Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Spinal DiseasesSpine: The spinal or vertebral column.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Age Determination by Skeleton: Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Klippel-Feil Syndrome: A syndrome characterised by a low hairline and a shortened neck resulting from a reduced number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass.AxisThoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Greek World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)Byzantium: An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Catarrhini: An infraorder of PRIMATES comprised of the families CERCOPITHECIDAE (old world monkeys); HYLOBATIDAE (siamangs and GIBBONS); and HOMINIDAE (great apes and HUMANS). With the exception of humans, they all live exclusively in Africa and Asia.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Alouatta: A genus of the subfamily ALOUATTINAE, family ATELIDAE, inhabiting the forests of Central and South America. Howlers travel in groups and define their territories by howling accompanied by vigorously shaking and breaking branches.Myelitis, Transverse: Inflammation of a transverse portion of the spinal cord characterized by acute or subacute segmental demyelination or necrosis. The condition may occur sporadically, follow an infection or vaccination, or present as a paraneoplastic syndrome (see also ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED). Clinical manifestations include motor weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1242-6)Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Atelinae: A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles).Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.X-Ray Intensifying Screens: Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Colon, Transverse: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between ASCENDING COLON and DESCENDING COLON. It passes from the RIGHT COLIC FLEXURE across the ABDOMEN, then turns sharply at the left colonic flexure into the descending colon.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Spinal NeoplasmsBone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Transverse Sinuses: The two large endothelium-lined venous channels that begin at the internal occipital protuberance at the back and lower part of the CRANIUM and travels laterally and forward ending in the internal jugular vein (JUGULAR VEINS). One of the transverse sinuses, usually the right one, is the continuation of the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS. The other transverse sinus is the continuation of the straight sinus.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Vertebroplasty: Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Spondylolysis: Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).TailLigaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Kyphoplasty: Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
... except for those in the cervical region. On no vertebrae do the tendons extend below the transverse processes. Each tendon is ... The nasals end at the back of the squamosals in a hooked, short process. The prefrontals also make up part of the crest; ... The only differences he found between them were the development of the vertebrae, and the proportions of the limbs. During a ... Because of his incorrect identification, Brown assumed that the holotype's inferior process of the premaxillary was shorter ...
Each thoracic vertebrae has a pair of huge wing-like transverse processes, many of which overlap. The dorsal end of the ribs ... All seven cervical vertebrae are fused, and the pygmy right has only 44 vertebrae. The 18 pairs of ribs are broad and flat, and ... are remarkably thin and almost fail to make contact with the transverse processes. The reduced tail (or sacrocaudal region) ...
... unlike in the cervical vertebrae, but the inter-arch articulations are still absent. The transverse processes are directed ... The processes that articulate with cervical ribs become stronger towards the back of the neck. Multiple dorsal vertebrae are ... Although the first two cervical vertebrae are unknown, several others from along the neck have been preserved. The neural ... The two main processes of the pterygoid are broken, because of their long and slender shape, but it probable looked similar to ...
It arises from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical vertebrae, ... The middle scalene arises from the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the lower six cervical vertebrae. It ... The scalene muscles originate from the transverse processes from the cervical vertebrae of C2 to C7 and insert onto the first ... from the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the lower two or three cervical vertebrae, and is inserted by a ...
Serratus ventralis: originates on the transverse processes of the last 5 cervical vertebrae and inserts on the scapula. Its ... and Third Tarsal Bones Vertebra Body, Pedicles, Laminae, Spinous Process, Transverse Process (Wings), Articular Process, ... Olecranon Process, Trochlear Notch, Anconeal Process, Coronoid Processes (Medial and Lateral), Body of Ulna, Head of Radius, ... All dogs (and all living Canidae) have a ligament connecting the spinous process of their first thoracic (or chest) vertebra to ...
Levator claviculæ from the transverse processes of one or two upper cervical vertebræ to the outer end of the clavicle ... The levator scapulae originates from the posterior tubercle of the transverse process of cervical vertebrae one to four. The ... A cervical vertebra Side view of a typical cervical vertebra Left scapula. Dorsal surface. Section of the neck at about the ... If the dorsal scapular artery comes off the transverse cervical artery, the parent transverse cervical artery splits, the ...
... from all the transverse processes. in the cervical region: from the articular processes of the lower four vertebrae. Each ... which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis. While very thin ... is inserted into the whole length of the spinous process of one of the vertebræ above. These fasciculi vary in length: the most ... while the deepest connect two adjacent vertebrae. The multifidus lies deep relative to the Spinal Erectors, Transverse ...
... inserts into the transverse process of the cervical vertebrae (C4-C7). Semispinalis capitis: originates on the cervical ... and the cervical vertebrae. Longus colli: originates from the cervical vertebrae and the first 5-6 thoracic vertebrae. Masseter ... Cervicalis ascendens: originates at the transverse process of the final 3-4 cervical vertebrae, inserts into the first rib. ... Inserts into spinous processes of first 2 sacral vertebrae on through the final cervical vertebrae. Obliquus capitis cranialis ...
It is located in the height of the transverse process of the first cervical vertebra (atlas). Passing through it is the cranial ... lungs and alimentary tract from the pharynx to the transverse colon. These visceral afferents synapse centrally in the solitary ...
During this part of its course, it lies in front of the transverse processes of the upper three cervical vertebrae. It is ... The cervical segment, or C1, or cervical part of the internal carotid, extends from the carotid bifurcation until it enters the ... The segments of the internal carotid artery are as follows: Cervical segment, or C1, identical to the commonly used Cervical ... it arises around the level of the fourth cervical vertebra when the common carotid bifurcates into this artery and its more ...
Chassaignac's tubercle - the strongly developed anterior tubercle of the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra: ...
... and is inserted by similar tendons into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of cervical vertebrae 2-6. The ... It arises by tendons from the transverse processes of the upper four or five thoracic vertebrae, and the articular processes of ... into the tips of the transverse processes of all the thoracic vertebræ, and by fleshy processes into the lower nine or ten ribs ... subdivision of the erector spinae that extends forward into the transverse processes of the posterior cervical vertebrae. The ...
It originates on the transverse processes of the upper cervical vertebrae and is inserted in the lateral half of the clavicle. ... It has been reported to originate on the sixth cervical vertebra. The levator claviculae is an infrequently recognized ... Its origin is on at least the third uppermost vertebrae, from where it courses inferiorly and laterally, lateral to the scalene ... Rosenheimer, JL; Loewy, J; Lozanoff, S (2000). "Levator claviculae muscle discovered during physical examination for cervical ...
The width between the transverse processes (the diagonal projections from a vertebral centrum) of the thoracic vertebrae were ... and only the atlas of the cervical vertebrae in the neck. Like in the modern sperm whales, the cervical vertebrae were probably ... It is thought that this whale had twelve thoracic vertebrae and at least ten lumbar vertebra. The type specimen had only 8 ... The falciform process on the squamosal bone was large and ventrally facing; as opposed to the ones in the Kogiidae (Kogia and ...
... and transverse processes. The inferior articular surfaces have the same direction as those of the other cervical vertebrae. The ... the inferior lie in front of the articular processes, as in the other cervical vertebrae The spinous process is large, very ... The dens is a protuberance (process or projection) of the axis (second cervical vertebra). The condition, where the dens is ... The transverse processes are very small, and each ends in a single tubercle; each is perforated by the transverse foramen, ...
... into the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the upper two or three cervical vertebrae. Its name is based on the ... It arises by a narrow tendinous band from the spinous processes of the third to the sixth thoracic vertebrae; it is inserted, ... Section of the neck at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the ... The function of the splenius cervicis muscle is extension of the cervical spine, rotation to the ipsilateral side and lateral ...
... and at least 28 caudal vertebrae in the tail. Out of the sacral vertebrae, the fifth has the widest transverse processes in ... Daliansaurus has at least 5 cervical vertebrae, probably 13 dorsal vertebrae, 5 sacral vertebrae, ... The ribs of the dorsal vertebrae unusually appear to bear uncinate processes, in the form of curved and rod-like projections ... On the femur, which is strongly bowed, the process known as the lateral crest is lower than another process, the posterior ...
... it runs up on the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae in the interval between the anterior ... The ascending cervical artery is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid artery as it passes behind the carotid ... The ascending cervical artery gives twigs to the neck muscles and these anastomose with branches of the vertebral arteries. One ... It then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ...
... is inserted into the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the fifth and sixth cervical vertebræ. The vertical ... The superior oblique portion arises from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, and fifth ... and fourth cervical vertebræ. It is commonly injured in rear end whiplash injuries, usually resulting from a car crash. This ... from the front of the bodies of the upper three thoracic and lower three cervical vertebræ, and is inserted into the front of ...
Its cervical ribs have anterior process, and like most plesiosaurs, Augustasaurus' vertebrae have "thickened transverse ... processes". Augustasaurus is known from the Augusta Mountains of northwestern Nevada (United States). The holotype specimen was ...
... the transverse processes attaching to the dorsal vertebrae above the level of the neural canals; and the long coracoid ... the facets that articulate with the cervical ribs on the cervical vertebrae being placed relatively high, similar to ... The number of cervical vertebrae in Luskhan (14) can be seen as intermediate between Pliosaurus (18) and Brachauchenius (12). ... the second cervical) is covered by a tongue-like projection from the third cervical. In the shoulder girdle, the projection at ...
... the cervical and lumbar ribs are found only as tiny remnants fused to the vertebrae, where they are referred to as transverse ... The thoracic ribs of birds possess a wide projection to the rear; this uncinate process is an attachment for the shoulder ... Mammals usually also only have distinct ribs on the thoracic vertebra, although fixed cervical ribs are also present in ... In the early tetrapods, every vertebra bore a pair of ribs, although those on the thoracic vertebrae are typically the longest ...
The lumbar vertebra consist of a body, pedicle, lamina, pars interarticularis, transverse process, spinous process and superior ... The vast majority of cases occur in the lower lumbar vertebrae (L5), but spondylolysis may also occur in the cervical vertebrae ... The vast majority of spondylolysis occur in the lumbar vertebrae, however it can also be seen in cervical vertebrae. ... A vertebra with a fracture or defect of the pars interarticularis will have a dark mark through this region of bone. Since this ...
... atlas vertebra bearing separate dorsal and ventral transverse processes, axis vertebra with relatively large odontoid process; ... neck relatively long with cervical vertebrae proportionally large and with anteroposteriorly elongated centra, ... superior process of the petrosal wide, smooth and almost flattened, posterior process of the petrosal atrophied; tympanic bulla ... propensity for distal trochlea of humerus to fuse to olecranon process of ulna; radius and ulna equal to or less than length of ...
... near cervical and thoracal vertebra, laterally, it is fixed to the front of the transverse process of the first and, sometimes ... It is attached to the side of the body of the first or second lumbar vertebra; ... also, to that of the second lumbar vertebra. It lies between the lateral arcuate ligament and the midline median arcuate ...
The transverse costal facet is on the end of the transverse process of the lower of the two vertebrae to which the head is ... the cervical and lumbar ribs are found only as tiny remnants fused to the vertebrae, where they are referred to as transverse ... The vertebrae and ribs develop from the sclerotomes.. During the fourth week (fertilization age) costal processes have ... During the fifth week the costal processes on the thoracic vertebrae become longer to form the ribs. In the sixth week, the ...
Acute transverse myelitis is uncommon and presumably results from an autoimmune process or a preceding infection. Most cases of ... The histopathological examination of lumbar vertebrae suggested nonspecific inflammation without evidence of tuberculosis ... Cervical SpineLinezolidBrucellosisMyelitisMixed Connective Tissue Disease. Background. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) has an ... Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group. Proposed diagnostic criteria and nosology of acute transverse myelitis. Neurol. ...
Then, a tracker was placed on the spinous processes at the upper side of the target vertebra. Subsequently, ISO-C 3D was used ... Our department has employed this technique in the upper cervical [18,19] and lumbar vertebrae with axial rotation  ... The Scott method demands cutting off the iliolumbar ligament to expose the transverse process during the operation, which may ... After determining the surface projection of the entry point, the operator made a 3 cm transverse incision, cut the skin and ...
... are the remaining five cervical vertebrae (C3-C7). The vertebrae share many anatomical characteristics. Click and start ... Transverse process (processus transversus) is a small lateral extension from the body. It is an attachment site for the muscles ... The last cervical vertebra (C7), however, is somewhat distinctive in that it typically has a more elongated spinous process. ... Introduction to Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy:. Inferior to the atlas bone (C1) and axis bone (C2) are the five remaining cervical ...
attach transverse processes of cervical vertebrae to the first (anterior and middle scalene) and second (posterior scalene) ... B.) Additional bone (transverse process of the vertebrae) may need to be removed using bone shears to identify structures ... Cuts should be on the lateral-most extent of the lamina before the transition to the transverse processes at an angle. Please ... transverse cervical a. (supplies trapezius m. & often gives rise to the dorsal scapular a.) ...
Each transverse process surrounds a tiny transverse foramen, a hole that provides room for the vertebral artery and vein to ... C1 (Atlas) - 1st Cervical Vertebra. The C1 vertebra, known as the atlas, is the superior-most vertebra in the spinal column. It ... The transverse process protects the blood vessels in the transverse foramen and serves as an attachment point for muscles that ... arise from the transverse processes of the atlas. In addition, several intertransversarii muscles connect the transverse ...
... transverse processes of middle cervical vertebrae; action, extends, abducts, and rotates cervical vertebrae; nerve supply, ... Synonym(s): musculus iliocostalis cervicis/colliTA, cervical iliocostal muscle, cervicalis ascendens1, musculus cervicalis ...
Cervical and lumbar lordoses 108 Cervical vertebrae distinctive feature Transverse foramina. Bifid spinous process ... Our mission is to create a smarter world by simplifying and accelerating the learning process. © 2019 Bold Learning Solutions. ... Extends between the lamina of two adjacent vertebrae and resists separation Prevents excessive flexion and helps with ...
Characteristic of Cervical Vertebrae 1. transverse process have Foramen Transversarium. 2. Spines are short and bifid. 3. body ... 6. transverse process are long and slender. 7. spinous process are short, flat, and quadrangular; project posteriorly ... 5. superior articular processes have facets that face posteriorly and superiorly. 6. Inferior articular process face inferiorly ... Our mission is to create a smarter world by simplifying and accelerating the learning process. © 2018 Bold Learning Solutions. ...
Extending from both lateral sides of the vertebral arch are the transverse processes and their tiny, hollow transverse foramina ... C7 (7th Cervical Vertebra). The 7th cervical (C7) vertebra is the largest and most inferior vertebra in the neck region. Unlike ... Unlike the notched spinous processes of the C3-C6 vertebrae, the vertebra prominens resembles the T1 vertebra with a spinous ... the C7 has some features of both the cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Like the C3 through C6 vertebrae, C7 has a thicker area ...
... from all the transverse processes. in the cervical region: from the articular processes of the lower four vertebrae. Each ... which fill up the groove on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae, from the sacrum to the axis. While very thin ... is inserted into the whole length of the spinous process of one of the vertebræ above. These fasciculi vary in length: the most ... while the deepest connect two adjacent vertebrae. The multifidus lies deep relative to the Spinal Erectors, Transverse ...
Transverse process of cervical vertebrae. What does the dorsal scapular nerve innervate?. The rhomboids and the levator ... Origin: transverse process of cervical vertebrae Insertion: ribs. What is the origin of the sternocleidomastoid?. The mastoid ...
Scalenus anterior: Origin: Transverse process of 3-6 cervical vertebra. Insertion: Tubercle of first rib. Nerve: ... More ... They have their origins on the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and their insertions posteriolaterally on the ...
k) m. Atlas, transverse process.. l) m. Transverse processes of 6 cervical vertebrae. ...
Transverse Process. lateral projections of the cervical vertebrae. Atlas. first cervical vertebra, which articulates with the ... Transverse Foramen. foramen on the transverse processes of each cervical vertebra that carries the vertebral artery. ... Inferior Articular Processes. processes of the first and second cervical vertebrae that allow articulation with the vertebrae ... arch on the first cervical vertebra. Superior Articular Processes. processes from a vertebra that allow articulation with the ...
... except for those in the cervical region. On no vertebrae do the tendons extend below the transverse processes. Each tendon is ... The nasals end at the back of the squamosals in a hooked, short process. The prefrontals also make up part of the crest; ... The only differences he found between them were the development of the vertebrae, and the proportions of the limbs. During a ... Because of his incorrect identification, Brown assumed that the holotypes inferior process of the premaxillary was shorter ...
The prevertebral layer is attached to the base of the skull and to the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae. It ... The internal carotid artery lies on the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae and against the wall of the pharynx. ... The artery is related to the cervical vertebrae. The common carotid artery can be compressed against the transverse processes ... Figure 50-22 Cervical ribs. A, An unusually long transverse process of C7 (arrow). B, A minute cervical rib with head, neck, ...
... they are small and completely fused to the vertebrae. The transverse processes of mammals are homologous to the cervical ribs ... cervical vertebrae, cervical, vertebrae:. Cervical Vertebrae - Additional Images. ... Position of cervical vertebrae (shown in ... Cervical Vertebrae. In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are those vertebrae immediately inferior to the ... There are approximately 40 cervical vertebrae (neck vertebrae), with different specimens preserving 38 to 42 cervical vertebrae ...
Origin Transverse processes of first through fourth cervical vertebrae.. Insertion Upper region of medial border and superior ... Origin Spinous processes of last thoracic vertebrae, last three of four ribs, thoracolumbar aponeurosis and poserior iliac ... Origin Spinous processes of C-7 and T-1.. Insertion Upper portion of medial border of the scapula, across from spine of the ... of the shoulder is just the opposite, moving the arm closer to and/or across the body on the horizontal or transverse plane. ...
The bodies of the dorsal vertebra) are short and compressed laterally, and have large transverse processes; they are generally ... The cervical vertebrae are the most numerous; their bodies lock into each other so as to allow a forward motion in the upper ... in the higher forms the vertebras have no ribs, but long transverse processes, and are united by a ball-and-socket joint, with ... The spine consists of 7 or 8 cervical vertebrae, 8 to 14 dorsal, 3 sacral, and 20 to 30 caudal; the broad flat bones under the ...
At the cervical region the spinal column is further classified into an upper and lower cervical region. ... is made up of a total of 33 vertebrae, which are subdivided into five regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccyx. ... and transverse processes. ... The cervical spine consists of seven vertebrae and is located ... The thoracic spinal vertebrae consist of 12 total vertebrae and are located between the cervical vertebrae (which begin at the ...
... anterior tubercles of transverse processes of third to sixth cervical vertebrae; insertion, scalene tubercle of first rib; ... action, raises first rib; nerve supply, cervical plexus.. Synonym(s): musculus scalenus anteriorTA, anterior scalene muscle, ...
O: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae.. I: Ribs 1 and 2.. A: Elevates first two ribs. ... O: Lumbodorsal fascia, spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, lower 3-4 ribs and iliac crest. ... I: Olecranon Process. A: Extension of forearm (PM - medial head); antagonist to flexors of forearm; long and lateral heads ... I: Lateral aspect of olecranon process of ulna.. A: Abduction of ulna during forearm pronation; synergist of Triceps Brachii in ...
Cervical Vertebrae. The seven vertebrae of the neck are characterized by an opening in each transverse process known as a ... In the cervical vertebra, the posterior tubercle of the transverse process should probably also be shaded as part of the costal ... Note that the costal element forms a part of the transverse process of a cervical vertebra. It forms the rib in the thoracic ... The part of a cervical vertebra that corresponds to a rib is probably the transverse process lateral to the foramen ...
Less commonly, the extracranial vertebral arteries can be affected by pathologic processes including trauma, fibromuscular ... Direct exposure usually requires resection of the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae. As such, control may be best ... The nerve is followed proximally as it crosses in front of the jugular vein and the transverse process of C1. Next, levator ... The muscle is transected from its insertion on the C1 transverse process. The C2 ramus divides into 3 branches after crossing ...
Find details on Transitional vertebrae in dogs including diagnosis and symptoms, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, prognosis ... Caudal cervical vertebrae may have transverse processes that resemble ribs.. *Sacralization occurs where the 7th lumbar ... Sacral vertebrae may occasionally have transverse processes like lumbar vertebrae.. Pathogenesis. Predisposing factors. General ... Schultz V A, Watson A G (1995) Lumbosacral transitional vertebra and thoracic limb malformations in a Chihuahua puppy. JAAHA 31 ...
SpineAxialSpinal cordIdiopathicPosteriorSpinous processInferiorLateralLaminaeForamen TransversariumMusclesThoracic vertebraNervesFifth cervical vertebraMedialOccipitalAxisPediclesSacrumProminensLumbar vertebraCostalAtlasIntervertebralBony projectionsSpinal columnSections of the vertebral columnAnteriorlyBonesThird cervical vertebraSacral vertebraeDorsal vertebraeSeventhProjectionsAttachesExtendsCoccyxCervicales
- A lumbar CT scan demonstrated an abscess in the left psoas, and the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the entire spinal suggested a cervical spine infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Six months later, a follow-up MRI revealed that the lesion of the cervical spine had been ameliorated, and the sensation and myodynamia of his upper limbs had partially recovered. (biomedcentral.com)
- This was a rare case of a high-level cervical spine pyogenic infection complicating psoas abscess. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using these muscles and skeletal landmarks, identify the posterior cervical triangle. (google.com)
- Note: The posterior cervical triangle is bounded anteriorly by the posterior border of the SCM, posteriorly by the superior part of the trapezius, and inferiorly by the clavicle. (google.com)
- 3.) Identify the two sub-triangles within the posterior cervical triangle. (google.com)
- Note: The posterior cervical triangle may be subdivided into two triangles. (google.com)
- Surgical exposure at the suboccipital segment requires resection of the C1 transverse process and part of its posterior arch. (medscape.com)
- Superior articular facet ( facies articularis superior ) is a posterior facing, slightly concave surface on the superior articular process. (getbodysmart.com)
- Pedicle of the vertebral arch ( pediculus arcus vertebrae ) is a posterior extension from the lateral side of the body. (getbodysmart.com)
- Spinous process ( processus spinosus ) is a narrow posterior projection from the junction of the two laminae. (getbodysmart.com)
- Typically arising from the transverse process of C3 to C5, the levator claviculae courses inferiorly, lateral to the scalene and levator scapulae muscles , medial and posterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and usually inserting on the clavicle. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The back of the neck is called the posterior cervical area. (eorthopod.com)
- The anterior arch curves posteriorly and laterally from the anterior tubercle and has a smooth joint-forming process on its posterior side. (innerbody.com)
- The posterior of the anterior arch meets the odontoid process of the C2 vertebra (axis) to form the median atlantoaxial joint. (innerbody.com)
- The posterior tubercle is similar in structure and function to the much larger spinous process found in most vertebrae. (innerbody.com)
- the nuchal ligament itself attaching to the spinous processes of C2-C7 and to the posterior tubercle of the atlas. (wikipedia.org)
- Each process consists of an anterior and a posterior part. (wikipedia.org)
- The atlas (C1), which has neither body nor spinous process, consists of two lateral masses connected by a short anterior and a longer posterior arch. (dartmouth.edu)
- The spinous process extends from the posterior of the vertebral arch to provide connection points for the muscles that extend the neck, including the trapezius and spinalis muscles. (innerbody.com)
- It is formed in the posterior cervical triangle by the union of ventral rami of 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th cervical nerve roots and 1st thoracic nerve root. (hindawi.com)
- Other anatomical landmarks on the atlas include the anterior arch and tubercle, posterior arch and tubercle, vertebral notches, facets, and transverse processes. (healthline.com)
- Ascends towards the posterior clinoid process. (slideserve.com)
- Moreover, each process is deeply grooved above for a spinal nerve , and is bifid at its free extremity, terminating in two tubercles - anterior and posterior. (imedecin.com)
- The various cervical vertebrae possess distinguishing features, though, with the exception of the first, second, and seventh, which are so different as to necessitate separate descriptions, these are largely confined to the direction of the costo-transverse lamella, and the size and level of the anterior and posterior tubercles. (imedecin.com)
- its posterior surface has a circular facet for the odontoid process of the axis. (imedecin.com)
- The bodies in the middle of the thoracic region are heart-shaped, and as broad in the antero-posterior as in the transverse direction. (bionity.com)
- Important areas that should be palpated include: the spinous processes, the posterior facet joints, and the paraspinous muscles. (jove.com)
- Next, move your fingers a few centimeters to the left or right of each spinous process to palpate the posterior facet joints. (jove.com)
- The posterior column includes the ligamentum flavum and the posterior elements (facet joints, pedicles, transverse processes, laminae and spinous processes). (aafp.org)
- ascends from the spinous processes of T3 to T6 to the posterior tubercles of the transverse processes of C2 to C4. (infobarrel.com)
- A muscle with origin from the costotransverse lamellae of the transverse processes of the second to the sixth cervical vertebrae, with insertion into the first rib posterior to the subclavian artery, with nerve supply from the cervical plexus, and whose action raises the first rib. (dictionary.com)
- The cervical segment ascends vertically through the neck, situated posterior to the external carotid artery. (chirotexas.org)
- Any of the paired muscles between the transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae, designated anterior and posterior muscles in the cervical region, lateral and medial in the lumbar region, and single in the thoracic region. (dictionary.com)
- The common carotid artery is contained in a sheath known as the carotid sheath, which is derived from the deep cervical fascia and encloses also the internal jugular vein and vagus nerve , the vein lying lateral to the artery, and the nerve between the artery and vein, on a plane posterior to both. (bionity.com)
- The last cervical vertebra (C7), however, is somewhat distinctive in that it typically has a more elongated spinous process. (getbodysmart.com)
- Vertebral arch ( arcus vertebrae ) is made up of two pedicles, two laminae, and a spinous process. (getbodysmart.com)
- Spinous process of a cervical vertebra. (getbodysmart.com)
- At the base of the neck where the cervical and thoracic spines join together, you'll feel another large spinous process. (eorthopod.com)
- The spinous process is short and bifid, the two divisions being often of unequal size. (wikipedia.org)
- The transverse processes emerge laterally at the junction of the pedicles and laminae, and the spinous process proceeds posteriorly from the union of the laminae. (dartmouth.edu)
- Unlike the other cervical vertebrae, the C7 has a large spinous process that protrudes posteriorly toward the skin at the back of the neck. (innerbody.com)
- This spinous process can be easily seen and felt at the base of the neck, making it a prominent landmark of the skeleton and giving the C7 the name vertebra prominens. (innerbody.com)
- Unlike the notched spinous processes of the C3-C6 vertebrae, the vertebra prominens resembles the T1 vertebra with a spinous process that is large, straight, and flattened at the end. (innerbody.com)
- The end of the nuchal ligament, which supports the muscles of the neck and connects the occipital bone of the skull to the C7 vertebra, attaches at the tip of the spinous process. (innerbody.com)
- The spinous process is short and bifid at the free extremity. (imedecin.com)
- Posteriorly this arch has a tubercle, representing a rudimentary spinous process. (imedecin.com)
- The spinous process is long, triangular on coronal section, directed obliquely downward, and ends in a tuberculated extremity. (bionity.com)
- the spinous process is thick, long, and almost horizontal. (bionity.com)
- and a single spinous process that provides attachments for the muscles, ligaments and tendons that connect one vertebra to another. (healthcentral.com)
- They usually course from the spinous process or transverse process of one vertebra to the spinous or transverse process of a vertebra one, two, or three levels below. (verywellhealth.com)
- In particular, a recess is provided for the spinous process to prevent impact thereto during a collision. (google.com)
- The spinous process is a projection perpendicular to the lamina. (openwetware.org)
- Each spinous process is connected by ligaments to those above and below it in the vertebral column as well as being the site for important muscle connections necessary for movement and stability. (openwetware.org)
- It articulates with the inferior articular facet on the vertebra above. (getbodysmart.com)
- The inferior articular facet makes contact with the superior articular facet on the cervical vertebra above. (getbodysmart.com)
- Inferior articular facet of a cervical vertebra. (getbodysmart.com)
- Inferior view of a cervical vertebra - test yourself. (getbodysmart.com)
- In humans, cervical vertebrae are the smallest of the true vertebrae and can be readily distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen (hole) in each transverse process, through which the vertebral artery , vertebral veins , and inferior cervical ganglion pass. (wikipedia.org)
- the former is placed on a lower level than the latter, and its inferior border is prolonged downward, so as to overlap the upper and forepart of the vertebra below. (wikipedia.org)
- The superior and inferior articular processes of cervical vertebrae have fused on either or both sides to form articular pillars , columns of bone that project laterally from the junction of the pedicle and lamina. (wikipedia.org)
- The superior and inferior articular processes project vertically from the vertebral arches on each side and bear articular facets. (dartmouth.edu)
- The C7 is located in the spinal column inferior to the 6th cervical (C6) vertebra and superior to the first thoracic (T1) vertebra. (innerbody.com)
- vertebra ) are those vertebrae immediately inferior to the skull. (primidi.com)
- The inferior surface, on the contrary, projects downward in front and is rounded off at the sides to receive the corresponding lips of the adjacent vertebra. (imedecin.com)
- The acromial end has a rough inferior surface that bears a ridge, the trapezoid line , and a slight rounded projection, the conoid tubercle (above the coracoid process ). (wikipedia.org)
- These articulate with the superior and inferior costal facets on the connecting vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, the medial branch of C4 is seen within the waist of the superior and inferior articular processes of C4 (Figure 2). (usra.ca)
- Each vertebra possesses four facet joints, two superior and two inferior. (openwetware.org)
- The cervical sympathetic trunk has 3 ganglia: superior, middle and inferior ganglia (Figure 1). (usra.ca)
- When the inferior cervical ganglion is fused with the T1 ganglion, this cervicothoracic ganglion is called the stellate ganglion. (usra.ca)
- Transverse process ( processus transversus ) is a small lateral extension from the body. (getbodysmart.com)
- Extending laterally from each lateral mass is an irregular ring of bone known as the transverse process. (innerbody.com)
- Axis - 2nd cervical vertebra of large ungulate, lateral view. (washington.edu)
- Lateral view of a thoracic vertebrae from a large ungulate. (washington.edu)
- Facets lateral to the C7's body allow the C7 to form joints with the C6 vertebra above it and the T1 below it. (innerbody.com)
- Extending from both lateral sides of the vertebral arch are the transverse processes and their tiny, hollow transverse foramina. (innerbody.com)
- The tenth thoracic vertebra has (except in the cases just mentioned) an entire articular facet on either side, which is placed partly on the lateral surface of the pedicle. (bionity.com)
- At its lateral end it articulates with the acromion , a process of the scapula (shoulder blade) at the acromioclavicular joint . (wikipedia.org)
- The sutural structures are oriented to resist anteroposterior translation of the neural arch in cervical vertebrae and lateral rotation in dorsal vertebrae. (bioone.org)
- In Figure 1, note that the TON (arrowheads) first appears caudad to the transverse process of axis (TP2) before reaching the surface of the C2/C3 facet joint gap over its lateral aspect. (usra.ca)
- The laminae are broad, thick, and imbricated - that is to say, they overlap those of subjacent vertebrae like tiles on a roof. (bionity.com)
- The elements of these vertebrae include: the laminae, the transverse and spinous processes, and the facet joints. (jove.com)
- The arch is formed of two pedicle and two laminae, which support seven processes, namely, four articular, two transverse and one spinous. (google.com)
- The transverse processes are each pierced by the foramen transversarium , which, in the upper six vertebrae, gives passage to the vertebral artery and vein , as well as a plexus of sympathetic nerves . (wikipedia.org)
- The transverse process presents near its base a round costo-transverse foramen [foramen transversarium] for the transmission of the vertebral artery , vein , and a plexus of sympathetic nerves. (imedecin.com)
- The vertebral arteries travel to the cranium via the foramen transversarium of the cervical vertebrae. (blogspot.com)
- therefore, afferent supply to these muscles comes from ventral primary rami of cervical nerves (C2-C4). (google.com)
- Consists of Semispinalis and a number of short muscles that extend from one vertebrae to the next. (flashcardmachine.com)
- Higher up, it is separated from the external carotid by the styloglossus and stylopharyngeus muscles, the tip of the styloid process and the stylohyoid ligament, the glossopharyngeal nerve and the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
- The brachial plexus is formed by the anterior primary rami of cervical nerves 5-8, and the first thoracic nerve, which are sandwiched between the anterior and middle scalene muscles. (dartmouth.edu)
- The first segment is the prevertebral segment, also known as V1, which lies between the longus colli and the anterior scalene muscles before entering the transverse foramen of C6. (chiro.org)
- These muscles run underneath the trapezius, from the spinous processes of the 7th cervical vertebra through the 5th thoracic vertebra to the scapula. (dummies.com)
- Observe the midline spinous processes, and the form and bulk of the paraspinous muscles that surround the midline. (jove.com)
- Lastly, palpate the paraspinous muscles, along either side of the spinous processes that overlie the facet joints. (jove.com)
- The diaphragm weaves into the fibers of the transverse abdominal muscles and has various connections to thoracic and abdominal organs such as the liver. (humankinetics.com)
- In deep breathing during exercise, the body functions as a giant bellows involving a myriad of muscles in the breathing process. (humankinetics.com)
- The longus coli, rectus capitis anterior, rectus capitis lateralis, and some of the cervical intertransverse muscles have been cut away. (stanford.edu)
- The cervical portion of the ICA lies below the sternocleidomastoid muscles and is separated from the external carotid artery by the styloglossus and stylopharyngeal muscles. (chirotexas.org)
- Specifically, the three scalene muscles originate together on the transverse processes of the vertebrae from the third to the sixth cervical vertebrae (C3 to C6). (yoganatomy.com)
- The transverse processes extend out towards the sides of the vertebra and provide additional attachment sites for ligaments and back muscles. (openwetware.org)
- The prevertebral fascia is a layer of deep cervical fascia that envelops the prevertebral muscles (longus colli and longus capitis muscles) that attach to the cervical vertebral bodies and transverse processes (Figure 2). (usra.ca)
- Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra. (bionity.com)
- The first thoracic vertebra has, on either side of the body , an entire articular facet for the head of the first rib, and a demi-facet for the upper half of the head of the second rib. (bionity.com)
- The ninth thoracic vertebra may have no demi-facets below. (bionity.com)
- The first rib is attached to thoracic vertebra 1 (T1). (wikipedia.org)
- The articular facet, is small and oval and is the lower and more medial of the two, and connects to the transverse costal facet on the thoracic vertebra of the same rib number. (wikipedia.org)
- nerve supply , dorsal primary rami of lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Cervical nerves 2-4 also contribute. (dartmouth.edu)
- The first cervical nerve emerges between the skull and the atlas, and cervical nerves C2 to 7 continue to leave the vertebral canal above the correspondingly numbered vertebrae. (dartmouth.edu)
- C8 emerges between the C7 and T1 vertebrae, and the remaining spinal nerves leave below the correspondingly numbered vertebrae. (dartmouth.edu)
- It is innervated by the anterior primary rami of the first to fourth cervical nerves (C1-C4). (gpnotebook.co.uk)
- At the base of the spinal column, near the first lumbar vertebra, is a collection of nerves called the cauda equina. (healthline.com)
- The cervical spinal nerves emerge from above the cervical vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
- The atlas and axis are peculiar in that the first and second spinal nerves issue behind the articular processes, whereas the remaining spinal nerves emerge in front of the articular facets of the vertebrae. (imedecin.com)
- Spinal nerves, which branch off from the spinal cord through spaces (foramina) between adjacent vertebrae, extend to all parts of the body. (healthcentral.com)
- Because of this intricate interweaving of bone and nerve tissue, problems with the vertebrae can cause symptoms from pressure on the spinal nerves or the spinal cord. (healthcentral.com)
- The paraspinals are innervated by nerves from the dorsal rami of the first cervical nerve down to the fifth lumbar nerve, depending on the level of the muscle. (verywellhealth.com)
- The series of nerves that comprise the spinal cord pass through the vertebral column and branch out into the body, passing through portions of the vertebra called transverse process and vertebral foramen. (joestephenslaw.com)
- Curves upward on the medial side of the anterior clinoid process. (slideserve.com)
- It attaches to the transverse processes of the first four cervical vertebrae and the medial side of the scapula. (dummies.com)
- A rare variation is the presence of a second lamella under the medial portion of the muscle, extending from one or more of the upper thoracic transverse processes to the occipital bone. (anatomyatlases.org)
- originates from spinous processes of C1 to C4 and inserts at the medial aspect of superior border of the scapular. (infobarrel.com)
- The deep medial branch of C3 dorsal ramus and medial branches of C4-C7 dorsal rami innervate the cervical facet joints. (usra.ca)
- The cervical medial branches are smaller in caliber than the TON. (usra.ca)
- Each cervical medial branch then courses around the waist between the articular processes. (usra.ca)
- The medial branches get progressively smaller at lower cervical levels. (usra.ca)
- The C4 medial branch is located within the waist of the articular process (AP) of C4 cervical vertebra. (usra.ca)
- in the upper part of its course it is more superficial, being covered merely by the integument, the superficial fascia, the platysma, deep cervical fascia, and medial margin of the sternocleidomastoid. (bionity.com)
- Mastoid process and Occipital bone. (flashcardmachine.com)
- The trapezius muscle (see fig. 8-4 ) arises from the superior nuchal line, the external occipital protuberance, the ligamentum nuchae, and the spinous processes of the last cervical and all the thoracic vertebrae. (dartmouth.edu)
- The dens is anchored to the occipital bone (by apical and alar ligaments) and is limited behind by the transverse ligament of the atlas (fig. 39-3 ). (dartmouth.edu)
- It is the vertebra that is in contact with the occipital bone, a flat bone located at the back portion of the head. (healthline.com)
- It arises from lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae and transverse processes, and inserts onto the occipital bone and inion. (anatomyatlases.org)
- originates from the external occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line (medially), nuchal ligament, spinous processes and their supraspinous ligaments from C7 to T12. (infobarrel.com)
- Human vertebrae - showing atlas, axis above, thoracic vertebrae in lower left & lumbar vertebrae in lower right. (washington.edu)
- The C1 vertebra, which supports the skull, is termed the atlas, and C2, which serves as a pivot for the atlas, is termed the axis. (dartmouth.edu)
- The axis (C2) is characterized by the dens (or odontoid process), which projects upward from the body and articulates with the anterior arch of the atlas. (dartmouth.edu)
- Together with the second vertebra, the axis, it is responsible for the wide range of motion of the head. (healthline.com)
- The atlas does not look like a typical vertebra, with its ring-like structure and the absence of a body, which is actually fused to the axis. (healthline.com)
- The atlas (C1) and axis (C2) are the two topmost vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
- The body is smaller than in other regions of the column and is of oval shape with the long axis transverse. (imedecin.com)
- When vertebra are in their anatomical position, notches between adjacent pedicles form intervertebral foramina, each of which typically transmitsneural structures including a spinal ganglion and a ventral root of a spinal nerve. (dartmouth.edu)
- The pedicles help form the spinal canal as well as bridge the body to the rest of the vertebra. (openwetware.org)
- The vertebral column usually consists of 33 vertebrae: 24 presacral vertebrae (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar) followed by the sacrum (5 fused sacral vertebrae) and the coccyx (4 frequently fused coccygeal vertebrae). (dartmouth.edu)
- It originates from a broad tendon on the back of the hip bones, the back of the sacrum bone, the ligaments of the sacroiliac joints, and the spinous processes of the lower lumbar vertebra. (verywellhealth.com)
- The anterior portion is the homologue of the rib in the thoracic region, and is therefore named the costal process or costal element . (wikipedia.org)
- The transverse costal facet is on the end of the transverse process of the lower of the two vertebrae to which the head is connected. (wikipedia.org)
- Atlas, transverse process. (anatomyatlases.org)
- Compared to other vertebrae, the atlas also has much wider bony projections pointing out to each side. (eorthopod.com)
- The atlas sits on top of the C2 vertebra. (eorthopod.com)
- The atlas has the widest transverse processes of all the cervical vertebrae. (eorthopod.com)
- The C1 vertebra, known as the atlas, is the superior-most vertebra in the spinal column. (innerbody.com)
- The atlas is the thinnest and most delicate of the cervical vertebrae, consisting of a thin ring of bone with a few small projections. (innerbody.com)
- Unlike most vertebrae, there is no body or centrum on the anterior end of the atlas. (innerbody.com)
- Atlas - 1st cervical vertebra of large ungulate, anterior view. (washington.edu)
- The accessory nerve (external branch), which crosses the transverse process of the atlas, either pierces or runs deep to the sternomastoid, which it supplies. (dartmouth.edu)
- The atlas is one of the two upper cervical vertebrae, also known as C1, which is the topmost vertebra of the spinal column. (healthline.com)
- The ICA is freely moveable within its cervical pathway, but becomes fixed to the surface of the bone as it enters the carotid canal above the atlas. (chirotexas.org)
- The bodies of the vertebrae are separated from each other by intervertebral discs. (dartmouth.edu)
- The intervertebral disk develops between vertebrae. (vetstream.com)
- The anterior part of each vertebra is made up of the thick bony body, which is linked to the body above and below by intervertebral discs. (jove.com)
- Between each vertebral body and the next is an intervertebral disk, a flexible pad of cartilaginous tissue that cushions the vertebrae as the body moves. (healthcentral.com)
- The crest gives attachment to the intra-articulate ligament that joins the rib to the vertebra of the same number, at the intervertebral disc . (wikipedia.org)
- Vertebrae are stacked on top of one another to form the spinal column . (eorthopod.com)
- Except for the very top and bottom of the spinal column, each vertebra has two facet joints on each side. (eorthopod.com)
- At the cervical region the spinal column is further classified into an upper and lower cervical region. (healthline.com)
- The bones of fishes are comparatively soft, flexible, and elastic, in the lowest species without division into vertebrae, and in the sharks and rays cartilaginous, resembling the embryonic conditions of higher animals. (chestofbooks.com)
- The internal vertebral venous plexuses (intraspinal veins) lie within the vertebral canal between the dura mater and the vertebrae, and receive tributaries from the bones and from the medulla spinalis. (statemaster.com)
- Early in gestation , a fetus has a cartilaginous skeleton from which the long bones and most other bones gradually form throughout the remaining gestation period and for years after birth in a process called endochondral ossification . (statemaster.com)
- The flat bones of the skull and the clavicles are formed from connective tissue in a process known as intramembranous ossification , and ossification of the mandible occurs in the fibrous membrane covering the outer surfaces of Meckel's cartilages . (statemaster.com)