Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Strontium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.Estramustine: A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Flutamide: An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Tosyl CompoundsTumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE which can grow in the presence of low or residual amount of androgen hormones such as TESTOSTERONE.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Radium: Radium. A radioactive element of the alkaline earth series of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ra, atomic number 88, and atomic weight 226. Radium is the product of the disintegration of uranium and is present in pitchblende and all ores containing uranium. It is used clinically as a source of beta and gamma-rays in radiotherapy, particularly BRACHYTHERAPY.Neoplastic Cells, Circulating: Exfoliate neoplastic cells circulating in the blood and associated with metastasizing tumors.AnilidesImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Androstenols: Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Polycomb Repressive Complex 2: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex that catalyzes the METHYLATION of chromosomal HISTONE H3. It works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 1 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Transurethral Resection of Prostate: Removal of all or part of the PROSTATE, often using a cystoscope and/or resectoscope passed through the URETHRA.Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II: A metallocarboxypeptidase that is predominantly expressed as a membrane-bound enzyme. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of an unsubstituted, C-terminal glutamyl residue, typically from PTEROYLPOLYGLUTAMIC ACIDS. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.19.8.Suramin: A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.PTEN Phosphohydrolase: A lipid phosphatase that acts on phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate to regulate various SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. It modulates CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL MIGRATION; and APOPTOSIS. Mutations in PTEN are associated with COWDEN DISEASE and PROTEUS SYNDROME as well as NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Yttrium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Tissue Extracts: Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Prostatic Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PROSTATE or its component tissues.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Digital Rectal Examination: A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.Finasteride: An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Androgen Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Prostatitis: Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the parenchyma of PROSTATE. The subtypes are classified by their varied laboratory analysis, clinical presentation and response to treatment.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Watchful Waiting: Clinical management approach wherein immediate therapy is not provided but there is a period of observation during which periodic tests monitor patient and the progression of the illness. (Driffield T, Smith PC Med Decis Making. 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):178-88)Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Metribolone: A synthetic non-aromatizable androgen and anabolic steroid. It binds strongly to the androgen receptor and has therefore also been used as an affinity label for this receptor in the prostate and in prostatic tumors.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Azasteroids: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.Cholestenone 5 alpha-Reductase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids into their corresponding 5alpha form. It plays an important role in the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE and PROGESTERONE into DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.Testosterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to TESTOSTERONE, the major mammalian male sex hormone. Testosterone congeners include important testosterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with androgenic activities.Androgen-Binding Protein: Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Prostatic Secretory Proteins: Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Racemases and Epimerases: Enzymes that catalyze inversion of the configuration around an asymmetric carbon in a substrate having one (racemase) or more (epimerase) center(s) of asymmetry. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.1.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Phenylthiohydantoin: Thiohydantoin benzene derivative.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Gene Fusion: The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Nomograms: Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Image-Guided Biopsy: Conducting a biopsy procedure with the aid of a MEDICAL IMAGING modality.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Goserelin: A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Erectile Dysfunction: The inability in the male to have a PENILE ERECTION due to psychological or organ dysfunction.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Glutathione S-Transferase pi: A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Urology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.United StatesCell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Urination Disorders: Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Androstane-3,17-diol: The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.
Enzalutamide - A Major Advance in the Treatment of Metastatic Prostate Cancer The New England Journal of Medicine, September 27 ... Abiraterone acetate for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; final overall survival analysis of the ... "Abiraterone acetate for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: final overall survival analysis of the ... Cancer patients find new hope, FDA approves new but costly treatment for prostate cancer. Las Vegas Review-Journal July 16, ...
Vogelzang NJ (September 2012). "Enzalutamide-a major advance in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer". The New England ... the most commonly prescribed treatment for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer: bicalutamide. That was sold as ... "Enzalutamide for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer". Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 9: ... Of the SAAs, CPA is the only one that has been widely used in the treatment of prostate cancer. As antiandrogens, the SAAs have ...
"DES lead-in to use of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogs in treatment of metastatic carcinoma of prostate". Urology ... treatment of prostate cancer in men and breast cancer in women, and other uses.[4] Today, it is only used in the treatment of ... the only approved indications for DES were treatment of advanced prostate cancer and treatment of advanced breast cancer in ... DES has at least three mechanisms of action in the treatment of prostate cancer in men.[60] It suppresses gonadal androgen ...
Vogelzang NJ (September 2012). "Enzalutamide--a major advance in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer". The New England ... "Enzalutamide for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer". Drug Design, Development and Therapy. 9: ... which is used for the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). An up to 89% decrease in serum ... "Hormonal Therapeutics Enzalutamide and Abiraterone Acetate in the Treatment of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer ...
2008). "Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) predict survival benefit from treatment in metastatic castration resistant prostate ... In studies done on prostate, breast and colon cancer patients, median survival of metastatic patients with positive samples is ... CellSearch circulating tumor cell kit premarket notification-expanded indications for use-metastatic prostate cancer" (PDF). ... prostate, lung, and colon)[32][33][34][35] and clinical evidences indicate that patients with metastatic lesions are more ...
It has been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Extracts induced apoptosis in prostate ... 2009). Chinese medicinal herb Scutellaria barbata modulates apoptosis and cell survival in murine and human prostate cancer ...
Therefore, blocking these androgens can provide powerful treatment for prostate cancer, especially metastatic disease. Normally ... Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer in combination with a gonadotropin-releasing ... Textbook of Prostate Cancer: Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment: Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. CRC Press. pp. 279-280. ... The dosages used are lower than those used in the treatment of prostate cancer. Although flutamide continues to be used for ...
... is used to treat people with metastatic, asymptomatic, hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Other names for ... Such patients have usually failed primary treatment of either surgical removal of the prostate, (EBRT), internal radiation, ... Mason K (2005-11-02). "New treatment options for patients with prostate cancer". ECCO-the European CanCer Organisation. Lacroix ... "NCT00779402: Provenge for the Treatment of Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer". ClinicalTrials.gov. US National Institutes of ...
It was approved for treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer in 2010. ... autologous cellular immunotherapy for the treatment of metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer". Vaccine. 30 (29): 4394-7 ... Pembrolizumab is approved for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer whose tumors have ... The only US-approved cell-based therapy is Dendreon's Provenge, for the treatment of prostate cancer. Interleukin-2 and ...
... has also been studied for the treatment of prostate cancer and HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer. Vadimezan was ...
Marcove RC, Miller TR (1969). "The treatment of primary and metastatic localized bone tumors by cryosurgery". Surg Clin North ... Prostate[edit]. Prostate cryoablation is moderately effective but, as with any prostate removal process, also can result in ... Gage, started utilizing cryoablation for the treatment of prostate and bone cancer.[17][18] ... the FDA approved the treatment of prostate cancer with cryoablation in 1998.[21] ...
... acetate is indicated for use in combination with prednisone as a treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer ... prostate cancer not responding to androgen deprivation or treatment with androgen receptor antagonists. It is a prodrug to the ... UK Centre for Cancer Therapeutics in the Institute of Cancer Research in London set out to develop drug treatments for prostate ... In Australia it is covered by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme when being used to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer ...
"AMG 162 in the Treatment of Bone Loss in Subjects Undergoing Androgen-Deprivation Therapy for Non-metastatic Prostate Cancer". ... In both prostate and breast cancer, denosumab has been shown to reduce cancer treatment-induced bone loss. The HALT-prostate ... In this trial, they used 1901 bone metastatic prostate patients whom were also suffering with other complication of bone ... "AMG 162 in the Treatment of Bone Loss in Subjects Undergoing Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy for Non-metastatic Breast Cancer". ...
... combination of mitoxantrone and prednisone is approved as a second-line treatment for metastatic hormone-refractory prostate ... Mitoxantrone is used to treat certain types of cancer, mostly metastatic breast cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and non- ... Until recently this combination was the first line of treatment; however, a combination of docetaxel and prednisone improves ...
Vladimir Mouraviev, M.D (1997). "THE GUIDED CRYOIMMUNOTHERAPY IN THE ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER". Tumor treatment through ... Thus, cryoablation of tumors is a way of achieving autologous, in-vivo tumor lysate vaccine and treat metastatic disease. ... Treatment of Sarcomas and Allied Diseases The Biology and Role of Cryosurgery in the Treatment of Bone Tumors THE GUIDED ... is an oncological treatment for various cancers that combines cryoablation of tumor with immunotherapy treatment. In-vivo ...
... metastatic breast cancer and prostate cancer. Other tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs that are in clinical trials include ... One notable example is dasatinib which has been approved for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia ... Lyn and Fgr are highly expressed in malignant prostate cells compared to normal prostate cells. When the primary prostate cells ... So the use of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor is a possible way of reducing the progression of prostate cancers. A number of ...
Inhibitor SB939 for the Treatment of Recurrent or Metastatic Prostate Cancer (HRPC)" (Press release). S*BIO. September 27, 2008 ... SB939 starting a phase II trial for Recurrent or Metastatic Prostate Cancer (HRPC). (phase I results,) Resminostat (4SC-201) an ... Sodium butyrate is commonly used as a candidate for mood disorder treatment: studies using it both alone and in co-treatment ... Also in recent years, there has been an effort to develop HDIs as a cancer treatment or adjunct. The exact mechanisms by which ...
The use of a whey protein concentrate in the treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma: a phase I-II clinical study. ... Weight Loss in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy Molecular pathogenesis and prevention of prostate ... "The use of a whey protein concentrate in the treatment of patients with metastatic carcinoma: A phase I-II clinical study". ... Gustavo Bounous Bounous, G (2000). "Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and glutathione modulation in cancer treatment". Anticancer ...
... "the treatment of EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer with disease progression" despite prior treatment. Panitumumab ... Early trials showed limited efficacy in patients with malignant melanoma, bladder cancer, prostate cancer, and renal cell ... Phase III clinical trials include treatment of esophageal cancer, urothelial carcinoma, metastatic head and neck cancer, and ... indicated for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer to include information about KRAS mutations. This was the result of ...
... in the treatment of stage D2 metastatic prostate cancer (mPC), and as a monotherapy at a dosage of 150 mg/day for the treatment ... Vogelzang NJ (September 2012). "Enzalutamide-a major advance in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer". The New England ... has become the mainstay of treatment for prostate cancer. Although ADT can shrink or stabilize prostate tumors and hence ... Bicalutamide is used primarily in the treatment of early and advanced prostate cancer. It is approved at a dosage of 50 mg/day ...
2005 Guidelines:Prostate cancer/Management/Locally advanced and metastatic/Biochemical relapse alternative causes, and ... in prostate cancer patients after treatment with surgery or radiation. Biochemical recurrence may occur in patients who do not ... It is used to detect metastatic progression of the prostate cancer. Biochemical recurrence Defining Biochemical Recurrence of ... implications for treatment Defining Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy: A Proposal for a ...
June 2017 Walsh DL, Chang SS (2009). "Dilemmas in the treatment of urothelial cancers of the prostate". Urologic Oncology. 27 ( ... In May 2016 FDA granted accelerated approval to atezolizumab for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma treatment ... Treatment for localized stage TCC is surgical resection of the tumor, but recurrence is common. Some patients are given ... Immunotherapy Proceeds to Change Bladder Cancer Treatment 2017 Syn, Nicholas L; Teng, Michele W L; Mok, Tony S K; Soo, Ross A ...
Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, and skin cancer and can also be used ... prostate cancer. Metastatic cancers are generally incurable with radiation therapy because it is not possible to treat the ... Stereotactic treatments can be confusing because many hospitals call the treatments by the name of the manufacturer rather than ... A single treatment gives comparable pain relief and morbidity outcomes to multiple-fraction treatments, and for patients with ...
"Repurposing itraconazole as a treatment for advanced prostate cancer: a noncomparative randomized phase II trial in men with ... metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer" (PDF). The Oncologist. 18 (2): 163-173. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2012-314. ... and prostate cancer. For example, in a phase II study involving men with advanced prostate cancer, high-dose itraconazole (600 ... The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.29 USD per day of treatment as of 2015. In the United States, as of 2017 ...
It binds to interleukin-6. Siltuximab has been investigated for the treatment of neoplastic diseases: metastatic renal cell ... The Prostate. 71 (13): 1455-1465. doi:10.1002/pros.21362. PMID 21321981. Van Rhee, F.; Fayad, L.; Voorhees, P.; Furman, R.; ... On April 23, 2014, siltuximab was FDA approved under the brand name of Sylvant for the treatment of patients with multicentric ... Common The following has been shown to occur in treatment of Multicentric Castleman's disease with siltuximab during a clinical ...
VEGF-B treatment of hepatoma carcinoma cells can cause α-catenin to move from its normal location on the membrane into the ... Coluzzi F, Mandatori I, Mattia C (September 2011). "Emerging therapies in metastatic bone pain". Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 16 (3 ... human prostate cancer cells). As a result, it is possible that the EMT associated with upregulated HIF-1α is controlled by ... On the other hand, some treatment concepts involve upregulating the E-cadherin/catenin adhesion system to prevent disruptions ...
Abiraterone acetate for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: final overall survival analysis of the ... We are pleased to add Xofigo to our oncology franchise for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer with ... Xofigo is indicated for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic bone metastases and no ... 3 Coleman R. Metastatic bone disease: clinical features, pathophysiology and treatment strategies. Cancer Treat Rev. 2001;27: ...
Radium Ra 223 dichloride is indicated for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic bone ... metastases, and no known visceral metastatic disease.. What is the mechanism of action? The active component of radium Ra 223 ... Physicians are advised to discontinue treatment if hematologic values do not recover within six to eights weeks after treatment ... What are the less common (occur in 10% to 29% of patients) side effects of treatment with radium Ra 223 dichloride? ...
Both NCCN and ASCO recommend ADT as initial treatment for metastatic prostate cancer [126,155]. Researchers have evaluated the ... Explain the diagnosis and treatment of benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer. ... Treatment for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is complex; evidence on the effect of traditional treatment ... The typical first-line treatment is a four- to six-week course of a fluoroquinolone, and treatment is usually more effective if ...
International Prostate Symptom Score - Prostate cancer screening - Tamsulosin - Doxazosin - Alfuzosin - 5α-Reductase - ... Prostate-specific antigen - Urination - Lower urinary tract symptoms - Dihydrotestosterone - Rectal examination - Dysuria - ... prostatehormone-refractory prostate cancermetastatic prostate cancer. Although prostate specific antigen levels may be elevated ... are a class of medications with antiandrogenic effects which are used primarily in the treatment of enlarged prostate and scalp ...
Prostate cancer may spread, or metastasize, from its original site. When this happens, it often reaches the brain, bones, liver ... Side effects of prostate cancer treatment. Share on Pinterest. If a person experiences any side effects from treatment, they ... We also look at treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer, and the likely outlook for people with the condition. ... However, if a person requires treatment for metastatic prostate cancer, they should not have to put up with uncomfortable ...
Metastatic prostate cancer means the cancer has spread beyond the prostate to other parts of the body. Symptoms may include ... Find out more about treatment options, treatment side effects, and outlook. ... Prostate cancer occurs when the cells in the prostate gland grow uncontrollably. ... Side effects of prostate cancer treatment. Prostate cancer treatment can cause some serious side effects, including:. Prostate ...
The types of treatments given are based on the unique needs of the person with cancer. ... The following are treatment options for stage IV prostate cancer. ... Treatments for metastatic prostate cancer. Metastatic prostate cancer includes stage 4 and recurrent disease when the cancer ... The following are treatment options for metastatic prostate cancer. Your healthcare team will suggest treatments based on your ...
... oncologists and clinicians working on prostate cancer. The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and ... Prostate Cancer is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a multidisciplinary platform for scientists, surgeons, ... Local Treatment of Metastatic Prostate Cancer: What is the Evidence So Far?. Pedro Leonel Almeida and Bruno Jorge Pereira ... "metastatic prostate cancer," "primary treatment," "local treatment," "radical prostatectomy," "radiotherapy," "cytoreductive ...
TGFβi pre-treatment prevents bone metastatic prostate cancer growth in silico and in vivo. ... Predictive computational modeling to define effective treatment strategies for bone metastatic prostate cancer.. Cook LM1, ... Predictive computational modeling to define effective treatment strategies for bone metastatic prostate cancer ... Predictive computational modeling to define effective treatment strategies for bone metastatic prostate cancer ...
... for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic (advanced) prostate cancer ... Docetaxel for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Technology appraisal guidance [TA101]. Published ... Appendix C Detail on criteria for audit of the use of docetaxel for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate ... Evidence-based recommendations on docetaxel for treating hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer in adults. ...
The growth and survival of prostate cancer cells are very dependent on signals that the cancer cells receive through a protein ... Prostate Cancer Trans-Urethral Resection of the Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer: Treatment Options Prostate Specific Antigen [ ... Prostate Cancer: Treatment Options. Treatment options of prostate cancer includes waiting, surgery, radiation, hormone therapy ... In Patients With Metastatic Prostate Cancer, Noninvasive Assay Monitored Treatment Response. by Bidita Debnath on October 30, ...
Downloading a figure as powerpoint requires a browser with javascript support. Enable javascript and try again For help please contact [email protected] ...
New Data Mining Platform Accurately Predicts Effectiveness of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Treatments Scientists Use Project Data ... needed to detect differences between treatments in present-day metastatic prostate cancer trials. ... and growth rates during treatment in patients with advanced prostate cancer: a retrospective analysis." The Lancet Oncology, ... They then evaluated the effects of different treatments on mCRPC growth rates to arrive at an algorithm that predicts survival ...
... of the research study drug in combination with other drugs in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. ... mCRPC is prostate cancer that no longer responds to treatment that lowers testosterone levels and has spread to other parts of ... Phase Ib/II trial of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) combination therapies in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) ( ... from AEs due to mAbs administered more than 4 weeks prior to first dose of trial treatment. Note: Treatment with denosumab as ...
Exogenous Testosterone Plus Dutasteride for the Treatment of Castrate Metastatic Prostate Cancer. The safety and scientific ... Phase II Trial of Exogenous Testosterone Plus Dutasteride for the Treatment of Castrate Metastatic Prostate Cancer. ... Exogenous Testosterone Plus Dutasteride for the Treatment of Castrate Metastatic Prostate Cancer. ... Evidence of metastatic disease, documented within 4 weeks prior to dutasteride treatment initiation, based on a:. *CT or MRI of ...
... which is likely reflective of the underlying biological heterogeneity of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer. We ... results to date demonstrate that gallium citrate PET can feasibly detect metastatic lesions in patients with advanced prostate ... of the mean percent change from baseline in Ga-citrate uptake on PET upon treatment with BET bromodomain inhibitor treatment. ... Title : Annotating MYC Status in Treatment-Resistant Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer With Gallium-68 Citrate ...
... of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer and treatments in the setting of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer ... ASCO 2018: Treatment of Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer and Implications for Subsequent Management Published 20 ... Neeraj Agarwal provided a comprehensive overview of the treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). ... Chemohormonal Therapy in Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2015 Aug 20;373(8):737-46. doi: 10.1056/ ...
Provenge® (Sipuleucel-T) Active Cellular Immunotherapy Treatment of Metastatic Prostate Cancer After Failing Hormone Therapy. ... Time to disease-related pain and first opioid use in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with ... phase 3 IMPACT trial of Sipuleucel-T for metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer. J Urol. 2013 Feb;189(2):521-6. doi: ... Treatment consists of 3 doses administered approximately 2 weeks apart. Participant Flow: Overall Study APC-Placebo Sipuleucel- ...
... bone seeking radionuclide therapy approved for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In the ... Impact of treatment delay in Radium-223 therapy of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients March 12, 2018 ... bone seeking radionuclide therapy approved for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In the ... Journals Print publications focusing on urological cancer treatments through original commentary & articles** ...
Castrate-resistant metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate defined as progressive metastatic disease (see below) while on ... for Treatment of Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... for Treatment of Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer Official Title ICMJE A Phase 2 Trial of Bevacizumab, ... Lenalidomide, Docetaxel, and Prednisone (ART-P) for Treatment of Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer ...
Intervention/treatment Phase Castration Levels of Testosterone Metastatic Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Stage IV Prostate Cancer ... Standard Systemic Therapy With or Without Definitive Treatment in Treating Participants With Metastatic Prostate Cancer. The ... Metastatic disease that is detected by positron emission tomography (PET) scan only (sodium fluoride [NaF], prostate-specific ... I. To compare overall survival in metastatic prostate cancer patients who received SST plus surgical excision of the primary ...
"Abiraterone Acetate for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Naïve Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Final publishers ... "Abiraterone Acetate for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Naive Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: An Evidence Review ...
The mainstay of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer is androgen deprivation therapy, also called hormonal therapy, in ... it treats many men with metastatic prostate cancer, Cookson said.. "This clinical trial is part of our portfolio for men with ... step is to seek approval from the Food and Drug Administration to offer the drug relugolix to patients with metastatic prostate ... "Prostate cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer deaths among men," Cookson said. "This study is exciting because it is ...
Circulating Tumor Cells Predict Survival Benefit from Treatment in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Johann S. ... Prostate-specific antigen and pain surrogacy analysis in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2007;25: ... Is prostate-specific antigen a valid surrogate end point for survival in hormonally treated patients with metastatic prostate ... Circulating Tumor Cells Predict Survival Benefit from Treatment in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer ...
Todays key research highlights include an effective medication for metastatic prostate cancer, targeted therapy that slows the ... and how the ACA resulted in earlier treatment and improved ... The initial standard treatment for metastatic hormone-sensitive ... growth of metastatic pancreatic cancer, how socioeconomic factors may affect survival for multiple myeloma, ... ASCO Annual Meeting 2019: Treatment Advances for Metastatic Prostate Cancer and Pancreatic Cancer, Multiple Myeloma Survival ...
  • In 2018, there will be an estimated 164,690 new cases of prostate cancer (PC) in the U.S. and approximately 29,430 patients will die of the disease, making it the third-leading cause of cancer death in men (American Cancer Society [ACS], 2018). (carevive.com)
  • The standard of care approach for treating metastatic disease utilizes anti-hormone therapy to shut down the main driving pathway of the cancer cells. (army.mil)
  • TGFβ inhibitor was applied at day 1 for all simulations (pre-treatment scenario). (nih.gov)
  • Planned analyses include: 1) correlation of gallium citrate uptake on PET with MYC copy number and expression levels, and 2) determination of the mean percent change from baseline in Ga-citrate uptake on PET upon treatment with BET bromodomain inhibitor treatment. (dtic.mil)