Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Recombinases that involved in the propagation of DNA TRANSPOSONS. They bind to transposon sequences found at two different sites along the same stretch of DNA and bring them into close proximity. The enzymes then catalyze the double strand cleavage, exchange of double strands and rejoining of DNA helices so that the DNA transposon is formed into a circular PLASMID.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The deletion and reinsertion of a segment of a nucleic acid sequence in the same place, but flipped in an opposite orientation.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Color of the iris.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpene saponins. The root of Anemone raddeana is the source of a Chinese folk medicine, zhu jie xian fu. The common name of liverwort is also used with other plants. This genus is unrelated to SEA ANEMONES.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A multicomponent, ribonucleoprotein complex comprised of one of the family of ARGONAUTE PROTEINS and the "guide strand" of the one of the 20- to 30-nucleotide small RNAs. RISC cleaves specific RNAs, which are targeted for degradation by homology to these small RNAs. Functions in regulating gene expression are determined by the specific argonaute protein and small RNA including siRNA (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING), miRNA (MICRORNA), or piRNA (PIWI-INTERACTING RNA).
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles).
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A subclass of histone deacetylases that are NAD-dependent. Several members of the SIRTUINS family are included in this subclass.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
The transposable P elements, also known as transposons, are segments of bacterial DNA that are transferred into the fly genome ... It is caused by mutations in the gene WRN that encodes a protein with essential roles in repair of DNA damage. Mutations in the ... The under-replication of rDNA occurs resulting in only 20% of DNA compared to the brain. Compare to the 47%, less rDNA in ... More than 60% of the genome appears to be functional non-protein-coding DNA[72] involved in gene expression control. ...
Repetitive DNA is primarily derived from transposable elements (TEs), which include DNA transposons belonging to around 20 ... GIRI has hosted three international conferences devoted to the genomic impact of eukaryotic transposable elements. "Home Page ... The majority of known superfamilies of DNA transposons were discovered or co-discovered at GIRI, including Helitron, Academ, ... An ancient element from the Transib superfamily was identified as the evolutionary precursor of the Recombination activating ...
In addition, spermatogenesis fails due to sperm DNA damage caused by the derepression of transposable elements. MAEL has also ... The Maelstrom protein forms a complex with piRISC to silence transposons and therefore stabilize the germline cell genome. A ... Short RNAs are well-known to silence TEs (transposable elements) through the RNAi (RNA interference) pathway, and Piwi- ... Sokolova OA, Yakushev EY, Stolyarenko AD, Mikhaleva EA, Gvozdev VA, Klenov MS (2011). Interplay of transposon-silencing genes ...
... a novel class of giant transposable elements widespread in eukaryotes and related to DNA viruses". Gene. 390 (April): 3-17. doi ... or DNA transposons, were discovered or co-discovered by his team at the Genetic Information Research Institute, based on DNA ... Jurka is best known for his work on eukaryotic transposable elements (TEs), including the discovery of the major families of ... In 2006 they reported a study of a new, self-synthesizing transposable element called Polinton or Maverick, which is present ...
... a type of transposable DNA element Piggybacking (security), when an authorized person allows (intentionally or unintentionally ... Piggyback plant, Tolmiea menziesii Piggybacking, technique used in astrophotography PiggyBac transposon system, ...
... its stability is perfect to ensure the permanent silencing of transposable elements. Transposon control is one the most ancient ... Repression of transposable elements[edit]. DNA methylation is a powerful transcriptional repressor, at least in CpG dense ... While the Neurospora genome has very little repeated DNA, half of the methylation occurs in repeated DNA including transposon ... DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. Methylation can change the activity of a DNA ...
Her research focuses on the molecular mechanisms of transposable elements, or mobile sequences of DNA found in the genomes of ... In addition to the unusually specific transposon Tn7, her group also studies families of transposons known as hAT transposons ... Throughout her career, Craig has focused her research interests on transposable elements, or sequences of DNA that can change ... where she studied the chemistry of DNA repair and the mechanisms of the cellular SOS response to DNA damage. She was ...
Martienssen's work explains the effect on plants of 'jumping genes', or DNA transposable elements, reported in 1951 by Barbara ... He discovered that small pieces of RNA, in association with proteins of the Argonaute family, silence transposons in seeds so ... "Somatically heritable switches in the DNA modification of Mu transposable elements monitored with a suppressible mutant in ... subscription or UK public library membership required) Slotkin, R. Keith; Martienssen, Robert (2007). "Transposable elements ...
... a novel class of giant transposable elements widespread in eukaryotes and related to DNA viruses". Gene. 390 (1-2): 3-17. doi: ... They were first discovered in the mid-2000s and are the largest and most complex known DNA transposons. Polintons encode up to ... Polintons encode up to 10 proteins, the key elements being the protein-primed type B DNA polymerase and the retroviral-like ... Polintons (also called Mavericks) are large DNA transposons which contain genes with homology to viral proteins and which are ...
interspersed nuclear elements): Transposable elements. DNA transposons.retrotransposons.LTR-retrotransposons (HERVs).non LTR- ... Mobile DNA. 9 (1): 15. doi:10.1186/s13100-018-0120-9. PMID 29743957. Function of Repetitive DNA DNA+Repetitious+Region at the ... Repeated sequences (also known as repetitive elements, repeating units or repeats) are patterns of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) ... Controversial references to 'junk' or 'selfish' DNA were put forward early on, implying that repetitive DNA segments are ...
... its stability is perfect to ensure the permanent silencing of transposable elements. Transposon control is one of the most ... It is even suggested that DNA methylation evolved precisely for this purpose. DNA methylation of transposable elements has been ... suggesting that the DNA methylation of transposable elements led to a noticeable increase in the mass of DNA. A function that ... While the Neurospora genome has very little repeated DNA, half of the methylation occurs in repeated DNA including transposon ...
... the efficiency by which cells can take up extracellular DNA and express genes encoded by it Transposable element, a sequence of ... DNA that can move about in the genome, including transposons Echo time in magnetic resonance imaging TE cooler, a solid-state ... element 52 in the Periodic Table; code "Te" Test engineer, a professional who determines how to create a process that would ...
Deniz Ö, Frost JM, Branco MR (July 2019). "Regulation of transposable elements by DNA modifications". Nature Reviews. Genetics ... Cho J (2018). "Transposon-Derived Non-coding RNAs and Their Function in Plants". Frontiers in Plant Science. 9: 600. doi: ... RdDM plays a key role in silencing these mobile DNA elements in plants by adding DNA methylation over new TE insertions and ... DNA methylation can be lost passively with each cell division, because newly-synthesized strands of DNA lack DNA methylation ...
A transposable element (TE) (also called a transposon or jumping gene) is a mobile segment of DNA that can sometimes pick up a ... HTT can occur with any type of transposable elements, but DNA transposons and LTR retroelements are more likely to be capable ... Successful transfer of a transposable element requires delivery of DNA from donor to host cell (and to the germ line for multi- ... Plasterk RH (1996). "The Tc1/mariner transposon family". In Saedler H, Gierl A (eds.). Transposable Elements. Current Topics in ...
... an insertion sequence element, or an IS element) is a short DNA sequence that acts as a simple transposable element. Insertion ... called unit transposons, that do not carry insertion sequences at their extremities (e.g. Tn7). A complex transposon does not ... certain eukaryotic DNA sequences belonging to the family of Tc1/mariner transposable elements may be considered to be, ... they are small relative to other transposable elements (generally around 700 to 2500 bp in length) and only code for proteins ...
Transposable elements Barbara McClintock discovered transposable elements (also known as transposons and jumping genes), DNA ... Transposons make up a large fraction of the DNA in eukaryotic cells (44% if the human genome and 90% of the maize genome) and ... Mills, R.E., Bennett, E.A., Iskow, R.C. and Devine, S.E. (2007). "Which transposable elements are active in the human genome ... Heavy elements in cosmic radiation As a graduate student, Phyllis S. Freier found evidence for the existence of elements ...
A transposable element (TE, transposon, or jumping gene) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, ... Transposable elements make up a large fraction of the genome and are responsible for much of the mass of DNA in a eukaryotic ... The Mariner transposon was first discovered by Jacobson and Hartl in Drosophila. This Class II transposable element is known ... Transposable elements represent one of several types of mobile genetic elements. TEs are assigned to one of two classes ...
... physical properties of DNA affecting target site selection of sleeping beauty and other Tc1/mariner transposable elements. J ... The sleeping beauty (SB) transposon is a derivative of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of DNA transposons prevalent among both ... An active Tc1/mariner transposon, synthesized from alignment of inactive transposons from the salmonid subfamily of elements, ... was "awoken" to form the transposon named Sleeping Beauty. SB, like other DNA transposons, mobilizes itself via a cut-and-paste ...
... introns as mobile genetic elements Junk DNA Mobile genetic elements Mutation Noncoding DNA Retrotransposon Transposable element ... Wright SI, Schoen DJ (2000). Transposon dynamics and the breeding system. Transposable Elements and Genome Evolution. 107. ... While many transposable elements seem to do no good for the host, some transposable elements have been "tamed" by molecular ... B chromosomes and transposable elements. The contribution of transposable elements to the genome is especially well studied in ...
Since DNA methylation occurs mostly in transposable elements (TE), DDM1 is thought to be a crucial function in silencing TEs. ... The maize genome is 80% transposons so DDM1 function is quite important. Cho, Eun Ju; Choi, Seung Hee; Kim, Ji Hong; Kim, Ji ... DDM1 is required for DNA methylation in highly heterochromatin transposable elements. DDM1, therefore, often silences ... DDM1, Decreased DNA Methylation I, is a plant gene that encodes a nucleosome remodeler which facilitates DNA methylation. The ...
At first, T-DNA was applied for insertional mutagenesis. However, using transposable element can bring more advantages. ... Transposon can be used as tag for a DNA with a know sequence. Transposon can appear at other locus through transcription or ... The size of transposable element is between 750 and 40000bp. Transposable element can be mainly classified as two classes: One ... Transposable elements were first discovered by Barbara McClintock in maize plants. She identified the first transposable ...
hAT transposons are a superfamily of DNA transposons, or Class II transposable elements, that are common in the genomes of ... "A resurrected mammalian hAT transposable element and a closely related insect element are highly active in human cell culture ... The hAT transposon superfamily includes the first transposon discovered, Ac from Zea mays (maize), first reported by Barbara ... hAT transposons are widely distributed across eukaryotic genomes, but are not active in all organisms. Inactive hAT transposon ...
They are class II transposable elements (TEs) that move through a DNA intermediate, as opposed to class I TEs, retrotransposons ... DNA transposons can move in the DNA of an organism via a single-or double-stranded DNA intermediate. DNA transposons have been ... 23 superfamilies of DNA transposons were recognized and annotated in Repbase, a database of repetitive DNA elements maintained ... Therefore, the elements found in the human genome are called fossils. Traditionally, DNA transposons move around in the genome ...
Wright SI, Schoen DJ (2000). Transposon dynamics and the breeding system. Transposable Elements and Genome Evolution. Springer ... Selfish genetic elements (historically also referred to as selfish genes, ultra-selfish genes, selfish DNA, parasitic DNA and ... Transposable elements[edit]. Transposable elements self-replicate through two main mechanisms: via an RNA intermediate ("copy- ... Transposable elements[edit]. To model the dynamics of transposable elements (TEs) within a genome, one has to realize that the ...
"Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and their relationship with established DNA transposons". In Craig N, ... Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) are a group of non-autonomous Class II transposable elements (DNA ... Lu C, Chen J, Zhang Y, Hu Q, Su W, Kuang H (March 2012). "Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) have been ... They can form stable DNA secondary structures which can be very useful in identifying them. A few Stowaway elements also ...
A transposable element (TE, transposon, or jumping gene) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, ... DNA transposons[edit]. A. Structure of DNA transposons (Mariner type). Two inverted tandem repeats (TIR) flank the transposase ... Transposon tagging. Notes[edit]. *. Kidwell MG (2005). "Transposable elements". In T.R. Gregory (ed.). The Evolution of the ... Transposable elements make up a large fraction of the genome and are responsible for much of the mass of DNA in a eukaryotic ...
Effects within transposons[edit]. Almost 50% of the human genome is contained in various types of transposable elements (also ... DNA. The name "satellite" DNA refers to the early observation that centrifugation of genomic DNA in a test tube separates a ... DNA refers to the early observation that centrifugation of genomic DNA in a test tube separates a prominent layer of bulk DNA ... Transposon. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e Richard, Guy-Franck; Kerrest, Alix; Dujon, Bernard (2008). "Comparative genomics and ...
Tn3 and related transposable elements: site-specific recombination and transposition. In Berg, D. E., Howe, M. (eds) Mobile DNA ... Reed RR, Grindley ND (September 1981). "Transposon-mediated site-specific recombination in vitro: DNA cleavage and protein-DNA ... The Tn3 transposon is a 4957 base pair mobile genetic element, found in prokaryotes. It encodes three proteins: β-lactamase, an ... 163-184 4.Grindley, N.D.F. (2002). The movement of Tn3-like elements: transposition and cointegrate resolution. In Mobile DNA ...
Transposable elements (transposons, TEs, 'jumping genes') are short strands of repetitive DNA that can self-replicate and ... DNA transposons) DNA transposons], these employ a strategy by which the transposon is excised from its position via transposase ... Chromatin and siRNA pathways cooperate to maintain DNA methylation of small transposable elements in Arabidopsis." Genome ... in which siRNA transposon transcript is loaded onto an RNA-Directed DNA Methylation complex, which methylates the region of DNA ...
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or ... Transposon tagging. Notes[edit]. *. Kidwell, M.G. (2005). "Transposable elements". In T.R. Gregory. The Evolution of the Genome ... Transposable elements make up a large fraction of the genome and are responsible for much of the mass of DNA in a eukaryotic ... The Mariner transposon was first discovered by Jacobson and Hartl in Drosophila.[24] This Class II transposable element is ...
Transposable element *Class I or retrotransposon. *Class II or DNA transposon. *Plasmid *Fertility ... Main articles: RNA and DNA. The major difference between RNA and DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2'-position of ... This forces an RNA double helix to change from a B-DNA structure to one more closely resembling A-DNA. ... DNA and proteins seemed the dominant macromolecules in the living cell, with RNA only aiding in creating proteins from the DNA ...
... fully half of our DNA is made up of "transposable elements," or "transposons," virus-like genetic material that has the special ... Et transposon er en DNA-sekvens, der kan ændre sin placering i genomet som et mobilt gen og skabe eller ændre mutationer og ... Når transposonerne hopper ud og ind af generne kan de efterlade dele af deres DNA-sekvens eller tage et stykke af DNA-strengen ... Der findes fire typer transposoner, opdelt i to overordnede grupper: DNA-transposoner og retrotransposoner. DNA-transposoner ...
... are a type of DNA that can move around within the genome. They include: *Transposons (also called transposable elements) * ... Mobile genetic elements. DNA sequence whose position in the genome is variable ... Mobile genetic elements : protocols and genomic applications. Humana Press. ISBN 1-58829-007-7 ... Barbara McClintock was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements".[1 ...
... a defensive RNA-silencing against viruses and transposable elements". Heredity. 96 (2): 195-202. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800789. ... From the Dolan DNA Learning Center of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.. *RNAi screens in C. elegans in a 96-well liquid format ... of the RNAi system is generally agreed to have been immune defense against exogenous genetic elements such as transposons and ... RNA interference has an important role in defending cells against parasitic nucleotide sequences - viruses and transposons. It ...
The presence of transposable elements is another influential element of non-homologous crossover. Repetitive regions of code ... DNA repair theoryEdit. Crossing over and DNA repair are very similar processes, which utilize many of the same protein ... characterize transposable elements; complementary but non-homologous regions are ubiquitous within transposons. Because ... She used modified patterns of gene expression on different sectors of leaves of her corn plants show that transposable elements ...
Families of transposable elements-derived lincRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of pluripotency. Human pluripotency- ... Endo-siRNAs generated from these transcripts seem particularly useful in suppressing the spread of mobile transposon elements ... DNA and Cell Biology. 25 (3): 135-41. doi:10.1089/dna.2006.25.135. PMID 16569192. Lin R, Maeda S, Liu C, Karin M, Edgington TS ... Alu elements in humans and analogous B1 and B2 elements in mice have succeeded in becoming the most abundant mobile elements ...
Hickey DA (1992). "Evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in prokaryotes and eukaryotes". Genetica 86 (1-3): 269-74. ... Pagsisekwensiya ng DNA[baguhin , baguhin ang batayan]. Ang komparison ng sekwensiyang DNA ay nagbibigay ng kakayahan upang ang ... transposons, pseudogene, at mutasyon sa nakokodigo ng protinang mga sekwensiya na hindi nagreresulta sa sekwensiyang asidong ... Ang mga basurang DNA ay bumubuo ng 98% ng genome ng tao samantalang ang may silbing DNA ay bumubuo lamang ng 2% ng genome ng ...
Kidwell, M.G. (2005). "Transposable elements". in ed. T.R. Gregory. The Evolution of the Genome. San Diego: Elsevier. பக். 165- ... Kidwell, M.G. (1992). "Horizontal transfer of P elements and other short inverted repeat transposons". Genetica 86 (1): 275-286 ... Craig NL, Craigie R, Gellert M, and Lambowitz AM (ed.) (2002). Mobile DNA II. Washington, DC: ASM Press. பன்னாட்டுத் தரப்புத்தக ... Rubin GM, Spradling AC (October 1982). "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science 218 ( ...
Non-coding DNA. *Plant DNA C-values Database. *Selfish DNA. *Transposable elements ... are more prone to the accumulation of duplicative transposons as consequences of higher content of non-coding skeletal DNA.[30] ... Some single-celled organisms have much more DNA than humans, for reasons that remain unclear (see non-coding DNA and C-value ... therefore the spread of the transposable elements will positively affect the rate of deletion.[30] The loss of those genes in ...
Insertions add one or more extra nucleotides into the DNA. They are usually caused by transposable elements, or errors during ... Sequences of DNA that can move about the genome, such as transposons, make up a major fraction of the genetic material of ... Insertions can be reversed by excision of the transposable element.. *Deletions remove one or more nucleotides from the DNA. ... Bernstein C, Prasad AR, Nfonsam V, Bernstein H. (2013). DNA Damage, DNA Repair and Cancer, New Research Directions in DNA ...
Buchon N, Vaury C (February 2006). "RNAi: a defensive RNA-silencing against viruses and transposable elements". Heredity. 96 (2 ... From the Dolan DNA Learning Center of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.. *RNAi screens in C. elegans in a 96-well liquid format ... of the RNAi system is generally agreed to have been immune defense against exogenous genetic elements such as transposons and ... RNA interference has an important role in defending cells against parasitic nucleotide sequences - viruses and transposons. It ...
"Transposable Genetic Elements" (PDF). Scientific American: 40-49. Diakses tanggal 6 May 2016.. ... B, Historical and Policy Timelines for Recombinant DNA Technology. *^ Office of the Director (1976). Recombinant DNA research ... ia mempelajari unsur genetik bergeral seperti transposon yang dapat "melompat" di antara strain bakteri.[22][23][24] Ia telah ... Selanjutnya, fragmen DNA katak digabungkan dengan plasmid, yang juga telah dipotong dengan EcoRI. Ujung lengket segmen DNA ...
Transposable element *Class I or retrotransposon. *Class II or DNA transposon. *Plasmid *Fertility ... DNA damage and repair[edit]. Plastid DNA of maize seedlings is subject to increased damage as the seedlings develop.[12] The ... Plastid DNA exists as large protein-DNA complexes associated with the inner envelope membrane and called 'plastid nucleoids'. ... Some DNA molecules are repaired while DNA with unrepaired damage appears to be degraded to non-functional fragments. ...
Transposon mediated[edit]. Long interspersed element (LINE)-1[edit]. A potential mechanism for exon shuffling is the long ... Helitron transposons were first discovered during studies of repetitive DNA segments of rice, worm and the thale crest genomes ... Helitrons in maize cause a constant change of genic and nongenic regions by using transposable elements, leading to diversity ... It is composed of the read-through Helitron element and its downstream genomic regions, flanked by a random DNA site, serving ...
Transposable element *Class I or retrotransposon. *Class II or DNA transposon. *Plasmid *Fertility ... The resulting DNA can be merged with the DNA genome of the host cell. The main enzyme responsible for synthesis of DNA from an ... This use of only the 3' → 5' DNA strand eliminates the need for the Okazaki fragments that are seen in DNA replication.[1] This ... Transcription is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into ...
Transposon mediatedEdit. Long interspersed element (LINE)-1Edit. A model of how L1 retrotransposition can mobilize sequences. ... Helitron transposons were first discovered during studies of repetitive DNA segments of rice, worm and the thale crest genomes ... Helitrons in maize cause a constant change of genic and nongenic regions by using transposable elements, leading to diversity ... It is composed of the read-through Helitron element and its downstream genomic regions, flanked by a random DNA site, serving ...
For example, transposable elements containing a marker are mobilized into the genome at random. These transposons are often ... Since a known fragment of DNA was inserted this can make mapping and cloning the gene much easier. Other methods such as using ... transposable elements). Subsequent breeding takes place, mutant individuals are isolated, and then the gene is mapped. Forward ... Before 1980 very few human genes had been identified as disease loci until advances in DNA technology gave rise to positional ...
The transposable P elements, also known as transposons, are segments of bacterial DNA that are translocated into the genome, ... P elements are administered in pairs of two, which flank the DNA insertion region of interest. Additionally, P elements often ... which shows improved transgene insertion of large DNA fragments that are unable to be transposed by P elements alone. This ... biolistics which is the procedure of shooting DNA bullets into cells, and also delivering DNA into the egg that has just been ...
June 2010). "Comparative analysis of transposable element vector systems in human cells". Molecular Therapy. 18 (6): 1200-9. ... some of which appeared to be transposons. Several different mobile host DNA insertions have been identified within the few- ... short repeat elements are a group of transposons that share similarity of structure and properties of movement. These elements ... The PiggyBac (PB) transposon is a mobile genetic element that efficiently transposes between vectors and chromosomes via a "cut ...
Transposase acts like DNA scissors; it is an enzyme that cuts through double-stranded DNA to remove the transposon, then ... Further development in integration site preferences of transposable elements is expected to advance the technologies of human ... Both the excision and insertion of the transposon leaves single or double stranded gaps in the DNA, which are repaired by host ... Skipper, K. A.; Andersen, P. R.; Sharma, N.; Mikkelsen, J. G. (2013). "DNA transposon-based gene vehicles-scenes from an ...
It can occur during meiosis or replication of DNA, as well as due to ionizing or UV radiation, transposons, mutagenic chemicals ... and transposable genetic elements in the absence of mutagens. Spontaneous mutations play a central role in the maintenance of ... Carroll, Sean B.; Grenier, Jennifer; Weatherbee, Scott (2005). From DNA to Diversity: Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of ... Spontaneous mutations arise from sources including errors in DNA replication, spontaneous lesions, ...
DNA Primers * DNA Transposable Elements* * DNA, Complementary * DNA, Plant / isolation & purification * DNA, Plant / metabolism ... Transposon Tagging of the Maize Glossy2 Locus With the Transposable Element En/Spm Plant J. 1995 Dec;8(6):907-17. doi: 10.1046/ ... Genetic tests on the gl2-m2 allele indicated that it was not caused by the Ac element but by the insertion of the transposable ... The Gl2 locus was isolated by transposon tagging. Seven unstable mutations, gl2-m2 to gl2-m8, were induced in a parental strain ...
DNA Transposable Elements. Grant support. *U01HG005209-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/United States ... The length distribution of true positive and false negative mobile element insertion predictions for Alu elements. Note that ... Transposon insertion causing a false negative deletion prediction. A discordant paired-end read alignment due to a copy event ... In this article, we provide a complete and novel formulation to discover both loci and classes of transposons inserted into ...
DNA Transposable Elements. Grant support. *G1100100/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom. *WT098051/Wellcome Trust/United ... Transposon insertion sequencing is a high-throughput technique for assaying large libraries of otherwise isogenic transposon ... which utilizes shearing of genomic DNA followed by specific PCR amplification of transposon-containing fragments and Illumina ... The TraDIS toolkit: sequencing and analysis for dense transposon mutant libraries.. Barquist L1, Mayho M2, Cummins C2, Cain AK2 ...
Functional transposable elements (TEs) of several Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from black shale ore of Lubin mine and from ... DNA / genetics * DNA Transposable Elements / genetics* * Databases, Genetic * Molecular Sequence Data * Mosaicism* ... resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic ... The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target ...
TOP1α silences transposons through DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation. Since the methylation-sensitive DNA blot analyses ... DNA Topoisomerase 1α Promotes Transcriptional Silencing of Transposable Elements through DNA Methylation and Histone Lysine 9 ... DNA Topoisomerase 1α Promotes Transcriptional Silencing of Transposable Elements through DNA Methylation and Histone Lysine 9 ... DNA Topoisomerase 1α Promotes Transcriptional Silencing of Transposable Elements through DNA Methylation and Histone Lysine 9 ...
DNA Transposable Elements*. Food Contamination / analysis. Food Handling. Genes, Reporter*. Luciferases / genetics, metabolism* ... The Tn7 transposon system is site specific; insertion is only allowed at the attTn7 site. Therefore, luxCDABE mutants are not ... luxCDABE encodes for luciferase and is flanked by Tn7 transposon arms (vertical bars at restriction sites XhoI and NotI). The ... In response to this limitation, we now report cloning of the luxCDABE operon into a stable tn7-based transposon system that ...
A transposable element (TE, transposon, or jumping gene) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, ... DNA transposons[edit]. A. Structure of DNA transposons (Mariner type). Two inverted tandem repeats (TIR) flank the transposase ... Transposon tagging. Notes[edit]. *. Kidwell MG (2005). "Transposable elements". In T.R. Gregory (ed.). The Evolution of the ... Transposable elements make up a large fraction of the genome and are responsible for much of the mass of DNA in a eukaryotic ...
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or ... Transposon tagging. Notes[edit]. *. Kidwell, M.G. (2005). "Transposable elements". In T.R. Gregory. The Evolution of the Genome ... Transposable elements make up a large fraction of the genome and are responsible for much of the mass of DNA in a eukaryotic ... The Mariner transposon was first discovered by Jacobson and Hartl in Drosophila.[24] This Class II transposable element is ...
RepeatMasker is a program that screens DNA sequences for interspersed repeats and low complexity DNA sequences. - rmhubley/ ... variety of transposable elements and DNA transposons in general. So,. be aware that some genes may be (partially) masked.. ... classified to the level RepeatMasker classifies transposable elements,. it is also already useful for classifying transposable ... of transposable elements based on their coding regions can be performed. using this database, though we will need to (and will ...
Helitron; DNA transposon; Transposable Element; Helitron-14_MT Source: Medicago truncatula Organism: Medicago truncatula ...
Transib; DNA transposon; Transposable Element; Transib-3_DF Source: Drosophila ficusphila Organism: Drosophila ficusphila ...
hAT; DNA transposon; Transposable Element; Nonautonomous; hAT-N7_STu Source: Solanum tuberosum Organism: Solanum tuberosum ...
transposons and endogenous retroviruses, small regulatory RNA, tRNA-fragments, epigenetics Transposable elements make up half ... plant genetics, transposons, development, gene regulation, DNA methylation Chromosomes are covered with chemical modifications ... gene regulatory networks, computational biology, RNA biology, transposable elements, machine learning for genomics analysis ... Our DNA carries the instructions to manufacture all the molecules needed by a cell. After each gene is copied from DNA into RNA ...
All known transposable elements in eukaryotes belong to two types: retrotransposons and DNA transposons. Here we report a ... Genomes of most eukaryotes are populated by DNA copies of parasitic elements known as transposable elements (TEs) capable of ... family B DNA polymerase;. PRO,. protease;. TE,. transposable element;. TIR,. terminal inverted repeat;. TPase,. transposase;. ... encoded by Mariner DNA transposons (6).. DNA transposons identified so far in eukaryotes belong to two classes characterized by ...
"Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and their relationship with established DNA transposons". In Craig N, ... Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) are a group of non-autonomous Class II transposable elements (DNA ... Lu C, Chen J, Zhang Y, Hu Q, Su W, Kuang H (March 2012). "Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) have been ... They can form stable DNA secondary structures which can be very useful in identifying them. A few Stowaway elements also ...
Class 1 transposable elements are mobilized via an RNA intermediate while class 2, or DNA transposons, mobilize via a DNA ... Walbot, V., and G. Rudenko, 2002 MuDR/Mu transposable elements of maize, pp. 533-564 in Mobile DNA II, edited by N. L. Craig, R ... Marzo, M., M. Puig and A. Ruiz, 2008 The foldback-like element Galileo belongs to the P superfamily of DNA transposons and is ... TRANSPOSABLE elements (TEs) are mobile pieces of parasitic DNA that can replicate and move around in the host genome and are ...
Indeed, this non-coding DNA was often referred to as ... researchers believed that the non-coding DNA sequences in the ... We will look at two main types of transposable elements: DNA transposons and retrotransposons. ... DNA Transposons. Most DNA transposons, sometimes referred to as Class II mobile genetic elements, actually use two enzymes, ... Transposons Introduction. Transposons, being a class of mobile genetic elements, are, in the very strictest sense, DNA ...
A genome of 534 Mb was assembled from long read PacBio DNA sequencing of DNA from a highly inbred strain. Analysis of molecular ... Of the transposable elements, the most abundant were DNA elements (6.9% of the genome) and LINEs (2.3% genome; Supplementary ... Tc1 and hAT-Ac were the most common DNA transposons accounting for 5.37 and 0.67% of the genome, respectively. Similarly, in ... The C. hominivorax genome was searched for repetitive DNA sequences including transposable elements. Repetitive sequences were ...
Transposable elements are relatively short sequences of DNA that can move around the genome by themselves. Don Batten suggests ... Transposons are not specifically targeted anywhere, but jump about at random without regard to the cells "need". They can ... Transposable elements are well known as possible agents of evolution. "2. All five transposable elements are identical, with ... the presence of transposable elements means the plasmid is "designed" to be adaptive. Well, transposable elements can result in ...
The DNA-based transposable elements (or transposons) are repetitive sequences that move from one locus in the genome to another ... This study identifies an autonomous member of a DNA-based transposable element from a vertebrate genome. The Tol2 transposon ... The members of transposable elements fall into two classes: 1) autonomous elements, such as the Ac element in maize, encode a ... For fkk-7d, DNA fragments containing the 5′- and 3′-ends of the Tol2 element were amplified from genomic DNA of the lane 3 fish ...
... mutation refers to any sudden change in DNA-deoxyribonucleic acid, the genetic blueprint for an organism-that creates a change ... Transposable genetic elements (transposons) are pieces of DNA that can copy themselves and insert into a new location in the ... it is necessary to distinguish DNA mutations from DNA damage. DNA damage consists of chemical alterations in DNA structure, ... DNA damage cannot be copied to end up in daughter cells. DNA mutations are heritable changes in a DNA sequence of an organism, ...
Cioffi MB, Martins C, Bertollo LAC (2010) Chromosome spreading of associated transposable elements and ribosomal DNA in the ... Vierna J, González-Tizón AM, Martínez-Lage A (2009) Long-term evolution of 5S ribosomal DNA seems to be driven by birth-and- ... Boyd DC, Pombo A, Murphy S (2003) Interaction of proteins with promoter elements of the human U2 snRNA genes in vivo. Gene 315: ... Garrido-Ramos MA, de la Herrán R, Ruiz Rejón C, Ruiz Rejón M (1998) A satellite DNA of Sparidae family (Pisces, Perciformes) ...
Tau Awakens Transposons. Toxic tau correlated with transcription of dormant transposable elements, both in the human brain and ... Transposable elements are snippets of DNA, including retrovirus remnants, that jumped from genome to genome throughout ... Nearly half of the human genome comprises transposable elements, a.k.a transposons (Lander et al., 2001). Most of them, ... Tangles correlate with active chromatin around transposable elements.. *Fly models support this connection to transposon ...
His lab is also interested in understanding neurodegeneration and the role of transposable elements in our DNA. Transposable ... 5 times higher levels of mobilized transposable elements compared to young flies-a storm of transposon activity. The old flies ... Associate Professor Molly Hammell wins award for proposed study to find transposable elements that are implicated in ALS. Read ... A large part of human DNA doesnt aid the normal workings of the body. This "junk DNA" contains ancient viruses that may spur ...
Publications] N. Ishikawa: The transposon Tip100 from the common morning glory is an autonomous element that can transpose in ... The major DNA-based controlling transposable elements in higher plants can be classified into three groups : the Ac/Ds (or hAT ... Transposition and gene regulation of DNA transposable elements in plants. Research Project ... Publications] S. Takahashi: Capturing of a genomic HMG domain sequence by an En/Spm related transposable element Tpnl in the ...
1.transposons. 2.retrotransposons. Term. This transposable element moves within a genome by means of a DNA intermediate.. ... Why are transposable elements often described as "noncoding" DNA even though many do encode for proteins?. ... This transposable element moves by means of an RNA intermediate, a transcript of retrotransposon DNA.. ... 1.movement of DNA within the genome. 2.amplification of a proto-oncogene. 3.point-mutations in a control element or in the ...
... have a lot of transposable elements in them. Transposable elements are segments of DNA that jump around, copy, and rearrange ... Alu elements are classified as a type of transposon where copy is made of RNA, not DNA. This is more specifically called a ... Since I dont know if you have heard of Alu elements, Ill explain to you what I know of them. Much of the human genome, and as ... I found a paper announcing the creation of a database specific to Alu elements in the human genome, but the link to the ...
... which are transposed by a cut and paste mechanism using a P-element-coded transposase. They have been detected in Drosophila, ... P transposons belong to the eukaryotic DNA transposons, ... P elements with typical features of transposable DNA elements ... P transposons belong to the eukaryotic DNA transposons, which are transposed by a cut and paste mechanism using a P-element- ... Hagemann S, Hammer SE (2006) The implications of DNA transposons in the evolution of P elements in zebrafish (Danio rerio). ...
DNA TRANSPOSONS. Frederick Dyda (Session Chair), National Institutes of Health. Zoltan Ivics, Paul-Ehrlich Institut, Germany. ... VARIETY & EVOLUTION OF TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS. Michael Chandler (Session Chair), Universite Paul Sabatier, France. Vincent Colot ... You are cordially invited to participate in a new meeting on Transposable Elements to be held at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory ... A primary goal of the meeting is to provide a forum for presentation of the latest research into transposable elements ...
Previous studies have reported a correlation between Mu transposon inactivation and methylation of the Mu element TIRs. Gel ... Characterization of the maize Mutator transposable element MURA transposase as a DNA-binding protein.. M I Benito, V Walbot ... The autonomous MuDR element of the Mutator (Mu) transposable element family of maize encodes at least two proteins, MURA and ... Characterization of the maize Mutator transposable element MURA transposase as a DNA-binding protein. ...
  • Development of stable reporter system cloning luxCDABE genes into chromosome of Salmonella enterica serotypes using Tn7 transposon. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we report the use of a Tn7-based transposon system for subcloning of luxCDABE genes into the chromosome of eleven Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from the broiler production continuum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stretches of DNA that hold coded instructions for the manufacture of specific proteins are known as genes, of which the human race has approximately 40,000 varieties. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Boyd DC, Pombo A, Murphy S (2003) Interaction of proteins with promoter elements of the human U2 snRNA genes in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Transposable elements, sometimes called jumping genes, are genomic viruses that can move around the genome. (cshl.edu)
  • How could random mutations produce three new catalytic/degradative genes without at least some changes being made to the transposable elements? (talkorigins.org)
  • It is very likely that the genes arose on different plasmids and were stitched together by the transposable elements at a later stage. (talkorigins.org)
  • If the transposons also mobilize, they could insert themselves into other places in the genome, and mutate other genes in the process. (alzforum.org)
  • Furthermore, deciphering the roles and the interplay of the genes and the other genomic elements that are not directly mutated in patients is equally important in our effort to understand biology and develop therapeutics. (biologists.org)
  • DNA methylation seems to be essential for long-term inactivation of certain genes. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional information on the repeat content of the sunflower genome, assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of these repeats to that found in other food crops and model species. (mdpi.com)
  • Rizzardi will look for changes in the patterns of chemical tags, called methyl groups, which attach to DNA and alter the activity of genes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • For example, to fix extra breaks in DNA strands caused by increased radiation exposure, there might be changes near genes for DNA repair proteins. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The mutable flecked, speckled, r-1, and purple alleles in I. nil were caused by insertions of Tpn1 and its relatives in the En/Spm superfamily, Tpn2, Tpn3, and Tpn4, into the genes for anthocyanin coloration in wers, i.e. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Similarly, the flaked and pink mutants of I. purpurea have distantly related elements, Tip1OO and Tip201, in the Ac/Ds superfamily inserted into the CHS-D and F3'H genes, respectively. (nii.ac.jp)
  • identified 47 human genes derived from transposable elements, as many as 43 of these are derived from DNA transposons. (panspermia.com)
  • They are not genes as such - transposons typically make no product that contributes to your construction. (nytimes.com)
  • In mice, several genes important for embryonic development appear to be derived from rogue elements - although exactly what these genes do remains to be worked out. (nytimes.com)
  • To further explore the connection between transposon expression and lifespan, the team tested the effects of manipulating genes known to improve heterochromatin repression that are not only found in flies, but also in mammals. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • The mop1 (mediator of paramutation1) mutant progressively reactivates one of the two genes enncoded by the MuDR transposon in maize. (purdue.edu)
  • One possible explanation for plastid mutator genes is that they activate transposable elements in the chloroplast DNA. (umsystem.edu)
  • Their new technology, called INTEGRATE, harnesses bacterial jumping genes to reliably insert any DNA sequence into the genome without cutting DNA. (newswise.com)
  • P element transposition is related to retroviral DNA integration, such as HIV, and to the process by which immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes are rearranged in the vertebrate immune system [V(D)J recombination]. (berkeley.edu)
  • Recent genome sequencing efforts have revealed that P element-related genes (called THAP9) are present in vertebrates, including humans and zebrafish, but are absent from rodents. (berkeley.edu)
  • Currently, there are three types of vectors that are commonly used for introducing genes into human primary T cells: oncoretroviral vectors, lentiviral vectors, and naked DNA. (umn.edu)
  • Dr. Belfort studies mobile introns and inteins, elements that interrupt genes and that are removed by RNA and protein splicing, respectively. (mbl.edu)
  • Jumping of transposable elements provides DNA-binding sites for the MADS-box transcription factor PHERES1, allowing the regulation of imprinted genes and other key endosperm development genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • The micronuclear genes, which are normally inactive, are split into multiple sections, with lots of interrupting DNA, called internal eliminated sequences, between the coding regions. (ucla.edu)
  • However, researchers have found that some genes (DNA sequences) can actually change position in the chromosomes. (ukessays.com)
  • IS elements were first identified in E. coli , from the observations that some mutations affecting the expression of genes, that control the metabolism of the sugar glucose, did not have properties typical of a point mutations or deletions. (ukessays.com)
  • Promoters present within the IS elements may also effect by altering the expression of nearby genes. (ukessays.com)
  • Our interest in repetitive DNA developed from our recent discovery of a number of LTRs and retrotransposon genes as well as a transposase gene in the region between two clusters of core plant genes on a 130 Kb sugar beet BAC [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Also, a genome scan of Arabidopsis thaliana found a similar arrangement of transposon and retro-element genes on chromosome 4. (hindawi.com)
  • Analysis of transposable elements suggests that their presence in the genome of pathogenic isolates contributes to the creation of novel genes, effector diversification, possible horizontal gene transfer events, identified copy number variation, and the first example of transduplication by DNA transposable elements in fungi. (g3journal.org)
  • During aging with DR, DNA methylation becomes targeted to gene bodies and is associated with reduced gene expression, particularly of genes involved in lipid metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most bioinformatic studies focus on low-copy DNA including genes, and hence, the analyses collapse repeats in assemblies presenting only one or a few copies, often masking out and ignoring them in both DNA and RNA read data. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, transposable elements detected include insertion sequence (IS) elements, miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and large stretches of genes that are conjugal and mobilisable transposons [9] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Earlier work had indicated that these piwi-piRNA complexes suppress the activity of transposable elements or "jumping genes," which are stretches of DNA that can change position and cause potentially damaging genetic mutations. (innovations-report.com)
  • Transposons (transposable elements) are genes that can move ("jump") from one DNA molecule to another in a cell, or from one location to another on the same DNA molecule. (learner.org)
  • We show that gene-traps coupled to a fluorescent protein reporter gene can be used to detect insertions into genes active in specific cells of living zebrafish embryos, supporting use of our transposon traps for high-throughput functional genomic screens in vertebrates. (elsevier.com)
  • Understanding the arms race between our genes and transposon activity has been a long-running question in molecular biology. (epigenie.com)
  • These bundles of rogue DNA sequences, nicknamed jumping genes, can hop into an essential gene and interrupt it, leading to a variety of mutations that cause conditions like infertility. (eurekalert.org)
  • Just as a shredded wanted poster could match many faces, those small piRNAs could match many good genes, so how do PIWI proteins track down and silence transposons without silencing good genes in the process? (eurekalert.org)
  • In a second study published in Genome Research , Lau and postdocs Yuliya Sytnikova, Reazur Rahman and bioinformatician Gung-wei Chirn observed new transposable elements in the fruit fly cells moving to different areas of the genome, affecting nearby genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Genomes of most eukaryotes are populated by DNA copies of parasitic elements known as transposable elements (TEs) capable of reproducing themselves in the host genome in a non-Mendelian fashion ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Eukaryotic genomes are usually littered with transposable elements (TEs) and repeats, which pose threats to genome stability due to their tendency to move or recombine. (prolekare.cz)
  • Transposons of the Mutator ( Mu ) superfamily have been shown to play a critical role in the evolution of plant genomes. (genetics.org)
  • Here we describe a previously uncharacterized group of DNA transposons designated Phantom identified in the genomes of a wide range of eukaryotic taxa, including many animals, and provide evidence for its inclusion within the Mutator superfamily. (genetics.org)
  • But a large part of genomes are made up of DNA sequences that do not code for any traits. (brighthub.com)
  • Depending upon the similarity of their terminal inverted repeats and target site duplications, most of the MITEs in plant genomes are divided into two major groups: Tourist-like MITEs (derived from PIF) and Stowaway-like MITEs (derived from Tc1/mariner).Stowaway and Tourist elements differ remarkably in their sequences but they have been found to have significant structural similarities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Half of F 1 fish obtained from one of eight injected fish contained the Tol2 DNA in their genomes but not the vector portion. (pnas.org)
  • most are more similar to elements from other loci in other Triticeae genomes than they are to one another. (springer.com)
  • Much of the human genome, and as we are now finding out much of primate genomes, have a lot of transposable elements in them. (anthropology.net)
  • A large proportion of vertebrate genomes is composed of transposable elements, and their integration in the genome has contributed to the evolution of regulatory networks. (panspermia.com)
  • hAT transposons are a superfamily of DNA transposons, or Class II transposable elements, that are common in the genomes of plants, animals, and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family also includes a subgroup known as space invaders or SPIN elements, which have very high copy numbers in some genomes and which are among the most efficient known transposons. (wikipedia.org)
  • hAT transposons are widely distributed across eukaryotic genomes, but are not active in all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the great revelations of the past 30 years has been the discovery that genomes are full of rogue elements: autonomous stretches of DNA that move themselves about and actively self-perpetuate. (nytimes.com)
  • Transposable elements, or transposons, are, by far, the most dynamic part of the eukaryotic genome, and the majority, often the vast majority, of plant genomes are composed of these genomic parasites. (purdue.edu)
  • A Transposon-base Strategy for Sequencing Repetitive DNA in Eukaryotic Genomes", In Press, Genome Research (1998). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Invertrons, a class of structurally and functionally related genetic elements that includes linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and genomes of adeno-type viruses. (asm.org)
  • Transposable elements (TEs) represent more than 45% of the human and mouse genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Almost all genomes contain some transposable elements, and in some organisms transposable elements or their remnants account for as much as one-half of genomic DNA (for example, they represent more than 40% of the human genome). (mbl.edu)
  • It even included mention of ' the onion test ', which I proposed as a tonic for anyone who thinks they have discovered 'the' functional explanation for the existence of vast amounts of non-coding DNA within eukaryotic genomes. (science20.com)
  • Transposable elements have contributed to the evolution of the genomes through induction of chromosomal rearrangements. (ukessays.com)
  • Since the discovery of transposable elements (TEs) in corn [ 1 ], DNA sequencing has revealed that genomes of eukaryotic organisms are largely comprised of evolutionarily significant TEs responsible for creation of considerable genetic diversity [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Overall, comparative analysis of these genomes provides evidence that pathogenicity in this species arose through an influx of transposable elements, which created a genetically flexible landscape that can easily respond to environmental changes. (g3journal.org)
  • Repetitive DNA-sequence motifs repeated hundreds or thousands of times in the genome-makes up the major proportion of all the nuclear DNA in most eukaryotic genomes. (springer.com)
  • DNA methylation plays a critical role as an epigenetic modifier in plants and mammals, however it is absent from many invertebrate genomes. (jhu.edu)
  • I examined expression of two transposons, dirs and bhikhari, in wild type embryos and in embryos with hypomethylated genomes. (jhu.edu)
  • It has long been recognized that transposable elements compose an important fraction of most eukaryote genomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Criteria are presented by which to identify legitimate junk DNA, and to try to decipher the genetic clues of how genomes function now and in the past, when rates of change of genomes may have been very different. (creation.com)
  • The last decade of the 20th century has seen an explosion in research into the structure and function of the DNA in genomes of a wide range of organisms. (creation.com)
  • As of April 2000, the whole genomes, or full DNA complements of over 600 organisms have been sequenced or mapped. (creation.com)
  • Junk or 'selfish' DNA is believed to be largely parasitic in nature, persisting in the genomes of higher organisms as 'evolutionary remnants' by their ability to reproduce and spread themselves, or perhaps because they have supposedly mutated into a function the cell can use. (creation.com)
  • The idea that a large portion of the genomes of eukaryotes * 4 is made up of useless evolutionary remnants comes from the problem known as the 'c-value paradox', 'c' meaning the haploid * chromosomal DNA content. (creation.com)
  • A family of Tc1-like transposons from the genomes of fishes and frogs: evidence for horizontal transmission. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We previously developed the Transposon Directed Insertion Sequencing (TraDIS) protocol for this purpose, which utilizes shearing of genomic DNA followed by specific PCR amplification of transposon-containing fragments and Illumina sequencing. (nih.gov)
  • Whereas a retrotransposon is transposed (retroposed) via reverse transcription of its mRNAs, a DNA transposon is transposed via transfer of its genomic copy from one site to another. (pnas.org)
  • A typical autonomous mariner ( 9 ), hAT ( 10 ), piggyBac ( 11 ), P ( 12 ), Merlin ( 13 ), or Transib ( 14 ) DNA transposon encodes only a single protein called transposase, which acts as an endonuclease and catalyses transfer of transposon DNA strands from one genomic site to another. (pnas.org)
  • In Arabidopsis, comprehensive knockout collections were generated by amplifying and sequencing genomic DNA flanking insertion mutants. (jove.com)
  • The injected fish were raised to adulthood and mated to noninjected fish, and genomic DNA of the progeny fish were analyzed by PCR and Southern hybridization. (pnas.org)
  • In all vertebrate lineages, there is evidence of transposable element-mediated genomic rearrangements such as insertions, deletions, inversions and duplications potentially associated with or subsequent to speciation events. (springer.com)
  • Taken together, these observations indicate that transposable elements are major drivers of genomic and biological diversity in vertebrates, with possible important roles in speciation and major evolutionary transitions. (springer.com)
  • Transposable elements as sources of genomic variation. (purdue.edu)
  • Genomic DNA flanking each tag was systematically amplified and sequenced from each mutant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Construction of a Genomic DNA `Feature Map` by Sequencing from Nested Deletions: Application to the HLA Class I Region", Nucleic Acids Research, 23 No. 1: 117-122 (1995). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • They differ from retroviruses and related retro-type transposons which have direct repeats on both their genomic ends and exploit RNA intermediates for replication of their DNA. (asm.org)
  • A team led by evolutionary and developmental biologist Dr. Ulrich Technau at the University of Vienna has discovered that sea anemones display a genomic landscape with a complexity of regulatory elements similar to that of fruit flies or other animal model systems. (bioquicknews.com)
  • Our multi-element survey reveals that the impact of sex on TE proliferation is consistent among different Class II TE families and we discuss the genomic consequences of different reproductive strategies over long time periods. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • It is widely recognized that a large fraction of mammalian genomic DNA is accounted for by interspersed repeated elements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genomic regulatory elements also give rise to ncRNAs: transcription start site-associated short RNAs (TSSa-RNAs) or promoter upstream transcripts (PROMPTs) are produced from promoter regions, and eRNAs from enhancer regions. (prolekare.cz)
  • Retrotransposons are transcribed into RNA, and then the reverse transcriptase and integrase make and insert a DNA copy at a secondary genomic location. (hindawi.com)
  • In Drosophila, transposon-rich heterochromatic clusters encode piRNAs either on both genomic strands (dual-strand clusters) or predominantly one genomic strand (uni-strand clusters). (umassmed.edu)
  • While it is well known that during gametogenesis de novo DNA methyltransferases play a major role for gamete-specific differential methylation, the pathway how the complex is guided to the target remains unsolved.Hiroyuki Sasaki suggested a link between piRNAs and de novo methylation in genomic imprinting. (epigenie.com)
  • Genomic imprinting is not only limited to DNA methylation and small RNAs. (epigenie.com)
  • They constitute the majority of genomic DNA in many eukaryotes, and they dramatically shape genetic content by causing mutations, rearrangements and sequence duplications. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • This system is capable of rapidly scanning large-scale genomic sequences and appropriately characterizing the five complex types of LTR retrotransposon elements. (frontiersin.org)
  • A major goal of genomic studies is to understand the role, if any, of the various classes of so-called 'junk' DNA. (creation.com)
  • We have used genomic sequencing data extracted from the first assembly of the Xenopus tropicalis genome combined with a degenerated PCR approach to identify multiple lineages of Tc1 related transposable elements. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The non-autonomous elements transposed into AT-rich DNA regions and generated 5- or 6-bp sequence duplications at the target site of transposition. (nih.gov)
  • It was demonstrated that TIMEs are able to mobilize segments of plasmid DNA for transposition, which results in the generation of more complex non-autonomous elements, resembling IS-driven composite transposons in structure. (nih.gov)
  • Transposition of such mosaic elements may have a significant impact on diversity and evolution, not only of transposons and plasmids, but also of other types of mobile genetic elements. (nih.gov)
  • Polintons from all these species are characterized by a unique set of proteins necessary for their transposition, including a protein-primed DNA polymerase B, retroviral integrase, cysteine protease, and ATPase. (pnas.org)
  • According to the model of Polinton transposition proposed here, a Polinton DNA molecule excised from the genome serves as a template for extrachromosomal synthesis of its double-stranded DNA copy by the Polinton -encoded DNA polymerase and is inserted back into genome by its integrase. (pnas.org)
  • Transposition of a retrotransposon is catalyzed by reverse transcriptase and endonuclease (EN) domains of a polyprotein encoded by itself or by other retrotransposons. (pnas.org)
  • DNA transposons identified so far in eukaryotes belong to two classes characterized by the so-called "cut-and-paste" ( 7 ) and "rolling-circle" ( 8 ) mechanisms of transposition. (pnas.org)
  • Just as occurs with retrotransposons, there have been cases observed in which DNA transposable elements have lost the enzymes necessary for transposition. (brighthub.com)
  • Although a synthetic Sleeping Beauty transposase, which was reconstructed based on a consensus sequence derived from sequences of nonautonomous salmonid Tc -like elements, has been shown to be capable of catalyzing transposition in vertebrate cells ( 13 ), an endogenous autonomous element has not yet been identified from a vertebrate genome. (pnas.org)
  • Ac is a 4565-bp autonomous element capable of catalyzing the transposition of itself and nonautonomous Ds elements ( M c C lintock 1949 , 1951 ). (genetics.org)
  • Common features of hAT transposons include a size of 2.5-5 kilobases with short terminal inverted repeats and short flanking target site duplications generated during the transposition process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general interest of our laboratory is nucleic acid transactions, specifically, the mechanisms used to mobilize transposable DNA elements (a process called transposition) and how RNA binding proteins control patterns of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. (berkeley.edu)
  • The P element system offers the ability to effectively combine the use of biochemical, genetic, molecular biological and proteomic approaches to study fundamental aspects of gene regulation, genome rearrangements and transposition mechanisms. (berkeley.edu)
  • The 87kD P element-encoded transposase protein is required to catalyze P element transposition and belongs to a large polynucleotidyl transferase superfamily, that includes RNaseH, RuvC, retroviral integrases, transposases and the argonaute proteins. (berkeley.edu)
  • Current studies involve the use of imaging methods, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron microscopy (EM) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to understand the role(s) that GTP plays in transposition, the detailed reaction pathway and how this cofactor modulates the assembly and activity of transposase on DNA. (berkeley.edu)
  • A system for in vitro transposition includes a donor DNA that includes a transposable element flanked by a pair of bacterial transposon Tn5 outside end repeat sequences, a target DNA into which the transposable element can transpose, and a modified Tn5 transposase having higher binding avidity to the outside end repeat sequences and being less likely to assume an inactive multimer form than wild type Tn5 transposase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Benjamin, Howard W., "Excisionof Tn10 from the donor site during transposition occurs by flush double-strand cleavages at the transposon termini," Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A defined system for the DNA strand-transfer reaction at the initiation of bacteriophage Mu transposition: Protein and DNA substrate requirements," Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Transposition of Phage Mu DNA," Dept. of Biochemistry, U. of Western Ontario. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A model for replication and integration of invertrons is presented, as well as a model for transposition of transposable elements. (asm.org)
  • These latter discoveries demonstrated that transposable elements can have important medically relevant effects, led to the discoveries of multiple different transposition pathways, and stimulated an enormous output of transposable element research. (mbl.edu)
  • The cluster investigators are interested in two broad basic science questions: what are the molecular mechanisms that lead to genetic transposition and how do transposable elements impact an organism's life style. (mbl.edu)
  • Drs. Belfort and Reznikoff investigate molecular mechanisms of transposition and its regulation for two very different types of elements. (mbl.edu)
  • Dr. Reznikoff is interested in DNA transposition, in which the DNA sequence of the transposable element is cut out of a donor DNA molecule and inserted into a new site. (mbl.edu)
  • DNA transposition is catalyzed by element-encoded proteins called transposases that are structurally and mechanistically related to retroviral integrases and to the immune system RAG-1 protein. (mbl.edu)
  • Usually the frequency of transposition varies with different elements, but it is very low, as higher frequency may lead to lethality. (ukessays.com)
  • An enzyme called transposase , encoded by the IS element, is responsible for transposition of the IS elements. (ukessays.com)
  • The ends of the element represent recognition sites and define the segment of DNA undergoing transposition. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A second element-encoded protein, resolvase, completes the process by converting the cointegrates into the end products of transposition, a transposon inserted into a new site. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Classified according to mode of transposition, Class I TEs, or retrotransposons, are retroviral-type elements which may or may not have long terminal (direct) repeats (LTRs) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Movement of Class I elements necessarily involves an RNA inter-mediate in what can appropriately be termed "replicative" transposition. (hindawi.com)
  • Class II TEs are often called "DNA transposons," but it is important to note that Class I retrotransposons are also comprised of DNA except during transposition. (hindawi.com)
  • and 3) Describe active transposition during neurogenesis and in tumor cells and raise fundamental questions about the role of mobile DNA in brain development and cancer. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Transposable elements are usually classified into three groups by transposition mechanisms, known as LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons, and DNA transposons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genetic tests on the gl2-m2 allele indicated that it was not caused by the Ac element but by the insertion of the transposable element Enhancer/Suppressor-Mutator (En/Spm). (nih.gov)
  • Transposon insertion sequencing is a high-throughput technique for assaying large libraries of otherwise isogenic transposon mutants providing insight into gene essentiality, gene function and genetic interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Such transposon-like elements may contain different functional genetic modules in their core regions, including plasmid replication systems. (nih.gov)
  • A transposable element ( TE, transposon , or jumping gene ) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome , sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic identity and genome size . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although TEs are selfish genetic elements , many are important in genome function and evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transposable elements represent one of several types of mobile genetic elements . (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] In Oxytricha , which has a unique genetic system, these elements play a critical role in development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, transposable elements can be used as powerful tools in genetic engineering ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • A word familiar to all fans of science fiction , mutation refers to any sudden change in DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid, the genetic blueprint for an organism - that creates a change in an organism's appearance, behavior, or health. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a molecule in the cells of all life-forms that contains genetic codes for inheritance. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Publications] A.Hoshino: 'Gene duplication and mobile genetic elements in the morning glories. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2005) Transposable elements as a source of genetic innovation: expression and evolution of a family of retrotransposon-derived neogenes in mammals. (springer.com)
  • For instance, that genetic celebrity, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, can survive pesticide thanks to a transposon with the ugly name of Doc1420. (nytimes.com)
  • Transposons are rogue elements of DNA that break free in aging cells and rewrite themselves elsewhere in the genome, potentially creating lifespan-shortening chaos in the genetic makeups of tissues. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • They inserted special genetic snippets into fat body cells, the equivalent of human liver and fat cells in flies that would glow bright green when specific transposable elements move about in the genome. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • Although they are an important source of genetic novelty, transposons can also be a significant source of detrimental mutations. (purdue.edu)
  • Genetic characterization of the Mutator system in maize: behavior and regulation of Mu elements in a minimal line. (purdue.edu)
  • In evolutionary terms, the chloroplast genetic material can be considered conservative: from the green algae to higher plants, chloroplast DNAs have similar sizes, gene contents and arrangements, although some modifications of the chloroplast DNA have occurred as it has coevolved with the nucleus. (umsystem.edu)
  • In other systems, transposons contribute to genetic change. (umsystem.edu)
  • Many cells repair the DNA break incorrectly or introduce mistakes in the process, and other cells may not even express the necessary repair machinery to insert new genetic payloads. (newswise.com)
  • This transposon has co-opted the bacterium's CRISPR-Cas system, normally used to thwart mobile genetic elements, to insert itself into different regions of the bacterial genome. (newswise.com)
  • For example, fully half of our DNA is made up of "transposable elements," or "transposons," virus-like genetic material that has the special ability of duplicating and reinserting itself in different locations in the genome, which has led researchers to dub them genetic parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Efficient Integration of Artificial Transposons into Plasmid Target in vitro: a Useful Tool for DNA Mapping, Sequencing and Genetic Analysis", Nucleic Acid Research, 22 No. 18:3765-3772 (1994). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Invertrons are genetic elements composed of DNA with inverted terminal repeats at both ends, covalently bonded to terminal proteins involved in the initiation of DNA replication at both their 5' termini when they exist in the cytoplasm of their host in free form. (asm.org)
  • Two major contributions to this new genome understanding are the technical development of DNA sequencing / annotation procedures and the discovery of mobile genetic elements that have shaped genome structures and affected gene expression in important ways. (mbl.edu)
  • Transposable genetic elements are specific gene sequences that can move or be copied from one site to another within a genome. (mbl.edu)
  • Transposable element research originated in the 1940s with the ground-breaking work of Barbara McClintock on what she called "controlling" genetic elements in maize. (mbl.edu)
  • However, it was not until the late 1960s that bacterial geneticists recognized the important role of insertion sequence elements as a major source of mutation in bacteria and their more general role as agents of genetic change. (mbl.edu)
  • The Mobile Genetic Element Cluster at the MBL includes investigators who have established international reputations in transposable element research and together share a vision of this exciting field. (mbl.edu)
  • Our research teams explore the basic science questions of how mobile genetic elements accomplish their movement and how that movement affects genome evolution. (mbl.edu)
  • Transposable elements can induce various genetic changes. (ukessays.com)
  • All transposable elements, both the simple insertion sequence elements and the more complex transposons, have a similar structure and genetic organization. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Completion of the genome structure of T. parvula is expected to highlight distinctive genetic elements underlying the extremophile lifestyle of this species. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Our laboratory uses Cranial Neural Crest Cells (CNCCs) as a paradigm to study how genetic information harbored by regulatory elements is decoded into a diversity of functions, behaviors and morphologies. (stanford.edu)
  • DNA, the molecule that carries genetic information, is a polymer made up of four types of nucleotide building blocks abbreviated as A, C, G and T. The information is carried through a genetic code by the order of the DNA building blocks in the polymer chain. (emergingscholars.org)
  • LTR retrotransposons are a class of mobile genetic elements containing two identical or similar long terminal repeats (LTRs) and one internal region (IN) between them, which are transposed through the reverse transcription of an RNA template via "copy-and-paste" in the genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fifty percent of our genome is comprised of genetic parasites, called transposable elements or transposons, that usually lie dormant. (eurekalert.org)
  • I found a paper announcing the creation of a database specific to Alu elements in the human genome, but the link to the database doesn't seem to work. (anthropology.net)
  • An incredible proportion of the human genome - well over half, and some estimate as much as 90 percent - is made up of such elements. (nytimes.com)
  • Now UCSF scientists have revealed that, far from being a freeloader or parasite, the most common transposon, called LINE1, which accounts for 20 percent or more of the human genome, is actually necessary for embryos to develop past the two-cell stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, TEs cover more than 45% of the human genome [ 1 ] but, most probably, another huge portion of human DNA is accounted for by ancient transposons that have diverged too far to be recognized as such. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fact that LTR-retrotransposons cannot copy themselves in humans is surprising, since HERVs make up 8-9% of the human genome (in terms of DNA base pairs). (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
  • Transposable element (TE) derived sequences comprise nearly half of the human genome. (stanford.edu)
  • Although these TEs lack a transposase gene, they contain homologous 38-bp-long terminal inverted repeat sequences (IRs), highly conserved in Tn5563a and many other Tn3-family transposons. (nih.gov)
  • There are at least two classes of TEs: Class I TEs or retrotransposons generally function via reverse transcription , while Class II TEs or DNA transposons encode the protein transposase , which they require for insertion and excision, and some of these TEs also encode other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zebrafish fertilized eggs were coinjected with mRNA transcribed in vitro , using cDNA of the Tol2 transcript as a template and a plasmid DNA harboring a mutant Tol2 , which had a deletion in the putative transposase gene but retained necessary cis sequences. (pnas.org)
  • 2) nonautonomous elements, such as the Ds element in maize, carry mutations or deletions in the transposase gene and can be mobilized only in the presence of autonomous members ( 1 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Until now, neither a functional transposase nor an autonomous member of the Tol2 element, however, had been identified. (pnas.org)
  • To determine whether the Tol2 element encodes a functional transposase, we have been investigating the activities of the Tol2-tyr element using zebrafish ( 21 , 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Class II elements are further classified as either autonomous elements, which include a gene encoding a transposase, or non-autonomous elements, which do not encode a functional transposase. (springer.com)
  • Superfamilies are identified by shared DNA sequence and ability to respond to the same transposase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of the maize Mutator transposable element MURA transposase as a DNA-binding protein. (asm.org)
  • DNA-transposoner koder for et enzym , transposase, som er en endonuklease der kan befri det fra resten af kromosomet , og ligeledes kan enzymet åbne DNA-strengen det pågældende sted hvor transposonet vil placere sig i genomet . (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, the THAP9 gene in humans and zebrafish shares extensive sequence homology to the Drosophila P element transposase. (berkeley.edu)
  • Nested Deletions from a Fixed Site as an Aid to Nucleotide Sequencing: An in vitro System Using Tn3 Transposase", DNA Research, 3:431-433 (1996). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Weinreich, Michael D., "A Functional Analysis of the TN5 Transposase: Identification of Domains Required for DNA Binding and Multimerization," J. Mol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Transposase, one protein encoded by the element, promotes the formation of intermediates called cointegrates, in which the element has been duplicated by replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We describe discovery in Beta vulgaris L. of Coe1 , a DNA transposase gene within putative long terminal repeats (LTRs), and other retrotransposon-like features including both a retroviral-like hypothetical gene and an Rvt2-domain reverse transcriptase pseudogene. (hindawi.com)
  • The central DNA transposase gene encodes, in eight exons, a predicted 160-KDa protein producing BLAST alignments with En/Spm -type transposons. (hindawi.com)
  • Class II transposons characteristically have relatively short inverted repeat sequences near their termini and an excision site at each end recognized by the transposase. (hindawi.com)
  • Vulmar1 , a mariner-class transposon in Beta vulgaris , [ 6 ], 3 909 bp in length, has 32 bp terminal inverted repeats and carries a single ORF that encodes a transposase with a characteristic DDE signature motif in a single exon. (hindawi.com)
  • In this communication, we report the discovery in Beta vulgaris of Coe1 , a Class II DNA transposase gene within putative LTRs and other features that are characteristic of Class I LTR-retrotransposons. (hindawi.com)
  • It is a sequence of DNA that encodes an enzyme called transposase, which enables the IS to move. (learner.org)
  • Moreover, modules of a few amino-acids can be detected within gag, pol, envgenes or within the integrase domain of retrotransposons and transposase of DNA elements. (deepdyve.com)
  • Relationships between Transposable Elements Based upon the Integrase-Transposase Domains: Is There a Common Ancestor? (deepdyve.com)
  • Mobile Minos elements from Drosophila hydei encode a two-exon transposase with similarity to the paired DNA-binding domain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mu elements identified in maize have conserved TIRs ∼220 bp in length, induce an 8- to 9-bp TSD, and have variable internal sequences ( L isch 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • Sequence-indexed Mutations in Maize Using the UniformMu Transposon-tagging Population BMC Genomics. (jove.com)
  • In maize, FSTs have been generated using DNA transposons. (jove.com)
  • To accommodate our findings and those of others, we propose a model of slip mispairing during error-prone repair synthesis to explain the formation of state II Ds elements in maize. (genetics.org)
  • The generation of a two-element system from a one-element system was first observed by McClintock when she identified Ds derivatives from Ac insertions at the Bronze1 and Waxy1 loci of maize ( M c C lintock 1955 , 1956 , 1962 , 1963 ). (genetics.org)
  • The hAT transposon superfamily includes the first transposon discovered, Ac from Zea mays (maize), first reported by Barbara McClintock. (wikipedia.org)
  • The autonomous MuDR element of the Mutator (Mu) transposable element family of maize encodes at least two proteins, MURA and MURB. (asm.org)
  • The significance of MURA's interaction with the TIRs of Mu elements is discussed in the context of what is known about the regulation and mechanisms of Mutator activities in maize. (asm.org)
  • The Maize Regulatory Gene B-Peru contains a DNA rearrangement that specifies tissue-specific expression through both positive and negative promoter elements. (purdue.edu)
  • A mutation that prevents paramutation in maize also reverses Mutator transposon methylation. (purdue.edu)
  • Mutator transposons in maize and MULEs in the plant genome. (purdue.edu)
  • The Cf-9 gene was isolated by transposon tagging with the maize transposable element Dissociation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sometimes they involve the movements of relatively large pieces of DNA, like transposable elements, the stretches of mobile DNA originally discovered in maize by McClintock. (ucla.edu)
  • Transposable elements were discovered by Barbara McClintock in maize in 1950. (ukessays.com)
  • One of the first plant transposons McClintock described [ 1 ], En1 , or the maize suppressor-mutator ( Spm ), is the original example of a "CACTA" class, or superfamily, of transposons. (hindawi.com)
  • comparison against the transposable element proteins. (github.com)
  • element proteins. (github.com)
  • An LTR retrotransposon may carry three ORFs coding for the gag , env , and pol proteins, the latter is composed of the reverse transcriptase, EN, and aspartyl protease domains ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly three Phantom proteins were also identified in two insect viruses and phylogenetic analysis suggests horizontal movement from insect to virus, providing a new line of evidence for the role of viruses in the horizontal transfer of DNA transposons in animals. (genetics.org)
  • the main difference between the two elements is that retroviruses also encode a variety of other viral proteins, some which allow the virus to survive outside the host. (brighthub.com)
  • These proteins are responsible for the first level of DNA packing in Chromatin. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • These proteins have a high proportion of positively charged amino acids (lysine and arginine) and they bind tightly to the negatively charged DNA. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Segments of noncoding DNA that help regulate transcription by binding certain proteins. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • What are 2 common structural elements that have been found in activator proteins? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Our studies deal with the interaction of proteins with RNA and DNA as well as the assembly, composition, structure, function and biochemical activities of these complex nucleoprotein machines. (berkeley.edu)
  • We have recently shown that both the human and zebrafish THAP9 proteins can mobilize P elements in human and Drosophila cells. (berkeley.edu)
  • The P element transposon pre-mRNA undergoes tissue-specific splicing and we showed that regulation of the third P element intron (IVS3) involves RNA binding proteins (PSI, hrp48, hrp36 and hrp38) that recognize an exonic splicing silencer (ESS) regulatory RNA element in the 5' exon adjacent to IVS3, resulting in splicing inhibition. (berkeley.edu)
  • Intron- and intein-encoded proteins promote movement of the elements to new sites on DNA by both DNA- and RNA-based reactions. (mbl.edu)
  • A dedicated recombinase, sometimes with the aid of additional regulatory or DNA architectural proteins, catalyzes the inversion of DNA. (asmscience.org)
  • One type encodes proteins which induces the transposable element to move directly to a new position or replicate the transposable element to produce a new element that integrates elsewhere in the genome. (ukessays.com)
  • The transposons are larger segments of DNA (2000-10,000 base pairs) that encode several proteins, usually one or two required for the movement of the element and often an additional protein that imparts a selective advantage to the host containing a copy of that element. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, some transposons have acquired the ability to direct the synthesis of proteins that metabolize carbohydrates, petroleum, and pesticides. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Marjori Matzketalked about new exciting factors involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) where small RNAs are guiding epigenetic proteins to target sites for DNA methylation. (epigenie.com)
  • The pathway's main weapons against transposons are PIWI proteins and small RNA molecules called piRNAs. (eurekalert.org)
  • Think of PIWI proteins as transposon bounty hunters and piRNAs as the wanted posters that provide vital information about the outlaw DNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some transposons could even make disguises -- long non-coding RNAs that Lau thinks are meant to trick the PIWI proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • These results suggest that DNA hypermethylation of the HIV LTR may change the binding characteristics between LTR sequences and cellular proteins, thereby suppressing HIV LTR transcription and modulating viral expression. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • This approach led to the capture and characterization of (i) 13 insertion sequences from 5 IS families (IS3, IS5, ISL3, IS30 and IS1380), (ii) isoforms of two Tn3-family transposons--Tn5563a and Tn4662a (the latter contains a toxin-antitoxin system), as well as (iii) non-autonomous TEs of diverse structure, ranging in size from 262 to 3892 bp. (nih.gov)
  • The enzymes may recognize specific sequences for insertion, though many types of enzyme can actually bind to virtually any sequence, allowing the element to be inserted anywhere. (brighthub.com)
  • In one of the i alleles, i 4 , an insertion of about 4.7 kilobases (kb) of DNA was found in the fifth exon of the tyrosinase gene. (pnas.org)
  • Transposon insertion sites from 106 UniformMu FSTs were tested for inheritance by locus-specific PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insertion sequences (IS) or IS elements is the simplest transposable element found in bacterial chromosomes and plasmids. (ukessays.com)
  • It was later found that such changes were induced due to insertion of an approximately 800 base-pair DNA segment in to a gene. (ukessays.com)
  • This particular segment of DNA is called insertion sequence 1, or IS1 ( Fig.6.19 ). (ukessays.com)
  • Insertion of IS element takes place at a target site with which the IS element has no sequence homology ( Fig.6.20 ). (ukessays.com)
  • In bacteria, the transposable elements can be grouped into two classes, the insertion sequences and the transposons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most bacterial chromosomes contain several copies of such insertion sequence elements. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The structure of many transposons suggests they may have evolved from the simpler insertion sequence elements. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The eukaryotic elements have much in common with their prokaryotic counterparts: the termini of the elements are composed of inverted repeats, and many of the larger elements are composed of two small insertion sequence-like regions flanking a unique central region. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Footprints," telltale evidence for a previous DNA transposon insertion, result from imprecise excision. (hindawi.com)
  • Sense Su(Ste) transcripts with the site of polyadenylation located in a Y-specific region upstream of hoppel transposon insertion have been revealed (Kalmykova, 1998) as a result of testes cDNA library screening (Aravin, 2001 and references therein). (sdbonline.org)
  • The simplest type of transposon is an insertion sequence (IS). (learner.org)
  • The transposable element Tc1 in Caenorhabditis elegans undergoes an excision reaction, which can be detected in a Southern hybridization as the appearance of empty chromosomal insertion sites. (elsevier.com)
  • Mechanisms are in place to silence these elements, such as RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) and histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in plants. (prolekare.cz)
  • These RNAs then recruit protein factors to deposit DNA methylation or H3K9me2 to silence the loci. (prolekare.cz)
  • In this study, we found that treatment of plants with camptothecin, a TOP1α inhibitor, or loss of function in TOP1α, led to the de-repression of RdDM target loci, which was accompanied by loss of H3K9me2 or DNA methylation. (prolekare.cz)
  • DNA methylation and histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation are two chromatin modifications widely employed by eukaryotes to maintain genome stability [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • H3K9 methylation and DNA methylation are targeted via small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to repeats and transposable elements (TEs) and are required for their transcriptional silencing [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • In plants, cytosine methylation is established through a process known as RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM), which involves small and long noncoding RNAs produced by plant-specific RNA polymerases, Pol IV and Pol V, respectively [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Through the concerted action of these two polymerases, siRNA-AGO4 becomes localized to target loci, and this ultimately recruits the methyltransferase DRM2, which effects de novo DNA methylation. (prolekare.cz)
  • In contrast to CG and CHG methylation, which can be maintained through the DNA methyltransferases MET1 and CMT3, respectively, CHH methylation is propagated by constant de novo methylation through RdDM [2] , [10] . (prolekare.cz)
  • H3K9me2 and CHG methylation act in a self-reinforcing loop to promote the maintenance of these marks by histone methyltransferases KRYPTONITE (KYP or SUVH4), SUVH5 and SUVH6 and the DNA methyltransferase CMT3 [14] . (prolekare.cz)
  • In fact, a recent study revealed a strong genome-wide inter-dependence between non-CG (CHG and CHH) DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation [16] . (prolekare.cz)
  • What does the methylation of certain bases in DNA account for? (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Previous studies have reported a correlation between Mu transposon inactivation and methylation of the Mu element TIRs. (asm.org)
  • On the maternal allele DNA methylation silences Airn macro non-coding RNAs and Igf2r is active, whereas on the paternal allele the Airn transcript silences the overlapping Igf2r gene. (epigenie.com)
  • DNA methylation could play an important role in mediating the effects of DR because it is sensitive to the effects of nutrition and can affect gene expression memory over time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we profile genome-wide changes in DNA methylation, gene expression and lipidomics in response to DR and aging in female mouse liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DR is generally strongly protective against age-related changes in DNA methylation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results indicate that DR remodels genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation so that age-related changes are profoundly delayed, while changes at loci involved in lipid metabolism affect gene expression and the resulting lipid profile. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although DNA methylation is known to be present in zebrafish, there is limited research on its function. (jhu.edu)
  • In plants and mammals, one critical function of DNA methylation is the repression of transposable elements, parasitic elements that can be detrimental to the host genome. (jhu.edu)
  • While it is known that transposons are present in the zebrafish genome, it is unknown whether their expression is dependent on methylation. (jhu.edu)
  • Preliminary data show the unexpected result that expression of some transposons is not regulated by DNA methylation in the zebrafish larva. (jhu.edu)
  • During early embryonic development, our genome lets down its DNA methylation defenses and becomes vulnerable to rebellious transposable elements (TEs). (epigenie.com)
  • He explains that retrovirus expression is suppressed by proper methylation of our DNA, which in turn depends on a selenium compund, S-adenosyl-methionine. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • These are kept in check by a thing called DNA methylation, if your DNA isn't properly methylated with the right nutrients then the transposons can move around. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Several cytidine analogs with known mutagenic capability were tested for their effects on DNA methylation and on induction of endogenous murine retrovirus. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • For each of the compounds tested it was found that DNA methylation was inhibited at the same concentrations that were required to induce virus expression. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Ectopically expressed H1 suppresses TEs in VCs by reducing DNA demethylation and via a methylation-independent mechanism. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Ac/Ds are class II DNA transposons that belong to the hAT superfamily of plant transposable elements ( K unze and W eil 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • The major DNA-based controlling transposable elements in higher plants can be classified into three groups : the Ac/Ds (or hAT) superfamily, the En/Spm (or CACTA) superfamily, and the Mu family. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Resident aliens: the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposable elements. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mu killer causes the heritable inactivation of the Mutator family of transposable elements in Zea mays. (purdue.edu)
  • Our research focuses on the P element family of transposable elements found in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. (berkeley.edu)
  • Seven unstable mutations, gl2-m2 to gl2-m8, were induced in a parental strain carrying an active transposable Activator (Ac) element in the unstable wx-m7 allele. (nih.gov)
  • Alterations to DNA are called mutations, and they can result in the formation of new characteristics that are heritable, or capable of being inherited. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Furthermore, the transposable elements (IS6100) are present in many different bacteria and are very strongly conserved, suggesting they do not tolerate mutations very well. (talkorigins.org)
  • So given that the transposable elements are conserved in sequence between different bacteria, and that you don't need many mutations to make a functional nylonase, this objection is void. (talkorigins.org)
  • Active Activator ( Ac ) elements undergo mutations to become nonautonomous Dissociation ( Ds ) elements at a low frequency. (genetics.org)
  • Indeed, such elements are often bad for you, not least because they can cause mutations when they jump around. (nytimes.com)
  • transposable DNA insertions have been linked to human disease gene mutations and chromosomal rearrangements and are thought to be important for genome and organismal evolution. (berkeley.edu)
  • An IS elements can integrate at random locations along the chromosome often inducing mutations, by disrupting either the coding or regulatory sequence of a gene. (ukessays.com)
  • IS elements can also induce deletions and inversions in the adjacent DNA thereby causing mutations. (ukessays.com)
  • Yeast as well as higher eukaryotes have DNA segments that move and cause mutations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of increasing significance is the link of these transposon-mediated mutations to disease. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • They first used RT-PCR to measure expression of 12 known transposons in Drosophila that expressed human wild-type tau, or human tau harboring the FTD-associated R406W mutation. (alzforum.org)
  • In vertebrates, several repetitive sequences similar to transposons of the Tc1 / mariner elements of Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila have been identified ( 8 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The hAT superfamily's name derives from three of its members: the hobo element from Drosophila melanogaster, the Activator or Ac element from Zea mays, and the Tam3 element from Antirrhinum majus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bucheton A (1990) I transposable elements and I-R hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila . (springer.com)
  • Transposons likewise keep the ends of Drosophila chromosomes in good condition. (nytimes.com)
  • Moreover, piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), in Drosophila as in mammals, are derived from heterochromatin domains containing mostly transposable elements and degenerate transposons, and are involved in transposon silencing. (prolekare.cz)
  • The Drosophila HP1 homolog Rhino is required for transposon silencing " by Carla Andrea Klattenhoff, Hualin Xi et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • The transposable element Uhu from Hawaiian Drosophila--member of the widely dispersed class of Tc1-like transposons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Miniature transposable sequences are frequently mobilized in the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best current tool, built with components from one kind of bacterial CRISPR-Cas system, cuts both strands of the DNA molecule at a specific sequence, like adding a paragraph break to a block of text. (newswise.com)
  • Sternberg and his students found that the transposon integrates into specific sites in the bacterial genome, not by cutting DNA into two, but by using a separate enzyme to slip the transposon into the genome. (newswise.com)
  • The researchers harnessed this discovery to create a gene-editing tool that can be programed to insert any DNA sequence into any site in a bacterial genome. (newswise.com)
  • And by replacing the transposon sequence with other DNA payloads, they could insert sequences up to 10,000 bases long into a bacterial genome. (newswise.com)
  • 2002. Bacterial site-specific DNA inversion systems, p 230-271. (asmscience.org)
  • The ability of transposable elements to insert into plasmid or bacterial virus (bacteriophage) which is transmissible from one organism to another allows for their rapid spread. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • T. parvula genome structure and DNA sequences were compared with orthologous regions from Arabidopsis and publicly available bacterial artificial chromosome sequences from Thellungiella salsuginea (previously Thellungiella halophila ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) are a group of non-autonomous Class II transposable elements (DNA sequences). (wikipedia.org)
  • Stowaway elements are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons categorized as miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs). (springer.com)
  • The key here is that the mutation was in an internally repetitive sequence of DNA. (talkorigins.org)
  • Its presence vs. absence was examined with reference to the β-amylase gene tree topology, and in light of sequence comparisons of the β-amylase elements to Triticeae Stowaway elements in the Entrez nucleotide database. (springer.com)
  • The sequences that do contain elements are polyphyletic on the β-amylase tree, and their elements are divergent at the sequence level. (springer.com)
  • Combined, the phylogenetic distribution, sequence variation, and Entrez database comparisons indicate that a Stowaway -like element has undergone multiple deletions from and insertions into the same site in β-amylase intron 4 during the history of the tribe. (springer.com)
  • Rather than introduce DNA breaks and rely on the cell to repair the break, INTEGRATE directly inserts a user-defined DNA sequence at a precise location in the genome, a capability that molecular biologists have sought for decades," says Sternberg, who was recently recruited to Columbia from Jennifer Doudna's laboratory at UC Berkeley. (newswise.com)
  • Typically, researchers want to make a small change at one specific sequence of DNA bases, leaving the rest of the genome untouched. (newswise.com)
  • The DNA sequence of Cf-9 encodes a putative membrane-anchored extracytoplasmic glycoprotein. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ahmed, Asad, "Use of Transposon-Promoted Deletions in DNA Sequence Analysis", Letter to Editor in J.Mol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • For the HERV sequence to be transcribed, the fossil viral DNA must have an open reading frame (ORF). (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
  • Around 40 % of the lncRNAs showed sequence similarity with small RNAs (sRNA), while 1.53 % were predicted to be sunflower natural antisense transcripts (NATs), and 9.18 % contained transposable elements (TE). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A short sequence present at one end of the element is repeated in an inverted fashion at the other end. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These data suggest contrasting modes of evolution of repetitive DNA of different types, including selfish sequences that propagate themselves and may even be transferred horizontally between species rather than by descent, through to sequences that have a tendency to amplification because of their sequence motifs, to those that have structural significance because of their bulk rather than precise sequence. (springer.com)
  • Common structural features of LTR retrotransposon elements make it possible to de novo detect novel LTR retrotransposon families having low sequence homology to known queries or families with a typical structure. (frontiersin.org)
  • All known transposable elements in eukaryotes belong to two types: retrotransposons and DNA transposons. (pnas.org)
  • Despite an enormous diversity of eukaryotic TEs, they belong to only two types, called retrotransposons and DNA transposons. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to the reverse transcriptase/EN polyprotein, most non-LTR retrotransposons code for a second protein characterized by poorly understood activities, including RNA/DNA binding, chaperone, and esterase. (pnas.org)
  • The endonuclease domain in LTR retrotransposons is usually called integrase (INT) and is distantly related to the DDE transposases (TPase) encoded by Mariner DNA transposons ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Unlike retrotransposons, which synthesize their DNA copies by using their own RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase), DNA transposons cannot synthesize DNA. (pnas.org)
  • We will look at two main types of transposable elements: DNA transposons and retrotransposons. (brighthub.com)
  • Within the category of retrotransposons, researchers have found some elements that are similar to retroviruses, called viral retrotransposons, which possess long terminal repeats, or LTRs, as well as elements called LINES, which do not have LTRs. (brighthub.com)
  • it is thought that these elements take advantage of the enzyme encoded by other retrotransposons. (brighthub.com)
  • Here, we show that the Microprocessor (Drosha-DGCR8), which is required for microRNA biogenesis, also recognizes and binds RNAs derived from human long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1), Alu and SVA retrotransposons. (nih.gov)
  • 73% of the significant clusters map to transposable elements including DNA-Transposons, LINE-1s, LTR-containing retrotransposons and SINEs. (nih.gov)
  • The majority of these transposable elements are retrotransposons, but 5%-10% are derived from DNA transposons. (panspermia.com)
  • 5 ], who described (1) repetitive DNA sequences in Beta vulgaris similar to long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), a type of retrotransposon without LTRs, and (2) other repetitive DNA sequences that resembled LTR retrotransposons of the Ty1-copia class. (hindawi.com)
  • Does the Integrase of LTR-retrotransposons and Most of the Transposases of Class II Elements Share a Common Ancestor? (deepdyve.com)
  • The reverse transcriptase is often encoded by the element itself. (brighthub.com)
  • e ) Real-time Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis of several transposable elements (LINE-1, Alu Y, Alu S Alu J and SVA) upon immunoprecipitation of endogenous DGCR8 of one representative experiment. (nih.gov)
  • class I elements transpose through an RNA intermediate using a reverse transcriptase, while class II elements transpose through a DNA intermediate. (springer.com)
  • Such elements encode a reverse transcriptase for making copies of DNA from their RNA transcripts, which subsequently integrate at new sites in the genome. (ukessays.com)
  • Transposable elements can generate unstable insertions that are difficult to analyze for simple knockout phenotypes. (jove.com)
  • Using these methods we have identified 15 new Ds elements derived from Ac insertions at eight different loci. (genetics.org)
  • Transposons can also generate somatic insertions that fail to segregate in subsequent generations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We confirmed 89% of the FSTs to be germinal transposon insertions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Investigator-driven insertional mutagenesis in vertebrates has relied on retroviral insertions or selection of low-frequency integration of naked DNA in ES cell lines. (elsevier.com)
  • After testing on the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, we found that this program is able to properly annotate a large number of structurally complex elements as well as the nested insertions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Another non-autonomous element "captured" with a trap plasmid was a TIME derivative containing a predicted resolvase gene and a res site typical for many Tn3-family transposons. (nih.gov)
  • Analogously to known transposable elements, Polintons exist as autonomous and nonautonomous elements. (pnas.org)
  • Each type includes different classes and families of TEs composed of autonomous and nonautonomous elements. (pnas.org)
  • Whereas an autonomous element encodes a complete set of enzymes characteristic of its family, a nonautonomous element encodes none, or only some of them, and depends on enzymes encoded by its autonomous relative. (pnas.org)
  • In the En / Spm ( 10 ), MuDR ( 15 ), Harbinger ( 16 ), and Helitron ( 8 ) superfamilies, an autonomous transposon usually encodes a TPase and one DNA-binding protein. (pnas.org)
  • A detailed study of MITEs reveals that MITE subfamilies have arisen from related autonomous elements from a single genome and these subfamilies constitute the MITE families. (wikipedia.org)
  • One type of autonomous element can give rise to one or more MITE families. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study identifies an autonomous member of a DNA-based transposable element from a vertebrate genome. (pnas.org)
  • The Tol2-tyr element, a particular Tol2 element which resides in the tyrosinase gene, has been shown by PCR to be excisable from the target locus during embryogenesis, suggesting the presence of at least one autonomous member somewhere in the genome ( 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Tissue-specific accumulation of MURB, a protein encoded by MuDR, the autonomous regulator of the Mutator transposable element family. (purdue.edu)
  • When transposable elements cannot copy themselves, they are referred to as being "non-autonomous", which HERVs are in humans (but not rodents). (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
  • The movement of transposable elements is either autonomous or dependent on other elements. (hindawi.com)
  • Another approach could be to use the powerful CRISPR gene editing technique to specifically disable the ability of transposable elements to mobilize within the genome. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • Eukaryotes contain numerous transposable or mobile elements capable of parasite-like proliferation in the host genome. (pnas.org)
  • However, the identification of Mutator transposons in other eukaryotes has been quite limited. (genetics.org)
  • This is the DNA protein complex in Eukaryotes. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Transposable elements are ubiquitous specific DNA sequences of the genome found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (ukessays.com)
  • These types of elements are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (ukessays.com)
  • Such elements are found only in eukaryotes. (ukessays.com)
  • In eukaryotes, transposable elements can move to a new position within the same chromosome or to a different chromosome. (ukessays.com)
  • Transposable elements (TEs), the movement of which can damage the genome, are epigenetically silenced in eukaryotes. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Many of the Phantom transposases are predicted to harbor a FLYWCH domain in the amino terminus, which displays a WRKY-GCM1 fold characteristic of the DNA binding domain (DBD) of Mutator transposases and of several transcription factors. (genetics.org)
  • While some Phantom elements have terminal inverted repeats similar in length and structure to Mutator elements, some display subterminal inverted repeats (sub-TIRs) and others have more complex termini reminiscent of so-called Foldback (FB) transposons. (genetics.org)
  • Mutator TEs have been described as the most mutagenic plant transposon ( L isch 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • Identification of a regulatory transposon that controls the Mutator system of transposable elements. (purdue.edu)
  • The Mutator Transposons. (purdue.edu)
  • Biémont C, Vieira C (2006) Genetics: junk DNA as an evolutionary force. (springer.com)
  • Hybrid genetics: transposons unbound. (purdue.edu)
  • Emmons, SW , Roberts, S & Ruan, KS 1986, ' Evidence in a nematode for regulation of transposon excision by tissue-specific factors ', MGG Molecular & General Genetics , vol. 202, no. 3, pp. 410-415. (elsevier.com)
  • It has also been identified that 6% of the genome are made up of repetitive elements and fall into two classes: DNA repeats and transposable elements [9] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Class 1 transposable elements are mobilized via an RNA intermediate while class 2, or DNA transposons, mobilize via a DNA intermediate. (genetics.org)
  • Fluorescence in the fat body of fruit flies tracks the activity of transposable elements of DNA. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • Repetitive content makes up more than one-third of this genome, and previously uncharacterized transposable elements are the most abundant type of repetitive DNA. (g3journal.org)
  • Dr. Lisch is interested in the regulation and evolution of plant transposable elements and the role that transposable elements have played in plant evolution. (purdue.edu)
  • The nylB gene does most of the heavy lifting, so to speak, and it is the nylB gene that was formed from a deletion mutation and subsequent frame shift in the RSII repetitive element. (talkorigins.org)
  • DGCR8 binds a constellation of transcripts from repetitive elements. (nih.gov)
  • a ) Pie chart showing distribution of reads mapping to repetitive elements in sense and antisense orientation. (nih.gov)
  • The DNA-based transposable elements (or transposons) are repetitive sequences that move from one locus in the genome to another and have been used as powerful tools to study model animals and plants. (pnas.org)
  • However, the significance of repetitive DNA in the genome is not completely understood, and it has been considered to have both structural and functional roles, or perhaps even no essential role. (springer.com)
  • High-throughput DNA sequencing reveals huge numbers of repetitive sequences. (springer.com)
  • Biscotti MA, Canapa A, Forconi M, Olmo E, Barucca M (2015) Transcription of tandemly repetitive DNA: functional roles. (springer.com)
  • Hozba R, Kubat Z, Cegan R, Jesioneck W, Vyskot B, Kejnovsky E (2015) Impact of repetitive DNA on sex chromosome evolution in plants. (springer.com)
  • The types of junk DNA include introns, pseudogenes, and mobile and repetitive DNAs. (creation.com)
  • A new creationist theory may explain how this rapid diversification came about by the changes caused by repetitive and mobile DNA sequences. (creation.com)
  • Current tools are like molecular scissors: they cut DNA, but the actual editing is performed by the cell's own DNA repair machinery," says Sam Sternberg, PhD, assistant professor of biochemistry and molecular biophysics at Columbia and senior author of the new study. (newswise.com)
  • At the molecular level, these elements exhibit considerable variation in structure and function. (ukessays.com)
  • Like other transposons, MITEs are inserted predominantly in gene-rich regions and this can be a reason that they affect gene expression and play important roles in accelerating eukaryotic evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our previous observations regarding TDP-43's interactions with transposon targets in human ALS data led us to be quite confident that TDP-43 pathology might disrupt transposon expression in flies," said Lisa. (cshl.edu)
  • We want to see whether TDP-43 pathology induces high levels of transposon expression and if this causally contributes to reductions in lifespan and cell death. (cshl.edu)
  • Expression of nine transposons significantly correlated with the density of tau tangles. (alzforum.org)
  • To determine if tau pathology was responsible for the transposon expression, the researchers turned to fruit fly models. (alzforum.org)
  • These differences emerged when the flies were only one day old, but, at least for the copia transposon, expression continued to rise as the flies aged to 20 days, which is considered old for a fruit fly. (alzforum.org)
  • To confirm and extend these findings, the researchers performed a separate RNA-Seq analysis to quantify transposon expression in 20-day-old control flies versus flies expressing wild-type human tau. (alzforum.org)
  • We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. (mdpi.com)
  • Expression levels of these transposable elements indicate tissue specificity and differential expression in vegetative and reproductive tissues, suggesting that expressed TEs might contribute to sunflower development. (mdpi.com)
  • If you want to read more about Alus check out this review article but for your sanity's sake I'll wrap up the review of Alu elements… Because Alus are more or less mobile they are important because they affect gene structures, protein sequences, splicing motifs and expression patterns. (anthropology.net)
  • The new results, led by faculty investigator Jason Wood, come from several experiments that are thorough and direct in connecting the dots among weakening heterochromatin, increased transposon expression, aging and lifespan. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • Increasing expression of a gene called Dicer-2, which uses the small RNA pathway to suppress transposons, added significantly to lifespan as well. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • For example, the team will purposely encourage expression of transposable elements to see if that undermines health and lifespan. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • We have recently reported that the Sleeping Beauty transposon system can efficiently mediate stable transgene expression in human primary T cells without prior T cell activation (Blood 107:483-491, 2006). (umn.edu)
  • This chapter describes methodology for the introduction of SB transposons into human T cell cultures with subsequent integration and stable long-term expression at noticeably high efficiency for a nonviral gene transfer system. (umn.edu)
  • enrichment of DINE - TR1 in α and β-heterochromatin, satellite DNA emergence and piRNA expression. (springer.com)
  • [3] Transposons are also very useful to researchers as a means to alter DNA inside a living organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every cell in the body of every living organism contains DNA in threadlike structures called chromosomes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These included transposons of different evolutionary origins, or clades, including long interspersed nuclear elements 1 (LINE1s), short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). (alzforum.org)
  • and (iii) the lineage-specific emergence of new transposable elements, as particularly observed for non-coding retroelements called short interspersed elements (SINEs). (springer.com)
  • Four major classes of mammalian TEs have been identified in mammals: long interspersed elements (LINEs), short interspersed elements (SINEs), LTR retrotrasposons and DNA transposons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The simplest elements of this type, designated TIMEs (Tn3 family-derived Inverted-repeat Miniature Elements) (262 bp), were identified within two natural plasmids (pZM1P1 and pLM8P2) of Pseudomonas spp. (nih.gov)
  • They function as viruses, linear DNA plasmids, transposable elements, and sometimes combinations of two of these properties. (asm.org)
  • Indeed, members of some superfamilies of cut and paste DNA transposons are common to all three domains of life, suggesting either their existence prior to the diversification of the three domains from a common ancestor or frequent interdomain horizontal transfer (HT) ( F eschotte and P ritham 2007 ). (genetics.org)
  • Horizontal Transfer of a Plant Transposable element. (purdue.edu)
  • State I elements often induce chromosome breakage but rarely transpose whereas state II elements transpose frequently but rarely break chromosomes ( M c C lintock 1946 , 1949 ). (genetics.org)
  • As cells get older, prior studies have shown, tightly wound heterochromatin wrapping that typically imprisons transposons becomes looser , allowing them to slip out of their positions in chromosomes and move to new ones, disrupting normal cell function. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • Chalopin D, Volff JN, Galiana D, Anderson JL, Schartl M (2015) Transposable elements and early evolution of sex chromosomes in fish. (springer.com)
  • At the same time, working together with Assistant Professor Molly Hammel at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, the Dubnau lab discovered that human protein TDP-43 binds to the RNAs produced by transcription of transposable elements, and that this binding is selectively disrupted in brain tissue of patients with a type of dementia that frequently presents with TDP-43 pathology. (cshl.edu)
  • Different types of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) were shown to be implicated in the programmed DNA elimination process that occurs in this organism. (prolekare.cz)
  • Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposons and maintain genome integrity during germline development. (umassmed.edu)
  • His lab compared deep sequencing data from male and female germ cells and mapped non-repeat small RNAs to imprinted DMRs (DNA methylated regions). (epigenie.com)
  • Alu elements are classified as a type of transposon where copy is made of RNA, not DNA. (anthropology.net)
  • The structural plasticity of Phantom and the distant relationship of its encoded protein to known transposases may have impeded the discovery of this group of transposons and it suggests that structure in itself is not a reliable character for transposon classification. (genetics.org)
  • Members of a widespread group of transposons, the Tn3 family, all have a similar structure and appear to move by a similar mechanism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Perspective: Transposable Elements, parasitic DNA, and genome evolution. (purdue.edu)
  • Discussions of transposon activity and genome evolution will focus on mechanistic models. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • For decades it has been recognized that evolutionary dynamics of these elements actively act as a motivating force to drive the genome evolution. (frontiersin.org)
  • Among the sequences lacking the element, there are five distinct putative excision footprints (one widespread and four restricted to unrelated lineages) and two flanking deletions. (springer.com)
  • Stable Ds alleles can also be incorporated into breeding programs without the risk of losing the desired allele due to transposon excision. (genetics.org)
  • The rate of excision of elements at five distinct chromosomal sites has been measured by a method that avoids ambiguities due to cell division. (elsevier.com)
  • All these elements are found to undergo excision at closely similar rates during the L1 larval stage. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, activation of transposons from the three ERV clades correlated with lower cognitive performance in the year leading up to death. (alzforum.org)
  • Finally, they showed that an anti-HIV drug called 3TC, which inhibits activation of transposons and their movement into new positions in the genome, can restore some lifespan to flies that have a mutation that disables Dicer-2. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • While patterns of Stowaway polymorphism across a phylogenetic data set do not allow evolutionary mechanisms to be inferred with certainty, they do provide insights into the dynamics of element evolution over an extended time scale. (springer.com)
  • The evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements (TEs) are shaped by intrinsic properties of TEs, host genome environments and features of the natural history and demography of the populations in which the TE is found. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Indeed, different TE subtypes have been active over different evolutionary periods [ 2 ], implying that multiple copies of propagating elements accumulated over discrete time periods depending on the presence of an active source. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development of a large non-coding fraction in eukaryotic DNA and the phenomenon of the code-bloat in the field of evolutionary computations show a striking similarity. (science20.com)
  • Junk' DNA: evolutionary discards or God's tools? (creation.com)
  • Junk' DNA is thought by evolutionists to be useless DNA leftover from past evolutionary permutations. (creation.com)
  • The so-called 'junk' DNAs that have perplexed creationists and evolutionary scientists alike may be the very elements that can explain the mechanisms by which God is at work in His creation now and in the past. (creation.com)
  • If the DNA of a particular gene is altered, that gene may become defective, and the protein for which it codes also may be missing or defective. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The major aim of Lisa's thesis was to test whether modeling the ALS-associated TDP-43 protein pathology in the fly brain would disrupt transposon suppression and cause the symptoms of neurodegeneration similar to those seen in old flies-and in ALS patients. (cshl.edu)
  • This consists of DNA wound around a protein core composed of molecules each of four types of histone: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • The protein, named ZBED6, is previously unknown, specific for placental mammals, and derived from an exapted DNA transposon. (panspermia.com)
  • Gel mobility shift assays demonstrate that MURA is a DNA-binding protein that specifically binds to sequences within the highly conserved Mu element terminal inverted repeats (TIRs). (asm.org)
  • This RNA silencer element binds the splicing repressor protein PSI ( P element s omatic i nhibitor) protein which directly interacts with U1 snRNP and modulates U1 snRNP binding to specific sites on the pre-mRNA. (berkeley.edu)
  • In the process of addressing these questions we may also gain insights into related phenomena such as retroviral infection, antibody gene formation, RNA splicing, protein splicing, the evolution of sexual reproduction, and the lateral dispersal of transposable elements in the biosphere. (mbl.edu)
  • A third protein encoded by the Tn3 element imparts resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A protein that binds to DNA and stimulates transcription of a specific gene. (cueflash.com)
  • If DNA replicated perfectly every time, without errors, the only life-forms existing now would be those that existed about three billion years ago: single-cell organisms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A method has been spreading for analyzing DNA fragments from organisms in the environment such as water or soil (environmental DNA or eDNA) to identify species being present there and to estimate their population. (mbsj.jp)
  • Transposons have been used successfully in lower organisms and plants for insertional mutagenesis, but until activation of the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system, there was no indication of active DNA-based transposons in vertebrates. (elsevier.com)
  • The central region of some more complex transposable elements is sometimes flanked by short, direct repeats, which are then flanked by the inverted repeats. (brighthub.com)
  • In contrast to previous reports, several of these Ds elements lack direct repeats flanking the deletion junctions and filler DNA in the donor Ac . (genetics.org)
  • The DNA repeats identified include uninterrupted direct repeats and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRSPRs). (kenyon.edu)
  • Transposable elements for transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis in vertebrates: a contemporary review of experimental strategies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Tol2 transposon system should thus be used to develop novel transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis methods in zebrafish and possibly in other fishes. (pnas.org)
  • Aberrantly active transposons have been reported in other neurodegenerative diseases as well. (alzforum.org)
  • Sequencing of human populations demonstrates that active transposons are substantially more prevalent than previously appreciated. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Taken together, our results demonstrate that the natural depletion of H1 during male gametogenesis facilitates DEMETER-directed DNA demethylation, heterochromatin relaxation, and TE activation. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Thus, a phylogenetic perspective on presence vs. absence of elements in an aligned data set can provide valuable historical insights into the dynamics of MITE acquisition and loss. (springer.com)
  • The distribution of SPIN elements is patchy and does not relate well to known phylogenetic relationships, prompting suggestions that these elements may have spread through horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maisonhaute, C. 2004-10-13 00:00:00 Phylogenetic analysis of transposable elements (TEs) allows us to define the relationships between the domains or gene(s) that compose them. (deepdyve.com)
  • The TraDIS toolkit: sequencing and analysis for dense transposon mutant libraries. (nih.gov)
  • A genome of 534 Mb was assembled from long read PacBio DNA sequencing of DNA from a highly inbred strain. (nature.com)
  • Henikoff, Steven, "Unidirectional Digestion with Exonuclease III Creates Targeted Breakpoints for DNA Sequencing", Gene, 28:351-359 (1984). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Transposon-facilitated DNA Sequencing", Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • pDUAL: A Transposon-Based Cosmid Cloning Vector for Generating Nested Deletions and DNA Sequencing Templated in vivo", Proc. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Finally, the genome sequencing efforts have revealed the great impact of mobile elements on ever changing genome architecture. (mbl.edu)
  • A few Stowaway elements also contain cis-acting regulatory domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • During vertebrate evolution, transposable elements have repeatedly contributed regulatory and coding sequences to the host, leading to the emergence of new lineage-specific gene regulations and functions. (springer.com)
  • This chapter discusses site-specific DNA inversion reactions mediated by the serine recombinase family of enzymes and focuses on the extensively studied serine DNA invertases that are stringently controlled by the Fis-bound enhancer regulatory system. (asmscience.org)
  • Central to the cell type-specific transcriptional regulation are distal cis-regulatory elements called enhancers, canonically defined as short noncoding DNA sequences that act to drive transcription independent of their relative distance, location or orientation to their cognate promoter. (stanford.edu)
  • We have combined the highly active SB transposon with gene-trapping technology to demonstrate that transposon traps can be used for insertional mutagenesis screens in vertebrates. (elsevier.com)
  • 90% of the DNA of vertebrates does not code for a product. (creation.com)
  • The transposons include 8% retroviruses and one of them is called HERV-K and cross reacts with the HIV antibody test. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • A transposable element that moves within a genome by means of an RNA intermediate, a transcript of the retrotransposon DNA. (brainscape.com)
  • Here we developed a novel software, called as LTRtype, to characterize different types of structurally complex LTR retrotransposon elements as well as nested events. (frontiersin.org)
  • Phys.org)-Transposable elements-or transposons-are DNA sequences that move in the genome from one location to another. (phys.org)
  • State II elements are likely deletion derivatives of Ac that differ in size and internal structure (reviewed in K unze and W eil 2002 ). (genetics.org)
  • Transposable elements are well known as possible agents of evolution. (talkorigins.org)
  • Transposable elements are snippets of DNA, including retrovirus remnants, that jumped from genome to genome throughout evolution. (alzforum.org)
  • Dr. Lisch's research centers on determining the means by which transposons are detected and then maintained in a silenced state and the effect that this process has had on the trajectory of plant evolution. (purdue.edu)
  • Transposable elements and host gene evolution. (purdue.edu)
  • Thus, if one is to understand genome structure and its evolution, one must understand transposable elements. (mbl.edu)
  • They are also learning that the enzymes that copy and maintain the DNA introduce changes in some parts of the genome and not others, creating hotspots of mutation that increase the efficiency of evolution. (ucla.edu)
  • The broad spectrum of activities encoded by the transposable elements demonstrates the strong selective advantage that has accompanied their evolution. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transposable elements are powerful engines of evolution. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Is the Evolution of Transposable Elements Modular? (deepdyve.com)
  • Finally, some DNA transposons actually will replicate themselves, with the copy then being inserted into the target site. (brighthub.com)
  • According to the selfish or parasitic DNA theory, this DNA persists only because of its ability to replicate itself, or perhaps because it has randomly mutated into a form advantageous to the cell. (creation.com)
  • Understanding the biology of transposable elements is of great importance because of their increasingly well documented impact on the host genome ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The symposium is designed to foster ties between leaders in the field of transposon biology and the pioneers of genome analysis. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Brandeis biology professor Nelson Lau and his lab recently published two studies on the PIWI pathway, short for P-element Induced Wimpy testis. (eurekalert.org)
  • they are among the transposon families believed to have been present in the ancestral vertebrate genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative genomics has revealed that major vertebrate lineages contain quantitatively and qualitatively different populations of retrotransposable elements and DNA transposons, with important differences also frequently observed between species of the same lineage. (springer.com)
  • The Frog Prince: a reconstructed transposon from Rana pipiens with high transpositional activity in vertebrate cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Of 162 other transposon transcripts identified in the analysis, 64 were more highly expressed in the tau model. (alzforum.org)
  • This filling in of the gaps leads to duplication of short DNA sequences flanking the transposon and this has been hypothesized as a mechanism behind gene duplication. (brighthub.com)
  • The 5S rDNA High Dynamism in Diplodus sargus is a Transposon-Mediated Mechanism. (springer.com)
  • Well, transposable elements can result in rapid adaptation, but the mechanism is pure random mutation and natural selection. (talkorigins.org)
  • The analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans mutants impaired with dsRNA-mediated silencing and studies in plants implicate a biological role of dsRNA-mediated silencing as a transposon-repression and antiviral mechanism. (sdbonline.org)
  • Characterization of multiple lineages of Tc1-like elements within the genome of the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Publications] N.Ishikawa: 'The transposable element Tip 100 found at the mutable flaked allele for flower variegation of the common morning glory. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Transposases permit Class II transposable elements to move by a "cut and paste" process, first excising from one site and then reintegrating at another. (hindawi.com)
  • Normal cells suppress transposon jumping to limit the chance of damage. (cshl.edu)