Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)alpha-Synuclein: A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.Antiparkinson Agents: Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.Parkinsonian Disorders: A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Levodopa: The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.Glucosylceramidase: A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Lewy Bodies: Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Multiple System Atrophy: A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Lewy Body Disease: A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.MPTP Poisoning: A condition caused by the neurotoxin MPTP which causes selective destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical features include irreversible parkinsonian signs including rigidity and bradykinesia (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY). MPTP toxicity is also used as an animal model for the study of PARKINSON DISEASE. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1072; Neurology 1986 Feb;36(2):250-8)Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive: A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Dance Therapy: The use of dancing for therapeutic purposes.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Essential Tremor: A relatively common disorder characterized by a fairly specific pattern of tremors which are most prominent in the upper extremities and neck, inducing titubations of the head. The tremor is usually mild, but when severe may be disabling. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance may occur in some families (i.e., familial tremor). (Mov Disord 1988;13(1):5-10)Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus: Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Gaucher Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Gait: Manner or style of walking.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Pergolide: A long-acting dopamine agonist which has been used to treat PARKINSON DISEASE and HYPERPROLACTINEMIA but withdrawn from some markets due to potential for HEART VALVE DISEASES.Carbidopa: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.beta-Synuclein: A synuclein that is closely related to ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN. It may play a neuroprotective role against some of the toxic effects of aggregated ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Globus Pallidus: The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Maneb: Manganese derivative of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate. It is used in agriculture as a fungicide and has been shown to cause irritation to the eyes, nose, skin, and throat.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Dyskinesias: Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium: An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Olfaction Disorders: Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.Synucleins: A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Dopamine Agents: Any drugs that are used for their effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of dopaminergic neurons.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Apathy: Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Sleep Arousal Disorders: Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Primary Dysautonomias: Disorders of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM occurring as a primary condition. Manifestations can involve any or all body systems but commonly affect the BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Manganese Poisoning: Manganese poisoning is associated with chronic inhalation of manganese particles by individuals who work with manganese ore. Clinical features include CONFUSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and an extrapyramidal syndrome (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) that includes rigidity; DYSTONIA; retropulsion; and TREMOR. (Adams, Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1213)Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Pure Autonomic Failure: A degenerative disease of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM that is characterized by idiopathic ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION and a greatly reduced level of CATECHOLAMINES. No other neurological deficits are present.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNeurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Pemoline: A central nervous system stimulant used in fatigue and depressive states and to treat hyperkinetic disorders in children.Selenoprotein W: A single SELENOCYSTEINE containing protein that binds reduced GLUTATHIONE and can act as an antioxidant.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dreams: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid: A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reality Therapy: Method of psychotherapeutic treatment based on assumption of patients' personal responsibility for their own behavior. The therapist actively guides patients to accurate self-perception for fulfillment of needs of self-worth and respect for others. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.Sweat Gland Diseases: Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS.Penetrance: The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Parkinson Disease, Postencephalitic: Parkinsonism following encephalitis, historically seen as a sequella of encephalitis lethargica (Von Economo Encephalitis). The early age of onset, the rapid progression of symptoms followed by stabilization, and the presence of a variety of other neurological disorders (e.g., sociopathic behavior; TICS; MUSCLE SPASMS; oculogyric crises; hyperphagia; and bizarre movements) distinguish this condition from primary PARKINSON DISEASE. Pathologic features include neuronal loss and gliosis concentrated in the MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMUS; and HYPOTHALAMUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p754)Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Chromogranin B: A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Guadeloupe: The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Cysteinyldopa: Found in large amounts in the plasma and urine of patients with malignant melanoma. It is therefore used in the diagnosis of melanoma and for the detection of postoperative metastases. Cysteinyldopa is believed to be formed by the rapid enzymatic hydrolysis of 5-S-glutathionedopa found in melanin-producing cells.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Introversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Mitochondrial Degradation: Proteolytic breakdown of the MITOCHONDRIA.DNA Repeat Expansion: An increase number of repeats of a genomic, tandemly repeated DNA sequence from one generation to the next.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Dihydroxyphenylalanine: A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.ThiazolesExercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Selegiline: A selective, irreversible inhibitor of Type B monoamine oxidase. It is used in newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease. It may slow progression of the clinical disease and delay the requirement for levodopa therapy. It also may be given with levodopa upon onset of disability. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p385) The compound without isomeric designation is Deprenyl.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Electron Transport Complex I: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC 1.6.99.3.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Inclusion Bodies: A generic term for any circumscribed mass of foreign (e.g., lead or viruses) or metabolically inactive materials (e.g., ceroid or MALLORY BODIES), within the cytoplasm or nucleus of a cell. Inclusion bodies are in cells infected with certain filtrable viruses, observed especially in nerve, epithelial, or endothelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Sensation Disorders: Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).Mice, Inbred C57BLQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
... phantosmia can be used as a premotor biomarker of Parkinson's disease, for the prediction of the development of Parkinson's of ... The drug was prescribed initially in order to treat her depression. Phantosmia is most likely to occur in women between the ... Parkinson's disease patients can also experience phantosmia, as well as parosmia, however their appearance is less common than ... Therefore, phantosmia is often used as a potential marker for the diagnosis of Parkinson disease. In the case of a 57-year-old ...
"Treating Parkinson's Disease - Clinical Trial Pimavanserin - ACADIA". Archived from the original on February 25, 2009. ... "Press Announcements - FDA approves first drug to treat hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease". U.S. ... The drug met expectations for a Phase III clinical trial for the treatment of Parkinson's disease psychosis, and has completed ... It was approved by the FDA to treat hallucinations and delusions associated with psychosis experienced by some people with ...
Sulfarlem (Anethole trithione) for treating Parkinson's disease. At room temperature 4-Methoxyacetophenone is solid, and has a ...
Boh, Samantha (2016-11-25). "Creating new nerve cells to treat Parkinson's". The Strait Times. Archived from the original on ... He has also studied the relationship between Parkinson's Disease and cancer and has uncovered the role of a tumor suppressor ... His research has focused on identifying the molecular events underlying Parkinson's disease (PD). He co-led the creation of the ... Staff Reporter (2014-12-29). "People and passion behind Parkinson's disease research". Tomorrow's Medicine. Archived from the ...
In 1844, Eleanor Parkinson, of a well-known Philadelphia family of professional confectioners, first published her book The ... Unsure of what to call the treat he invented, his wife suggested calling them love pearls, and the name stuck. The factory ... External link in ,publisher= (help) "Nonpareil - sweet treat from Görlitz". dw.com. Deutsche Welle. 28 April 2016. Retrieved 1 ... External link in ,publisher= (help) Parkinson, Eleanor. "The Complete Confectioner". Feeding America: The Historic American ...
1996 Aug;11(4):201-7. Friedman, JH (May 2012). "Melperone is ineffective in treating Parkinson's disease psychosis". Movement ... It has also been reported effective in the treatment of L-DOPA and other forms of psychosis in Parkinson's disease (although a ... Barbato L, Monge A, Stocchi F, Nordera G. Melperone in the treatment of iatrogenic psychosis in Parkinson's disease. Funct ...
It is also used to treat Parkinson's disease. Since the late 1980s it has been used, off-label, to reduce the symptoms of ... A quick-release formulation of bromocriptine is also used to treat type 2 diabetes. Most frequent side effects are nausea, ... Todman, D.; Oliver, W.; Edwards, R. (1990). "Pleuropulmonary fibrosis due to bromocriptine treatment for Parkinson's disease". ... Bromocriptine is used to treat acromegaly and conditions associated with hyperprolactinemia like amenorrhea, infertility, and ...
PLMD is often treated with anti-Parkinson medication; it may also respond to anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, and narcotics. ... but in many cases the patient also suffers from other medical problems such as Parkinson's disease or narcolepsy. Factors that ...
Linda Davis is currently being treated for Parkinson's disease. Bob and Linda Davis' son, Steven, is a play-by-play announcer ...
... is used to treat idiopathic Parkinson's disease as add-on for people taking a stable dose of levodopa (L-dopa) alone ... "Press Announcements - FDA approves drug to treat Parkinson's disease". FDA. March 21, 2017. "After an odyssey of setbacks, FDA ... Safinamide (INN; brand name Xadago) is a drug used as an add-on treatment for Parkinson's disease during "off" episodes; it has ... Study of Safinamide in Early Parkinson's Disease as Add-on to Dopamine Agonist (MOTION) Merck Returns Rights for Safinamide to ...
... , sold under the brandname Akineton among others, is a medication used to treat Parkinson disease and certain drug- ... Nishiyama K, Mizuno T, Sakuta M, Kurisaki H (1993). "Chronic dementia in Parkinson's disease treated by anticholinergic agents ... Children and adolescents aged 1 year and older may be treated. The clinical experience is mainly on the short-term treatment of ... Carbachol can be used to treat atonic bowels and bladder. The vital functions should be monitored and stabilized. It may be ...
Surgical ablation has been used to treat Parkinson's disease. In the 1990s, the pallidum was a common surgical target. ... Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative disease of the basal ganglia, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic ... The Texas Children's Hospital is one of the first to use this MRI guided method to destroy and treat brain lesions effectively ... The use of ablative brain surgery on the nucleus accumbens is the wrong method to treat addictions according to Dr. Charles ...
... levodopa and other drugs given to treat Parkinson's disease; amphetamines, cocaine and other stimulants; and some ... Medications like prazosin are sometimes used to treat nightmares in people with PTSD.[third-party source needed] Therapy ... Blood pressure medication, levodopa and medications for Parkinson's disease have also been known to cause nightmares. Children ... treating those with Nightmare Disorder may also help some with Borderline Personality Disorder. Hypnosis seems to be a new and ...
"Drug holiday and management of Parkinson disease". Neurology. 30 (12): 1257-61. PMID 7192805. "Tolerance and Desensitization". ... J Subst Abuse Treat. 4 (3-4): 197-207. PMID 3325655. Weiner, WJ; Koller, WC; Perlik, S; Nausieda, PA; Klawans, HL. " ... it represses c-Fos and contributes to the molecular switch whereby ΔFosB is selectively induced in the chronic drug-treated ...
6-7. Lazzarini AM, Myers RH, Zimmerman TR, et al. (March 1994). "A clinical genetic study of Parkinson's disease: evidence for ... "Parkinson's researcher gets Parkinson's: welcome to my home". Alice Lazzarini personal blog. Retrieved December 14, 2013. " ... where her work helped establish the genetic basis of Parkinson's. Later in life, she was diagnosed with Parkinson's-the very ... Collecting samples from patients in Italy, Lazzarini was a member of the team that reported the first Parkinson disease-causing ...
GCNIS is generally treated by radiation therapy and/or orchiectomy. Chemotherapy used for metastatic germ cell tumours may also ... Bettocchi C, Coker CB, Deacon J, Parkinson C, Pryor JP (1994). "A review of testicular intratubular germ cell neoplasia in ... ISBN 92-832-2412-4 Müller J, Skakkebaek NE, Parkinson MC (February 1987). "The spermatocytic seminoma: views on pathogenesis". ...
Strevens had been treated there for Parkinson's disease in later life. The remainder of his paintings were auctioned. A blue ...
Minocycline Amantadine: used for treating Parkinson's disease and influenza and Alzheimer's. Atomoxetine: a norepinephrine ... Has been used, albeit with limited evidence, to treat opioid and other addictions. Remacemide: principle metabolite is an ... Parkinson's, and Huntington's. This is counterbalanced by the risk of developing Olney's lesions, which have only ever been ... Treat Respir Med. 5 (6): 509-513. doi:10.2165/00151829-200605060-00014. PMID 17154678. Newcomer, JW; Krystal JH (2001). "NMDA ...
This study, however, was not as successful as the Parkinson's treatment. In this case stem cells were used to treat animal ... There has been progress in certain fields that have been shown to be beneficial when using stem cells to treat certain ... The cells can be used to study the progression of Parkinson's as well as used in regenerative treatment. Animal studies have ... As discussed, stem cells are used to treat degenerative diseases. One form of a degenerative disease that can occur in the ...
... is then a promising therapeutic target for treating Parkinson's disease. Mul1 has also been implicated as a modulator of ... Its proapopototic function thus implicates it in cancer and Parkinson's disease. The gene MUL1 encodes one of the E3 ubiquitin ...
However, its potential to be a premotor biomarker for Parkinson's is still up for debate as not all patients with Parkinson's ... Leopold, D; Loehrl, T; Schwob, J (2002). "Long-term follow up of surgically treated phantosmia". Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck ... Landis, B; Burkhard, P (2008). "Phantosmias and Parkinson Disease". Arch Neurol. 65 (9): 1237-9. doi:10.1001/archneur.65.9.1237 ... Lately, it has been thought that phantosmia might co-occur with Parkinson's disease. ...
SR deficiency is currently being treated using a combination therapy of levodopa and carbidopa. These treatments are also used ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency Neurotransmitter Parkinson's disease Cerebral palsy Enzyme Biochemistry SR ... for individuals suffering from Parkinson's. The treatment is noninvasive and only requires the patient to take oral tablets 3 ...
... is used to treat Parkinson's disease, as well as parkinsonism syndromes. A 2003 Cochrane review concluded evidence ... An extended release formulation is used to treat dyskinesia, a side effect of levodopa which is taken by people who have ... In 1969, the drug was also discovered by accident upon trying to help reduce symptoms of Parkinson's disease, drug-induced ... "Amantadine in Parkinson's disease". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003468. "Amantadine - FDA ...
... is used to treat Parkinson's disease-like extrapyramidal symptoms caused by antipsychotics. Because of its ... Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies. It is also used for insomnia, symptoms of the common cold, ... Diphenhydramine also has antiemetic properties, which make it useful in treating the nausea that occurs in vertigo and motion ... Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine used to treat a number of conditions including allergic symptoms and ...
In its pill form, selegiline is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It can be used on its own or in a combination ... A quantitative review published in 2015 found that for the pooled results of the pivotal trials, the number needed to treat (a ... A transdermal patch (brand name, Emsam) is used to treat depression. For all human uses and all forms, selegiline is pregnancy ... Selegiline was approved for Parkinson's disease by the FDA in 1989. In the 1990s, J. Alexander Bodkin at McLean Hospital, an ...
G. H. R. Parkinson (12 October 2012). "determinism". Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Taylor & Francis. pp. 891-92. ISBN 978-0-415- ... Free will here is predominately treated with respect to physical determinism in the strict sense of nomological determinism, ... either when it is severed to treat intractable epilepsy or due to a stroke. The standard neurological explanation is that the ...
Carbidopa/Levodopa is a prescription medication used to treat symptoms of Parkinsons disease. It can also treat Parkinsons- ... It is also used to treat Parkinsons-like symptoms that may develop after encephalitis (swelling of the brain) or injury to the ... Carbidopa/levodopa is a prescription medication used to treat symptoms of Parkinsons disease. ... Parkinsons symptoms, including tremors (shaking), stiffness, and slowness of movement, are caused by a lack of dopamine, a ...
Analysis was by intention to treat. Daily treatment with levodopa plus selegiline led to more deaths at 5.6 years than did ... 5. The Parkinson Study Group. Impact of deprenyl and tocopherol treatment on Parkinsons disease in DATATOP patients requiring ... 8. The Parkinsons Study Group. Effects of tocopherol and deprenyl on the progression of disability in early Parkinsons ... Selegiline plus levodopa vs levodopa alone in Parkinson disease*. Outcome at mean of 5.6 y. Selegiline plus levodopa. Levodopa ...
symptoms in Parkinsons disease patients treated with levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion.SINEMET* (Carbidopa-Levodopa) ... Reminyl (Galantamine).Answers for Is requip a muscle relaxer:Requip is used to treat symptoms of Parkinsons disease, such as ... is an anticonvulsant used to treat epilepsy,...Fava Beans, Levodopa, and Parkinsons Disease. particularly if other PD ... Effect on levodopa bioavailability.Sinemet (Carbidopa/Levodopa) is used for treating symptoms associated with Parkinson disease ...
As a group, Parkinsons patients have been noted by many to gravitate toward spirituality, as evidenced by their participation ... To enroll, participants must be between 45-80 years old and have early to moderately advanced stages of Parkinsons disease, ... This study, however, is the first of its kind to test spirituality in patients with Parkinsons.. ... with a progressive illness like Parkinsons disease?. Emory researchers are studying that question in a clinical trial ...
A drug activated in the brain using light delivered by implanted optical fiber improved motor function and reduced Parkinsons ... The goal of many drugs intended to treat Parkinsons disease is to restore dopamine levels in the brain. The blocking of ... For the very first time, scientists have developed a light-activated drug for treating Parkinsons disease directly in a ... Parkinsons and photopharmacology. In excess of 10 million of the worlds population has Parkinsons disease, including 1 ...
... now being treated for the early symptoms of Parkinsons Disease, it has been confirmed. ... Billy Connolly treated for cancer and Parkinsons disease Billy Connolly, the comedian, has undergone surgery for prostate ... now being treated for the early symptoms of Parkinsons Disease, it has been confirmed. Billy Connolly was diagnosed with ... Dr Kieran Breen, director of research at Parkinsons UK, confirmed the average lifespan of someone with Parkinsons is ...
A new study successfully used the protein hormone klotho to improve cognition in mice with Parkinsons and Alzheimers-like ... Parkinsons could be treated with shark compound, study suggests Researchers have found that squalamine - a compound found in ... Klotho may treat neurodegeneration. "The burning question in the field was, Does klotho have therapeutic potential?" says Dr ... Ketogenic diet may protect against gout Could the low-carb, high-fat diet be helpful in treating the symptoms of gout? A new ...
A drug prescribed for Parkinsons disease may also treat restless leg syndrome without major adverse side effects, according to ... Parkinsons is caused by a dopamine insufficiency, which makes Rasagaline effective in treating treat the debilitating ... A drug prescribed for Parkinsons disease may also treat restless leg syndrome without major adverse side effects, according to ... Neurostimulation therapy in patients with refractory epilepsy can lower the cost of treating epilepsy-related health problems, ...
A final important finding is that survival is equal in PD patients treated with levodopa early (within 2 years or less of PD ... Parkinsons disease (PD) is associated with increased mortality despite many advances in treatment. Following the introduction ... this retrospective study of 211 deceased PD patients to determine the factors associated with mortality in levodopa-treated PD ... Mortality in Levodopa-Treated Parkinsons Disease. John C. Morgan. ,1 Lillian J. Currie. ,2 Madaline B. Harrison. ,2 James P. ...
... to help surgeons pinpoint where to place electrodes to treat the effects of his Parkinsons disease. ... Man plays guitar during brain surgery to treat Parkinsons. In a medical first, a patient has played the guitar while ... The aim was to help surgeons pinpoint exactly where to place electrodes to treat the effects of his Parkinsons disease, as ... to help surgeons pinpoint where to place electrodes to treat the effects of his Parkinsons disease. * 25 May 13 ...
Quantum dots in brain could treat Parkinsons and Alzheimers diseases. Quantum dots may break up proteins in the brain that ... Parkinsons disease involves gradually worsening tremors and movement problems. It is thought to be caused by a protein called ... "Unfortunately in Parkinsons there have been a lot of compounds shown to work in mice but not in humans." ... Read more: Parkinsons disease may start in the gut and travel to the brain ...
... practice parameter on the treatment of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson disease found insufficient evidence to support or refute ... Drugs & Diseases , Neurology , Parkinson Disease Q&A How is anxiety treated in patients with Parkinson disease (PD)?. Updated: ... Depression in Parkinsons disease: Health risks, etiology, and treatment options. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Feb. 4(1):81- ... Malignant melanoma in early-treated Parkinsons disease: the NET-PD trial. Mov Disord. 2014 Feb. 29 (2):263-5. [Medline]. ...
Parkinsons drug could treat restless leg syndrome. 07.12.2010. A drug prescribed for Parkinsons disease may also treat ... "We are trying to evaluate its safety and efficacy in treating RLS at this point. When it has been used to treat Parkinsons, ... MCG »Mehta »Parkinson »Parkinsons drug »RLS »RLS therapies »Rasagaline »dopamine imbalance »nerve cell »restless leg syndrome ... Further reports about: , MCG , Mehta , Parkinson , Parkinsons drug , RLS , RLS therapies , Rasagaline , dopamine imbalance , ...
Epilepsy drugs could treat Alzheimers and Parkinsons. 28.10.2009. Researchers in the USA have discovered a potential new ... function for anti-epileptic drugs in treating neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease. ... which are commonly used to treat epilepsy. ...
show that in a rat model of Parkinsons disease, injection of CDNF before or after exposure to the neurotoxin prevented or ... A new neurotrophin promotes survival of dopaminergic neurons in a model of Parkinsons disease. ... A new neurotrophin promotes survival of dopaminergic neurons in a model of Parkinsons disease. ...
The neurodegenerative disease Parkinsons can be treated through a controlled dose of antibiotics according to a Brazilian ... The neurodegenerative disease Parkinsons can be treated through a controlled dose of antibiotics according to a Brazilian ... More about Parkinsons Disease, Antibiotics, neurodeg, Neurotoxins More news from Parkinson s Disease. Antibiotics. neurodeg. ... Parkinsons disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. It is triggered by alpha-synuclein aggregates. ...
ACADIA Pharmaceuticals is the only company developing a drug to treat psychosis associated with Parkinsons disease, a symptom ... Treating Parkinsons Disease Psychosis. ACADIA Pharmaceuticals is the only company developing a drug to treat psychosis ... Treating Parkinsons Disease Psychosis @themotleyfool #stocks $ACAD $BMY $ALNY $AZN $FRX.DL Next Article ... ACADIA Pharmaceuticals reported that 60% of patients with Parkinsons suffer from Parkinsons Disease Psychosis, or PDP. ACADIA ...
Japan team transplants stem cells into brain to treat Parkinsons. Agence France-Presse ^ , 9 Nov 2018 Posted on 11/10/2018 6: ... It was to apply to a person with Parkinsons disease, and that it could be their subconscious or body itself that decides to ... which are no longer present in people with Parkinson s disease. [ ] Sounds good. But.... what if the healthy donor cells decide ... which are no longer present in people with Parkinson s disease. [ ] The human trial comes after an earlier trial involving ...
A small device implanted on the spinal cord could one day offer a better way to treat Parkinsons disease, according to a study ... A small device implanted on the spinal cord could one day offer a better way to treat Parkinsons disease, according to a study ... Parkinsons Disease - Surgical Treatment - Animation. Slide animation on surgery for Parkinson disease. Surgery is only ... Parkinsons Disease - Animation. Slide animation on Parkinson disease. It is a progressive movement disorder due to ...
A potentially significant new approach to the treatment of Parkinson's disease has been discovered by researchers at Johns ... Parkinsons disease affects at least 500,000 Americans, and perhaps as many as 1 million, most of them over the age of 55. ... Monkeys that had Parkinsons symptoms of uncontrollable tremors stopped shaking and were able to use their limbs within one ... A potentially significant new approach to the treatment of Parkinsons disease has been discovered by researchers at Johns ...
Using Immune Cells to Treat Parkinsons Disease. Research Grant, 2017. Study Rationale: While significant strides have been ... We created pre-clinical models of Parkinsons with alpha-synuclein clumps in the brain. In this study, we will treat the models ... We expect the treatment to reduce clumping of alpha-synuclein in the brains of people with PD and to improve Parkinsons ... We also will monitor the movement of treated models. The results could allow us to estimate how effective the treatment would ...
A drug prescribed for Parkinsons disease may also treat restless leg syndrome without the adverse side effects of current ... "We are trying to evaluate its safety and efficacy in treating RLS at this point. When it has been used to treat Parkinsons, ... Parkinsons Drug Could Treat Restless Leg Syndrome - A drug prescribed for Parkinsons disease may also treat restless leg ... Parkinsons Drug Could Treat Restless Leg Syndrome. *Date: 2010/12/06 • Medical College of Georgia ...
Parkinsons disease patient Russell Price undergoes surgery to implant a deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead that will deliver ... Treating Parkinsons Disease: Brain Surgery and the Placebo Effect. At the University of Florida, Parkinsons disease patient ... Treating Parkinsons Disease: Brain Surgery and the Placebo Effect. At the University of Florida, Parkinsons disease patient ... At the University of Florida, Parkinsons disease patient Russell Price undergoes surgery to implant a deep brain stimulation ( ...
It scientifically proves the possibility of treating degenerative brain diseases using natural materials. ... New possibility to prevent and treat Parkinsons disease with licorice extract. DGIST (Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and ... New possibility to prevent and treat Parkinsons disease with licorice extract Korean researchers verified the new mechanism of ... Parkinsons disease (PD) is a typical degenerative brain disease caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the middle ...
... used for treating acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections, in the US market. ... Business News›Industry›Healthcare/Biotech›Pharmaceuticals›Cadila gets USFDA nod for generic drug to treat Parkinsons. ... The drug is indicated to treat signs and symptoms of Parkinsons disease (PD). The Ahmedabad-based firm also received final ... Cadila gets USFDA nod for generic drug to treat Parkinsons. The Ahmedabad-based firm also received final approval from the ...
  • The drug is currently approved to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, another neurologic condition. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Dr. Michael Kaplitt, vice chairman for research in the Department of Neurological Surgery at Weill Cornell Medical College and a neurosurgeon at New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center pioneered a Phase I study that treated one side of the patient's brain with the gene therapy, performed in the operating room. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In some cases, surgery may be needed to treat it. (kidshealth.org)
  • This is the first study to treat subjects with advanced PD with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor," explained lead investigator Charbel Moussa, MD, PhD, of the Department of Neurology, National Parkinson's Foundation Center for Excellence, Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC), Washington DC. (eurekalert.org)
  • There is only one experimental drug for Niemann Pick Type C that costs a whopping $160,000 per year so I began looking at every available alternative to treat our twins and save them from dementia. (addiandcassi.com)
  • Such an approach may also help to minimize dose-timing problems that typically occur in treating long-term illnesses, when commitment to treatment schedules can begin to flag. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A quick-release formulation of bromocriptine is also used to treat type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, a number of laboratory studies have confirmed its ability to improve motor function for "treating catecholamines, oxidative damage and physiological abnormalities," according to one study. (realnatural.org)
  • The support group is a partnership between the Michigan Parkinson Foundation, MidMichigan Medical Center-Midland and Seasons Adult Day Services of the Midland County Council on Aging Senior Services. (ourmidland.com)
  • Preliminary studies in mouse models of Parkinson's treated with engineered white blood cells and GDNF showed decreased brain inflammation, significant neuroprotection and improved motor functions. (unc.edu)
  • Currently, dozens of drugs are available to treat or manage heart failure symptoms, but drugs that improve the strength of the heart muscle's contractions, such as dobutamine, carry the risk of dangerous complications such as developing an irregular heartbeat. (medindia.net)