Jet Lag Syndrome
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Patterns of local and tourist use of an emergency department. (1/2248)Illness patterns of local and tourist patients in an emergency department of a medium-sized Ontario city with a single hospital were compared. Frequencies of specific and broad categories of ailments and rates of admission to the hospital were similar in the two groups. However, non-Canadian tourists were admitted to hospital at a much lower rate than Canadian tourists. Rates of visits to the emergency department within certain age categories were remarkably similar, as were rates within the sexes. It is concluded that, in view of the striking similarity in the illness pattern of a group of patients not professionally referred to the hospital and that of local patients, who have potential contact with a more extensive medical network, public attitudes, rather than availability of health professionals, determine the pattern of illness observed in an emergency department. (+info)
Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications. (2/2248)The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities. (+info)
A train passenger with pulmonary tuberculosis: evidence of limited transmission during travel. (3/2248)In January 1996, smear- and culture-positive tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed for a 22-year-old black man after he had traveled on two U.S. passenger trains (29.1 hours) and a bus (5.5 hours) over 2 days. To determine if transmission had occurred, passengers and crew were notified of the potential exposure and instructed to undergo a tuberculin skin test (TST). Of the 240 persons who completed screening, 4 (2%) had a documented TST conversion (increase in induration of > or = 10 mm between successive TSTs), 11 (5%) had a single positive TST (> or = 10 mm), and 225 (94%) had a negative TST (< 10 mm). For two persons who underwent conversion, no other risk factors for a conversion were identified other than exposure to the ill passenger during train and/or bus travel. These findings support limited transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a potentially highly infectious passenger to other persons during extended train and bus travel. (+info)
Salmonella infections in Norway: descriptive epidemiology and a case-control study. (4/2248)The epidemiological progression of human salmonellosis in Norway is parallel to trends noted elsewhere in Europe. During the past two decades, the number of reported cases has increased steadily, with a special sharp rise in the early 1980s due to the emergence of Salmonella enteritidis, followed by a levelling off in recent years. However, in contrast to the situation in most other European countries, about 90% of the cases from whom a travel history is available, have acquired their infection abroad. The incidence of indigenous salmonella infections as well as the prevalence of the microorganism in the domestic food chain, are both comparatively low. In 1993-4, a national case-control study of sporadic indigenous salmonella infections was conducted to identify preventable risk factors and guide preventive efforts. Ninety-four case patients and 226 matched population controls were enrolled. The study failed to demonstrate any statistically significant association between salmonellosis and consumption of domestically produced red meat, poultry or eggs. The only factor which remained independently associated with an increased risk in conditional logistic regression analysis, was consumption of poultry purchased abroad during holiday visits to neighbouring countries. A separate analysis of Salmonella typhimurium infections incriminated food from catering establishments and foreign travel among household members, in addition to imported poultry. (+info)
International travel and vaccinations. (5/2248)With the increase in global travel, no disease is beyond the reach of any population. Traveling patients should be advised to follow food and water precautions and encouraged to receive the recommended immunizations. Travel medicine plays a vital role not only in limiting the morbidity of travel-related illnesses but also in limiting the spread of diseases. This article addresses the common issues related to travel, reviews the care of the immunocompromised traveler, and updates the available vaccinations and prophylactic regimens available to limit sickness abroad. (+info)
Amebic liver abscess: epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome. (6/2248)Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is a serious, but readily treatable form of hepatic infection. In order to understand the clinical features of this condition in the United States, we reviewed the medical histories of 56 patients with ALA at two large San Francisco Hospitals from 1979 to 1994. Patients were divided into the following groups based on the presumed manner in which they had acquired ALA: those born or raised in the United States, with a history of travel to an endemic area (Tr-ALA); those from an endemic area, but living in the United States for less than one year (En-ALA); and those neither from nor having traveled to an endemic area (N-ALA). We found distinct clinical patterns in patients from different epidemiological groups. Patients with Tr-ALA were a decade older than those from endemic regions, were more likely to be male, and tended to have an insidious onset. Furthermore, compared to patients with En-ALA, those with Tr-ALA were more likely to have hepatomegaly (P < 0.0001) and large abscesses (ALA > 10 cm; P < 0.01). One third of the patients studied had no associated travel history or endemic origin as risk factors. Of these, 63% had a condition consistent with severe immunosuppression, such as infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnourishment with severe hypoalbuminemia, or chronic infection. In patients with N-ALA, the presence of a presumed immunosuppressed state increased significantly, as compared to patients with endemic or travel risk factors for ALA. During the last five years of the study, one third of all patients diagnosed with ALA were HIV positive (including 2 with a new diagnosis of AIDS), many of whom were discovered to be HIV-infected only after presentation with ALA. We conclude that travel to and origin in an endemic area are important risk factors for the development of ALA, and patients in these different epidemiological groups appear to have distinct clinical features. Further, in the absence of recognized risk factors, the development of ALA may suggest an immunocompromised host. (+info)
Neurocysticercosis in an Italian traveler to Latin America. (7/2248)Neurocysticercosis is rarely reported in short-term travelers, although the disease remains a major public health problem in tropical regions. We present a case of neurocysticercosis that was probably acquired by ingestion of Taenia solium eggs contained in the stomach of a pig butchered by the traveler. Complete clinical resolution was obtained by medical treatment, underlying the importance of early suspicion and diagnosis of the disease. (+info)
Risk of Helicobacter pylori infection among long-term residents in developing countries. (8/2248)The seroprevalence and incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection were determined among 312 North American missionaries who were serving in developing countries between 1967 and 1984. The majority (81%) resided in sub-Saharan Africa. When initially evaluated, the missionaries had a mean age of 40 years, 65% were female, and all were of white race/ethnicity. An ELISA showed that the initial prevalence of IgG antibody to H. pylori was 17%. After a mean of 7.4 years of service (1917 person-years of exposure), 37 (14%) of 259 initially seronegative subjects seroconverted to anti-H. pylori, giving an annual incidence of 1.9%. These data indicate a relatively higher risk of H. pylori infection among missionaries compared with an annual incidence of seroconversion of 0.3-1.0% in industrialized nations. Long-term residents in developing countries should be evaluated for H. pylori infection when gastrointestinal symptoms develop. (+info)
Jet lag is also known as desynchronosis or traveler's exhaustion. It occurs when our body's natural sleep-wake cycle, regulated by an internal biological clock, is disrupted due to rapid travel across different time zones. The circadian rhythm, which controls the release of hormones and other physiological processes, takes time to adjust to the new time zone, leading to symptoms such as:
* Insomnia or excessive sleepiness
* Confusion and disorientation
* Digestive problems such as constipation or diarrhea
* Mood disturbances like irritability or depression
The severity of jet lag can vary depending on the number of time zones crossed, with longer flights causing more significant disruptions to our internal clock. Additionally, some people may be more sensitive to jet lag than others due to individual differences in sleep patterns and circadian rhythms.
There are several strategies that can help alleviate the symptoms of jet lag, such as:
* Gradually adjusting sleep schedules before traveling
* Avoiding caffeine and alcohol, which can disrupt sleep patterns further
* Exposure to sunlight or bright artificial light to help regulate our circadian rhythm
* Taking melatonin supplements to help reset our internal clock.
While jet lag is a temporary condition that usually resolves within a few days, it can have significant impacts on our daily activities and overall well-being during the adjustment period. Therefore, understanding the definition of jet lag syndrome and its causes is essential for managing this common travel-related disorder.
Examples of communicable diseases include:
1. Influenza (the flu)
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
6. Hepatitis B and C
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:
1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.
Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:
1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.
There are several different types of malaria, including:
1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.
The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:
4. Muscle and joint pain
6. Nausea and vomiting
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)
Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.
Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:
1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.
Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.
Examples of emerging communicable diseases include SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), West Nile virus, and HIV/AIDS. These diseases are often difficult to diagnose and treat, and they can spread rapidly due to increased travel and trade, as well as the high level of interconnectedness in today's world.
Emerging communicable diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, such as environmental changes, genetic mutations, or the transmission of diseases from animals to humans. These diseases can also be spread through various routes, including airborne transmission, contact with infected bodily fluids, and vector-borne transmission (such as through mosquitoes or ticks).
To prevent the spread of emerging communicable diseases, it is important to have strong surveillance systems in place to detect and monitor outbreaks, as well as effective public health measures such as vaccination programs, quarantine, and contact tracing. Additionally, research into the causes and transmission mechanisms of these diseases is crucial for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies.
Overall, emerging communicable diseases pose a significant threat to global health security, and it is important for healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the general public to be aware of these diseases and take steps to prevent their spread.
1. Malaria: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can cause fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms.
2. Giardiasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated food and water. It can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and weight loss.
3. Toxoplasmosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the consumption of contaminated meat or cat feces. It can cause fever, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
4. Leishmaniasis: A group of diseases caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected sandfly. It can cause skin sores, fatigue, and weight loss.
5. Chagas disease: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected triatomine bug. It can cause heart problems, digestive issues, and brain damage.
6. Trichomoniasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person. It can cause vaginal itching, burning during urination, and abnormal vaginal discharge.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated water and food. It can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
8. Amoebiasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is found in contaminated water and food. It can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.
9. Babesiosis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. It can cause fever, chills, and fatigue.
10. Angiostrongyliasis: A disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the ingestion of raw or undercooked snails or slugs. It can cause eosinophilic meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
It's important to note that these are just a few examples of parasitic diseases, and there are many more out there. Additionally, while some of these diseases can be treated with antiparasitic medications, others may require long-term management and supportive care. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have been infected with a parasite or if you experience any symptoms that could be related to a parasitic infection.
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- Swiss nationals who live and travel abroad are subject to which national laws and obligations? (admin.ch)
- Harare - At the main bus terminus in Harare, Zimbabwe's capital, travellers heading to neighbouring Zambia can be tempted by offers of counterfeit travel vaccination certificates. (who.int)
- Counterfeit travel vaccination certificates can put lives at risk and greatly jeopardize disease control. (who.int)
- According to AAA , the percentage Americans traveling at least 50 miles from home this Independence Day increased 4.9 percent from last year, putting the final number at approximately 42.3 million travelers. (constantcontact.com)
- Many countries and popular travel destinations, such as London , England, have experienced measles outbreaks in recent years. (cdc.gov)
- 1953). Travel study tour. (who.int)
- By Stacie Dunkle "We don't recommend international travel during pregnancy for first-time mothers," said my nurse midwife. (cdc.gov)
- Travel and Transportation Unit provides the efficient service on travel and transportation arrangements. (who.int)
- itinerary-that is, a written travel agenda-is useful to both the executive and the administrative assistant who remains in the office. (slideshare.net)
- The best way to get around Jordan depends on you, your preferences, budget, itinerary and travel style. (lonelyplanet.com)
- Simply add travel insurance while you're making a new flight booking on singaporeair.com, or to an existing itinerary via Manage Booking . (singaporeair.com)
- however, travel distances greater than 1,500 feet have been observed. (cdc.gov)
- Visit the CDC page for the latest Travel Health Information related to your travel. (state.gov)
- You're traveling for care at a VA health facility or for VA-approved care at a non-VA health facility in your community. (va.gov)
- We estimate that around 80% of yellow fever travel cards in Zimbabwe are counterfeit," says Dr Mchechesi, a co-founder and head of innovation at Vaxiglobal, a travel health consultancy. (who.int)
- As the summer travel season begins, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is issuing this Health Alert Network (HAN) Health Advisory to remind clinicians and public health officials to provide guidance for measles prevention to international travelers and to be on alert for cases of measles . (cdc.gov)
- Search for a place by name or zoom and click on the map to see CDC's travel recommendations for Zika. (cdc.gov)
- Read the Department of State's COVID-19 page before planning any international travel, and read the Embassy COVID-19 page for country-specific COVID-19 information. (state.gov)
- Increased international travel has contributed to the spread of certain diseases. (cdc.gov)
- Guidance is also provided for people planning international travel. (cdc.gov)
- To prevent measles infection and spread from importation, all U.S. residents should be up to date on their MMR vaccinations, especially prior to international travel regardless of the destination. (cdc.gov)
- Ensure that all patients without other evidence of immunity, especially those planning international travel, are up to date on MMR vaccine and other recommended vaccines before their international travel. (cdc.gov)
- • With a Web-based travel service, you can create a traveler profile for your employer, so that his or her personal preferences regarding airline seats, hotels, car rental agencies, hotel rooms, and so forth are stored for all future trips. (slideshare.net)
- You can file a claim online through the Beneficiary Travel Self Service System (BTSSS). (va.gov)
- Purpose is to give community members an opportunity to comment on or ask questions about community travel support process and guidelines. (icann.org)
- Every year in advance of the new fiscal year budget, community members are invited to review and comment upon draft travel support guidelines. (icann.org)
- Will the boss be traveling alone, or will other staff members or family members be traveling along? (slideshare.net)
- Travel + Leisure magazine may receive compensation for some links to products and services on this website. (travelandleisure.com)
- CDC recommends that all U.S. residents older than age 6 months who will travel internationally, without evidence of immunity, receive MMR vaccine prior to departure. (cdc.gov)
- These Web-based travel services allow you to make both personal and business travel reservations for airlines, hotels, car rentals, cruises, and other vacation packages. (slideshare.net)
- Read the country information page for additional information on travel to Zimbabwe. (state.gov)
- TAT Unit works closely with Marsman Drysdale Travel (WHO In-plant Office). (who.int)
- Filing a travel pay claim for the first time? (va.gov)
- We reach an audience that takes 76 million round trips annually, offering valuable travel tips, ideas and inspiration, and products you need to get you to your destination - whether it's a small town or big city, beach or lake, national park or theme park, road trip, cruise, or long-haul flight, and everything in between. (travelandleisure.com)
- As long as you are comfortable and safe, you should be able to travel. (medlineplus.gov)
- Sign up to get travel notices, clinical updates, & healthy travel tips. (cdc.gov)
- A considerable proportion of lands, the volunteer can hand over care to passengers in whom medical issues develop on-the-ground medical staff who can during travel require hospitalization. (who.int)
Comprehensive Travel Insurance1
- Learn more about the comprehensive travel insurance benefits of Travel Protect by Singapore Airlines and how you can arrange for coverage on singaporeair.com. (singaporeair.com)
- Check this page for the most up-to-date information before you make travel plans. (cdc.gov)
- These posts are not intent on telling you everything you need to do, step by step, to capture perfect, cookie-cutter pictures while traveling. (digital-photography-school.com)
- Whatever you decide as your view of choice, don't forget to bring back some good shots so others know what the views are like during your travels. (digital-photography-school.com)
- 50/50 is an action-packed, 50-hour getaway worth $50,000 that starts when 2 Travel Channel hosts find unsuspecting people on the street and ask a simple question: Can you leave right now? (travelchannel.com)
- Greater access to foreign travel fares - on land or sea - means people can travel anywhere. (cdc.gov)
- Ltd. (operating under the consumer-facing branding of Allianz Travel) has been appointed by Allianz Insurance Singapore Pte. (singaporeair.com)
- This indicator represents the response to the EU HEPA Indicator 19: Is there any national guidance or programme to promote active travel to work (e.g., walking, cycling) in your country? (who.int)
- TRAVEL + LEISURE is a registered trademark of Travel + Leisure Co., registered in the United States and other countries. (travelandleisure.com)
- You may also want to run a theme through some of your travels, such as the view from the center of each town you visit. (digital-photography-school.com)
- Explore new places and try foreign experiences with confidence when you travel. (singaporeair.com)
- USING A TRAVEL AGENCY A competent agency can provide a host of services. (slideshare.net)
- This article examines the impact of air travel and the liabilities they may incur when on persons with heart disease and defines offering assistance.17 Federal legislation the effect of cabin altitude and barometric contained in the Aviation Medical pressure on specific heart conditions. (who.int)
- Refer to the Frequently Asked Questions to learn more about the benefits and coverage of Travel Protect by Singapore Airlines, making changes to your policy and claims procedures. (singaporeair.com)
- If you decide to travel, prevent mosquito bites and sexual exposure to Zika. (cdc.gov)
- In making this decision, consider your travel destination and your ability to protect yourself from mosquito bites. (cdc.gov)
- The categories of analysis and interpretation of the contents indicate that travel is an activity that gives meaning to the life of the elderly and stimulates processes of autonomy, independence, quality of life, and healthy life expectancy, contributing to quality aging. (bvsalud.org)