Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Spinal DiseasesSpine: The spinal or vertebral column.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Age Determination by Skeleton: Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Klippel-Feil Syndrome: A syndrome characterised by a low hairline and a shortened neck resulting from a reduced number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass.AxisThoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Greek World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)Byzantium: An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Catarrhini: An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Alouatta: A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.Myelitis, Transverse: Inflammation of a transverse portion of the spinal cord characterized by acute or subacute segmental demyelination or necrosis. The condition may occur sporadically, follow an infection or vaccination, or present as a paraneoplastic syndrome (see also ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED). Clinical manifestations include motor weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1242-6)Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Atelinae: A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles).Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.X-Ray Intensifying Screens: Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Colon, Transverse: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Spinal NeoplasmsBone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Transverse Sinuses: The two large endothelium-lined venous channels that begin at the internal occipital protuberance at the back and lower part of the CRANIUM and travels laterally and forward ending in the internal jugular vein (JUGULAR VEINS). One of the transverse sinuses, usually the right one, is the continuation of the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS. The other transverse sinus is the continuation of the straight sinus.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Vertebroplasty: Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Spondylolysis: Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).TailLigaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Kyphoplasty: Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
... except for those in the cervical region. On no vertebrae do the tendons extend below the transverse processes. Each tendon is ... The nasals end at the back of the squamosals in a hooked, short process. The prefrontals also make up part of the crest; ... The only differences he found between them were the development of the vertebrae, and the proportions of the limbs. During a ... Because of his incorrect identification, Brown assumed that the holotype's inferior process of the premaxillary was shorter ...
Each thoracic vertebrae has a pair of huge wing-like transverse processes, many of which overlap. The dorsal end of the ribs ... All seven cervical vertebrae are fused, and the pygmy right has only 44 vertebrae. The 18 pairs of ribs are broad and flat, and ... are remarkably thin and almost fail to make contact with the transverse processes. The reduced tail (or sacrocaudal region) ...
... unlike in the cervical vertebrae, but the inter-arch articulations are still absent. The transverse processes are directed ... The processes that articulate with cervical ribs become stronger towards the back of the neck. Multiple dorsal vertebrae are ... Although the first two cervical vertebrae are unknown, several others from along the neck have been preserved. The neural ... The two main processes of the pterygoid are broken, because of their long and slender shape, but it probable looked similar to ...
It arises from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae, ... The middle scalene arises from the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the lower six cervical vertebrae. It ... The scalene muscles originate from the transverse processes from the cervical vertebrae of C2 to C7 and insert onto the first ... from the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the lower two or three cervical vertebrae, and is inserted by a ...
Serratus ventralis: originates on the transverse processes of the last 5 cervical vertebrae and inserts on the scapula. Its ... and Third Tarsal Bones Vertebra Body, Pedicles, Laminae, Spinous Process, Transverse Process (Wings), Articular Process, ... Olecranon Process, Trochlear Notch, Anconeal Process, Coronoid Processes (Medial and Lateral), Body of Ulna, Head of Radius, ... All dogs (and all living Canidae) have a ligament connecting the spinous process of their first thoracic (or chest) vertebra to ...
Levator claviculæ from the transverse processes of one or two upper cervical vertebræ to the outer end of the clavicle ... The levator scapulae originates from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of cervical vertebrae one to four. The ... A cervical vertebra Side view of a typical cervical vertebra Left scapula. Dorsal surface. Section of the neck at about the ... If the dorsal scapular artery comes off the transverse cervical artery, the parent transverse cervical artery splits, the ...
... from all the transverse processes. in the cervical region: from the articular processes of the lower four vertebrae. Each ... which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis. While very thin ... is inserted into the whole length of the spinous process of one of the vertebræ above. These fasciculi vary in length: the most ... while the deepest connect two adjacent vertebrae. The multifidus lies deep relative to the Spinal Erectors, Transverse ...
... inserts into the transverse process of the cervical vertebrae (C4-C7). Semispinalis capitis: originates on the cervical ... and the cervical vertebrae. Longus colli: originates from the cervical vertebrae and the first 5-6 thoracic vertebrae. Masseter ... Cervicalis ascendens: originates at the transverse process of the final 3-4 cervical vertebrae, inserts into the first rib. ... Inserts into spinous processes of first 2 sacral vertebrae on through the final cervical vertebrae. Obliquus capitis cranialis ...
It is located in the height of the transverse process of the first cervical vertebra (atlas). Passing through it is the cranial ... lungs and alimentary tract from the pharynx to the transverse colon. These visceral afferents synapse centrally in the solitary ...
During this part of its course, it lies in front of the transverse processes of the upper three cervical vertebrae. It is ... The cervical segment, or C1, or cervical part of the internal carotid, extends from the carotid bifurcation until it enters the ... The segments of the internal carotid artery are as follows: Cervical segment, or C1, identical to the commonly used Cervical ... it arises around the level of the fourth cervical vertebra when the common carotid bifurcates into this artery and its more ...
Chassaignac's tubercle - the strongly developed anterior tubercle of the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra: ...
... and is inserted by similar tendons into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae 2-6. The ... It arises by tendons from the transverse processes of the upper four or five thoracic vertebrae, and the articular processes of ... into the tips of the transverse processes of all the thoracic vertebræ, and by fleshy processes into the lower nine or ten ribs ... subdivision of the erector spinae that extends forward into the transverse processes of the posterior cervical vertebrae. The ...
It originates on the transverse processes of the upper cervical vertebrae and is inserted in the lateral half of the clavicle. ... It has been reported to originate on the sixth cervical vertebra. The levator claviculae is an infrequently recognized ... Its origin is on at least the third uppermost vertebrae, from where it courses inferiorly and laterally, lateral to the scalene ... Rosenheimer, JL; Loewy, J; Lozanoff, S (2000). "Levator claviculae muscle discovered during physical examination for cervical ...
The width between the transverse processes (the diagonal projections from a vertebral centrum) of the thoracic vertebrae were ... and only the atlas of the cervical vertebrae in the neck. Like in the modern sperm whales, the cervical vertebrae were probably ... It is thought that this whale had twelve thoracic vertebrae and at least ten lumbar vertebra. The type specimen had only 8 ... The falciform process on the squamosal bone was large and ventrally facing; as opposed to the ones in the Kogiidae (Kogia and ...
... and transverse processes. The inferior articular surfaces have the same direction as those of the other cervical vertebrae. The ... the inferior lie in front of the articular processes, as in the other cervical vertebrae The spinous process is large, very ... The dens is a protuberance (process or projection) of the axis (second cervical vertebra). The condition, where the dens is ... The transverse processes are very small, and each ends in a single tubercle; each is perforated by the transverse foramen, ...
... into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the upper two or three cervical vertebrae. Its name is based on the ... It arises by a narrow tendinous band from the spinous processes of the third to the sixth thoracic vertebrae; it is inserted, ... Section of the neck at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the ... The function of the splenius cervicis muscle is extension of the cervical spine, rotation to the ipsilateral side and lateral ...
... and at least 28 caudal vertebrae in the tail. Out of the sacral vertebrae, the fifth has the widest transverse processes in ... Daliansaurus has at least 5 cervical vertebrae, probably 13 dorsal vertebrae, 5 sacral vertebrae, ... The ribs of the dorsal vertebrae unusually appear to bear uncinate processes, in the form of curved and rod-like projections ... On the femur, which is strongly bowed, the process known as the lateral crest is lower than another process, the posterior ...
... it runs up on the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae in the interval between the anterior ... The ascending cervical artery is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid artery as it passes behind the carotid ... The ascending cervical artery gives twigs to the neck muscles and these anastomose with branches of the vertebral arteries. One ... It then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ...
... is inserted into the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the fifth and sixth cervical vertebræ. The vertical ... The superior oblique portion arises from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, and fifth ... and fourth cervical vertebræ. It is commonly injured in rear end whiplash injuries, usually resulting from a car crash. This ... from the front of the bodies of the upper three thoracic and lower three cervical vertebræ, and is inserted into the front of ...
Its cervical ribs have anterior process, and like most plesiosaurs, Augustasaurus' vertebrae have "thickened transverse ... processes". Augustasaurus is known from the Augusta Mountains of northwestern Nevada (United States). The holotype specimen was ...
... the transverse processes attaching to the dorsal vertebrae above the level of the neural canals; and the long coracoid ... the facets that articulate with the cervical ribs on the cervical vertebrae being placed relatively high, similar to ... The number of cervical vertebrae in Luskhan (14) can be seen as intermediate between Pliosaurus (18) and Brachauchenius (12). ... the second cervical) is covered by a tongue-like projection from the third cervical. In the shoulder girdle, the projection at ...
... the cervical and lumbar ribs are found only as tiny remnants fused to the vertebrae, where they are referred to as transverse ... The thoracic ribs of birds possess a wide projection to the rear; this uncinate process is an attachment for the shoulder ... Mammals usually also only have distinct ribs on the thoracic vertebra, although fixed cervical ribs are also present in ... In the early tetrapods, every vertebra bore a pair of ribs, although those on the thoracic vertebrae are typically the longest ...
The lumbar vertebra consist of a body, pedicle, lamina, pars interarticularis, transverse process, spinous process and superior ... The vast majority of cases occur in the lower lumbar vertebrae (L5), but spondylolysis may also occur in the cervical vertebrae ... The vast majority of spondylolysis occur in the lumbar vertebrae, however it can also be seen in cervical vertebrae. ... A vertebra with a fracture or defect of the pars interarticularis will have a dark mark through this region of bone. Since this ...
... atlas vertebra bearing separate dorsal and ventral transverse processes, axis vertebra with relatively large odontoid process; ... neck relatively long with cervical vertebrae proportionally large and with anteroposteriorly elongated centra, ... superior process of the petrosal wide, smooth and almost flattened, posterior process of the petrosal atrophied; tympanic bulla ... propensity for distal trochlea of humerus to fuse to olecranon process of ulna; radius and ulna equal to or less than length of ...
... near cervical and thoracal vertebra, laterally, it is fixed to the front of the transverse process of the first and, sometimes ... It is attached to the side of the body of the first or second lumbar vertebra; ... also, to that of the second lumbar vertebra. It lies between the lateral arcuate ligament and the midline median arcuate ...
The transverse costal facet is on the end of the transverse process of the lower of the two vertebrae to which the head is ... the cervical and lumbar ribs are found only as tiny remnants fused to the vertebrae, where they are referred to as transverse ... The vertebrae and ribs develop from the sclerotomes.[3]. During the fourth week (fertilization age) costal processes have ... During the fifth week the costal processes on the thoracic vertebrae become longer to form the ribs. In the sixth week, the ...
Acute transverse myelitis is uncommon and presumably results from an autoimmune process or a preceding infection. Most cases of ... The histopathological examination of lumbar vertebrae suggested nonspecific inflammation without evidence of tuberculosis ... Cervical SpineLinezolidBrucellosisMyelitisMixed Connective Tissue Disease. Background. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) has an ... Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group. Proposed diagnostic criteria and nosology of acute transverse myelitis. Neurol. ...
Then, a tracker was placed on the spinous processes at the upper side of the target vertebra. Subsequently, ISO-C 3D was used ... Our department has employed this technique in the upper cervical [18,19] and lumbar vertebrae with axial rotation [20] ... The Scott method demands cutting off the iliolumbar ligament to expose the transverse process during the operation, which may ... After determining the surface projection of the entry point, the operator made a 3 cm transverse incision, cut the skin and ...
... are the remaining five cervical vertebrae (C3-C7). The vertebrae share many anatomical characteristics. Click and start ... Transverse process (processus transversus) is a small lateral extension from the body. It is an attachment site for the muscles ... The last cervical vertebra (C7), however, is somewhat distinctive in that it typically has a more elongated spinous process. ... Introduction to Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy:. Inferior to the atlas bone (C1) and axis bone (C2) are the five remaining cervical ...
attach transverse processes of cervical vertebrae to the first (anterior and middle scalene) and second (posterior scalene) ... B.) Additional bone (transverse process of the vertebrae) may need to be removed using bone shears to identify structures ... Cuts should be on the lateral-most extent of the lamina before the transition to the transverse processes at an angle. Please ... transverse cervical a. (supplies trapezius m. & often gives rise to the dorsal scapular a.) ...
Each transverse process surrounds a tiny transverse foramen, a hole that provides room for the vertebral artery and vein to ... C1 (Atlas) - 1st Cervical Vertebra. The C1 vertebra, known as the atlas, is the superior-most vertebra in the spinal column. It ... The transverse process protects the blood vessels in the transverse foramen and serves as an attachment point for muscles that ... arise from the transverse processes of the atlas. In addition, several intertransversarii muscles connect the transverse ...
... transverse processes of middle cervical vertebrae; action, extends, abducts, and rotates cervical vertebrae; nerve supply, ... Synonym(s): musculus iliocostalis cervicis/colliTA, cervical iliocostal muscle, cervicalis ascendens1, musculus cervicalis ...
Cervical and lumbar lordoses 108 Cervical vertebrae distinctive feature Transverse foramina. Bifid spinous process ... Our mission is to create a smarter world by simplifying and accelerating the learning process. © 2019 Bold Learning Solutions. ... Extends between the lamina of two adjacent vertebrae and resists separation Prevents excessive flexion and helps with ...
Characteristic of Cervical Vertebrae 1. transverse process have Foramen Transversarium. 2. Spines are short and bifid. 3. body ... 6. transverse process are long and slender. 7. spinous process are short, flat, and quadrangular; project posteriorly ... 5. superior articular processes have facets that face posteriorly and superiorly. 6. Inferior articular process face inferiorly ... Our mission is to create a smarter world by simplifying and accelerating the learning process. © 2018 Bold Learning Solutions. ...
Extending from both lateral sides of the vertebral arch are the transverse processes and their tiny, hollow transverse foramina ... C7 (7th Cervical Vertebra). The 7th cervical (C7) vertebra is the largest and most inferior vertebra in the neck region. Unlike ... Unlike the notched spinous processes of the C3-C6 vertebrae, the vertebra prominens resembles the T1 vertebra with a spinous ... the C7 has some features of both the cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Like the C3 through C6 vertebrae, C7 has a thicker area ...
... from all the transverse processes. in the cervical region: from the articular processes of the lower four vertebrae. Each ... which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis. While very thin ... is inserted into the whole length of the spinous process of one of the vertebræ above. These fasciculi vary in length: the most ... while the deepest connect two adjacent vertebrae. The multifidus lies deep relative to the Spinal Erectors, Transverse ...
Transverse process of cervical vertebrae. What does the dorsal scapular nerve innervate?. The rhomboids and the levator ... Origin: transverse process of cervical vertebrae Insertion: ribs. What is the origin of the sternocleidomastoid?. The mastoid ...
Scalenus anterior: Origin: Transverse process of 3-6 cervical vertebra. Insertion: Tubercle of first rib. Nerve: ... More ... They have their origins on the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and their insertions posteriolaterally on the ...
k) m. Atlas, transverse process.. l) m. Transverse processes of 6 cervical vertebrae. ...
Transverse Process. lateral projections of the cervical vertebrae. Atlas. first cervical vertebra, which articulates with the ... Transverse Foramen. foramen on the transverse processes of each cervical vertebra that carries the vertebral artery. ... Inferior Articular Processes. processes of the first and second cervical vertebrae that allow articulation with the vertebrae ... arch on the first cervical vertebra. Superior Articular Processes. processes from a vertebra that allow articulation with the ...
... except for those in the cervical region. On no vertebrae do the tendons extend below the transverse processes. Each tendon is ... The nasals end at the back of the squamosals in a hooked, short process. The prefrontals also make up part of the crest; ... The only differences he found between them were the development of the vertebrae, and the proportions of the limbs. During a ... Because of his incorrect identification, Brown assumed that the holotypes inferior process of the premaxillary was shorter ...
The prevertebral layer is attached to the base of the skull and to the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae. It ... The internal carotid artery lies on the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and against the wall of the pharynx. ... The artery is related to the cervical vertebrae. The common carotid artery can be compressed against the transverse processes ... Figure 50-22 Cervical ribs. A, An unusually long transverse process of C7 (arrow). B, A minute cervical rib with head, neck, ...
... they are small and completely fused to the vertebrae. The transverse processes of mammals are homologous to the cervical ribs ... cervical vertebrae, cervical, vertebrae:. Cervical Vertebrae - Additional Images. ... Position of cervical vertebrae (shown in ... Cervical Vertebrae. In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are those vertebrae immediately inferior to the ... There are approximately 40 cervical vertebrae (neck vertebrae), with different specimens preserving 38 to 42 cervical vertebrae ...
Origin Transverse processes of first through fourth cervical vertebrae.. Insertion Upper region of medial border and superior ... Origin Spinous processes of last thoracic vertebrae, last three of four ribs, thoracolumbar aponeurosis and poserior iliac ... Origin Spinous processes of C-7 and T-1.. Insertion Upper portion of medial border of the scapula, across from spine of the ... of the shoulder is just the opposite, moving the arm closer to and/or across the body on the horizontal or transverse plane. ...
The bodies of the dorsal vertebra) are short and compressed laterally, and have large transverse processes; they are generally ... The cervical vertebrae are the most numerous; their bodies lock into each other so as to allow a forward motion in the upper ... in the higher forms the vertebras have no ribs, but long transverse processes, and are united by a ball-and-socket joint, with ... The spine consists of 7 or 8 cervical vertebrae, 8 to 14 dorsal, 3 sacral, and 20 to 30 caudal; the broad flat bones under the ...
At the cervical region the spinal column is further classified into an upper and lower cervical region. ... is made up of a total of 33 vertebrae, which are subdivided into five regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccyx. ... and transverse processes. ... The cervical spine consists of seven vertebrae and is located ... The thoracic spinal vertebrae consist of 12 total vertebrae and are located between the cervical vertebrae (which begin at the ...
... anterior tubercles of transverse processes of third to sixth cervical vertebrae; insertion, scalene tubercle of first rib; ... action, raises first rib; nerve supply, cervical plexus.. Synonym(s): musculus scalenus anteriorTA, anterior scalene muscle, ...
O: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae.. I: Ribs 1 and 2.. A: Elevates first two ribs. ... O: Lumbodorsal fascia, spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, lower 3-4 ribs and iliac crest. ... I: Olecranon Process. A: Extension of forearm (PM - medial head); antagonist to flexors of forearm; long and lateral heads ... I: Lateral aspect of olecranon process of ulna.. A: Abduction of ulna during forearm pronation; synergist of Triceps Brachii in ...
Cervical Vertebrae. The seven vertebrae of the neck are characterized by an opening in each transverse process known as a ... In the cervical vertebra, the posterior tubercle of the transverse process should probably also be shaded as part of the costal ... Note that the costal element forms a part of the transverse process of a cervical vertebra. It forms the rib in the thoracic ... The part of a cervical vertebra that corresponds to a rib is probably the transverse process lateral to the foramen ...
Less commonly, the extracranial vertebral arteries can be affected by pathologic processes including trauma, fibromuscular ... Direct exposure usually requires resection of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae. As such, control may be best ... The nerve is followed proximally as it crosses in front of the jugular vein and the transverse process of C1. Next, levator ... The muscle is transected from its insertion on the C1 transverse process. The C2 ramus divides into 3 branches after crossing ...
Find details on Transitional vertebrae in dogs including diagnosis and symptoms, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, prognosis ... Caudal cervical vertebrae may have transverse processes that resemble ribs.. *Sacralization occurs where the 7th lumbar ... Sacral vertebrae may occasionally have transverse processes like lumbar vertebrae.. Pathogenesis. Predisposing factors. General ... Schultz V A, Watson A G (1995) Lumbosacral transitional vertebra and thoracic limb malformations in a Chihuahua puppy. JAAHA 31 ...
  • The bones of fishes are comparatively soft, flexible, and elastic, in the lowest species without division into vertebrae, and in the sharks and rays cartilaginous, resembling the embryonic conditions of higher animals. (chestofbooks.com)
  • The internal vertebral venous plexuses (intraspinal veins) lie within the vertebral canal between the dura mater and the vertebrae, and receive tributaries from the bones and from the medulla spinalis. (statemaster.com)
  • Early in gestation , a fetus has a cartilaginous skeleton from which the long bones and most other bones gradually form throughout the remaining gestation period and for years after birth in a process called endochondral ossification . (statemaster.com)
  • The flat bones of the skull and the clavicles are formed from connective tissue in a process known as intramembranous ossification , and ossification of the mandible occurs in the fibrous membrane covering the outer surfaces of Meckel's cartilages . (statemaster.com)