DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Transposases: Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Inverted Repeat Sequences: Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Gonadal Dysgenesis: A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Argonaute Proteins: A family of RNA-binding proteins that has specificity for MICRORNAS and SMALL INTERFERING RNA molecules. The proteins take part in RNA processing events as core components of RNA-induced silencing complex.Oryzias: The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Transposon Resolvases: Recombinases that involved in the propagation of DNA TRANSPOSONS. They bind to transposon sequences found at two different sites along the same stretch of DNA and bring them into close proximity. The enzymes then catalyze the double strand cleavage, exchange of double strands and rejoining of DNA helices so that the DNA transposon is formed into a circular PLASMID.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Sequence Inversion: The deletion and reinsertion of a segment of a nucleic acid sequence in the same place, but flipped in an opposite orientation.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Atelinae: A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles).Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Amaranthaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.Rumex: A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Group III Histone Deacetylases: A subclass of histone deacetylases that are NAD-dependent. Several members of the SIRTUINS family are included in this subclass.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.PrimatesAlcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Silene: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.GC Rich Sequence: A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.Monodelphis: A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.Gene Conversion: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.INDEL Mutation: A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.DNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.RNA, Small Untranslated: Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or ... Transposable elements make up a large fraction of the genome and are responsible for much of the mass of DNA in a eukaryotic ... The most common transposable element in humans is the Alu sequence. It is approximately 300 bases long and can be found between ... When the transposable elements lack additional genes, they are known as insertion sequences. ...
DNA methylation frequently occurs in repeated sequences, and helps to suppress the expression and mobility of 'transposable ... Slotkin RK, Martienssen R (April 2007). "Transposable elements and the epigenetic regulation of the genome". Nature Reviews ... An epigenetically inherited element such as the PSI+ system can act as a "stop-gap", good enough for short-term adaptation that ... Leonhardt H, Page AW, Weier HU, Bestor TH (November 1992). "A targeting sequence directs DNA methyltransferase to sites of DNA ...
Transposable elements (TEs) include a wide variety of DNA sequences that all have the ability to move to new locations in the ... Transposable elements[edit]. Transposable elements self-replicate through two main mechanisms: via an RNA intermediate ("copy- ... Transposable elements[edit]. To model the dynamics of transposable elements (TEs) within a genome, one has to realize that the ... While many transposable elements seem to do no good for the host, some transposable elements have been "tamed" by molecular ...
Transposable elements-repetitious sequences of DNA that can insert themselves into any part of the genome-can encourage ectopic ... and have mutation rates high enough to disrupt the homology between transposable element sequences sufficiently to prevent ... The frequency of ectopic recombination of transposable elements has been linked to both higher copy numbers of transposable ... A test for the role of natural selection in the stabilization of transposable element copy number in a population of Drosophila ...
... : a retrotransposon of Drosophila combining structural features of DNA viruses, retroviruses and non-viral transposable ... Retrotransposon-like sequences are expressed in Y chromosomal lampbrush loops of Drosophila hydei. J Mol Biol 203:689-97. 2. ... The name micropia is an artificial word, i.e. a concoction of "microcloning" and "copia-like element". 1. Huijser, P., C. ... elements. J Mol Biol 204:233-46. 3. Lankenau, S., V. G. Corces, and D. H. Lankenau. 1994. The Drosophila micropia ...
Repression of transposable elements[edit]. DNA methylation is a powerful transcriptional repressor, at least in CpG dense ... or DNA sequencing (MeDIP-seq).. *Pyrosequencing of bisulfite treated DNA. This is sequencing of an amplicon made by a normal ... DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. Methylation can change the activity of a DNA ... Abbreviations: S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH), S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), DNA methyltransferase (DNA MTase), Uracil-DNA ...
Alu sequences, classified as a short interspersed nuclear element, are the most abundant mobile elements in the human genome. ... that the majority of non-coding DNA in large genomes finds its origin in the selfish amplification of transposable elements, of ... noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences. Some noncoding DNA is ... protein-coding DNA sequences account for only about 20% of conserved DNA, with the remaining 80% of conserved DNA represented ...
DNA methylation frequently occurs in repeated sequences, and helps to suppress the expression and mobility of 'transposable ... Slotkin RK, Martienssen R (April 2007). "Transposable elements and the epigenetic regulation of the genome". Nature Reviews ... An epigenetically inherited element such as the PSI+ system can act as a "stop-gap", good enough for short-term adaptation that ... DNA damageEdit. DNA damage can also cause epigenetic changes.[25][26][27] DNA damage is very frequent, occurring on average ...
Repetitive DNA is not easily analysed by next generation DNA sequencing methods, which struggle with homopolymeric tracts. ... Almost 50% of the human genome is contained in various types of transposable elements (also called transposons, or 'jumping ... Junk DNA. *Long interspersed repetitive element. *Microsatellite instability. *Mobile element. *Short interspersed repetitive ... Repetitive DNA is not easily analysed by next generation DNA sequencing methods, which struggle with homopolymeric tracts. ...
Families of transposable elements-derived lincRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of pluripotency. Human pluripotency- ... "Intergenic" refers to long non-coding RNAs that are transcribed from non-coding DNA sequences between protein-coding genes, ... Sonic hedgehog induces transcription of Evf-2 from an ultra-conserved element located between the Dlx5 and Dlx6 genes during ... Large-scale sequencing of cDNA libraries and more recently transcriptomic sequencing by next generation sequencing indicate ...
Like DNA transposable elements (class II transposons), retrotransposons can induce mutations by inserting near or within genes ... In wheat, about 90% of the genome consists of repeated sequences and 68% of transposable elements. In mammals, almost half the ... SVA are one of the youngest transposable element in great apes genome and among the most active and polymorphic in the human ... then converted back into identical DNA sequences using reverse transcription, and these sequences are then inserted into the ...
Insertions add one or more extra nucleotides into the DNA. They are usually caused by transposable elements, or errors during ... Molecular sequence analysis: With rapid development of DNA sequencing technology, an enormous amount of DNA sequence data is ... Insertions can be reversed by excision of the transposable element. (Point) deletions remove one or more nucleotides from the ... Various methods have been developed to infer the DFE from DNA sequence data. By examining DNA sequence differences within and ...
... interspersed repetitive sequences MeSH G06.184.603.080.708.330.200 --- dna transposable elements MeSH G06.184.603.080.708.330. ... vitamin d response element MeSH G06.184.603.080.689.390 --- insulator elements MeSH G06.184.603.080.689.450 --- locus control ... alu elements MeSH G06.184.603.080.708.800 --- tandem repeat sequences MeSH G06.184.603.080.708.800.140 --- dna repeat expansion ... base sequence MeSH G06.184.603.080.040 --- at rich sequence MeSH G06.184.603.080.380 --- gc rich sequence MeSH G06.184.603.080. ...
... is a transposable element, which is a sequence of DNA that is capable of mediating its own movement from one position in ... Tn10 has a composite structure and it is composed of a pair of insertion sequence elements (IS10) flanking five genes. Only one ... The transposase protein recognizes the ends of the element and cuts it from the original locus. The protein-DNA complex then ... Two comprehensive reviews of Tn10 biology are available as chapters in the book Mobile DNA and Mobile DNA II. Bender J, ...
... an insertion sequence element, or an IS element) is a short DNA sequence that acts as a simple transposable element. Insertion ... certain eukaryotic DNA sequences belonging to the family of Tc1/mariner transposable elements may be considered to be, ... sequences have two major characteristics: they are small relative to other transposable elements (generally around 700 to 2500 ... Mobile genetic elements Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael (1998-09-01). "Insertion Sequences". Microbiology and Molecular ...
However, using transposable element can bring more advantages. Transposable elements were first discovered by Barbara ... DNA sequencing How to determine the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule. DDBJ-GSS MEGA- and GIGA preps of cosmid-, BAC-, PAC, ... The size of transposable element is between 750 and 40000bp. Transposable element can be mainly classified as two classes: One ... Genome survey sequencing is a new way to map the genome sequences since it is not dependent on mRNA. Current genome sequencing ...
Transposons (also called transposable elements) are DNA sequences that can move locations within a genome, which includes ... Plasmids of bacteria are a transferable genetic element through bacterial conjugation. This is a mechanism of horizontal gene ... Then, the DNA sequence can be inserted back to a random location of the genome. DNA transposons are a DNA segment that can move ... Transposition by transposable elements is mutagenic. Thus, organisms have evolved to repress the transposition events, and ...
They are replicated as any other DNA sequence, but depend on LINE retrotransposons for generation of new elements. Alu elements ... and provided the definitive link between transposable elements (active elements) and interspersed repetitive DNA (mutated ... Alu elements are retrotransposons and look like DNA copies made from RNA polymerase III-encoded RNAs. Alu elements do not ... Kidwell, Margaret G; Lisch, Damon R (2001). "Perspective: Transposable Elements, Parasitic Dna, and Genome Evolution". ...
The transposable P elements, also known as transposons, are segments of bacterial DNA that are translocated into the genome, ... Additionally, P elements often consist of two plasmid components, one known as the P element transposase and the other, the P ... In its most precise usage, the term transgene describes a segment of DNA containing a gene sequence that has been isolated from ... P elements are administered in pairs of two, which flank the DNA insertion region of interest. ...
One type of autonomous element can give rise to one or more MITE families. Based on their relations in sequences of TIRs with ... "Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) and their relationship with established DNA transposons." In Mobile DNA ... Miniature Inverted-repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) are a group of non-autonomous Class II transposable elements. Being non ... Lu, C; Chen, J; Zhang, Y; Hu, Q; Su, W; Kuang, H (2013-03-25). "Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Elements (MITEs) Have ...
interspersed nuclear elements) Transposable elements DNA transposons retrotransposons LTR-retrotransposons (HERVs) non LTR- ... "Selfish dna." (1980): 645-646. McClintock B.Controlling element and the gene. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 1956;21:197- ... Repeated sequences (also known as repetitive elements, or repeats) are patterns of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that occur in ... with over two-thirds of the sequence consisting of repetitive elements in humans. Repetitive elements found in genomes fall ...
There are three major classes of transposable elements, distinguished by the mechanisms by which they proliferate. DNA ... Integrase, an enzyme encoded by the LTR retrotransposon, then reincorporates the element at a new target site. These elements ... A conserved non-coding sequence (CNS) is a DNA sequence of noncoding DNA that is evolutionarily conserved. These sequences are ... since closer relatives have sequence conservation among nonfunctional elements as well. Orthologues with high sequence ...
Insertions add one or more extra nucleotides into the DNA. They are usually caused by transposable elements, or errors during ... Molecular sequence analysis: With rapid development of DNA sequencing technology, an enormous amount of DNA sequence data is ... Insertions can be reversed by excision of the transposable element.. *Deletions remove one or more nucleotides from the DNA. ... Various methods have been developed to infer the DFE from DNA sequence data.[81][82][83][84] By examining DNA sequence ...
The most common transposable element in the human genome is the Alu sequence, which is present in the genome over one million ... Transposable elements are regions of DNA that can be inserted into the genetic code through one of two mechanisms. These ... Genome sequencing has progressed over time to include more and more complex genomes including the eventual sequencing of the ... International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (Oct 21, 2004). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome". ...
... have much sequence heterogeneity, both in length and content. They also include a class of DNA elements that do not transpose ... The Ac/Ds transposable element system was the first transposable element system recognized in maize.The Ac Activator element is ... The Ac/Ds transposable elements were first isolated and sequenced By Federoff et al. 1983 using insertions of Ac and Ds into ... The phenotypic consequence of Ac/Ds transposable element includes mosaic colors in kernels and leaves in maize. Its discovery ...
... is an enzyme that binds to the end of a transposon and catalyzes the movement of the transposon to another part of the genome by a cut and paste mechanism or a replicative transposition mechanism. The word "transposase" was first coined by the individuals who cloned the enzyme required for transposition of the Tn3 transposon. The existence of transposons was postulated in the late 1940s by Barbara McClintock, who was studying the inheritance of maize, but the actual molecular basis for transposition was described by later groups. McClintock discovered that pieces of the chromosomes changed their position, jumping from one chromosome to another. The repositioning of these transposons (which coded for color) allowed other genes for pigment to be expressed. Transposition in maize causes changes in color; however, in other organisms, such as bacteria, it can cause antibiotic resistance. Transposition is also important in creating genetic diversity within species and adaptability to ...
The Tn3 transposon is a 4957 base pair mobile genetic element, found in prokaryotes. It encodes three proteins: β-lactamase, an enzyme that confers resistance to β-lactam antibiotics (and is encoded by the gene Bla). Tn3 transposase (encoded by gene tnpA) Tn3 resolvase (encoded by gene tnpR) Initially discovered as a repressor of transposase, resolvase also plays a role in facilitating Tn3 replication (Sherratt 1989). The transposon is flanked by a pair of 38bp inverted repeats. This first stage is catalysed by transposase. The plasmid containing the transposon (the donor plasmid) fuses with a host plasmid (the target plasmid). In the process, the transposon and a short section of host DNA are replicated. The end product is a 'cointegrate' plasmid containing two copies of the transposon. Shapiro (1978) proposed the following mechanism for this process: Four single-strand cleavages occur - one on each strand of the donor plasmid and one on each strand of the target plasmid. ...
... s are repetitive DNA fragments which are inserted into chromosomes after they had been reverse transcribed from any RNA molecule. In contrast to retrotransposons, they never encode reverse transcriptase (RT) (but see below). Therefore, they are non-autonomous elements with regard to transposition activity (as opposed to transposons). Non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons such as the human LINE1 elements are sometimes falsely referred to as retroposons. However, this depends on the author. For example, Howard Temin published the following definition: Retroposons encode RT but are devoid of long terminal repeats (LTRs), for example Long interspersed elements (LINEs). Retrotransposons also feature LTRs and retroviruses, in addition, are packaged as viral particles (virions). Retrosequences are non-autonomous elements devoid of RT. They are retroposed with the aid of the machinery of autonomous ...
... (Inverse PCR) is a variant of the polymerase chain reaction that is used to amplify DNA with only one known sequence. One limitation of conventional PCR is that it requires primers complementary to both termini of the target DNA, but this method allows PCR to be carried out even if only one sequence is available from which primers may be designed. Inverse PCR is especially useful for the determination of insert locations. For example, various retroviruses and transposons randomly integrate into genomic DNA. To identify the sites where they have entered, the known, "internal" viral or transposon sequences can be used to design primers that will amplify a small portion of the flanking, "external" genomic DNA. The amplified product can then be sequenced and compared with DNA databases to locate the sequence which has been disrupted. The inverse PCR method involves a series of restriction digests and ...
Of the elements that represent a single stimulus at a given moment, some may be in state A1, some in state A2, and some in state I. When a stimulus first appears, some of its elements jump from inactivity I to primary activity A1. From the A1 state they gradually decay to A2, and finally back to I. Element activity can only change in this way; in particular, elements in A2 cannot go directly back to A1. If the elements of both the CS and the US are in the A1 state at the same time, an association is learned between the two stimuli. This means that if, at a later time, the CS is presented ahead of the US, and some CS elements enter A1, these elements will activate some US elements. However, US elements activated indirectly in this way only get boosted to the A2 state. (This can be thought of the CS arousing a memory of the US, which will not be as strong as ...
Of the elements that represent a single stimulus at a given moment, some may be in state A1, some in state A2, and some in state I. When a stimulus first appears, some of its elements jump from inactivity I to primary activity A1. From the A1 state they gradually decay to A2, and finally back to I. Element activity can only change in this way; in particular, elements in A2 cannot go directly back to A1. If the elements of both the CS and the US are in the A1 state at the same time, an association is learned between the two stimuli. This means that if, at a later time, the CS is presented ahead of the US, and some CS elements enter A1, these elements will activate some US elements. However, US elements activated indirectly in this way only get boosted to the A2 state. (This can be thought of the CS arousing a memory of the US, which will not be as strong as ...
Of the elements that represent a single stimulus at a given moment, some may be in state A1, some in state A2, and some in state I. When a stimulus first appears, some of its elements jump from inactivity I to primary activity A1. From the A1 state they gradually decay to A2, and finally back to I. Element activity can only change in this way; in particular, elements in A2 cannot go directly back to A1. If the elements of both the CS and the US are in the A1 state at the same time, an association is learned between the two stimuli. This means that if, at a later time, the CS is presented ahead of the US, and some CS elements enter A1, these elements will activate some US elements. However, US elements activated indirectly in this way only get boosted to the A2 state. (This can be thought of the CS arousing a memory of the US, which will not be as strong as ...
The total of all mobile genetic elements in a genome may be referred to as the mobilome. Barbara McClintock was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements".[1]. ...
... s were initially discovered on conjugative plasmids through their role in antibiotic resistance.[2] Indeed, these mobile integrons, as they are now known, can carry a variety of cassettes containing genes that are almost exclusively related to antibiotic resistance. Further studies have come to the conclusion that integrons are chromosomal elements, and that their mobilisation onto plasmids has been fostered by transposons and selected by the intensive use of antibiotics. The function of the majority of cassettes found in chromosomal integrons remains unknown. ...
Every transuranium element is a chemical element with an atomic number greater than the atomic number of Uranium. These elements have atomic numbers greater than 92. The word "transuranium" is made of two parts. The Greek prefix trans- means "beyond" or "across". The second part of the word is the name of the element "uranium". Many transuranium elements are unstable and are not found in nature. An element that is unstable will split into two or more other elements. The process of fission occurs when an element splits into pieces. ...
The suffix -ium overrides traditional chemical suffix rules; thus elements 117 and 118 were ununseptium and ununoctium, not ununseptine and ununocton.[2] This does not apply to the final trivial names these elements receive once confirmed; thus element 117 and 118 are now tennessine and oganesson. For these trivial names, all elements receive the suffix -ium, except those in group 17 which receive -ine (like the halogens) and those in group 18 which receive -on (like the noble gases). The systematic symbol is formed by taking the first letter of each root, converting the first to a capital. This results in three-letter symbols instead of the one- or two-letter symbols used for named elements. As of 2016[update], all 118 discovered elements have received individual permanent names and symbols,[3] so currently, systematic names and symbols are only used for the undiscovered elements beyond ...
Kisík je kemijski element s simbolom O in atomskim številom 8. V periodnem sistemu elementov spada med halkogene elemente. Je zelo reaktivna nekovina in oksidant, ki se zlahka spaja z večino elementov in z njimi tvori okside.[3] V Vesolju je za vodikom in helijem po masi tretji najpogostejši element.[4] Pri standardni temperaturi in tlaku (STP) sta dva atoma kisika vezana v dikisik O2, ki je brezbarven plin brez vonja in okusa. Veliko glavnih razredov organskih spojin v živih organizmih, na primer proteini, nukleinske kisline, ogljikovi hidrati in maščobe, vsebujejo tudi kisik. Prisoten je tudi v anorganskih delih organizmov, na primer v lupinah školjk in polžev ter v kosteh in zobeh. Večino mase živih organizmov sestavlja voda, v kateri sta vezana kisik in vodik (voda tvori približno dve tretjini človekove telesne mase). Kisik iz ozračja in vode je potreben za dihanje in ohranitev skoraj vsega življenja na Zemlji. ...
Téks ditangtayungan ku Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; katangtuan tambahan lianna bisa dilarapkeun ogé. Baca Katangtuan Pamakéan pikeun leuwih lengkep ...
The terminal inverted repeats are 80% AT-rich, are 96.6% identical, and define a larger family of repetitive elements. Southern ... A dispersed family of repetitive DNA sequences exhibits characteristics of a transposable element in the genus Lycopersicon.. R ... A dispersed family of repetitive DNA sequences exhibits characteristics of a transposable element in the genus Lycopersicon.. R ... A dispersed family of repetitive DNA sequences exhibits characteristics of a transposable element in the genus Lycopersicon.. R ...
One class of sequence elements that is enriched in lncRNA is represented by transposable elements (TEs), repetitive mobile ... Keywords: evolution; functional domain; genome; lncRNA; long noncoding RNA; repeat element; transposable element; transposon. ... DNA-, and protein-binding domains. We propose that these reflect a more general phenomenon of exaptation during lncRNA ... The RIDL hypothesis: transposable elements as functional domains of long noncoding RNAs RNA. 2014 Jul;20(7):959-76. doi: ...
1988 Molecular study of the retrovirus-like transposable element 412, a 20-OH ecdysone responsive repetitive sequence in ... 1985 Extrachromosomal DNA forms of copia-like transposable elements, F elements and middle repetitive DNA sequences in ... 1982; Engel 1988). P elements were later shown to be DNA transposons (TEs that transpose via a DNA intermediary) and I elements ... sequences derived from TEs, but no longer recognizable as TEs and that appear as "unique" DNA sequences), non-TE sequences ...
These events create ragged transitions between unique and repetitive sequences in the zone between euchromatic and beta … ... restructuring of the genomic landscape by transposition and duplication has recently added hundreds of kilobases of TE sequence ... Base Sequence * Centromere / genetics * Chromosomes / genetics * DNA Transposable Elements / genetics* * Drosophila ... Recurrent insertion and duplication generate networks of transposable element sequences in the Drosophila melanogaster genome ...
Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that colonize every genome and have a great impact on the genome evolution and ... the P element (37), the hobo element (38), and the I element (39). It has also been shown experimentally that D. melanogasters ... Transposable elements (TEs) are repeated DNA sequences that can constitute a substantial part of genomes. Studying TEs ... 1997) Testing transposable elements as genetic drive mechanisms using Drosophila P elements constructs as a model system. ...
... sequences predominated. At the chromosomal level, different TE clones demonstrated sequence-specific patterning, emphasizing ... Individual genotypes were analyzed cytogenetically using the cloned TE fragments as the DNA probes for fluorescence in situ ... Altogether, the obtained data highlight the current species-specific organization and patterning of the mobile element fraction ... transposable elements (TEs)-is a prevailing genomic fraction in cereals that underlies extensive genome reshuffling and ...
DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac ... and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found ... Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been ... DNA; Insertion Sequence Element; Sequence Element, Insertion; Tn Element; Transposable Element, DNA; Transposable Elements, DNA ...
Base Sequence. Color. Cryptochromes. DNA Transposable Elements / physiology. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*. Flavoproteins ... 1989;The ocs-element is a component of the promoters of several T-DNA and plant viral genes.Embo J 8:4197-4204. [pmid: 2591372] ... 0/Arabidopsis Proteins; 0/CRY1 protein, Arabidopsis; 0/Cryptochromes; 0/DNA Transposable Elements; 0/DNA-Binding Proteins; 0/ ... Genomic regions flanking the T-DNA insertions in the hfr1-23 mutants were isolated by PCR [42]. All primer sequences are shown ...
Plant Transposable Elements von - Englische E-Books aus der Kategorie Biologie günstig bei exlibris.ch kaufen & sofort ... junk DNA.. Klappentext. Transposable elements are DNA sequences with the capacity to move within a genome. Although their ... How to classify transposable elements.- Transposable element annotation in completely sequenced eukaryote genomes.- Using ... Transposable elements are short lengths of DNA with the capacity to move between different points within a genome. This process ...
A genome of 534 Mb was assembled from long read PacBio DNA sequencing of DNA from a highly inbred strain. Analysis of molecular ... The C. hominivorax genome was searched for repetitive DNA sequences including transposable elements. Repetitive sequences were ... RepeatModeler2 for automated genomic discovery of transposable element families. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA https://doi.org/ ... Of the transposable elements, the most abundant were DNA elements (6.9% of the genome) and LINEs (2.3% genome; Supplementary ...
... in all sequence contexts [8]. Considering that DNA demethylation or hypermethylation of transposable element sequences is ... The prevalence of transposable elements and their inherent sequence similarity makes them a prime target for illegitimate and ... The bias of methylation toward repetitive DNA suggests that silencing of transposable elements is one of the primary roles of ... F. Sabot, R. Guyot, T. Wicker et al., "Updating of transposable element annotations from large wheat genomic sequences reveals ...
Publications] S. Takahashi: Capturing of a genomic HMG domain sequence by an En/Spm related transposable element Tpnl in the ... The major DNA-based controlling transposable elements in higher plants can be classified into three groups : the Ac/Ds (or hAT ... Publications] S.Takahashi: Capturing of a genomic HMG domain sequence by an En/Spm related transposable element Tpnl in the ... Transposition and gene regulation of DNA transposable elements in plants. Research Project ...
Amino acid sequence of a putative transposase protein of the medaka fish transposable element Tol2 deduced from mRNA nucleotide ... DNA-based transposable elements. Four major classes of transposable elements are known: viral family retrotransposons, long ... DNA-based transposable elements appear to have been nearly or completely inactivated in vertebrates. Therefore the elements of ... interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) and DNA-based transposable elements. The ...
This ability can be harmful for hosts if transposable elements destroy functioning genes, but it can also bring advantages. ... From an evolutionary point of view, transposable elements diversify the genome and open up chances for adaptation. ... Transposable elements are DNA sequences that are capable of changing their genome position by cut and paste or copy and paste ... Transposable elements are DNA sequences that are capable of changing their genome position by cut and paste or copy and paste ...
A transposable element (TE or transposon) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or ... Transposable elements make up a large fraction of the genome and are responsible for much of the mass of DNA in a eukaryotic ... The most common transposable element in humans is the Alu sequence. It is approximately 300 bases long and can be found between ... When the transposable elements lack additional genes, they are known as insertion sequences. ...
One form of hemophilia is due to the insertion of a transposable genetic element. (DNA sequence that can be copied and moved in ... see also Blotting; Disease, Genetics of; Genetic Counseling; Inheritance Patterns; Mutation; Transposable Genetic Elements; X ... Using DNA testing (direct analysis of the genes), it is possible to determine whether a woman is a "carrier" of the hemophilia ... Linkage analysis using DNA polymorphisms to track defective FVIII or FIX genes is possible in large families. Use of intragenic ...
The highly repetitive DNA fraction of the eukaryotic genome is considered a mobile, rapidly changing entity, thus reflecting ... It consists of several large classes in which transposable elements and satellite DNA (satDNA) predominate. Despite a growing ... one element spans the functional centromeres. Each of the investigated diploids possessed a species-specific assortment of ... Benson G (1999) Tandem repeats finder: a program to analyze DNA sequences. Nucl Acids Res 27:573-580CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ...
Chromothripsis is a mutational event driven by tens to hundreds of double-stranded DNA breaks which occur in a single event ... Ewing AD (2015) Transposable element detection from whole genome sequence data. BMC Mobile DNA 6:24. https://doi.org/10.1186/ ... Burns KH (2017) Transposable elements in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 17:415-424. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrc.2017.35 CrossRefPubMed ... Mathias SL, Scott AF, Kazazian HH et al (1991) Reverse transcriptase encoded by a human transposable element. Science 254:1808- ...
Sequence Analysis.. DNA sequence data was compiled by using gcg software. Short sequence repeats were identified by the ... The Cs1 element is bordered by a 20-bp perfect TIR sequence that contains conserved 5′-CACTA-3′ ends. Most other CACTA elements ... Sequence analysis of Candystripe1 reveals several features that are conserved among transposable elements of the En/Spm family ... 2A). However, because no landmarks of a transposable element were identified in this sequence, we further isolated the 3′ end ...
Transposable elements (TEs) are repeated DNA sequences that make up of a significant proportion of plant genomes27. They are ... 1a). The most abundant type of TEs in the W05 genome is the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon element class, ... The DNA was then sheared to ~350 bp and sequencing libraries were constructed using NEBNext® Ultra™ DNA Library Prep Kit ( ... search Cent91/92 sequences against the genome sequence17. Primer sequences of soybean genetic map were downloaded from SoyBase ...
DNA Transposable Elements (Structure) -2 key features. -inverted repeat sequences at terminal ends of element. -gene that ... structurally similar to DNA transposons: the ends of the element contain repeated DNA sequences and the body of the element ... transposable elements insert themselves randomly in the genome. -if an element drops into and disrupts a coding sequence (exon ... determined sequence of P-element -molecular methods could be employed to determine the location of the P-element in the genome ...
Transposable elements are DNA sequences that move from one place to another within a genome. The availability of complete ... To this end we are using two transposable elements from Drosophila, the I factor, an element related to the LINE 1 elements ... We have studied several aspects of the molecular biology of transposable elements and are particularly interested in how they ... genome sequences has revealed the significant role that these elements play in genome evolution, organization and stability. ...
Repetitive Sequences. Sequences for DNA transposable elements were downloaded from GenBank (Ac, AF355378.1; MuDR, M76978.1; and ... The DNA transposable elements Activator (Ac), Suppressor-mutator (Spm), Mutator (Mu), and a representative mutator-like element ... NOL plots for notable repeat elements in the maize genome. Three classes of elements are shown: DNA transposable elements, ... NOL plots for some of the most common DNA transposable elements and retroelements using exemplar or published sequences, as ...
We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the ... assess how repetitive elements in the sunflower genome are organized relative to genes, and compare the genomic distribution of ... Here we report on the sequencing, assembly, and analyses of 96 randomly chosen BACs from sunflower to provide additional ... transposable elements; Class I LTR-retrotransposons; Class II DNA transposons; transcriptome; expressed sequence tags; ...
Nucleotide sequence of the transposable DNA-element IS2. Nucleic Acids Res. 6:1111-1122. ... DNA sequence changes in mutations in the tonB gene on the chromosome of Escherichia coli K12: insertion elements dominate the ... Insertion sequences are transposable elements (typically 700 to 2,000 bp) present in many bacterial chromosomes and plasmids ( ... Sequencing of SPC35 genomic DNA and genome analysis.Extraction of phage DNA was carried out using proteinase K and SDS as ...
  • The advantages of this host species and their elements, together with results so far obtained, are here described. (bioone.org)
  • The P-element was discovered twice in a new species within one hundred years. (phys.org)
  • Therefore we can assume that transposable elements are transferred across the species faster than we thought. (phys.org)
  • Although variegation mutants have been described in at least 35 plant species ( 3 ), active transposable elements have been isolated from only a minority of these plants. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we applied satDNA repeatome elements derived from NGS data as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization to characterize the karyotypes of three diploid hawkweed species of the predominantly polyploid apomictic genus Hieracium , namely H. intybaceum , H. prenanthoides and H. alpinum . (springer.com)
  • The chromosomal location of the mobile elements Rex3 and Rex6 in C. macropomum , P. mesopotamicus , and in the hybrid between these species enabled knowledge expansion and the generation of data on such mobile elements. (science.gov)
  • The amount of noncoding DNA varies greatly among species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarity sequence searches and PCR analyses show that this retrotransposon with LTRs (Long Terminal Repeats) is widely distributed among the Rubiaceae family and that it is also present in other distantly related species belonging to Asterids, Rosids and monocots. (deepdyve.com)
  • A particular situation is the high sequence identity found between the Copia25 sequences of Musa, a monocot, and Ixora, a dicot species (Rubiaceae). (deepdyve.com)
  • Bennetzen and Ma, 2003 ), this fundamental assumption remained unchallenged until recently, as few extensive comparisons of DNA sequences outside of transcribed regions have been performed among individuals of the same species. (plantcell.org)
  • The genome of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), one of the most important crop species, has also undergone massive TE amplification with more than 85% of it being derived from such repeat elements. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Look forward to the posts, particularly the ones that will categorically demonstrate that loss of X% of our "junk" DNA will not effect us as a species (this to me suggest a generational element not included in the "if we deleted 75% of the crap it would not cause a phenotype in the individual" approach). (blogspot.com)
  • At the chromosomal level, different TE clones demonstrated sequence-specific patterning, emphasizing the effect of the TE fraction on the Ae . (hindawi.com)
  • In the wild, ongoing chromosomal rearrangements lead to considerable changes in the numbers, sizes, and positions of highly repetitive DNA clusters and underlie the divergence of natural populations [ 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Other functions of noncoding DNA include the transcriptional and translational regulation of protein-coding sequences, scaffold attachment regions, origins of DNA replication, centromeres and telomeres. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA topoisomerase is an enzyme that releases the torsional stress in DNA generated during DNA replication or transcription. (prolekare.cz)
  • Their propensity to form unusual quadruplex-like, slipped-stranded structures and imperfect hairpins results in an elevated level of DNA replication and repair errors that can lead to STR contractions or expansions [ 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Morrish TA, Gilbert N, Myers JS et al (2002) DNA repair mediated by endonuclease-independent LINE-1 retrotransposition. (springer.com)
  • Transposable elements are also called selfish DNA parasites because they spread through their hosts, such as humans, animals, plants as well as bacteria and, thus, provide for their own survival.Robert Kofler from the Institute of Population Genetics at the Vetmeduni Vienna analysed flies from all over the world. (phys.org)
  • We have previously reported whole-genome sequencing data for wild and cultivated soybeans, and demonstrated the high genome diversity in wild soybean populations compared with cultivated soybean 9 . (nature.com)
  • State-of-the-art whole-genome sequencing technologies were used to assemble a high-quality reference genome for wild soybean accession W05 with long contigs and high sequence fidelity. (nature.com)
  • Individual genotypes were analyzed cytogenetically using the cloned TE fragments as the DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). (hindawi.com)
  • A significant number of clones consisted of intercalated fragments of TEs of various types, in which Fatima (Ty3- gypsy ) sequences predominated. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, the impact of transposable elements on plant genome structure and function is reviewed in detail, and also illustrated in examples and case studies. (exlibris.ch)
  • Intensive investigations of various polyploid systems revealed that allopolyploidization event is associated with widespread changes in genome structure, methylation, and expression involving low- and high-copy, coding and noncoding sequences. (hindawi.com)
  • The distribution of nucleosomes is controlled by a combination of factors including chromatin regulatory complexes and features intrinsic to the DNA sequence. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Or could it also include regions of DNA that serve as a scaffold for the assembly of critical regions of chromatin structure? (blogspot.com)
  • Publications] N.Ishikawa: 'The transposable element Tip 100 found at the mutable flaked allele for flower variegation of the common morning glory. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Although scientists found the P-element in D. simulans flies from South Africa as well as from the USA, they assume that there was only one single transfer event. (phys.org)
  • In this study, we found that treatment of plants with camptothecin, a TOP1α inhibitor, or loss of function in TOP1α, led to the de-repression of RdDM target loci, which was accompanied by loss of H3K9me2 or DNA methylation. (prolekare.cz)
  • We also examine the expression of transposable element-related transcripts in EST databases for sunflower to determine the representation of repeats in the transcriptome and to measure their transcriptional activity. (mdpi.com)