outcome". The Guardian. 17 September 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015. "Cancer ... Since April 2011, the fund paid for nearly 100,000 people with cancer to access treatments. It was closed to new drugs from ... In May 2015 it was reported that only 59 of the 84 treatments previously funded would be supported in future, and that three ... In Wales, the National Assembly debated the use of Cancer Treatment Fund and the Welsh Labour government was clear that it ...

*Hereditary angioedema

When the airway is involved, without treatment, death occurs in about 25%. With treatment outcomes are generally good. The ... high-dose androgen treatment is administered for 5-7 days. The aim of acute treatment is to halt progression of the edema as ... Update on treatment for her "Update on treatment of hereditary angioedema" Buyantseva, Larisa, Sardana, Niti and Craig, Timothy ... Attacks, without treatment, typically occur every couple of weeks and last for a few days. There are three main types of HAE. ...

*Deborah Mash

"Ibogaine: Treatment Outcomes and Observations" (PDF). 13 (2). Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies. 2003: 16. ... Humberto, Fernandez; Libby, Therissa A. Heroin: Its History, Pharmacology & Treatment. ISBN 978-1-59285-990-0. Retrieved 2017- ... ibogaine treatments. On eight occasions between 2005 and 2009, she served as an expert witness for the defense in wrongful ...

*Brain tumor

This additional treatment provides some patients with improved outcomes and longer survival rates. Radiosurgery is a treatment ... and the uncertain outcome of chemotherapy in brain tumors puts this treatment further down the line of treatment options with ... Treatments that use a person's immune system are being studied. Outcome varies considerably depending on the type of tumor and ... 2015). "Meningiomas: knowledge base, treatment outcomes, and uncertainties. A RANO review". J Neurosurg (Review). 122 (1): 4-23 ...

*Partners for Change Outcome Management System

Lambert, M. J. (2010). "Yes, it is time for clinicians to monitor treatment outcome." In B. L. Duncan, S. C., Miller, B. E. ... The SRS is designed to measure the therapeutic alliance given its importance in leading to positive treatment outcome Using ... The Partners for Change Outcome Management System (PCOMS) is a behavioral health outcomes management system for counseling and ... and is designed to be a briefer method to measure therapeutic outcome. PCOMS employs two brief, 4-item scales, the Outcome ...

*Levomefolic acid

"Association of Obesity and Inflammatory Marker Levels on Treatment Outcome". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 76 (12): 1635- ... Levomefolic acid (and folic acid in turn) has been proposed for treatment of cardiovascular disease and advanced cancers such ... Ginsberg, Lawrence; Oubre, Alondra; Daoud, Yahya (January 2011). "L-methylfolate Plus SSRI or SNRI from Treatment Initiation ...

*Inference-based therapy

Aardema, F., Emmelkamp, P. M., & O'Connor, K. P. (2005). Inferential confusion, cognitive change and treatment outcome in ... Aardema, F., & O'Connor, K. (2012). Dissolving the tenacity of obsessional doubt: implications for treatment outcome. Journal ... The role of obsessive beliefs and inferential confusion in predicting treatment outcomes for different subtypes of obsessive- ... O'Connor, K., & Robillard, S. (1999). A cognitive approach to the treatment of primary inferences in obsessive-compulsive ...

*List of Divers Alert Network publications

Smerz, RW; Nakayama, H; Overlock, R (2004); Hawaiian Deep Treatments, Efficacy and Outcomes, 1983-2001. Vann, RD; DeNoble, PJ; ... Smerz, RW; Nakayama, RH; Overlock, RR (2004). "Hawaiian Deep Treatments, Efficacy and Outcomes, 1983-2001". Undersea and ... Older divers and outcomes after the treatment of decompression illness. DeNoble, PJ; Pollock, NW; Dear, GdeL; Uguccioni, DM; ... Session 6 The treatment of divers in the North Sea - D. H. Elliott; Treatment of decompression illness (DCI) and arterial gas ...

*Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale

... treatment outcomes and education (Teichman & Basha, 1996); parenting style (Fischer & Crawford, 1992); powerlessness in ... Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 8: 87-99. Fischer, J., Wampler, R., Lyness, K., and Thomas, E. (1992). Offspring codependency: ...

*Goal attainment scaling

0 for the most likely treatment outcome, and +2 for the most favorable treatment outcome). Thus, this scale has a mean value of ... It is a valid individualized treatment outcome and program evaluation measure. Further, GAS is an easy, low cost, evaluation ... Beidel, Deborah C. (March 1983). "Using the Goal Attainment Scale to measure treatment outcome in schizophrenia". International ... GAS can be used to compare treatments or to simply evaluate treatment effectiveness with one client. GAS is used to scale ...

*Adolescent community reinforcement approach

Slesnick, N., Prestopnik, J.L., Meyers, R.J., & Glassman, M. (2007). Treatment outcome for street-living, homeless youth. ... 2004). The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Study: Main findings from two randomized trials. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment ... SMA) 01-3489, Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Manual Series, Volume 4). Rockville, MD: Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, ... Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), was a randomized controlled study of five manual-guided treatment models for ...

*Hemoencephalography

PIR has a poorer resolution than NIR and this treatment typically focuses on more global increases in cerebral blood flow. The ... Stokes, D.A. & Lappin, M.S.. (2010). Neurofeedback and biofeedback with 37 migraineurs: a clinical outcome study. Behavioral ... The myriad of studies exploring the potency of neurotherapy as a treatment for ASD have primarily involved EEG and QEEG, but ... 70% of sufferers saw a 50% or more reduction in their migraines following combined neurotherapy and drug treatment, as opposed ...

*Common factors theory

... during treatment) and outcome measures (after termination of treatment). The article by Stefan G. Hofmann and David H. Barlow, ... Kazdin, Alan E (June 2005). "Treatment outcomes, common factors, and continued neglect of mechanisms of change". Clinical ... treatment method accounted for roughly 1% of outcome variance. Alan E. Kazdin has argued that psychotherapy researchers must ... and treatment fit variables in psychotherapy outcome". Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 22 (3): 255-281. doi:10.1037/ ...
Looking for alternative treatment options for your older dog? Today we are looking at 6 alternative treatment options for senior dogs that you can consider.
Special diet:. Diet therapy is one of the important ADHD alternative treatment methods. Changes in the diet may help your child to deal with allergy symptoms or migraine headaches.. Biofeedback: This ADHD alternative treatment method helps your child to control their own responsibilities. This therapy involves a large commitment from your whole family.. This ADHD alternative treatment option helps children learn coping skills and that give them a sense of control and mastery. This therapy helps to reduce stress and anger that can accompany with ADHD.. Herbal medicine: Herbs act as ADHD alternative treatment method. You can find a number of "all natural" herbal treatments sold in the United States for the control of ADHD in children. Herbs can help to calm your child and they play important role in memory and thinking.. Make sure that herbs you are using are pure, safe, and nontoxic. Herbs can cause side effects and can interact with other medications.. Some of the herbs as ADHD alternative ...
As Table 3 shows, Case 1 presented with significant clinical improvement in rule following and working memory overtime, Case 2 presented with significant clinical improvement in cognitive flexibility, and rule following, while Case 3 presented with significant clinical improvement in cognitive flexibility, inhibition response and speed processing. As can be seen in Table 3, Case 1 presented a significant clinical improvement in social skills and behavior regulation, Case 2 presented with significant clinical improvement in emotional regulation and social skills, while Case 3 presented significant clinical deterioration in behavior regulation, emotional regulation and social skills over time.. DiscussionCognitive functions. Cognitive function domains included verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and IQ. Case 1 who had a cavernous angioma on the right frontal lobe showed an improvement followed by a decrease in verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning, the results obtained in the last ...
Medication is the most important treatment for bipolar disorders. I will outline the medication listed in the textbook and state their potential side effects and limitations in point form.Drug: LithiumLithium is the first choice of treatment for bipola...
Of 242 patients in CT group and 215 patients in no CT group, stage I to IV disease were 1.7%, 38.4%, 58.7%,1.2% and 5.6%, 46%, 47%, 1.4%, respectively. Pretreatment imaging found lymph node and/or distant metastases in 43.4% and upstaged in 27.6% of patients, according to the 7th AJCC system. Treatment modifications were elicited in 21.9% of patients; RT (13.2%), CMT (4.1%) and both (4.5%). At median follow-up time of 35 months, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 3 years in CT and no CT group were 70.1% vs 74.7% (p = 0.135) and 68.3% vs 76.4% (p = 0.016). Subgroup analysis by stage showed that patients with stage II disease in CT and no CT group had no significant difference in 3-year PFS and OS; 80.3% vs 83.3% (p = 0.673) and 81.3% vs 79.7% (p = 0.802), respectively. In stage III disease, patients in both groups had no significant difference in 3-year PFS, 64.1% in CT group and 68.4% in no CT group (p = 0.187). However, the 3-year OS was significantly worse in CT ...
In the largest analysis of its kind involving over 400,000 older patients, we found that post-PCI bleeding is associated with an increased risk for future bleeding complications, MACE, and all-cause mortality. Although the association between bleeding and long-term mortality among patients undergoing PCI has been previously described, the present study has 2 important new findings: 1) the association between post-procedure bleeding and outcomes extends out to 30 months; and 2) patients who develop post-procedure bleeding are prone to recurrent bleeding events over the long term. Thus, post-procedure bleeding identifies a patient population that is at risk for poor net adverse clinical events.. The association between bleeding and ischemic outcomes has been previously described. Kinnaird et al. (15) examined the association between Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) major and minor bleeding, as well as blood transfusion, and in-hospital and 1-year mortality among 10,974 unselected ...
Women now have the choice to be given epidural anesthesia to help with pain during active labor. Local anesthetic will be administered into the epidural space of the spine which will be given continuously through a small catheter that is left taped to the womans back. It normally takes about five to thirty minutes for the effects to be felt, at which time the legs may begin to feel heavy and pain should subside. While it is generally safe for both the woman and baby when having an epidural, there are potential side effects they should be aware of.. Low blood pressure is one of the most common effects. Intravenous fluids will be administered at the same time in order to prevent this from occurring. Another common side effect is uncontrollable shivering. However, shivering is something that can happen to a woman during labor even without receiving an epidural, so getting an warm blanket is often enough to help control the shivers.. A loss of bladder control during labor can sometimes happen ...
BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) in the absence of electrocardiographic ST-segment elevation or new bundle branch block is the cause of hospitalization for a large and steadily increasing proportion of patients with acute ischemic chest pain. Despite its prevalence, the common demographic features, current hospital-based management, and short-term clinical outcome among patients with non-ST-segment elevation MI remain poorly defined. METHODS: A total of 183 113 patients with non-ST-segment elevation MI were identified in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction database. Using a validated model, 43 928 patients (24.0%) were retrospectively placed in major, 34 917 (19.1%) in intermediate, and 104 268 (56.9%) in minor severity clinical event categories that included hospital death, recurrent myocardial ischemia, and nonfatal recurrent MI. RESULTS: The administration of widely available and universally recommended pharmacologic therapies, including aspirin and beta-adrenergic blocking agents,
Myself and certain member(s) of the AM community wondered if there were any potential side effects to be concerned with (or to look out for) when
Background-Aortic dissection type A is a high mortality disease. Iatrogenic aortic dissection after interventional procedures is infrequent and prognostic data are scarce. Our objective was to analyze its incidence, patient profile and long-term prognosis. Methods and Results-Between 2000 and 2014, we retrospectively analyzed 74 patients with dissection of the ascending aorta. Clinical and procedural data were reviewed and later, we performed a prospective clinical follow-up by telephone or in office. We recorded 74 patients. Incidence was 0.06%. Our patients, predominantly male (67.6%) had a mean age of 66.9±10.8years. With multiple cardiovascular risk factors, the main cause for cardiac catheterization was an acute coronary syndrome, in 54. The complication was detected acutely in all, trying to engage the right coronary artery in 47, the left main in 30 and after other maneuvers in 2, mostly in complex therapeutic procedures (78.4%). A coronary artery was involved in 45 patients (60.8%). ...
Downloadable! Recently there has been a surge in econometric work focusing on estimating average treatment effects under various sets of assumptions. One strand of this literature has developed methods for estimating average treatment effects for a binary treatment under assumptions variously described as exogeneity, unconfoundedness, or selection on observables. The implication of these assumptions is that systematic (e.g., average or distributional) differences in outcomes between treated and control units with the same values for the covariates are attributable to the treatment. Recent analysis has considered estimation and inference for average treatment effects under weaker assumptions than typical of the earlier literature by avoiding distributional and functional form assumptions. Various methods of semiparametric estimation have been proposed, including estimating the unknown regression functions, matching, methods using the propensity score such as weighting and blocking, and combinations of
This study compared two doses of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) versus docetaxel in participants with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had experienced disease progression after platinum-containing systemic therapy. Participants were assigned randomly to receive either pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg once every three weeks (Q3W), pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg Q3W or docetaxel 75 mg/m^2 Q3W. This study used an adaptive trial design so that the total number of participants randomized depended upon demonstration of sufficient objective responses at an interim analysis.. Based on the positive outcome of the Overall Survival (OS) analysis, Protocol Amendment 12 (effective date: 09 Dec 2015) enabled eligible participants who were allocated to docetaxel and experienced disease progression, to be permitted to crossover to receive pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg Q3W as long as Inclusion/Exclusion criteria were met. These participants were participating in the Cross-Over Phase.. The primary study hypotheses are that pembolizumab ...
Although drug-eluting stents (DES) reduce restenosis rates relative to bare-metal stents (BMS), recent reports have indicated that the use of DES may be associated with an increased risk of stent thrombosis. Our study focused on the effect of stent t
Duration of response was defined as progression-free survival in responders, i.e. as the time between the start of a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) and the start of progressive disease (PD) or patient death from any cause, whichever occurred first. Participants who did not have progression or had not died were censored at the last known time the participant was progression free. Participants who had initiated other anticancer therapy prior to progression were censored at the time when new anticancer therapy was initiated. Complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) were defined in outcome #1. Progressive disease was defined as at least a 20% increase in the sum of the longest diameters of target lesions; or the appearance of one or more new lesions; or the unequivocal progression of a non-target lesion. Response was evaluated using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST ...
Background. Minimally invasive surgery is increasingly applied because of the proven better outcome and benefits for the patient such as less pain, shorter hospital stay, and less injury. Examples of such minimally invasive procedure include Endovascular Aortic Repair (EVAR), endovascular coiling of intracranial aneurysms, and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI). These procedures have in common that a device is transported through the iliac and aortic artery after an incision in the groin to the problematic location in the body. Unfortunately, these percutaneous procedures are associated with vascular complications of the iliac artery. These vascular complications include bleeding, vascular rupture, aneurysm spurium, ateriorvenous fistula, dissection, and embolism. There are various clinical and technical procedural parameters associated with these vascular complications. Next to these parameters, the morphology and disease of the vasculature also influence the risk of vascular ...
What are the alternative options for kidney disease with 30% kidney function ? Are dialysis and renal transplant are the only options for them ?
This Phase IIIb study was conducted to evaluate the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of darunavir/cobicistat 800/100 mg once daily in HIV-1-infected adults with no darunavir RAMs who also received two fully active N[t]RTIs. We showed that darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg once daily was well tolerated, and the pharmacokinetics, virologic and immunologic responses were consistent with previously published data for darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily.. Through Week 24, the onset of any grade 3 or 4 AEs regardless of causality was low (6% in the overall population). Five out of 313 patients (2%), all of whom were treatment-naïve, experienced any study drug-related grade 3 AE through Weeks 24 and 48. No patients experienced grade 4 drug-related AEs. The most commonly reported AEs of all grades during the study, diarrhea, nausea, upper respiratory tract infection and headache, have all been reported previously for darunavir and cobicistat [5-8, 15, 16]. Renal laboratory assessments showed ...
BBBs Business Profile for The Standard Management Services, Business Reviews and Ratings for The Standard Management Services in Los Angeles, CA.
Reliable comorbidity information, along with patient demographics, disease features, and treatment characteristics, has been found to be essential for comprehensive risk adjustment in patients with cancer.22⇓⇓⇓-26 Accurate risk adjustment27 is the basis of observational research including comparison of outcomes of different treatment modalities. We are beginning to learn about the influence of multiple comorbidities on treatment outcomes of patients enrolled in HCT trials. Here, AML was chosen as a suitable disease entity for studying the impacts of comorbidities since it has been the disease for which HCT is carried out most frequently.28 Further, AML is a disease of the elderly,27 a population where comorbidities interfere substantially with curative treatment options.29 In addition, uncertainty still exists on how to identify suitable AML patients for different treatment modalities (reviewed in Deschler et al7), in part due to lack of incorporation of accurate assessment of medical ...
DALLAS and TOKYO, Nov. 19, 2013- Daiichi Sankyos Once-Daily Edoxaban Meets Primary Efficacy Endpoint for Stroke Prevention and Superiority for the Principal Safety Endpoint Compared to Warfarin for Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in a Phase 3 Clinical Trial.
Question - Took all the possible treatment for sinus. Should i go for sinus surgery? . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Allergic rhinitis, Ask an ENT Specialist
Generally, Diabetes easily causes Kidney Failure if patients do not take timely treatments. Well then, what is the comprehensive treatment for stage 4 kidney failure caused by diabetes?
Question - Pain in back gums, treated with salt water. Gums swollen, throbbing, itchy. Possible treatment? . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Back pain, Ask a Dentist
Comprehensive treatment is undertaken for the majority of patients during the early teens. Treatment aims to create a beautiful, balanced and functional
Therapeutic methods of treatment, compositions and foodstuffs are described which contain isoflavone compounds described by general formula (1), in which Z is H, R1 is H, or RACO where RA is C1-10alkyl or an amino acid, R2 is H, OH, or ORB where RB is an amino acid, or CORA where RA is as previously defined, W is H, A is H or OH, and B is selected from (a), (b), (c), or W is H, and A and B taken together form a six-membered ring selected from (d), or W, A and B taken with the groups with which they are associated comprise (e), or W and A taken together with the groups with which they are associated comprise (f) and B is (g) wherein R3 is H, CORA where RA is as previously defined, CO2Rc where RC is C1-10alkyl, or CORB where RB is as previously defined, R4 is H, CORD where RD is H, OH, C1-10alkyl or an amino acid, CO2RC where RC is as previously defined, CORE where RE is H, C1-10alkyl or an amino acid, COOH, CORC where RC is as previously defined, or CONHRE where RE is as previously defined, R5 is H, CORC
therapy. Treatment was continued until disease progression, discontinuation due to adverse events, or withdrawal of consent. Randomization was stratified according to PSA doubling time (≤ 6 months or , 6 months) and use of osteoclast-targeted therapy at randomization. The primary endpoint was metastasis-free survival in the intention-to-treat population, with the presence of metastasis identified by independent central review of radiographic imaging every 16 weeks.. For the darolutamide vs placebo groups, the median age was 74 years in both, most patients were from European countries, PSA doubling time was up to 6 months in 70% vs 67%, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 or 1 in 100% in both, 97% vs 94% were not using a bone-sparing agent at baseline, and 76% of both groups had received at least 2 previous hormonal therapies.. Metastasis-Free Survival. On independent central review, metastasis was found at baseline in 5.2% of the darolutamide group and 7.0% of the ...
Purpose: This multicenter, open-label, phase II study evaluated the safety and clinical activity of axitinib, a potent and selective second-generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR)-1, 2, and 3, in patients with metastatic melanoma.. Experimental Design: Thirty-two patients with a maximum of one prior systemic therapy received axitinib at a starting dose of 5 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was objective response rate.. Results: Objective response rate was 18.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.2-36.4], comprising one complete and five partial responses with a median response duration of 5.9 months (95% CI, 5.0-17.0). Stable disease at 16 weeks was noted in six patients (18.8%), with an overall clinical benefit rate of 37.5%. Six-month progression-free survival rate was 33.9%, 1-year overall survival rate was 28.1%, and median overall survival was 6.6 months (95% CI, 5.2-9.0). The most frequently (,15%) reported nonhematologic, treatment-related adverse ...
Randomised, double-masked, sham-controlled Phase 3b/4 study. All patients received 3 monthly IVT-AFL 2 mg injections. At Week 12, patients were randomised 1:1 into IVT-AFL plus sham PDT (IVT-AFL monotherapy) or IVT-AFL plus active PDT arms. Patients in both arms who did not qualify for rescue treatment received IVT-AFL 2 mg every 8 weeks (2q8); patients who qualified for rescue treatment received IVT-AFL 2q4 plus active or sham PDT, according to the randomisation arm, until visual and anatomical outcomes allowed for extension of the treatment interval. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change in BCVA in the study eye from baseline to Week 52. The secondary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients avoiding a moderate vision loss (≥15 letters) from baseline to Week 52. Exploratory endpoints included but were not limited to: (1) change in central subfield thickness ([CST] thickness of the central 1 mm of retina) over time; (2) proportion of patients with active polyps; (3) ...
A clinical trial of the Guardian implantable heart attack monitor made by Angel Medical Systems failed to meet its efficacy endpoint, but suggested that the device could be used to help detect "silent" heart attacks.. Wilmington, Del.-based AngelMed won FDA clearance a year ago for the Guardian device for patients with prior acute coronary syndrome events including myocardial infarctions or unstable angina at high risk for further ACS events. Its 907-patient Alerts study randomized patients implanted with Guardian to either six months with the alert function active for the treatment group or six months without activation for the control arm; both groups had the alert function activated after the six-month randomized stage.. The primary efficacy endpoint, a confirmed occlusive event within 7 days, was not significantly reduced for the treatment arm at 3.8%, compared with 4.9% for the control arm. The primary safety endpoint was met a 96.7% rate of freedom from device-related complications, ...
This pragmatic cluster RCT implemented in CHSs in urban China found no differential treatment effect in the primary outcome measure, HbA1c, with intervention and control groups both improving significantly. However, significant treatment effects favouring the intervention group were evident in psychological distress, systolic BP, waist circumference in men and SDSCA-Specific Diet. Two of these outcomes (psychological distress and systolic BP) were robust outcomes consistent with significant treatment effects, as supported in sensitivity analyses.. In addition to being statistically significant, the greater psychological distress observed in the control group compared with that in the intervention group is of clinical significance. The shift in the mean score for the control group at baseline from 14.97±6.24 to 17.45±8.12 at 12 months translates clinically to a shift in the mean from low risk of psychological distress (scores 10-15) to moderate risk of psychological distress (16-21).27 This ...
Background: Superiority clinical trials hold promises of impactful interventions for the future of evidence-based medicine but require extensive resources and may place study patients at risk. Advances made through cardiovascular (CV) trials in past decades have drastically improved patient outcomes, but little is known about the modern landscape of CV superiority trials and how it has evolved over time.. Methods: We performed a comprehensive search in PubMed using keywords and MeSH terms to identify all superiority CV trials with a primary clinical endpoint from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2011 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), JAMA, and the Lancet. We used chi-square and Cochran-Armitage Trend tests to assess for statistical significance.. Results: We identified 188 trials (108 drug trials, 20 device trials and 60 others). Overall, 69 trials (36.7%) had positive results, demonstrating superiority of the new intervention for the primary endpoint, while 119 trials (63.3%) showed ...
... from Stem Cell Therapy 21 Jan 2016 by Maren Auxier Lung Institute White Paper A new white paper released by the Lung Institute shows an increase of 10 percent or more in pulmonary function for 48 percent of patients tested after receiving stem cell therapy for COPD, with an overall average increase of 16 percent. TAMPA, Fla. January 26, 2016: Lung Institute doctor Jack Coleman, Jr., M.D. recently
The emphasis on evidence-based medical practice emerged in response to the potential hazards and inconsistencies of empirical clinical decision making and reinforced the importance of critical data interpretation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the gold standard when performed by trained investigators blinded to treatment arms in multiple centers, with predetermined endpoints and adjudicated through independent core labs and clinical events committees (CECs). RCTs provide the most rigorous and unbiased answers for the safety and effectiveness of a study treatment versus a predefined control group in a specified population. However, there are criticisms of RCTs, including their applicability to real-world populations because of the inclusion/exclusion criteria used to limit confounding variables that would ultimately create heterogeneity in study arms and potentially drive confounding results. Additionally, RCTs are generally costly given the rigorous inclusion/exclusion requirements, ...
Wagner went on to report, "Blood clotting is an intricately balanced process. Blood clots in the heart or brain can result in a heart attack or stroke. Our studies in mouse models have shown that inhibition of P-selectin reduces atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) and the work of our collaborators shows that the events leading to deep vein thrombosis are reduced. P-selectin inhibitors have also been shown to be anti-thrombotic in early human trials ...
This article deals with the dependency(ies) of noninferiority test(s) when the two confidence interval method is employed. There are two different definitions of the two confidence interval method. One of the objectives of this article is to sort out some of the confusion in these two different definitions. In the first definition the two confidence interval method is considered as the fixed margin method that treats a noninferiority margin as a fixed constant after it is determined based on historical data. In this article the method is called the two confidence interval method with fixed margin. The issue of the dependency(ies) of noninferiority test(s) does not occur in this case. In the second definition the two confidence interval method incorporates the uncertainty associated with the estimation for the noninferiority margin. In this article the method is called the two confidence interval method with random margin. The dependency(ies) occurs, because the two confidence interval method(s) with
Clinical response was assessed by the investigator as Cure, Failure or Indeterminate at End of treatment (EOT) and Test of Cure (TOC). Favorable clinical response was defined as clinical response of Cure, defined as resolution of all acute signs and symptoms of Late-onset sepsis (LOS) or improvement to such an extent that no further antibacterial therapy is required. Eradication defined as absence of the original baseline pathogen from the source specimen; presumed eradication was defined when source specimen was not available to culture and the subject was assessed as a clinical cure (resolution of all acute signs and symptoms of LOS or improvement to such an extent that no further antibacterial therapy was required) EOT visit occurred within 24 hours after the end of last infusion. Modified ITT analysis set: subjects who received ceftaroline fosamil and met minimal disease criteria of late-onset sepsis ...
Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients often present with advanced metastatic disease. Whilst there have been improvements in the management of locoregional disease, distant metastatic spread remains a challenge in the field [1-3]. Palliative chemotherapy is platinum based and for patients who progress after first line treatment or are refractory, therapeutic options are limited. Numerous agents including cetuximab, paclitaxel, gemcitabine and docetaxel have been assessed prospectively in the treatment of platinum refractory patients and the time to progression ranged from 2 to 6 months [4]. These systemic treatments produce a significant degree of morbidity and new therapeutic options are therefore a need in these patients. Once there is an established role in metastatic disease, translation into the curative setting is appropriate.. The programmed cell death-1/programmed cell death-1 ligand (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway has shown to play a crucial role in tumour immune invasion. Recent literature suggests ...
A total of 873 men were randomized to receive sunitinib (n = 584) or placebo (n = 289). Median age was 68 years, and 49% of patients had a Gleason score ≥ 8. The trial was stopped after a second futility analysis in September 2010. In data collected through February 2011, the median treatment duration was 3.7 months (range, 0−23.2) on the sunitinib arm and 3.4 months (range, 0−22.1) on the placebo arm. Progression-free survival was significantly greater on the sunitinib arm than the placebo arm (5.6 vs 3.7 months; HR = 0.74; P = .0022), although overall survival was not significantly different (13.1 vs 11.7 months; HR = 0.91; P = .1630, stratified log-rank test for both). The overall response rate with sunitinib was also significantly higher compared with placebo (6.1% vs 1.8%; P = .04).. The safety profile for sunitinib was consistent with that previously reported in castrate-resistant prostate cancer and other tumor types, Dr. Michaelson noted. Leading treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse ...
High creatinine level is commonly experienced in people with kidney disease. High creatinine level makes patients suffer from a series of symptoms and complications, therefore, patients are eager to know what is a good treatment to lower hi
GTV: gross tumor volume; RUL: right upper lobe; RLL: right lower lobe; LLL: left lower lobe; fAP, fSI: fractional anterior-posterior, superior-inferior location, respectively; dLR, dAP, and dSI: the magnitude of motion in lateral, anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) direction of ten respiratory phases, respectively ...
Call centres (CCs) are one of the most rapidly growing forms of workplaces in Sweden. The overall aim of this thesis was to describe work characteristics, physical and psychosocial exposures, and health related outcomes, for CC operators in selected CC in Sweden. The purpose was also to study the test-retest reliability and internal consistency of questions, and the inter-rater reliability of observations and measurements in studies of CCs.. This thesis is based on two projects, where study I was a cohort study and studies II-V were a cross-sectional survey. Fifty-seven CC operators were compared with a reference group of 1459 professional computer users from other occupations, study I, and 1183 operators (848 women and 335 men) (response rate 77%) from 28 CCs were studied in studies II-V . Questionnaires covering organisation and work characteristics, physical and psychosocial exposures, individual characteristics and symptoms during the previous month was used, studies I-V. Structured ...
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide with the highest incidence in Central Europe. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths mainly due to the late diagnosis and low efficacy of treatment. CRC diagnosed in early stage has a five-year survival rate about 90% which drops to near 12% once distant metastases occur. It is a heterogenous disease with different molecular and clinicopathological features depending on the tumor location. Therefore, different treatment strategies are required. A standard treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer includes neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, whereas colon cancer treatment consists of surgical resection of the tumor and/or subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy based on disease characteristics. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) alone or in combination with other compounds is the most used treatment in CRC. The mechanism of 5-FU on molecular level is either its incorporation into DNA or it imbalances the synthesis ...
Question - Can a doctor suggest a good treatment for painful ankle and joints due to slipping from staircase ?. Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask an Orthopaedic Surgeon
Excerpt:. "GTx, Inc. (Nasdaq: GTXI) today announced that enobosarm achieved the pre-specified primary efficacy endpoint in the 9 mg dose cohort from patients in both stage 1 and the ongoing stage 2 of its Phase 2 clinical trial in women with advanced, estrogen receptor positive (ER+), androgen receptor positive (AR+) breast cancer. The primary efficacy endpoint requires at least nine patients (out of a total of 44 evaluable patients) to achieve clinical benefit, defined as either a complete response, partial response or stable disease, as measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) at 24 weeks of treatment. In this ongoing trial, the efficacy endpoint was achieved in the first 22 confirmed evaluable patients, and the trial will continue enrolling and treating eligible patients with enobosarm until 44 evaluable patients have completed the trial. Enobosarm has been well tolerated among patients treated to date in the 9 mg dose cohort with the majority of adverse events being ...
Background Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term effects on human capital are yet to be established. crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We recognized dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more experienced higher IQ scores (difference of 376 points, 95% CI 220C533), more years of education (091 years, 042C140), and higher monthly incomes (3410 Brazilian reals, 938C5883) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Interpretation Breastfeeding is usually associated with improved overall performance in intelligence assessments ...
Forty-six studies (501 patients) were included: 2 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 4 prospective comparative cohort studies, 3 prospective non-comparative studies, 13 retrospective chart/database reviews and 24 case report/series.. rFVII in refractory haemorrhage (44 studies including 4 comparative studies using historical controls).. Two studies (one of which was comparative) used rFVII before any blood product replacement, whereas in all other cases rFVIIa was given when all previous treatments seemed to have failed. Three of the comparative studies reported a reduction in blood loss or blood product requirements in the rFVIIa group compared with historical untreated controls; the fourth reported no difference between treatment groups in terms of blood loss, transfusion requirements or survival. The majority of non-comparative studies also reported reductions in blood loss. Thromboembolic events occurred in 5.3% of cases treated with rFVIIa.. rFVII as prophylactic agent (2 RCTs, ...
Antifungal mouth rinse, lozenges and topical medicines are good treatments for thrush, according to WebMD. The medicine type and prescribed amount are based on a persons age and the severity of the...
We conducted a randomised controlled trial of mandated five-channel physiological monitoring vs standard care, in acute medical and surgical wards in a single UK teaching hospital. In all, 402 high-risk medical and surgical patients were studied. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients experiencing one or more major adverse events, including urgent staff calls, changes to higher care levels, cardiac arrests or death, in 96 h following randomisation. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of patients requiring acute treatment changes, and the 30-day and hospital mortality. In the 96 h following randomisation, 113 (56%) patients in the monitored arm and 116 (58%) in the control arm (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.63-1.40, p = 0.76) had a major event. An acute change in treatment was necessary in 107 (53%) monitored patients and 101 (50%) control patients (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.87-1.29). Thirty-four (17%) monitored patients and 35 (17%) control patients died within 30 days. Thirteen patients in the control group
The current clinical trial is an investigator-initiated one, and it is conducted under the multi-center, randomized, open-label, prospective design. The subjects meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria will be assigned to the treatment group or the control group. The randomization ratio is 1:1. The subjects of the treatment group will receive a 2-day hypothermia therapy followed by the process of recovery of temperature within 30 hours (the recovery phase). After 3 months of the onset of symptoms, mRS scores are measured. This is followed by the closure of the clinical trial. ...
Sahih International And We have enjoined upon man, to his parents, good treatment. His mother carried him with hardship and gave birth to him with hardship, and his gestation and weaning [period] is thirty months. [He grows] until, when he reaches maturity and reaches [the age of] forty years, he says, My Lord, enable me…
Published on April 23, 2015 at 4:01 AM. Data revealed today at The International Liver Congress™ 2015 highlights the impact of delaying treatment for the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Researchers found that treatment delays have a serious detrimental effect on treatment efficacy, increasing the risk of morbidity and mortality among patients.. The study was conducted using retrospective patient data from the Veterans Administration in the USA to estimate the impact on risk of morbidity and death depending on whether treatment was initiated before or after a patients FIB4 levels became elevated. The FIB4 index is a simple formula used to predict liver damage (fibrosis) based on standard biochemical values and age.. Researchers found that delaying treatment until after a patients FIB4 level exceeds 3.25 has a clear detrimental effect on treatment effectiveness. Delaying therapy until after the patients FIB4 level exceeds 1.45 or 1.00 has a smaller detrimental effect on treatment ...
E2100 showed an improvement in progression-free survival in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer, but did not show improvements in disease-related symptoms or survival. However, researchers conducted genomic studies within E2100 and identified markers that conferred longer survival and protection against drug-induced hypertension. Specifically, in E2100, researchers uncovered preliminary PGx data linking VEGF-1154 AA and -2578 AA genotypes to an improvement in median overall survival. Additionally, E2100 showed that patients with VEGF-634 CC and -1498 TT genotypes had protection from grade 3-4 hypertension, a common side effect of Avastin. . . . that patients with high levels of plasma VEGF-A who received standard doses of Avastin had a progression-free survival hazard ratio of 0.49. Meanwhile, patients with low levels of VEGF-A had a PFS hazard ratio of 0.86. This finding suggests that patients with high levels of VEGF-A may be more likely to derive a more substantial benefit ...
Introduction: Obesity significantly increases morbidity and mortality, impairs quality of life and brings serious socio-economic problems.. Aim of the research: Evaluate the effectiveness of non-pharmacological treatment of obesity in patients who underwent the two-week reduction stay in Bardejov Spa a.s. in years 2012-2016. We intended to find out whether the non-pharmacological treatment of obesity will positively affect values of total cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), HDL cholesterol (high density lipoprotein), LDL-cholesterol (low density lipoprotein), uric acid (KM) and glycemia and whether the changes reach statistical significance. We have also been interested in the question of possible correlation between severity of obesity and the presence of liver fibrosis. Methodology: Bardejov Spa a. s. has developed a complex specialized two-week spa stay aimed at weight reduction, which was put into practice in May 2012 (Belovicova M, Belovicova L, Svirkova H, Niemasikova G, Bachulak V, ...
If you look at the third point, overall survival, the median overall survival in this study was 9.3 months at a follow-up for 15 months. The [?? 4:24] overall survival rates were 41% in one year, 22% at two years and three years which again suggests that there is a form of tail as we have seen in other diseases.. What we analysed then was survival, depending on whether patients had a benefit of this treatment or not. As you can see in green, those patients who had a complete or partial response on the left according to RECIST, on the right to IR RECIST. All patients were still alive at the time of the analysis with 100% one year and 100% two year overall survival rates. If you look on the left side patients with stable disease one year overall survival was 69%, patients with progressive disease one year overall survival was 33%. Of interest, if you look on the left side you see two year overall survival 11% and three year overall survival 11%. These were patients who had pseudoprogression. ...
A phase I study to determine the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) and to evaluate pharmacokinetic, safety/tolerability and efficacy profiles of antroquinono
The high failure rate (e.g., 50%-60%) of phase III trials in oncology presents a major obstacle to the drug discovery process (1). Understanding and addressing the potential reasons for these high failure rates are crucial to making progress. Possible reasons for the high failure rate in phase III trials include (i) suboptimal choice of patient population and (ii) inaccurate predictions of effectiveness from the hypothesis generating prior phase II trials. The focus of this work is on the second of these reasons, and focuses on the choice of the endpoints used for phase II trials in patients with measurable disease to identify agents worthy of further evaluation. Our goal was to consider alternative phase II endpoints to the standardly used endpoint of tumor response, and in particular the use of endpoints based on continuous tumor measurements.. Historically, phase II trials have used tumor response rate as the primary endpoint, where response is assessed via the Response Evaluation Criteria in ...
It is difficult to ensure that treatment comparison groups are sufficiently similar in terms of prognostic variables in non-randomized studies, particularly prognostic variables that remain undiscovered ...
GONADOTROPINS (GONAL-F): These are the actual fertility hormones used to stimulate egg growth from your ovaries, resulting in multiple eggs. Gonadotropins are all very similar- they consist of the hormone FSH with some preparations containing the hormone LH. There are different trade names for these medications in Canada, the United States and Europe, include the following: Pergonal, Humegon, Fertinorm, Fertinex, Metrodin, Puregon, or Gonal-F. Some of the side effects may include: ...
Patients with moderate or occasional acne may have the ability to treat themselves without using prescription drugs. Such treatments may contain an alteration in exercise and diet habits, routine cleanse to remove build-up and deposits on the skin, selecting the right make-up and removing pressure.
To our knowledge, this is the first prospective interventional study that evaluated the safety and effectiveness of RTX in patients with RA who had discontinued their first TNF-α inhibitor and that was conducted in 2 countries with a comparable approach to the management of RA.. There is always a concern that the safety profile of a drug might be different from the one observed in randomized controlled trials (RCT) when tested in real-life clinical situations, where some patients might have not qualified for an RCT based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. When compared to the REFLEX trial14, patients in our study had slightly less severe disease, measured by DAS28, CRP levels, and HAQ score, despite longer disease duration. Interestingly, the safety profiles were comparable during both the primary treatment period and the retreatment phase. No new signals were seen. RTX was well tolerated during the study, with no serious infusion reactions and a low incidence of serious infections. Fewer ...
Adjuvant therapy is the delivery of cancer treatment following local treatment with surgery and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, and/or biologic therapy. The decision about the need for adjuvant therapy is influenced by the extent of the cancer and the grade of the cancer. The grade of the cancer refers to how abnormal the cancer cells appear.. The optimal approach to adjuvant therapy for Stage III uterine cancer remains uncertain. Women are most often treated with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy.[1] A Phase III clinical trial (described below) reported that adjuvant chemotherapy resulted in better survival than radiation therapy among women with Stage III or IV uterine cancer, but another study found that the two treatments were similarly effective. The combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be more effective than either treatment alone, but information about combined treatment remains limited.. Radiation therapy: Unlike chemotherapy, radiation ...
Results Only 63% (2010/3199) of patients had access to routine viral load testing after 1 year of ART. After adjusting for other factors, patients with a baseline CD4 count of 50-100, 101-200 and 201-350 cells/mm3 were 0.48 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.74), 0.63 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.82) and 0.73 times (95% CI 0.14 to 0.95) as likely to have virological failure, respectively, as those with a baseline CD4 count ,50 cells/mm3. After adjusting for other factors, patients with good treatment adherence were 0.54 times as likely to have viraemia as those with poor treatment adherence (95% CI 0.28 to 0.81) and patients with immunological failure were 1.43 times as likely to have viraemia (95% CI 1.31 to 1.65) as those without. The PPV of immunological criteria was 60.1% (95% CI 57.1% to 69.3%).. ...
The unadjusted 3-year all-cause mortality was higher in the PCI group as compared with the CABG group (3.8% vs. 2.5%; log-rank p = 0.03), although there was no significant difference in the composite outcome (7.5% vs. 9.4%; log-rank p = 0.07). After adjustment for differences in baseline risk factors, PCI was associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.21; p < 0.001), but similar risk of the composite outcome (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.82-1.09; p = 0.43). These differences were not statistically significant among patients with low or intermediate SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score (≤32) or diabetes; however, PCI was associated with an increased risk among those with a high SYNTAX score (>32), with HRs of 3.10 (95% CI, 1.84-5.22; p < 0.001) for all-cause mortality and 1.82 (95% CI, 1.36-2.45; p < 0.001) for the composite outcome. CABG was associated with lower risk of repeat revascularization, but ...
In the current study, we set out to understand whether PRO metrics assessed at 3 months postoperatively were accurately predictive of outcomes at 12 months postoperatively. Although there was a significant correlation between absolute outcome scores at 3 and 12 months postoperatively in aggregate via linear regression analysis, we observed a wide variation in the extent of change between 3 and 12 months after surgery. Nearly as many patients demonstrated worsening PROs as reported improving PROs between 3 and 12 months. Furthermore, the extent of 3- to 12-month improvement or worsening also varied widely among patients. Even at its peak reliability in ROC analysis, the 3-month PRO score remained with greater than 10% inaccuracy. Whether one defines surgical treatment response as 12-month MCID improvement or any degree of PRO improvement at 12 months, 3-month scores did not reliably identify treatment responders from nonre-sponders. In the assessment of postoperative improvement in disability ...
The truth is this - we doctors want the most successful treatment for patients - one that will achieve the highest level of function, while restoring each patient to long-term, pain-free living.
Practicing with a partner leads to a better improvement in performance compared to people who practice on their own, a new study reveals.
Our findings of lack of improvement in HRQOL despite improvements in primary clinical outcomes are consistent with RCTs (4,5) in diabetes with nonminorities that found that SF-36 scores deteriorated or remained stable following interventions demonstrating improved clinical outcomes. These findings raise important issues regarding conceptualization of HRQOL and resulting implications for use, analysis, and interpretation of the SF-36 in diabetes RCTs.. One conceptualization of HRQOL in diabetes is disease burden, including patient distress due to diabetes symptoms, complications, or treatment. Weak associations between SF-36 and diabetes markers, in cross-sectional studies, have been discussed in light of this conceptualization, and use of diabetes-specific HRQOL scales assessing troublesome diabetes-specific symptoms and experiences (6) have been recommended for better sensitivity to burden than the SF-36.. A second conceptualization of HRQOL, impact of disease on physical health, social health, ...
When patients who had Botox injections also used the Obagi Nu-Derm skin care regimen, they were more satisfied with their results, compared to patients who had a Botox treatment with placebo, Obagi reports. The results also found there was a greater improvement in overall facial appearance among those that used the Obagi products.. Obagi Nu-Derm works at the cellular level by exfoliating and stimulating cell turnover, so skin "behaves" and looks younger.. Lead researcher Joel Schlessinger, MD, a dermatologist, said that often his patients have skin that doesnt always look markedly improved with Botox or other injectables alone.. "Many practitioners are not aware of the potential benefits associated with incorporating this system with other non-invasive procedures in the practice," he said. "This data clearly highlights the fact that by adding Condition & Enhance [Nu-Derm] to injectable patients treatment regimen, patients are addressing multiple aspects of aging skin for optimal results. The ...
Background: Patients with refractory NHL experience poor outcomes to currently available therapies. In the SCHOLAR-1 pooled analysis of patients with refractory aggressive NHL, the objective response rate (ORR) was 26% (complete response [CR] rate was 7%), and the median overall survival (OS) was 6.3 months (Crump et al. Blood. In press). The primary analysis of ZUMA-1 demonstrated positive results with an ORR of 82% and a CR rate of 54% after a single infusion of axi-cel. The safety profile was manageable: grade ≥ 3 cytokine release syndrome and neurologic events were generally reversible and reported for 13% and 28%, respectively (Locke et al. AACR 2017. #9986). With a median follow-up of 8.7 months, 44% of patients in ZUMA-1 were in ongoing response. We plan to present the 1-year follow-up of ZUMA-1 to confirm the stability of response following anti-CD19 CAR T cell therapy as previously suggested (Locke et al. Mol Ther. 2016; Kochenderfer et al. Mol Ther. 2017). Additionally, exploratory ...
The invention features an assembly for taking a biopsy sample from a site within the body of a patient. The assembly includes a resecting device having a cutter near its distal end for resecting and containing a tissue sample and a sheath exterior to the resecting device and sized to be present within the body with the resecting device. The sheath includes an electrode element electrically isolated from the resecting device and disposed on the sheaths outer surface for cauterizing tissue. The electrode element may reside on the outer sheath, the distal end or both the outer sheath and the distal end of the assembly. The resecting device and the sheath cooperate to permit sequential resecting of a tissue sample from a resecting site and cauterizing of the site with the cutter sufficiently spaced from the electrode element to avoid heat damage to the tissue sample.
Li Yw, Fakhara A, Shadan A, et al. Cancer Res August 1, 2005 65; 6934. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4604 Cancer chemotherapeutic strategies commonly require multiple agents. However, use of multiple agents contributes to added toxicity resulting in poor treatment outcome. Thus, combination chemotherapy must be optimized to increase tumor response and at the same time lower its […]. read more ...
Millions of patients worldwide are admitted for acute heart failure (AHF) each year and physicians caring for these patients are confronted with the short-term challenges of reducing symptoms while preventing end organ dysfunction without causing additional harm, and the intermediate-term challenges of improving clinical outcomes such as hospital readmission and survival. There are limited data demonstrating the efficacy of any currently available therapies for AHF to meet these goals. After diuretics, vasodilators are the most common intravenous therapy for AHF, but neither nitrates, nitroprusside, nor nesiritide have robust evidence supporting their ability to provide meaningful effects on clinical outcomes, except perhaps early symptom improvement ...
Screened means that assessed for eligibility for the study. If the investigator must interact with the subject to obtain information to compare against the inclusion/exclusion criteria then informed consent must be obtained before screening commences. If the investigator simply informs the prospective subject about the trial, this is recruitment not screening. Review of CHOP medical records for potentially eligible subjects may be permissible without consent.. Enrolled means all subjects who have consented to screening or participation in the study. If the subject is a screen failure (ineligible), they are still enrolled. Subjects who fail to get the study intervention or to complete the required study procedures are still enrolled.. Evaluable means all subjects whose data can be used in the final analysis data set. Subjects may be evaluable for some endpoints but not others. For example, if 4 blood samples are needed per subject to be considered evaluable in a PK study, all those who get the ...
In our current analysis of nearly 350,000 PCI procedures performed in the United Kingdom, we found that use of TRA was independently associated with a reduction in 30-day mortality outcomes and that the magnitude of this mortality effect was related to baseline bleeding risk, with those at highest risk of bleeding complications gaining the greatest benefit from adoption of TRA for PCI. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that in a national setting, access site choice does not seem to be influenced by baseline bleeding risk and, paradoxically, that TRA utilization rates are lower in those patients at highest risk of bleeding complications.. Peri-procedural major bleeding complications are among the most powerful independent predictors of mortality (1-3,13,19,20), with a greater impact on mortality than peri-procedural MI (13,20). Our data also suggest that baseline bleeding risk is one of the strongest predictors of 30-day mortality for those patients at highest baseline risk from bleeding ...
Summary: A major new antiretroviral has been approved, for patients resistant to more than one protease inhibitor. There is no information yet on ...
No, it cant be.". The 54-year-old man had a nagging cough, but everything else was "just fine." Why, hed even lost 10 pounds without really trying. I had just showed him his chest X-ray with a cancerous mass. "But I eat like a bird.". She was a thirty-something diabetic with a blood sugar over 300. "I cant afford to take care of my baby.". The single mother needed costly formula for her newborns nutritional challenges. The diagnosis is clear. The treatment is defined. Yet there are still so many obstacles. So much more crowds around the straightforward care thats needed. Its their story, much more than their disease, that needs attention. While medical schooling prides itself in conveying the art of diagnosis and treatment, the real world shows theres much more to patient care. Being able to diagnose and treat is a necessity, but each patient has a unique constellation of situational life factors that influence the success of the expert clinical approach.. A group at Oxford University in ...
Since even small improvements in control seem to have long term benefits, getting tested for diabetes is wise if you have any reason to suspect you have the disease. Americans have become more aware of the threat of diabetes, but 24 percent of diabetes is undiagnosed. That number is an improvement on the past, however, down 30 percent in 2005 and from 50 percent 10 years ago ...
Results 455 subjects (average age 60.3 [±8.7], female 58.9%, average BMI 29.9 [±4.6] kg/m2, KL 3 [64.4%], and bilateral OA [64.0%]) were enrolled. SM04690 appeared well tolerated. In the ITT population clinically meaningful improvements in all clinical outcomes compared to baseline were seen for all groups and placebo at weeks 13 and 26 (Table). Moreover, clinically meaningful improvements in clinical outcomes were also seen in multiple groups over several outcomes at various time points compared to placebo. In the unilateral knee OA subgroup, PTGA (0.03 mg) and MDGA (0.07 mg) were significantly improved compared to placebo. In the WPI≤4 subgroup, WOMAC Pain (0.07 mg), PTGA (0.03 mg) and MDGA (0.07 mg) were significantly improved compared to placebo. ...
Our study compared exacerbation and lung function outcomes of benralizumab treatment with outcomes for other IL-5-directed biologics for severe, uncontrolled asthma. Results of the comparison between benralizumab and mepolizumab demonstrated comparable efficacy in reducing the annual rate of clinically significant exacerbations and exacerbations leading to ED visits or hospitalisation and improving pre-bronchodilator FEV1. In most comparisons, benralizumab was numerically better than mepolizumab after matching adjustment balanced baseline characteristics between the two populations, although there were no significant differences. This analysis extends findings from recent systematic review methods [26] and expands upon evidence from a recent ITC of IL-5-directed monoclonal antibody treatments by Cabon et al. [15] that did not include the key benralizumab phase 3 SIROCCO [9] and CALIMA [11] trials used in our analysis and did not adjust for differences in baseline patient characteristics. Cabon ...
For several years the Medical Research Council has encouraged the performance of multicentric clinical trials in cancerology, as well as the publication of their results. Recent methodological progress in the organisation and analysis of these trials are the objective of this article. Edited by a group of British and American statisticians it is, in fact, addressed to non-statisticians. The first part deals with the programme. The second, which is concerned with the analysis, gives the methods for establishing the curves of survival and for comparing them by the logrank test, methods that are illustrated by a numerical example. The way to interpret the results of a therapeutic trial is discussed with reference to 2 concrete examples. This article is applicable to all clinical trials in which a study is made of the survival, that is to say, the time gap up to the death, but it could also apply to trials studying some other event such as: the first relapse, metastasis, recurrence, and, apart from cancer,
The reliable detection of moderate differences in major health outcomes that arise as a result of treatment requires large-scale randomized evidence (and the appropriate interpretation of this evidence once it has been generated). This may take the form of a single mega-trial or, exceptionally, a meta-analysis of many smaller randomized trials may provide worthwhile information. Small or non-randomized studies cannot generally be trusted to distinguish reliably between a moderate benefit, a moderate hazard, and a negligible difference in major outcomes. Simple design, streamlined data collection, and use of the uncertainty principle to guide eligibility would all encourage the recruitment of larger samples in randomized trials. Future trials need to adopt these methods in order to detect any moderate improvements in major outcomes that may await discovery.
Although interventions varied in the emphasis that they placed on physical activity, all groups showed some increase in physical activity. The typical participant did no moderate or vigorous activity (which does not include walking) at baseline and was doing 50-60 minutes a week at 12 weeks and about half that at one year follow-up. Those in the exercise only comparator group were doing a similar amount to participants in other arms. All interventions therefore seemed to act as a spur for people to do what they already knew they should be doing, a conclusion that is supported by qualitative feedback from participants (data not shown). This activity was probably insufficient to account for weight loss in the comparator group, and this weight loss probably represents what might be achieved by people responding to a spur to action. We believe that the comparator group was therefore a true control group. The comparator group achieved statistically significant weight loss from baseline to follow-up ...
A new study sheds new light on the risks associated with the growing popularity of endoscopic resection in the treatment of localized, early-stage esophageal cancer.
In this Phase 3, open-label, multicentre, global study, 720 patients with PD-L1+ and PD-L1− R/M SCCHN will be randomised (1:1:1) to receive durvalumab (10 mg/kg IV for up to 12 months); tremelimumab (1 mg/kg IV) plus durvalumab (20 mg/kg IV for up to 12 months); or SoC (cetuximab, taxane, methotrexate, or fluoropyrimidine). Stratification factors include PD-L1 status, human papillomavirus status and smoking history. Eligible patients have progressed with a platinum-containing regimen for R/M disease or within 6 months of multimodality therapy containing platinum. Co-primary endpoints are progression-free survival (RECIST v1.1) based on independent central review and overall survival. Secondary outcomes will assess objective response rate, disease control rate, duration of response, and proportion of patients alive and progression free at 6 and 12 months (using RECIST v1.1 and immune-related RECIST); safety (CTCAE v4.03) and tolerability; and health-related quality of life. Exploratory outcomes ...
In patients with hypertension and Type 2 diabetes, relatively modest improvements in fitness status -- significantly with walking just 30 minutes a day --
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Health,...Viable treatment is still a long way off researchers say ...WEDNESDAY June 16 (HealthDay News) -- Researchers report theyve move...The study published in the June 16 issue of the journal Science Tr...Still we demonstrated that we could make this happen said study le...,Gene,Therapy,for,HIV,Inches,Forward,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Our staff is well-trained in all aspects of conducting a rigorous systematic review. They assist clinical faculty in developing key questions and inclusion/exclusion criteria, coordinating with medical librarians for comprehensive searches, performing abstract and full-text review of the scientific literature, quality assessment, data abstraction, meta analysis, and drafting review findings for publications and dissemination. Our team skillfully uses various tools to facilitate the review process, including Endnote, Abstrackr, REDCap, and Distiller. CHPR is proud to contribute to the evidence base that informs clinician, patient, and payer decision making ...
Philadelphia, PA (PRWEB) April 30, 2013 -- Researchers from The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia and the Perelman School of Medicine at The University of
DRIVE-AHEAD is an ongoing Phase 3 multicenter, double-blind, randomized, active comparator-controlled clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of a once-daily, single-tablet, fixed-dose combination consisting of DOR/3TC/TDF (100mg/300mg/300mg) versus a once daily, single-tablet, fixed-dose combination of EFV/FTC/TDF (600mg/200mg/300mg) in treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected adults. The primary endpoint of the clinical trial was the proportion of participants with HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies/mL at Week 48. The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of participants with neuropsychiatric adverse events through Week 48 in the following pre-specified categories: dizziness, sleep disorders and disturbances, and the inability to think clearly or concentrate. Secondary endpoints included an evaluation of the effects of DOR/3TC/TDF and EFV/FTC/TDF on fasting serum lipids, change from baseline in CD4+ T-cell count, and evaluation of safety and tolerability. The trial consists of a 96-week ...
The role of the Science and Safety Committee is to evaluate the scientific merit of clinical research protocols including novelty of the science, impact of the science on the subject area of the protocol, and justification of the utilization of human subjects to answer the scientific question(s) of the protocol. The Committee is also charged with the evaluation of the safety of the protocol with regard to inclusion/exclusion criteria, minimization of risks/maximization of benefits, justification of the research procedures to be utilized, and plans for the provision of overall medical and nursing care for subjects ...
The rejection of transplanted tissue by the recipient body is often life-threatening, but it can, in controlled form, be exactly what the doctors are looking for. New cancer therapies using transplanted blood stem cells are based on exploiting graft-versus-host reactions to attack the disease.
Impact of perioperative myocardial infarction on angiographic and clinical outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (from PRoject of Ex-vivo Vein graft ENgineering via Transfection [PREVENT] IV).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pleural effusion is associated with a poor treatment outcome in stage III small non-cleaved cell lymphoma. AU - Sandlund, John T.. AU - Crist, William M.. AU - Abromowitch, Minnie. AU - Fairclough, Diane. AU - Berard, Costan W.. AU - Rafferty, Mary. AU - Pui, Ching Hon. PY - 1991/1. Y1 - 1991/1. N2 - The clinical significance of pleural effusion was assessed in 24 children with unresectable abdominal small non-cleaved cell lymphoma (St. Jude Stage III). Patients were consecutively enrolled and treated on a regimen including high dose fractionated cyclophosphamide and co-ordinated high dose methotrexate and cytarabine. The overall results were excellent, with 20 of 24 patients alive and event-free at a median follow-up of 4 years. Only one of the patients who lacked pleural effusion has relapsed (testicular), even though many had massive disease. In contrast, three of seven patients with pleural effusion have failed treatment (p=0.02) and subsequently died. Two measures of tumor ...
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked immunodeficiency with microthrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders, and malignancies that are life-threatening in the majority of patients. In this long-term, retrospective, multicenter study, we analyzed events that occurred in 96 WAS patients who received transplants between 1979 and 2001 who survived at least 2 years following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Events included chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), autoimmunity, infections, and sequelae of before or after HSCT complications. Three patients (3%) died 2.1 to 21 years following HSCT. Overall 7-year event-free survival rate was 75%. It was lower in recipients of mismatched related donors, also in relation with an older age at HSCT and disease severity. The most striking finding was the observation of cGVHD-independent autoimmunity in 20% of patients strongly associated with a mixed/split chimerism status (P , .001), suggesting that ...
For advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, a platinum-based regimen is the first-line chemotherapy treatment. The excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) plays an important role in DNA repair and has been related to resistance to platinum chemotherapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the ERCC1 (C118T) polymorphism on treatment response in 26 Thai advanced NSCLC patients receiving first line platinum-based chemotherapy during January to July 2015 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH). DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes and the single nucleotide polymorphism of ERCC1 was genotyped using a real-time PCR method with the TaqMan assay. The distribution of C/C, C/T and T/T genotypes was 57.7 %, 34.6 % and 7.7 %, respectively. The response rate to platinum-based chemotherapy in the wild type (C/C) of ERCC1 (C118T) was better than with the variant types (C/T and T/T) but the difference was not statistically significant (29.7% vs 9.1%, P=0.274).
The goal of the trial was to evaluate treatment with high-frequency source ablation compared with circumferential pulmonary vein isolation among patients with symptomatic drug-refractory atrial fibrillation (AF).. Contribution to the Literature: The RADAR-AF trial showed that high-frequency source ablation plus circumferential pulmonary vein isolation was not superior to circumferential pulmonary vein isolation alone.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid immune reconstitution following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children. T2 - A single institution experience. AU - Hoepfner, S.. AU - Haut, Paul. AU - OGorman, M.. AU - Kletzel, M.. PY - 2003/2. Y1 - 2003/2. N2 - In this retrospective study, we review the immune reconstitution of children undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 125 patients underwent autologous transplantation between 1992 and 2000. The report includes data on 58 patients. Data were not available on the remaining patients who either died before testing or data were not obtained. The parameters evaluated include: (a) immunophenotype by flow cytometry to quantify lymphocyte subpopulations (b) mitogen stimulation assays, and (c) quantitative immunoglobulins. The analysis reveals that CD3+ cells did not reach the normal range during the first year post-transplant. The median percentage of CD4 + cells was below normal up to 6 months post-transplant, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current management of unprotected left main coronary artery disease. T2 - Run-in survey of the RITMO (Registro Italiano sul Trattamento del tronco coMune non protettO) study. AU - Sheiban, Imad. AU - Sillano, Dario. AU - Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe G L. AU - De Servi, Stefano. AU - Tamburino, Corrado. AU - Marzocchi, Antonio. AU - Trevi, Gian Paolo. AU - Moretti, Claudio. PY - 2009/9. Y1 - 2009/9. N2 - The optimal approach for a significant unprotected left main coronary stenosis (ULM) is debated, in light of the recent progresses of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is still considered the first choice treatment. Randomized trials comparing PCI and CABG are ongoing, yet patient selection will considerably limit their clinical applicability. We thus designed a prospective multicenter registry which will include patients with ULM disease independently from the subsequent medical, interventional or surgical treatment: the RITMO ...
BACKGROUND New generation transcatheter heart valves (THV) may improve clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS In a nationwide, prospective, multicenter cohort study (Swiss Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Registry, NCT01368250), outcomes of consecutive transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation patients treated with the Sapien 3 THV (S3) versus the Sapien XT THV (XT) were investigated. An overall of 153 consecutive S3 patients were compared with 445 consecutive XT patients. Postprocedural mean transprosthetic gradient (6.5±3.0 versus 7.8±6.3 mm Hg, P=0.17) did not differ between S3 and XT patients, respectively. The rate of more than mild paravalvular regurgitation (1.3% versus 5.3%, P=0.04) and of vascular (5.3% versus 16.9%, P,0.01) complications were significantly lower in S3 patients. A higher rate of new permanent pacemaker implantations was observed in patients receiving the S3 valve (17.0% versus 11.0%, P=0.01). There were no ...
Objectives. This study compared and contrasted the randomized trials of directional atherectomy and coronary angioplasty for de novo native coronary artery lesions.. Background. The results of two randomized trials, the Coronary Angioplasty Versus Excisional Atherectomy Trial (CAVEAT) and the Canadian Coronary Atherectomy Trial (CCAT), comparing initial and intermediate-term outcome of directional coronary atherectomy and conventional coronary angioplasty in de novo native vessels, have been reported. In CAVEAT any coronary artery segment that could be by either technique was included; in CCAT only nonostial proximal left anterior descending coronary artery stenoses were studied.. Methods. The primary end point was 6-month angiographic restenosis. Clinical outcome end points at 6 months included death, myocardial infarction, emergency bypass surgery and abrupt closure.. Results. Initial angiographic success rates were significantly improved with directional coronary atherectomy compared with ...

Maladaptive Schemas as a Predictor of Residential Treatment Outcomes i by Jodi Leigh Cullum"Maladaptive Schemas as a Predictor of Residential Treatment Outcomes i" by Jodi Leigh Cullum

The results of this study suggest that maladaptive schemas provide some predictability of treatment outcomes and are important ... course of treatment would have less favorable posttreatment outcomes at the time of their discharge from residential treatment ... schemas and treatment outcomes of adolescent and adult women with an eating disorder receiving residential treatment. Existing ... Results ndicated that maladaptive schemas at the start of treatment were predominantly predictive of admit rather than ...
more infohttps://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/459/

Brief strategic family therapy for young people in treatment for drug useBrief strategic family therapy for young people in treatment for drug use

Longer retention in treatment has been identified as a consistent predictor of a favorable outcome from drug use treatment. ... Brief strategic family therapy for young people in treatment for drug use. Print. Del. ... or worse effects on drug use frequency and family functioning than other treatments but has positive effects on treatment ... on drug use reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration ...
more infohttps://www.sfi.dk/publikationer/brief-strategic-family-therapy-for-young-people-in-treatment-for-drug-use-3090/

Diagnosis and Treatment  | Listeria | CDCDiagnosis and Treatment | Listeria | CDC

Listeriosis is usually diagnosed when a bacterial culture (a type of laboratory test) grows Listeria monocytogenes from a body tissue or fluid, such as blood, spinal fluid, or the placenta.. Listeriosis is treated with antibiotics.. Learn more about treatment of high-risk people ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/listeria/treatment.html

Treatment | Aspergillosis | Types of Fungal Diseases | Fungal Diseases | CDCTreatment | Aspergillosis | Types of Fungal Diseases | Fungal Diseases | CDC

Treatment & Outcomes. * Health Professionalsplus icon *Valley Fever: Timely Diagnosis, Early Assessment, and Proper Management ... Treatment options for types of Aspergillosis.. Type of aspergillosis. Examples. Recommended Treatment. ... Treatment for invasive and cutaneous aspergillosis: When possible, immunosuppressive medications should be discontinued or ... Expert guidance is needed for infections not responding to treatment, including antifungal-resistant infections. ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/aspergillosis/treatment.html

PAR-18-039: Outcome Measures for Use in Treatment Trials of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (R01-...PAR-18-039: Outcome Measures for Use in Treatment Trials of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (R01-...

Outcome Measures for Use in Treatment Trials of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (R01- Clinical ... Outcome Measures for Use in Treatment Trials of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (R01 Clinical ... Potential applicants may also be interested in the FOA "Preclinical Research on Model Organisms to Predict Treatment Outcomes ... Potential applicants may also be interested in the FOA "Preclinical Research on Model Organisms to Predict Treatment Outcomes ...
more infohttps://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAR-18-039.html

Treatment outcome in orth… - Göteborgs universitet 
							
							
						
					
				
			Treatment outcome in orth… - Göteborgs universitet

Treatment outcome in orthognathic surgery - A prospective comparison of accuracy in computer assisted two and three-dimensional ... Conclusions: The present study indicates an equal high accuracy in predicting facial outcome for both studied techniques. ...
more infohttps://www.gu.se/forskning/publikation?publicationId=273337

Significant Treatment Outcome | GreenMedInfo | Keyword | NaturalSignificant Treatment Outcome | GreenMedInfo | Keyword | Natural

10 Abstracts with Significant Treatment Outcome Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... 6 Pharmacological Actions Researched for Significant Treatment Outcome Name. AC. CK. Focus. ... Additional Keywords : Activated Charcoal, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Iodine, Significant Treatment Outcome ... Cannabidiol treatment significantly reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice.Feb 28, 2006. ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/keyword/significant-treatment-outcome-0

Voucher Program Provides Positive Drug Treatment OutcomeVoucher Program Provides Positive Drug Treatment Outcome

... September 24, 2011 • By A GoodTherapy.org News Summary .fb-share- ... The biggest hurtle in this whole thing is getting more people to commit to the treatment process. While 58% is great, it is ... "Cocaine accounted for 46.9% of all treatment admissions for drug dependence in Spain, and 62.5% of the total if we consider ... The team enrolled half of the participants into a standard care treatment program, in which they received group therapy twice a ...
more infohttps://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/voucher-program-for-drug-treatment-outcome/

Treatment Outcomes | Leukemia and Lymphoma SocietyTreatment Outcomes | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society

... the likely outcome of the disease) varies widely in patients with MF. Each patients prognostic risk factors are evaluated ... It is important to know that outcome data can show how groups of people with MF responded to treatment, but data cannot always ... The prognosis (likely outcome of a disease) varies widely in patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Each patients prognostic risk ...
more infohttps://www.lls.org/myeloproliferative-neoplasms/myelofibrosis/treatment/treatment-outcomes

Treatment Outcomes | Leukemia and Lymphoma SocietyTreatment Outcomes | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society

Measuring the response to treatment with blood and bone marrow testing is a very important part of treatment for people with ... A treatment response is an improvement related to the patients treatment. Monitoring treatment response is one of the key ... For patients with CML, adhering to treatment is associated with the probability of achieving and improving long-term outcomes, ... Treatment Response Milestones. People with CML respond to treatment in different ways. These are general guidelines for CML ...
more infohttps://www.lls.org/leukemia/chronic-myeloid-leukemia/treatment/treatment-outcomes

Treatment outcomes & life expectancy | aidsmapTreatment outcomes & life expectancy | aidsmap

Information about the impact of HIV treatment on viral load, the immune system, other health conditions, mortality and quality ... as long as they get the right medical treatment and care. ...
more infohttp://www.aidsmap.com/topic/hiv-treatment/treatment-outcomes-life-expectancy

Modelling Tumour Oxygenation, Reoxygenation and Implications on Treatment OutcomeModelling Tumour Oxygenation, Reoxygenation and Implications on Treatment Outcome

... Iuliana Toma-Dasu1 and Alexandru Dasu2 ... Iuliana Toma-Dasu and Alexandru Dasu, "Modelling Tumour Oxygenation, Reoxygenation and Implications on Treatment Outcome," ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2013/141087/cta/

treatment outcome Protocols and Video...'treatment outcome' Protocols and Video...

... treatment outcome include Analysis of 18FDG PET/CT Imaging as a Tool for Studying Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and ... Treatment in Non-human Primates, Comprehensive Protocol to Sample and Process Bone Marrow for Measuring Measurable Residual ... Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating ... Analysis of 18FDG PET/CT Imaging as a Tool for Studying Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Treatment in Non-human ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/treatment+outcome

Treatment Outcome of Vascular Depression - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govTreatment Outcome of Vascular Depression - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Treatment Outcome of Vascular Depression. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... This 12-week study will evaluate the effectiveness of sertraline (Zoloft®) for treatment of depression associated with small ... Groups and Cohorts Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information ... Groups and Cohorts Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00045773

Treatment Outcome of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with Modified Aida ProtocolTreatment Outcome of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with Modified Aida Protocol

... Kátia B. Barbosa Pagnano, Gustavo de Carvalho ... R. H. Jácomo, R. A. M. Melo, F. R. Souto et al., "Clinical features and outcomes of 134 Brazilians with acute promyelocytic ... M. A. Sanz, P. Montesinos, E. Vellenga et al., "Risk-adapted treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic ... acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy: long-term outcome of the LPA 99 multicenter study by the PETHEMA Group," Blood, vol. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ah/2010/672137/ref/

SFARI | Predicting autism treatment outcome with imaging biomarkersSFARI | Predicting autism treatment outcome with imaging biomarkers

Suitable biomarkers are needed to assess treatment outcomes in ASD. Pamela Ventola has developed fMRI biomarkers that allow ... Predicting autism treatment outcome with imaging biomarkers on SFARI ... Brain responses to biological motion predict treatment outcome in young children with autism.. Yang D., Pelphrey K., ... The horizontal reference line at y = 0 indicates no change in autism symptom severity from pre-treatment to post-treatment. ...
more infohttps://www.sfari.org/2016/11/30/predicting-autism-treatment-outcome-with-imaging-biomarkers/

Applied Issues in Treatment Outcome AssessmentApplied Issues in Treatment Outcome Assessment

GOALS OF OUTCOME EVALUATION. The basic question in outcome evaluation is whether, and as the result of alcohol treatment ... treatment outcome, and most would regard assessment of outcome without such a measure as inadequate. There is less agreement, ... challenges facing treatment outcome evaluators. By design, treatments are generally qualitatively different, each having a ... the extent of programmatic outcome evaluation of a single type of treatment, whereas in research settings programmatic outcome ...
more infohttps://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/assessingalcohol/outcome.htm

Dropbox - apnea-guard-rc02-treatment-outcome-mad.pdf - Simplify your lifeDropbox - apnea-guard-rc02-treatment-outcome-mad.pdf - Simplify your life

Dropbox is a free service that lets you bring your photos, docs, and videos anywhere and share them easily. Never email yourself a file again!
more infohttps://www.dropbox.com/s/dat4nlaumzahuzp/apnea-guard-rc02-treatment-outcome-mad.pdf

Is Counseling Essential to Successful Treatment Outcomes?Is Counseling Essential to Successful Treatment Outcomes?

... by Mark Publicker , February 15, 2013 ... and recent op-ed pieces have concluded that counseling is not an essential requirement for successful outcome in the treatment ... Many other patients came to their opiate addiction by way of treatment for pain. Most have seen their lives ruined: lost jobs, ... Can the premises of the POATS study be the basis of the conclusion that medication alone can be sufficient treatment for ...
more infohttps://www.asam.org/resources/publications/magazine/read/article/2013/02/15/is-counseling-essential-to-successful-treatment-outcomes-

Maximizing Treatment Outcome in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)Maximizing Treatment Outcome in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

... 2014-08-27 04:00:48 , BioPortfolio ... More From BioPortfolio on "Maximizing Treatment Outcome in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)". *Related Companies*Related ... Home » Topics » Psychiatry » Research » Maximizing Treatment Outcome in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) ... There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help.... Anxiety Disorders Anxiety is caused by stress. It is ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/128952/Maximizing-Treatment-Outcome-in-Post-Traumatic-Stress-Disorder-PTSD.html

Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), 1991-1994: [United States]Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), 1991-1994: [United States]

Drug-Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS) is a prospective study designed to determine the outcomes of adult drug abuse ... Drug-Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS) is a prospective study designed to determine the outcomes of adult drug abuse ... The study examined the role of treatment outcomes and program type, client characteristics (including dependence, treatment ... The study examined the role of treatment outcomes and program type, client characteristics (including dependence, treatment ...
more infohttp://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NAHDAP/studies/2258?q=%22mental+health%22&paging.startRow=17

Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), 1991-1994: [United States]Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), 1991-1994: [United States]

Drug-Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS) is a prospective study designed to determine the outcomes of adult drug abuse ... Drug-Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS) is a prospective study designed to determine the outcomes of adult drug abuse ... The study examined the role of treatment outcomes and program type, client characteristics (including dependence, treatment ... The study examined the role of treatment outcomes and program type, client characteristics (including dependence, treatment ...
more infohttp://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/NAHDAP/studies/2258?q=%22risk+factors%22&paging.startRow=26

PROGNOSTIC FACTORS AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF RELAPSING AND RE... : HemaSpherePROGNOSTIC FACTORS AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF RELAPSING AND RE... : HemaSphere

PROGNOSTIC FACTORS AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF RELAPSING AND REFRACTORY MATURE B CELL NON HODGKIN LYMPHOMA CCHE EXPERIENCE. PB1823 ... PROGNOSTIC FACTORS AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF RELAPSING AND REFRACTORY MATURE B CELL NON HODGKIN LYMPHOMA CCHE EXPERIENCE: PB1823 ... Home , June 2019 - Volume 3 - Issue , PROGNOSTIC FACTORS AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF RELAPSING AND RE... ... To analyze prognostic factors, and to report treatment outcome of relapsing/refractory mature B cell NHL. ...
more infohttps://journals.lww.com/hemasphere/Fulltext/2019/06001/PROGNOSTIC_FACTORS_AND_TREATMENT_OUTCOME_OF.1696.aspx

TREATMENT OUTCOMES - The ButteryTREATMENT OUTCOMES - The Buttery

TREATMENT OUTCOMESButtery2015-07-31T15:58:46+00:00. HIGH SUCCESS RATE OF BUTTERY REHABILITATION PROGRAMS. By treating addiction ... For full details of the treatment outcomes studies:. *Treatment-Outcomes.pdf 57 Kb ...
more infohttps://www.buttery.org.au/treatment-outcomes/
  • Results ndicated that maladaptive schemas at the start of treatment were predominantly predictive of admit rather than discharge symptomatology. (usu.edu)
  • Furthermore, the results of the study highlight the complexity associated with maladaptive schemas in females with eating disorders and the need for longitudinal research to examine common patterns and therapeutic targets based on diagnosis and status in treatment. (usu.edu)
  • Existing data were obtained from 67 females aged 11 to 47 years (m =18.61) that had entered residential treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) at a Western United States residential eating disorder treatment facility. (usu.edu)
  • Unless they are following their doctor's instructions, stopping medication or taking less than the amount prescribed can impact how well the medication works and may result in a loss of response and an unfavorable treatment outcome. (lls.org)
  • Under these conditions the evaluator has a clear responsibility to select assessment tools with demonstrated reliability and validity that are also sensitive to, and theoretically consistent with, treatment program objectives. (nih.gov)
  • There is significant overlap, and individualized assessment of each patient will always be required to develop appropriate treatment plans. (asam.org)
  • Risk-adapted treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy: long-term outcome of the LPA 99 multicenter study by the PETHEMA Group," Blood , vol. 112, no. 8, pp. 3130-3134, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical features and outcomes of 134 Brazilians with acute promyelocytic leukemia who received ATRA and anthracyclines," Haematologica , vol. 92, no. 10, pp. 1431-1432, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Your doctor measures your response using general treatment response guidelines for your first year of CML drug therapy. (lls.org)
  • This study will be the first clinical trial to simultaneously test the effects of specific brain and psychological factors on course of response, remission rate, and other measures of health outcomes in people with LLD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Factors associated with treatment outcome were investigated using regression analyses with the mean change scores in three assessor and self-rated PTSD symptomatology measures, including the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Impact of Events Scale (IES) and the PTSD Symptom Checklist (PCL) from pre- to post-treatment and pre-treatment to follow-up as the dependent variables and demographics, trauma, clinical and personality measures as independent variables. (springer.com)
  • The brain imaging data was then related to the children's responses after they had participated in 16 weeks of pivotal response treatment (PRT), an evidence-based behavioral intervention that is focused on social communication skill development. (sfari.org)
  • In doing this, the researchers identified a number of fMRI signatures in brain regions supporting social information processing and social motivation that predicted the success of PRT, providing key predictive biomarkers for treatment intervention in young children with autism. (sfari.org)
  • In an attempt to determine how the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) to treatment worked compared to the CRA plus a voucher system, the researchers conducted a study on 64 individuals who met the criteria for cocaine addiction. (goodtherapy.org)
  • A recent study and recent op-ed pieces have concluded that counseling is not an essential requirement for successful outcome in the treatment of prescription opiate addiction. (asam.org)
  • Can the premises of the POATS study be the basis of the conclusion that medication alone can be sufficient treatment for prescription opiate addiction? (asam.org)
  • Placebo Effects Across Self-Report, Clinician Rating, and Objective Performance Tasks Among Women With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Investigation of Placebo Response in a Pharmacological Treatment Study of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Thus far, only one published study has found a correlation of gene expression of macrophage-associated genes with favorable outcome. (haematologica.org)
  • 12 However, in two earlier studies, the authors of this study reported that the same genes, namely LYZ and STAT1 , were linked to unfavorable outcome, findings that the authors also validated by immunohistochemistry. (haematologica.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of treatment outcome for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) after treatment completion and at 15-months follow-up ( n = 48), in a trial of Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Imaginal Exposure and Cognitive Restructuring (E+CR). (springer.com)
  • The promotion of medication only treatment is a reductionist argument, similar to the oft-stated concept that depression is a serotonin deficiency disorder. (asam.org)
  • He said that asking about past trauma, current stress, depression and coping need to become routine aspects of a multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach to HIV treatment. (medindia.net)
  • This FOA will address a significant need in the field, one that is especially apparent in efforts to develop pharmacological treatments for these populations. (nih.gov)
  • Many studies in HL have, therefore, focused on the cellular composition of the microenvironment, not only to gain more insight into the pathobiology of the disease, but also to explore whether these immune-related cells in some way contribute to outcome prediction. (haematologica.org)
  • Software advances for personal computers have also spawned an audience-friendly revolution in how findings are presented, with time-to-event outcomes, hierarchical linear modeling findings, and structural equation modeling findings now presented in an understandable and graphic format. (nih.gov)
  • The horizontal reference line at y = 0 indicates no change in autism symptom severity from pre-treatment to post-treatment. (sfari.org)
  • Forbes D, Creamer M, Hawthorne G, Allen N, McHugh T (2003) Comorbidity as a predictor of symptom change after treatment in combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. (springer.com)
  • Asking about past trauma and current life issues brings a fuller, truer focus on the patient and should be a routine practice in any multi-disciplinary and comprehensive approach to HIV treatment," he said. (medindia.net)
  • It is used to determine how well treatment is working. (lls.org)
  • To determine the differential impact of maternal and paternal internalizing psychopathology on cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) outcome of anxiety-disordered children and adolescents. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Part 10 contains data for 1393 clients who were interviewed 5 years post treatment. (umich.edu)
  • multiple reports now support the value of enumerating tumor-associated macrophages in pretreatment biopsies for outcome prediction in classical HL ( Table 1 ). (haematologica.org)
  • Of note, the number of CD68 + cells in pretreatment biopsies was not only associated with primary treatment failure, but also with failure of subsequent secondary therapies including autologous stem cell transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • During treatment, relapse is correlated with number of pretreatment stones. (nih.gov)
  • In a related SFARI-funded project , Ventola and colleagues are studying whether responses to this treatment can also be accurately assessed using eye-tracking tools. (sfari.org)
  • Glycyrrhizin Treatment Facilitates Extinction of Conditioned Fear Responses After a Single Prolonged Stress Exposure in Rats. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Respondents were sampled from among adults admitted to drug abuse treatment programs in 11 representative U.S. cities during 1991-1993. (umich.edu)
  • Community Reinforcement Approach plus Vouchers among Cocaine-dependent Outpatients: Twelve-month Outcomes. (goodtherapy.org)
  • 3 , 4 To help guide treatment decisions, the distinction between classical HL and nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL and the separation of limited and advanced-stage disease are widely used in clinical practice. (haematologica.org)
  • Docrates Cancer Center is the first and currently the only private hospital in the Nordic countries that comprehensively specialises in cancer treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • A treatment response is an improvement related to the patient's treatment. (lls.org)
  • Monitoring treatment response is one of the key strategies for managing CML. (lls.org)
  • This reduction is equivalent to an early molecular response when achieved within 3 to 6 months of starting treatment. (lls.org)
  • Organizations responsible for carrying out this treatment could find a way to reward donors, links to donors websites, website donor badges and acknowledgement could get plenty of donors on board. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Part 7 includes variables for time in treatment and interview availability indicators. (umich.edu)
  • Before treatment, number of stone events rises with time of observation, and rate of stone event occurrence is constant or falls. (nih.gov)
  • As early as 1985, Ree and Kadin suggested that macrophages in HL biopsies had a prognostic value when they found the number of peanut agglutinin-binding macrophages was correlated with the presence of B symptoms and primary treatment failure. (haematologica.org)