Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the N-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A subtype of dynamin found expressed exclusively in the testis, lung and brain.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the C-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the C-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC and EC
A family of MARVEL domain-containing proteolipid proteins involved in vesicular trafficking cycling between the GOLGI COMPLEX and the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.

Exosome: from internal vesicle of the multivesicular body to intercellular signaling device. (1/1021)

Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that are secreted by a multitude of cell types as a consequence of fusion of multivesicular late endosomes/lysosomes with the plasma membrane. Depending on their origin, exosomes can play roles in different physiological processes. Maturing reticulocytes externalize obsolete membrane proteins such as the transferrin receptor by means of exosomes, whereas activated platelets release exosomes whose function is not yet known. Exosomes are also secreted by cytotoxic T cells, and these might ensure specific and efficient targeting of cytolytic substances to target cells. Antigen presenting cells, such as B lymphocytes and dendritic cells, secrete MHC class-I- and class-II-carrying exosomes that stimulate T cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, dendritic-cell-derived exosomes, when used as a cell-free vaccine, can eradicate established murine tumors. Although the precise physiological target(s) and functions of exosomes remain largely to be resolved, follicular dendritic cells (accessory cells in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs) have recently been shown to bind B-lymphocyte-derived exosomes at their cell surface, which supports the notion that exosomes play an immunoregulatory role. Finally, since exosomes are derived from multivesicular bodies, their molecular composition might provide clues to the mechanism of protein and lipid sorting in endosomes.  (+info)

Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on in vitro final oocyte maturation and ovarian steroidogenesis in striped bass, Morone saxatilis. (2/1021)

Recombinant human (rh) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was more potent than rhIGF-II at inducing in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), a marker for resumption of meiosis, in oocytes of striped bass. Treatment of ovarian fragments containing oocytes in intact follicles with rhIGF-I increased concentrations of estradiol-17beta and maturation-inducing steroid (MIS) 17,20beta, 21-trihydoxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S) in the culture medium and decreased testosterone levels. The follicles were too immature for oocytes to complete GVBD in response to 20beta-S (MIS incompetent) or hCG. Addition of 20beta-S to cultures did not increase the percentage of oocytes completing GVBD in response to rhIGF-I or rhIGF-II. Bovine insulin was without effect on GVBD or steroid production. Incubation of MIS-competent follicles with actinomycin D, cyanoketone, trilostane, 1-heptanol, or 1-octanol had no effect on rhIGF-I-induced GVBD, but attenuated hCG-induced GVBD and 20beta-S production. Cycloheximide inhibited rhIGF-I-induced GVBD. Collectively, these observations indicate that IGF-I can induce GVBD via MIS- and transcription-independent pathways without coupled gap junctions between oocytes and granulosa cells or among granulosa cells, but requires protein synthesis to do so. An rhIGF-I analogue that does not bind IGF-binding proteins, des(1,3)IGF-I, was more potent than rhIGF-I in inducing GVBD, suggesting ovarian IGF-binding proteins may inhibit IGF-I action.  (+info)

Microtubule and motor-dependent endocytic vesicle sorting in vitro. (3/1021)

Endocytic vesicles undergo fission to sort ligand from receptor. Using quantitative immunofluorescence and video imaging, we provide the first in vitro reconstitution of receptor-ligand sorting in early endocytic vesicles derived from rat liver. We show that to undergo fission, presegregation vesicles must bind to microtubules (MTs) and move upon addition of ATP. Over 13% of motile vesicles elongate and are capable of fission. After fission, one vesicle continues to move, whereas the other remains stationary, resulting in their separation. On average, almost 90% receptor is found in one daughter vesicle, whereas ligand is enriched by approximately 300% with respect to receptor in the other daughter vesicle. Although studies performed on polarity marked MTs showed approximately equal plus and minus end-directed motility, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that kinesins, but not dynein, were associated with these vesicles. Motility and fission were prevented by addition of 1 mM 5'-adenylylimido-diphosphate (AMP-PNP, an inhibitor of kinesins) or incubation with kinesin antibodies, but were unaffected by addition of 5 microM vanadate (a dynein inhibitor) or dynein antibodies. These studies indicate an essential role of kinesin-based MT motility in endocytic vesicle sorting, providing a system in which factors required for endocytic vesicle processing can be identified and characterized.  (+info)

TRAPP stimulates guanine nucleotide exchange on Ypt1p. (4/1021)

TRAPP, a novel complex that resides on early Golgi, mediates the targeting of ER-to-Golgi vesicles to the Golgi apparatus. Previous studies have shown that YPT1, which encodes the small GTP-binding protein that regulates membrane traffic at this stage of the secretory pathway, interacts genetically with BET3 and BET5. Bet3p and Bet5p are 2 of the 10 identified subunits of TRAPP. Here we show that TRAPP preferentially binds to the nucleotide-free form of Ypt1p. Mutants with defects in several TRAPP subunits are temperature-sensitive in their ability to displace GDP from Ypt1p. Furthermore, the purified TRAPP complex accelerates nucleotide exchange on Ypt1p. Our findings imply that Ypt1p, which is present on ER-to-Golgi transport vesicles, is activated at the Golgi once it interacts with TRAPP.  (+info)

Ordering the final events in yeast exocytosis. (5/1021)

In yeast, assembly of exocytic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes between the secretory vesicle SNARE Sncp and the plasma membrane SNAREs Ssop and Sec9p occurs at a late stage of the exocytic reaction. Mutations that block either secretory vesicle delivery or tethering prevent SNARE complex assembly and the localization of Sec1p, a SNARE complex binding protein, to sites of secretion. By contrast, wild-type levels of SNARE complexes persist in the sec1-1 mutant after a secretory block is imposed, suggesting a role for Sec1p after SNARE complex assembly. In the sec18-1 mutant, cis-SNARE complexes containing surface-accessible Sncp accumulate in the plasma membrane. Thus, one function of Sec18p is to disassemble SNARE complexes on the postfusion membrane.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor receptor distribution during chemotactic responses. (6/1021)

To determine the distribution of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cells responding to EGF as a chemoattractant, an EGFR-green fluorescent protein chimera was expressed in the MTLn3 mammary carcinoma cell line. The chimera was functional and easily visualized on the cell surface. In contrast to other studies indicating that the EGFR might be localized to certain regions of the plasma membrane, we found that the chimera is homogeneously distributed on the plasma membrane and becomes most concentrated in vesicles after endocytosis. In spatial gradients of EGF, endocytosed receptor accumulates on the upgradient side of the cell. Visualization of the binding of fluorescent EGF to cells reveals that the affinity properties of the receptor, together with its expression level on cells, can provide an initial amplification step in spatial gradient sensing.  (+info)

Permeability and channel-mediated transport of boric acid across membrane vesicles isolated from squash roots. (7/1021)

Boron is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and the boron content of plants differs greatly, but the mechanism(s) of its uptake into cells is not known. Boron is present in the soil solution as boric acid and it is in this form that it enters the roots. We determined the boron permeability coefficient of purified plasma membrane vesicles obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo) roots and found it to be 3 x 10(-7) +/-1.4 x 10(-8) cm s(-1), six times higher than the permeability of microsomal vesicles. Boric acid permeation of the plasma membrane vesicles was partially inhibited (30%-39%) by mercuric chloride and phloretin, a non-specific channel blocker. The inhibition by mercuric chloride was readily reversible by 2-mercaptoethanol. The energy of activation for boron transport into the plasma membrane vesicles was 10.2 kcal mol(-1). Together these data indicate that boron enters plant cells in part by passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and in part through proteinaceous channels. Expression of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) PIP1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a 30% increase in the boron permeability of the oocytes. Other MIPs tested (PIP3, MLM1, and GlpF) did not have this effect. We postulate that certain MIPs, like those that have recently been shown to transport small neutral solutes, may also be the channels through which boron enters plant cells.  (+info)

The Arabidopsis KNOLLE and KEULE genes interact to promote vesicle fusion during cytokinesis. (8/1021)

Partitioning of the cytoplasm during cytokinesis or cellularisation requires syntaxin-mediated membrane fusion [1-3]. Whereas in animals, membrane fusion promotes ingression of a cleavage furrow from the plasma membrane [4,5], somatic cells of higher plants form de novo a transient membrane compartment, the cell plate, which is initiated in the centre of the division plane and matures into a new cell wall and its flanking plasma membranes [6,7]. Cell plate formation results from the fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles delivered by a dynamic cytoskeletal array, the phragmoplast. Mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, KNOLLE (KN) and KEULE (KEU), cause abnormal seedlings with multinucleate cells and incomplete cell walls [1,8]. The KN gene encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin which localises to the cell plate [9]. Here, we show that KN protein localisation is unaffected in keu mutant cells, which, like kn, display phragmoplast microtubules and accumulate ADL1 protein in the plane of cell division but vesicles fail to fuse with one another. Genetic interactions between KN and KEU were analysed in double mutant embryos. Whereas the haploid gametophytes gave rise to functional gametes, the embryos behaved like single cells displaying multiple, synchronously cycling nuclei, cell cycle-dependent microtubule arrays and ADL1 accumulation between pairs of daughter nuclei. This complete inhibition of cytokinesis from fertilisation indicates that KN and KEU, have partially redundant functions and interact specifically in vesicle fusion during cytokinesis of somatic cells.  (+info)

Abstract Super-resolution STED microcopy provides optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution can be increased laterally (xy/2D) or axially (z/3D). 2D STED has been extensively used to elucidate the nanoscale membrane structure and dynamics, via imaging or combined with spectroscopy techniques such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and spectral imaging. On the contrary, z-STED has not been used in this context. Here, we show that a combination of z-STED with FCS or spectral imaging enables us to see previously unobservable aspects of cellular membranes. We show that thanks to an axial resolution of approximately 100 nm, z-STED can be used to distinguish axially close-by membranes, early endocytic vesicles or tubular membrane structures. Combination of z-STED with FCS and spectral imaging showed diffusion dynamics and lipid organization in these structures, respectively.
Drug developer vTv Therapeutics is moving forward with its plans for a public stock offering to support late-stage clinical development of its Alzheimers
Efficient and accurate protein secretion is a fundamental process that plays a pivotal role in the ability of al eukaryotic cells to function, grw and communica...
DB-ID: Database ID of variant, grouping multiple observations of the same variant together, starting with the HGNC gene symbol, followed by an underscore (_) and a six digit number (e.g. DMD_012345). _000000 is used for variants where DNA was not analysed (change predicted from RNA analysis), variants seen in animal models or variants not seen in humans but functionally tested in vitro ...
05 Mar 2020 vTv Therapeutics has potential to be strong player in up-and-coming oral drug market for type 1 diabetics Posted in Pharma vTv Therapeutics recently announced positive Phase 2 results for its oral antidiabetic drug, TTP-399, when used as an adjunct therapy to insulin in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. If the drug can show potential in allowing certain subsets of T1D patients
Golgi Dynamics. How can it happen that the resident proteins appear to remain in place while the transient proteins, destined for other sites in the cell, move through the organelle in a cis to trans direction?. Over the years a number of ideas have been put forth they fall into two general models.. 1. Vesicle Transport Model. This model assumes that the cisternae are essentially stationary and contain their resident proteins. The transient proteins are selected and concentrated in vesicles by the process of vesicle formation that is driven by coat proteins and their interaction with cargo receptor proteins as described in the last lecture. See vesicle formation animation for review of how this works.. These transport vesicles bud from the periphery of the Golgi cisterna as shown in the picture above, and then fuse with the appropriate target cisterna (trans to the point of origin) via the normal vesicle targeting process. In this manner a transient protein makes is way down the Golgi stack, cis ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Cells must be able to move molecules, digest particles, and secrete materials in order to survive. For many cellular functions, vesicles are used....
Page contains details about 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine vesicles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of membrane-enclosed vesicles, which play an important role in intercellular communication. Increasing number of studies have shown that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles might be involved in the transfer of oncogenic cargo (proteins, lipids, messenger RNA, microRNA, non-coding RNAs and DNA) through which cancer cells could shape the tumor microenvironment and influence tumor progression. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived extracellular vesicles have also reported to facilitate tumor proliferation, metastasis and immune escape. Moreover, nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived extracellular vesicles might serve as biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapeutic targets. The present review provides information on the biological and clinical significance of extracellular vesicles in tumors, especially in nasopharyngeal carcinoma ...
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are small membrane vesicles derived from multivesicular bodies or from the plasma membrane. Most, if not all, cell types release extracellular vesicles, which then enter the bodily fluids. These vesicles contain a subset of proteins, lipids and nucleic aci …
Learn Basics of Extracellular Vesicles from Калифорнийский университет в Ирвайне. This course aims to provide the basic knowledge about extracellular vesicles (EV) a generic term including exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, ...
Recent studies suggest that extracellular vesicles may be the key to timely diagnosis and monitoring of genito-urological malignancies. In this study researchers investigated the composition and content of extracellular vesicles found in the urine of healthy donors and prostate cancer patients. Urine of 14 PCa patients
Pulmonary stenosis (PS) is a congenital heart disease characterized by a dynamic or fixed anatomic obstruction of blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arterial vasculature. In the present study, extracellular vesicle long RNAs (EVLRs) from pregnant females who had healthy infants or PS infants were analyzed by RNA sequencing, and their diagnostic potential for PS during pregnancy was evaluated. A method for the selection of genes that could be considered as informative for the prediction PS based on extracellular vesicles (EVs) from pregnant females using long‑read RNA sequencing was developed. Blood samples were collected from females carrying fetuses with PS and females carrying unaffected fetuses (n=6 in each group). Physical characterization of EVs was performed using nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. EVLRs from plasma were profiled by RNA sequencing and mRNA co‑expression modules were constructed by weighted gene ...
The EasySep™ Human Extracellular Vesicle (CD63) Positive Selection Kit is designed to isolate CD63+ extracellular vesicles from biofluids in less than 30 minutes.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane vesicles released by cells. They carry active biomolecules including DNA, RNA, and protein which can be transferred to recipient cells. Isolation and purification of EVs from culture cell media and biofluids is still a major challenge. The most widely used isolation
View Notes - BIOS41_Lecture16_02222008 from BIOS 41 at Lehigh University. transport vesicles to their target membranes. 15_21_membr_fusion.jpg SNARE proteins play a central role in membrane fusion.
This article describes how extracellular vesicles are detected and the development of a robust and reproducible assay that overcomes previous limitations.
Hagiwara, K., Ochiya, T. and Kosaka, N. (2014) A Paradigm Shift for Extracellular Vesicles as Small RNA Carriers From Cellular Waste Elimination to Therapeutic Applications. Drug Delivery and Translational Research, 4, 31-37.
Evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) can play roles in physiology and pathology, providing impetus to explore their use as diagnostic and therapeutic targets
Viruses or extracellular vesicles were immunocaptured with 15 nm magnetic nanoparticles coupled to antibodies recognizing surface...
Osteikoetxea, X, et al. (2016) Extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular disease: are they Jedi or Sith?. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 2016 Jun 1; 594(11):2881-94. PM ID: ...
Researchers unravel the healing mechanisms of extracellular vesicles and demonstrate their healing power on a heart-on-a-chip - ScienceDaily - Apostz
Read The molecular characterization of transport vesicles, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
(2013) Hardij et al. Journal of Extracellular Vesicles. INTRODUCTION: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are shed from cells and carry markers of the parent cells. Vesicles derived from cancer cells reach the bloodstream and locally influence important physio...
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The compartmentalisation of mammalian cells allows the organisation of internal structures that have specific and distinct identity and function. Movement of components (proteins, lipids and solutes) between these structures is an ordered process, and occurs by the shuttling of membrane bound transport vesicles. Cargo is selectively incorporated into forming vesicles and targeted to their destination, where they fuse membranes with the acceptor compartment and deliver their cargo.. The machinery responsible for this targeted delivery needs to be returned to the original compartment to balance organelle homeostasis, and so these proteins are retrieved through a process of retrograde transport. Individual compartments are continually in a state of flux, and compartmental proteins and lipids are maintained through a balance of targeting, retention and retrieval. Components are continually moving between compartments, and it is the balance of traffic between them that defines the steady-state ...
The cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EV) which probably has its origins endosomal, or from evaginations of the plasma membrane. The former is usually called exosomes,. ...
Synaptic vesicle   In a neuron, synaptic vesicles, also called neurotransmitter vesicles, store the various neurotransmitters that are released during
GO:0006892. The directed movement of substances from the Golgi to other parts of the cell, including organelles and the plasma membrane, mediated by small transport vesicles. ...
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This Research Topic addresses the emerging role of extracellular vesicles in cellular communications and immune responses. We will emphasize their use as biomarkers (research tool to better understand extracellular vesicle functions) and immune modulators (therapeutic tool to suppress or enhance immune responses). Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are released in response to signals activating their parental cells. They are divided in two categories: small EVs (e.g. exosomes) and large EVs (e.g. microvesicles/ectosomes/microparticles). Small and large EVs differ in terms of size, release and budding mechanism, lipid and protein composition, and surface antigens. Research findings from the last decade suggest that EVs have an important, yet not completely understood, role in cell-cell communication. They can influence neighboring cells, act in an autocrine or paracrine manner, affect tumor growth, de novo-angiogenesis, and immunological functions. EVs are a novel and important tool to impact cell function and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myosin II is involved in the production of constitutive transport vesicles from the TGN. AU - Müsch, Anne. AU - Cohen, David. AU - Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique. PY - 1997/7/28. Y1 - 1997/7/28. N2 - The participation of nonmuscle myosins in the transport of organelles and vesicular carriers along actin filaments has been documented. In contrast, there is no evidence for the involvement of myosins in the production of vesicles involved in membrane traffic. Here we show that the putative TGN coat protein p200 (Narula, N., I. McMorrow, G. Plopper, J. Doherty, K.S. Matlin, B. Burke, and J.L. Stow. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 114: 1113- 1124) is myosin II. The recruitment of myosin II to Golgi membranes is dependent on actin and is regulated by G proteins. Using an assay that studies the release of transport vesicles from the TGN in vitro we provide functional evidence that p200/myosin is involved in the assembly of basolateral transport vesicles carrying vesicular stomatitis virus G protein ...
Extracellular Vesicles (EVs), membrane vesicles released by all cells, are emerging mediators of cell-cell communication. By carrying biomolecules from tissues to biofluids, EVs have attracted attention as non-invasive sources of clinical biomarkers in liquid biopsies. EVs-based liquid biopsies usually require EVs isolation before content analysis, which frequently increases sample volume requirements. We here present a Flow Cytometry (FC) strategy that does not require isolation or concentration of EVs prior to staining. By doing so, it enables population analysis of EVs in samples characterized by challenging small volumes, while reducing overall sample processing time. To illustrate its application, we performed longitudinal non-lethal population analysis of EVs in mouse plasma and in single-animal collections of murine vitreous humor. By quantifying the proportion of vesicular particles in purified and non-purified biological samples, this method also serves as a precious tool to quality control
In the 1980s, exosomes were described as vesicles of endosomal origin secreted from reticulocytes. Interest increased around these extracellular vesicles, as they appeared to participate in several cellular processes. Exosomes bear proteins, lipids, and RNAs, mediating intercellular communication be …
Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are lipid vesicles secreted by cells that allow intercellular communication. They are decorated with surface proteins, which are membrane proteins that can be targeted by biochemical techniques to isolate EVs from background particles. EVs have recently attracted attention for their pot
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanoparticles originated from different cell types, seem to be implicated in several cellular activities. In the Central Nervous System (CNS), glia and neurons secrete EVs and recent studies have demonstrated that the intercellular communication mediated by EVs has versatile functional impact in the cerebral homeostasis. This essential role may be due to their proteins and RNAs cargo that possibly modify the phenotypes of the targeted cells. Despite the increasing importance of EVs, little is known about their fluctuations in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. Furthermore, only few studies have investigated the contents of contemporary EVs subgroups (microvesicles, MVs and exosomes, EXOs) with the purpose of discriminating between their features and functional roles. In order to possibly shed light on these issues, we performed a pilot study in which MVs and EXOs extracted from serum samples of a little cohort of subjects (patients with the first clinical
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, have emerged as promising drug delivery vehicles for small RNAs (siRNA and miRNA) due to their natural role in intercellular RNA...
Communication between dying cells and their environment is a critical process that promotes tissue homeostasis during normal cellular turnover, whilst during disease settings, it can contribute to inflammation through the release of intracellular factors. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous class of membrane-bound cell-derived structures that can engage in intercellular communication via the trafficking of bioactive molecules between cells and tissues. In addition to the well-described functions of EVs derived from living cells, the ability of dying cells to release EVs capable of mediating functions on target cells or tissues is also of significant interest. In particular, during inflammatory settings such as acute tissue injury, infection and autoimmunity, the EV-mediated transfer of proinflammatory cargo from dying cells is an important process that can elicit profound proinflammatory effects in recipient cells and tissues. Furthermore, the biogenesis of EVs via unique cell-death
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extracellular vesicles (EVs) show promise as a source of neurological disease biomarkers, although their precise origin is poorly understood. Current extraction techniques produce disappointing yield and purity. This study describes the application of ultrafiltration LC (UFLC) to CSF-EVs, compared with ultracentrifugation (UC), and explores CSF-EV origin. EVs are extracted from human CSF by UC and UFLC and characterized using nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, and immunoblotting. EV and CSF proteomes are analyzed by LC-MS/MS. UFLC-isolated particles have size, morphology, and marker expression characteristic of EVs. UFLC provides greater EV yield (UFLC 7.90 × 108 ± SD 1.31 × 108 EVs mL-1 CSF, UC 1.06 × 108 ± 0.57 × 108 p | 0.001). UFLC enhances purity, proteomic depth (UFLC 622 ± 49, UC 298 ± 50, p = 0.001), and consistency of quantification (CV 17% vs 23%). EVs contain more intracellular proteins (Odds ratio [OR] 2.63 p | 0.001) and fewer plasma
Table_7_Extracellular Vesicles Mediate Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Dependent Regulation of B Cell PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway and Actin Cytoskeleton.DOCX
Arakelyan, A, Fitzgerald, W & Vagida, M. (2016) Addition of thrombin reduces the recovery of extracellular vesicles from blood plasma. Journal of Circulating Biomarkers. 2016 Oct 4;:1-5. Link: Journal of Circulating ...
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by mammalian cells and are thought to be important mediators of intercellular communication. There are many methods for isolating EVs from cell culture...
Editorial: The Immunomodulatory Properties of Extracellular Vesicles From Pathogens, Immune Cells, and Non-immune Cells Editorial Article ...
article{f64bcde2-c38f-4648-bf1a-09a66e77e807, abstract = {,p,Extracellular vesicles are cell-derived membrane particles ranging from 30 to 5,000 nm in size, including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. They are released under physiological conditions, but also upon cellular activation, senescence, and apoptosis. They play an important role in intercellular communication. Their release may also maintain cellular integrity by ridding the cell of damaging substances. This review describes the biogenesis, uptake, and detection of extracellular vesicles in addition to the impact that they have on recipient cells, focusing on mechanisms important in the pathophysiology of kidney diseases, such as thrombosis, angiogenesis, tissue regeneration, immune modulation, and inflammation. In kidney diseases, extracellular vesicles may be utilized as biomarkers, as they are detected in both blood and urine. Furthermore, they may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal disease while also having ...
Description: The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multi-protein complex essential for the polarized targeting of exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and the functions of the exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be highly conserved in higher eukaryotes. At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal remodeling and vesicle transport machinery. This interaction has been shown to mediate filopodia formation in fibroblasts. This protein has been shown to interact with the Ral subfamily of GTPases and thereby mediate exocytosis by tethering vesicles to the plasma membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants ...
Product Pig Charged multivesicular body protein 2b(CHMP2B) ELISA kit From B-Gene - A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Charged multivesicular body protein 2b(CHMP2B) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species. Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUTION*1 vial 12. WASH SOLUTION (100 x)*1 vial 13. BALANCE SOLUTION*1 vial 14. INSTRUCTION*1
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Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem worldwide. Its growing burden is particularly ominous in Asia, due to increasing rates of
Our group uses an integrated systems biology approach to understand extracellular communication in the context of the tumour microenvironment and uterine development.
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
View data on how to consistently obtain purely concentrated EVs with enough yield for subsequent proteomic, genomic, and transcriptomic analyses.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rho-kinase is required for myosin-II-mediated vesicle transport during M-phase in extracts of clam oocytes.. AU - Wöllert, Torsten. AU - DePina, Ana S.. AU - DeSelm, Carl J.. AU - Langford, George M. PY - 2003/10. Y1 - 2003/10. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 14583526. AN - SCOPUS:0642336968. VL - 205. SP - 195. EP - 197. JO - Biological Bulletin. JF - Biological Bulletin. SN - 0006-3185. IS - 2. ER - ...
Background Enumeration of extracellular vesicles has clinical potential as a biomarker for disease. In biological samples, the smallest and largest vesicles typically differ 25-fold in size, 300,000-fold in concentration, 20,000-fold … ...
Ms. Phan Thu Hien, UNFPA Gender Specialist was interviewed by VTV1 reporter about the issue of divorce in Viet Nam. This interview was broadcast on VTV1 on March 2017.
Wellbeing International Foundation recommends two types of medical service: storing your stem cells and cell free therapy using extracellular vesicles
Vesicle (v) and target (t) SNAREs reside on opposing membranes. (A) In response to stimulus the vesicle translocates near to the target membrane and the four SN
What is the difference between Vesicle and Vacuole? Vesicles are found in eukaryotic cells while vacuoles are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
The vesicle simulation is available in two forms, one having enough for about one and a half vesicles (vesicle.obj) and the other having enough for about three (vesicle2.obj). Both can use either the vesicle_hub.tmpl or the vesicle_no_hub.tmpl template files (the first contains a sphere at the centre of each clathrin and is more polished visually, the second is faster). Note that in some runs of the simulation many fragments of vesicles form, rather than the few complete structures ...
A vesicle is a small structure consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer. Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion (exocytosis), uptake (endocytosis) and transport of materials within the cytoplasm or between cells, and exist both within the cell and in the extracellular space ...
when the contents of a vesicle are released by the cell what is it called? plz help me with this problem?. Exocytosis I believe. . thanks you are t...
Page contains details about rhodamine B-loaded bolaamphiphilic molecule-derived vesicles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
Models for Tsg101 recruitment and activation during MVB and HIV budding. (A) Model illustrating sites of Tsg101/Hrs interaction and a possible activation mechan
COPI coated vesicles are responsible for retrograde transport from the Golgi to the ER, while COPII coated vesicles are ... These proteins travel within the cell inside of transport vesicles. Secretory vesicles contain materials that are to be ... A vesicle released from the cell is known as an extracellular vesicle. Vesicles perform a variety of functions. Because it is ... Multivesicular body, or MVB, is a membrane-bound vesicle containing a number of smaller vesicles. Some vesicles are made when ...
The hypothesized function of TVP23A is a transmembrane protein involved in retrograde transport of vesicles from early ... Trans-Golgi network vesicle protein 23 A (TVP23A) is a protein coded for the TVP23A gene, formerly known as FAM18A. TVP23A is ... The nature of this transport is still unknown. TVP23A is located at cytogenic band 16p13.13, on the negative strand of ... TVP23A stands for Trans-Golgi network Vesicle Protein 23A TVP23A, is the current name for the protein. Aliases of TVP23A ...
Synaptic vesicles contain two classes of obligatory components: transport proteins involved in neurotransmitter uptake, and ... The area in the axon that holds groups of vesicles is an axon terminal or "terminal bouton". Up to 130 vesicles can be released ... The events of the synaptic vesicle cycle can be divided into a few key steps: 1. Trafficking to the synapse Synaptic vesicle ... Mutants in rab-3 and munc-18 alter vesicle docking or vesicle organization at release sites, but they do not completely disrupt ...
Dynein transports vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. In order to do this, dynein molecules bind organelle ... In this manner, they can facilitate the transport of proteins, vesicles and organelles along the apical-basal axis of the cell ... Kinesin is involved in the transport of a variety of intracellular cargoes, including vesicles, organelles, protein complexes, ... The C protein plays an important role in the retrograde transport of vesicles and is also known as cytoplasmic dynein. MAP-2 ...
CPE facilitates POMC transport into immature budding vesicles. In mammals, pro-peptide convertase 1 (PC1) cleaves POMC into ...
These vesicles will typically execute cargo loading and vesicle budding, vesicle transport, the binding of the vesicle to a ... it is a multifaceted process which utilizes transport vesicles. Transport vesicles are small structures within the cell ... Intracellular transport is the movement of vesicles and substances within a cell. Intracellular transport is required for ... Defects encompass improper sorting of cargo into transport carriers, vesicle budding, issues in movement of vesicles along ...
... myosin transports cargo-containing membrane vesicles along actin filaments. The SLC46A3 protein contains a signal peptide that ... The protein works via secondary active transport, where the energy for transport is provided by an electrochemical gradient. A ... Through transmembrane transport activity, the protein regulates catabolite concentration in the lysosome. In addition, SLC46A3 ... It is mainly involved in the transport of small molecules across the membrane through the substrate translocation pores ...
"Potassium transport in seminal vesicle mucosa". The Journal of Physiology. 143 (3). 1958. doi:10.1111/tjp.1958.143.issue-3. ... He was the first to demonstrate that active transport can exert a feedback control over the rate of cellular metabolism. These ... He conducted important studies on the mechanism of active transport of ions across animal membranes and its relation to ... Whittam, R.; Davies, R. E. (1 December 1953). "Active transport of water, sodium, potassium and α-oxoglutarate by kidney-cortex ...
Implication in dynein-dependent vesicle transport". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30065-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30065. PMID ... 2004). "Receptor (CD155)-dependent endocytosis of poliovirus and retrograde axonal transport of the endosome". J. Virol. 78 (13 ... type 1 capsid protein VP26 interacts with dynein light chains RP3 and Tctex1 and plays a role in retrograde cellular transport ...
Implication in dynein-dependent vesicle transport". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30065-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30065. PMID ... it does not in fact change the calcium dependence of spontaneous synaptic vesicle release and thus can not be the calcium ... sensor for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles However, further work has shown that while DOC2b is both important for spontaneous ... "DOC2B acts as a calcium switch and enhances vesicle fusion". J Neurosci. 28 (27): 6794-806. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0538-08.2008 ...
Implication in dynein-dependent vesicle transport". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30065-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30065. PMID ...
SP is synthesized by neurons and transported to synaptic vesicles; the release of SP is accomplished through the depolarizing ...
Kuo SM, Aronson PS (June 1996). "Pathways for oxalate transport in rabbit renal microvillus membrane vesicles". The Journal of ... exchange mechanism in the human proximal colonic apical membrane vesicles and its possible role in chloride transport". ... Under this model, a third transport process is required that functions as a method of recycling oxalate back into the cell, and ... Knauf F, Velazquez H, Pfann V, Jiang Z, Aronson PS (January 2019). "Characterization of renal NaCl and oxalate transport in ...
... I vesicles Clathrin vesicles Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase#ER to Golgi transport Exomer Coat+Protein+Complex+I ... This type of transport[clarification needed] is retrograde transport, in contrast to the anterograde transport associated with ... COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to ... 1997). "Bidirectional transport by distinct populations of COPI-coated vesicles". Cell. 90 (2): 335-49. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674( ...
Transport occurs via vesicles and monomeric transport in the cytosol. Sphingolipids are virtually absent from mitochondria and ... van Meer G, Lisman Q (July 2002). "Sphingolipid transport: rafts and translocators". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 ( ... were originally proposed to sort membrane proteins along the cellular pathways of membrane transport. At present, most research ...
There is a prominent low-pH folate transport activity in the cells and/or membrane vesicles derived from these tissues which, ... Horne, DW; Reed, KA; Hoefs, J; Said, HM (July 1993). "5-Methyltetrahydrofolate transport in basolateral membrane vesicles from ... "Folate binding and transport by rat kidney brush-border membrane vesicles". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes ... PCFT-mediated transport into cells is optimal at pH 5.5. The low-pH activity and the structural specificity of PCFT (high ...
Schroer TA, Sheetz MP (December 1991). "Two activators of microtubule-based vesicle transport". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... dynein-driven vesicle transport in the absence of membrane proteins: a role for spectrin and acidic phospholipids". Molecular ... In addition to transport of various organelles in the cytoplasm, dynactin also links kinesin II to organelles. Motor protein ... Arp1 has been suggested as the domain for dynactin binding to membrane vesicles (such as Golgi or late endosome) through its ...
"Substituted quinolines as inhibitors of L-glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles". Neuropharmacology. 37 (7): 839-46. doi: ... thereby preventing the movement of glutamate from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles, an action that it mediates via ...
Choi SI, Vidal R, Frangione B, Levy E (2004). "Axonal transport of British and Danish amyloid peptides via secretory vesicles ...
With KIF1A functioning to transport synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs) and dense core vesicles (DCVs) along neurons, defects in ... transport of cargo. The main function of KIF1A is the long-distance transport of membranous cargo, such as synaptic vesicle ... KIF1A is known to transport Rab3-coated vesicles in the axon. Rab3 functions as a synaptic vesicle protein that controls the ... Further investigations of how the PtdIns(4,5)P2 lipid subdomain facilitates KIF1A vesicle transport led to the idea that this ...
"Ontogenesis of taurocholate transport by rat ileal brush border membrane vesicles". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 75 ( ... Quamme GA, Freeman HJ (July 1987). "Evidence for a high-affinity sodium-dependent D-glucose transport system in the kidney". ...
"Substituted quinolines as inhibitors of L-glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles". Neuropharmacology. 37 (7): 839-46. doi: ... 7-CKA also acts as a potent inhibitor of the reuptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles (or as a vesicular glutamate reuptake ...
... V is involved in the transport of cargo (e.g. RNA, vesicles, organelles, mitochondria) from the center of the cell to ... Myosin I, a ubiquitous cellular protein, functions as monomer and functions in vesicle transport. It has a step size of 10 nm ... Myosin VI is thought to transport endocytic vesicles into the cell. Myosin VII is an unconventional myosin with two FERM ... Known functions include: transporting phagosomes to the nucleus and perturbing the developmentally regulated elimination of the ...
... that regulates the fusing of the vesicle to the plasma membrane and the release of its contents. The vesicle is transported to ... This is the vesicle that allows the particles that were endocytosed to be transported into the lysosome. Here there are ... The vesicles would have formed regardless of whether or not the receptors and ligand were there. This is why it is still a ... The vesicle will eventually travel to the plasma membrane and fuse with it. The contents of the cell will be released into the ...
The enzymes are packed into vesicles for further transport to established lysosomes. The late endosome itself can eventually ... Vacuolar-ATPases are responsible for transport of protons, while the counter transport of chloride ions is performed by ClC-7 ... The enzymes are trafficked from the Golgi apparatus to lysosomes in small vesicles, which fuse with larger acidic vesicles. ... They are spherical vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down many kinds of biomolecules. A lysosome has a ...
In melanocytes, melanosomes (vesicles containing the pigment melanin) are transported on microtubules. They are then bound by ... something that also depends on vesicle transport). While, the knockout of myosin Va does not cause immunodeficiency, but it ... This transfer is necessary for the transport of melanosomes from the perinuclear area to the cell periphery. The loss of any ... Griscelli syndrome is a disorder of melanosome transport, and divided into several types:: 866 Management and treatment is ...
Both glycoproteins and glycolipids are transported into vesicles to the plasma membrane. The cell releases secretory proteins ... The two main pathways are passive transport and active transport. Passive transport is more direct and does not require the use ... Active transport uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to transport a substance that moves against its concentration gradient.[page ... The receptor proteins that are attached to the specific solutes go inside coated pits, forming a vesicle. The vesicles then ...
VMAT2 transports monoamine neurotransmitters from the cytosol of monoamine neurons into vesicles. Developmental biologist and ... In the brain, VMAT2 proteins are located on synaptic vesicles. ...
2000). "Pantophysin is a phosphoprotein component of adipocyte transport vesicles and associates with GLUT4-containing vesicles ... "Pantophysin is a ubiquitously expressed synaptophysin homologue and defines constitutive transport vesicles". J. Cell Biol. 134 ... 1999). "Tissue expression of the vesicle protein pantophysin". Cell Tissue Res. 296 (3): 499-510. doi:10.1007/s004410051310. ... "Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a novel protein related to the neuronal vesicle protein synaptophysin". Biochim. Biophys. ...
After synthesis, hemicelluloses are transported to the plasma membrane via Golgi vesicles. Each kind of hemicellulose is ...
The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport, possibly by integrating JNK signaling ... 2002). "UNC-16, a JNK-signaling scaffold protein, regulates vesicle transport in C. elegans". Neuron. 32 (5): 787-800. doi: ... 2001). "Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. 103 (4): 583-94. doi:10.1016/ ... "Kinesin-dependent axonal transport is mediated by the sunday driver (SYD) protein". Cell. UNITED STATES. 103 (4): 583-94. doi: ...
These vesicles are complex structures made of proteins encoded by at least 14 genes. Gas vesicles were first discovered in H. ... which drives proton transport. The proton gradient formed thereby can then be used to generate chemical energy via ATP synthase ... To obtain more oxygen, H. salinarum produce gas vesicles, which allow them to float to the surface where oxygen levels are ... Walsby, A. E. (1994). "Gas vesicles". Microbiological Reviews. 58 (1): 94-144. doi:10.1128/mmbr.58.1.94-144.1994. PMC 372955. ...
... the low pH inside the vesicle strips the envelope of the virion after which the virus is ready to be transported to the cell ... is taken into intracellular organelles and is transported by the endogenous neuronal transport system including kinesin-1, ... Transport of the viral particles along the axon was shown to depend on the microtubular cytoskeleton. There is also a group of ... Norgren RB, McLean JH, Bubel HC, Wander A, Bernstein DI, Lehman MN (March 1992). "Anterograde transport of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in ...
Transport through ring canals is highly regulated and directional in the ovarian germ-line cysts. Similar to the drosophila ... Organelles including the smooth ER, ribosomes, smooth vesicles, mitochondria and microtubules can be found within the ring ... In ovarian cysts, generally all but one cell differentiate into nurse cells and transport materials through these ring canals ... Ikami, Kanako; Nuzhat, Nafisa; Lei, Lei (2017-02-01). "Organelle transport during mouse oocyte differentiation in germline ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the syntaxin family of cellular receptors for transport vesicles which ... "A novel tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein in SNARE complexes of the apical plasma membrane of ...
"Two distinct mechanisms for bilirubin glucuronide transport by rat bile canalicular membrane vesicles. Demonstration of ... Erlinger, Serge; Arias, Irwin M.; Dhumeaux, Daniel (2014). "Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Transport and Conjugation: New ... Conjugated bilirubin is excreted into canalicular bile by way of the canalicular multispecific organic anion transport (C-MOAT ... the molecular mechanism of hepatocyte bilirubin transport and its clinical relevance". Journal of Gastroenterology. 35 (9): 659 ...
More importantly, HAP1 may also disrupt endocytosis, as it has been detected on vesicles involved in the early stages of this ... These include dynactin p150Glued, a cytoplasmic dynein accessory protein involved in retrograde transport of organelles, and ... microtubules and vesicles in the basal forebrain and striatial neurons - where HAP1B is preferentially expressed. Furthermore, ... kinesin-like protein which is another transport-mediation protein. HAP1 also shows a similar CNS distribution pattern to that ...
ISBN 978-1-4557-7016-8. Kierszenbaum, Abraham L.; Tres, Laura (2011). "Chapter 21: Sperm Transport and Maturation". Histology ... The vesicles are between 5-10 cm in size, 3-5 cm in diameter, and have a volume of around 13 mL. The vesicles receive blood ... The seminal vesicles have been described as early as the second century AD by Galen, although the vesicles only received their ... Symptoms due to diseases of the seminal vesicles may be vague and not able to be specifically attributable to the vesicles ...
In this latter case, the virion is transported to the plasma membrane via microtubules. Natural hosts of orthopoxviruses are ... Individual lesions, surrounded by inflammatory tissue, develop and progress through macules, papules, vesicles, and pustules, ...
Exon 1 contains a signal sequence that localises the receptor to the endoplasmic reticulum for transport to the cell surface. ... and coated pits pinch off from the surface to form coated endocytic vesicles that carry LDL into the cell. After ... Class 2 mutations prevent proper transport to the Golgi body needed for modifications to the receptor. e.g. a truncation of the ... are translated by ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum and are modified by the Golgi apparatus before travelling in vesicles ...
"Entrez Gene: ATP6V0A2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a2". Nishi T, Forgac M (2002). "The vacuolar (H+)-ATPases-- ... an heteromultimeric enzyme that is present in intracellular vesicles and in the plasma membrane of specialized cells, and which ...
... are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal remodeling and vesicle transport machinery. The complex is also essential for ... a multiple protein complex essential for targeting exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. Though ... "Ral-GTPase influences the regulation of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (6): 1714-22. ...
Endocytosis usually involves clathrin-coated vesicles, though non-clathrin-coated vesicles may also be used. After the ... re-uptake begins which is the process of transport proteins clearing out the neurotransmitters from the synapse and recycling ... decreasing synaptic vesicle exocytosis and modulating the mechanisms governing synaptic vesicle recovery and endocytosis. These ... This release in vesicles, regardless of which pool they are released from, is considered a form of short term synaptic ...
As a result, segment 15 of one worm exudes sperm into segments 9 and 10 with its storage vesicles of its mate. Some species use ... Water, as well as salts, can also be moved through the skin by active transport. At birth, earthworms emerge small but fully ... The two or four pairs of seminal vesicles produce, store and release the sperm via the male pores. Ovaries and oviducts in ... It has a double transport system made of coelomic fluid that moves within the fluid-filled coelom and a simple, closed ...
Another function of Hsc70 is as an ATPase in the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles during transport of membrane ... It works with auxilin to remove clathrin from coated vesicles. In neurons, synaptojanin is also an important protein involved ... oncofetal proteins and products and transporting them into intracellular sites, thereby promoting tumor cell proliferation. As ... in vesicle uncoating. Hsc70 is a key component of chaperone-mediated autophagy wherein it imparts selectivity to the proteins ...
Transport protein ZIP1 is responsible for the transport of zinc into prostate cells. One of zinc's important roles is to change ... Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or tumor cells ... Strategies that transport zinc into transformed prostate cells effectively eliminate these cells in animals. Zinc inhibits NF- ... The Partin tables predict pathologic outcomes (margin status, extraprostatic extension, and seminal vesicle invasion) based on ...
May 2009). "Acetate transport and utilization in the rat brain". J Neurochem. 109 Suppl 1 (Suppl 1): 46-54. doi:10.1111/j.1471- ... At the front end, the ventricles and cord swell to form three vesicles that are the precursors of the prosencephalon (forebrain ... the forebrain splits into two vesicles called the telencephalon (which will contain the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and ...
2001). "The role of N-glycosylation in transport to the plasma membrane and sorting of the neuronal glycine transporter GLYT2 ... Rousseau F, Aubrey KR, Supplisson S (2008). "The glycine transporter GlyT2 controls the dynamics of synaptic vesicle refilling ... chronic inhibition of GlyT2 will deplete intracellular storage of glycine and limit its accumulation in synaptic vesicles. ...
Unlike the hearts of most other animals, however, this structure is a closed fluid-filled vesicle whose interior does not ... Karrh, RR; Miller, DC (1996). "Effect of flow and sediment transport on feeding rate of the surface-deposit feeder Saccoglossus ...
I also have types of mortars that are very convenient and easy to transport.... when a place cannot be reduced by the method of ... which enters by a great number of cartilaginous vesicles with several passages leading up to where the brain, as before said, ... easy and convenient to transport and place into position. Among his projects in Florence was one to divert the course of the ...
... transport protein - transport vesicle - triiodothyronine - trinucleotide repeat - triose - tropomyosin - troponin - tryptophan ... passive transport - Pauling scale - PCR - peptide - peptide bond - peptide elongation factor - peptide elongation factor tu - ... membrane transport - memory B cell - memory T cell - Mendelian inheritance - metabolic pathway - metabolism - metabotropic ... vesicle - vestibular system - vimentin - viral envelope protein - viral oncogene protein - viral protein - virology - virus ( ...
Fukuda M (Apr 2003). "Slp4-a/granuphilin-a inhibits dense-core vesicle exocytosis through interaction with the GDP-bound form ... The protein is membrane-bound and may be involved in protein transport and small GTPase mediated signal transduction. Mutations ... Melanophilin links Rab27a and myosin Va function in melanosome transport". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25423-30. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Melanophilin links Rab27a and myosin Va function in melanosome transport". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25423-30. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
... vesicle-to-membrane affinity, and surface properties of the cell membranes, generally enhancing vesicle transport along the ... These vesicles were the first bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs) to be discovered, while Gram-positive bacteria release vesicles ... Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are vesicles of lipids released from the outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. ... The actual release of the vesicle from the outer membrane remains unclear. It is likely that vesicle structures can be released ...
During this procedure, viral transmembrane proteins, also known as "spike" proteins, are integrated into membrane vesicles ... which frequently happens during transport of the fusion protein to the cell surface but may also happen extracellularly. So far ...
Tejedor, R.; Garaizar, A.; Ramı, J. (December 2021). "RNA modulation of transport properties and stability in phase-separated ... although there have been reports of gas vesicles surrounded by a phase separated protein coat in the cytoplasm of some ... solid-state NMR evidence for cross-β assembly of gas vesicles". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (5): 3479-84. doi: ... Wnt signalling effector Dishevelled forms dynamic protein assemblies rather than stable associations with cytoplasmic vesicles ...
... has been reported to be part of a complex with Golgin 84 that tethers COPI vesicles and is important for retrograde transport ... The targeting of vesicles involves tethers and SNAREs. Cux1 (CUTL1, CDP, CDP/Cux) has been shown to interact with: CREB binding ... Malsam J, Satoh A, Pelletier L, Warren G (2005). "Golgin tethers define subpopulations of COPI vesicles". Science. 307 (5712): ... "Interaction of Golgin-84 with the COG complex mediates the intra-Golgi retrograde transport". Traffic. 11 (12): 1552-66. doi: ...
Zaia KA, Reimer RJ (Mar 2009). "Synaptic Vesicle Protein NTT4/XT1 (SLC6A17) Catalyzes Na+-coupled Neutral Amino Acid Transport ... Bröer S (Jan 2008). "Amino acid transport across mammalian intestinal and renal epithelia". Physiological Reviews. 88 (1): 249- ...
Nascent virions are then transported in secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane and released by exocytosis.[citation needed] ... The G1 (or Gn) and G2 (Gc) glycoproteins form hetero-oligomers and are then transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the ... Viral particles are then transported to late endosomes. Gc-mediated membrane fusion with the endosomal membrane, triggered by ...
... was an American biochemist, known for Kabackosomes, the cell-free membrane transport vesicles. He was the ... "The electrochemical gradient of protons and its relationship to active transport in Escherichia coli membrane vesicles". Proc. ... "Transport studies in bacterial membrane vesicles". Science. 186 (4167): 882-92. Bibcode:1974Sci...186..882K. doi:10.1126/ ... These vesicles were dubbed Kabackosomes by the Dutch scientist Wilhelmus N. Konings, Kaback's close friend and early ...
MHC class II alpha/beta/Ii nonamer [transport vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) * HLA II beta chain [transport vesicle membrane ... MHC class II alpha/beta/Ii nonamer [transport vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) * HLA II beta chain [transport vesicle membrane ... transport vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) * mhc2d8.37b2p [transport vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) ... transport vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) * mhc2d8.37b2p [transport vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) ...
Cytosolic ARFs are required for vesicle formation but not for cell-free intra-Golgi transport: evidence for coated vesicle- ... Transport of biosynthetic sphingolipids from Golgi to plasma membrane in HT29 cells: involvement of different carrier vesicle ... Exocytic transport vesicles generated in vitro from the trans-Golgi network carry secretory and plasma membrane proteins. ... COPII proteins are required for Golgi fusion but not for endoplasmic reticulum budding of the pre-chylomicron transport vesicle ...
These results demonstrate the applicability of in vitro, vesicle-based BSEP and MRP2 inhibition approaches to limit or avoi ... we examined 18 potential cholestatic drugs in human BSEP/MRP2 and rat Bsep/Mrp2 membrane vesicle assays. These drugs are known ... Application Note: BSEP and MRP2 Transport Vesicle Screening Assays for the Prediction of Potential Cholestatic and Drug-Induced ... In this study, we examined 18 potential cholestatic drugs in human BSEP/MRP2 and rat Bsep/Mrp2 membrane vesicle assays. These ...
LE-derived transport vesicles form through the interaction of Rab9 GTPase with cargo proteins, and TIP47, a Rab9-specific ... These results suggest that p37 localizes to the LE and interacts with proteins associated with LE-derived transport vesicle ... From: Vaccinia virus p37 interacts with host proteins associated with LE-derived transport vesicle biogenesis ...
Fusion of COPII vesicle with Golgi complex (Homo sapiens) * Nonameric complex in COPII vesicle [ER to Golgi transport vesicle ... Formation of COPII vesicle (Homo sapiens) * Nonameric complex in COPII vesicle [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo ... ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * MHC II alpha/beta dimer [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo ... ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * MHC II alpha/beta dimer [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo ...
... and minus-end vesicle populations from squid axoplasm were isolated from each other by selective extraction of the minus-end ... Plus-end motors override minus-end motors during transport of squid axon vesicles on microtubules. V Muresan, V Muresan ... V Muresan, C P Godek, T S Reese, B J Schnapp; Plus-end motors override minus-end motors during transport of squid axon vesicles ... minus-end vesicle movement can establish a functional interaction with the lipid bilayers of both vesicle populations. The ...
Coat proteins are required for cargo selection and membrane deformation to bud a transport vesicle from a donor compartment. It ... Coats, Tethers, Rabs, and SNAREs Work Together to Mediate the Intracellular Destination of a Transport Vesicle. / Cai, Huaqing ... Coats, Tethers, Rabs, and SNAREs Work Together to Mediate the Intracellular Destination of a Transport Vesicle. In: ... Coat proteins are required for cargo selection and membrane deformation to bud a transport vesicle from a donor compartment. It ...
vesicle uncoating (GO:0072319) BFO:0000050 vesicle-mediated transport Golgi vesicle transport (GO:0048193) is_a vesicle- ... Parents of vesicle-mediated transport (GO:0016192) subject. relation. object. vesicle-mediated transport is_a transport (GO: ... vesicle docking (GO:0048278) BFO:0000050 vesicle-mediated transport endosome to lysosome transport (GO:0008333) is_a vesicle- ... endosomal transport (GO:0016197) is_a vesicle-mediated transport mitochondrion-derived vesicle mediated transport (GO:0099075) ...
Pyruvate transport into inside-out vesicles isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977 Jul 14; 468(2 ...
Transport of lipid vesicles via the cilia logistic network in the brain of mice. ... Transport of lipid vesicles via the cilia logistic network in the brain of mice. Günther, A. K. (2018). Transport of lipid ... vesicles via the cilia logistic network in the brain of mice. PhD Thesis, Georg-August-Universität, Göttingen. ...
Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), playing a crucial role in the intercellular communication in physiological as ... A new ALK isoform transported by extracellular vesicles confers drug resistance to melanoma cells. Mol Cancer. 17, 145, https ... b) The number of counted exosome-sized vesicles on the surface of cells using ImageJ (n = 5). (c) Number of released vesicles/ ... Minimal information for studies of extracellular vesicles 2018)23, we refer to the isolated vesicles based on their size by ...
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In this review, we provide an overview of extracellular vesicles (EVs), with a focus on their utility as therapeutic agents for ... In this review, we provide an overview of extracellular vesicles, with a focus on their utility as therapeutic agents for ... Recognizing that regenerative cells secrete therapeutically bioactive vesicles has paved the way to circumvent many failures of ... We also highlight the engineering potential of extracellular vesicles to enhance their therapeutic application. ...
Researchers from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf review the RNA cargo and mechanistic details of transport via two inter- ... Membrane-coupled RNA transport is an emerging theme in fungal biology. ... endosome exosome extracellular vesicles fungal RNA biology membrane trafficking RNA recognition motif RNA transport 2020-01-23 ... Inside-out - from endosomes to extracellular vesicles in fungal RNA transport. in Publications January 23, 2020 ...
Dive into the research topics of The COPI vesicle complex binds and moves with survival motor neuron within axons. Together ... The COPI vesicle complex binds and moves with survival motor neuron within axons. ...
Vesicles transport many types of molecules within cells.. V-ATPases also play a key role in a complex process called ... V-ATPases are embedded in the membranes surrounding cells, where they transport protons into and out of cells. This movement of ... Studies suggest that V-ATPases are also involved in the movement (trafficking) of small sac-like structures called vesicles. ...
Among dynamin-dependent endocytic vesicles, IgG co-localizes well with caveolae in cultured BECs. An Abl family tyrosine kinase ... but is largely attenuated by specific ablation of dynamin-dependent endocytic vesicle formation in blood endothelial cells ( ...
... which is characterized by oscillations in vesicle size and membrane tension, couples to the compositional degrees of freedom at ... 2003b) Cascades of transient pores in giant vesicles: line tension and transport Biophysical Journal 84:1734-1749. ... flaccid mother vesicle encapsulating tense daughter vesicles, at a time point prior to vesicle expulsion; (B) just after ... Although the actual dynamics of solvent and solute transport across osmotically imbalanced vesicles are likely to be much more ...
30 nm, half the size of classical (e.g., COPI and COPII) transport vesicles. Here, we investigated the mechanism of ... This finding implies that some amino acid residues required for pyridoxine transport, but not for thiamine transport, are ... and characterize the transport mechanisms by analyzing amino acid transport in HEK293T cells and polarized Caco-2 cells. ... Zinc transport via ZNT5-6 and ZNT7 is critical for cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expression. ...
involved_in retrograde vesicle-mediated transport, Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of ... archain vesicle transport protein 1. coatomer delta subunit. coatomer protein complex, subunit delta. coatomer protein delta- ... involved_in endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more ... part_of COPI vesicle coat IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ...
Nascent virions are then transported in secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane and released by exocytosis. ... G1 and G2 glycoproteins form heterodimers and are then transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, where ...
Fluorescence microscopy shows how living cells form vesicles to transport cargo like growth factors ...
Amplicons can be transported in extracellular vesicles. Separated amplicons contain genes such as EGFR and EGFRvIII, MDM2, ... extracellular vesicles can transfer amplicons from cells with amplicons to cells lacking them (Figure 5) [131]. The genotype of ... "Detection of wild-type EGFR amplification and EGFRvIII mutation in CSF-derived extracellular vesicles of glioblastoma patients ...
The vesicle transport protein, Vps33p, is an ATP binding protein that localizes to the cytosol in an energy dependent manner. J ... Molecular mechanisms of vesicle transport between the prevacuolar compartment and the vacuole in yeast or the lysosome in ... which may facilitate the specificity of transport vesicle docking or targeting to the yeast lysosome/vacuole. ... a protein implicated to function in transport between the prevacuolar compartment and the vacuole. Following short pulses, 80- ...
Loss-of-function mutations in REP-1 affect intracellular vesicle transport in fibroblasts and monocytes of CHM patients. Add to ... To evaluate this hypothesis, intracellular vesicle transport, lysosomal acidification and rates of proteolytic degradation were ... Loss-of-function mutations in Rab escort protein 1 (REP-1) affect intracellular transport in fibroblasts and monocytes of ...
i) Inhibit transport in synaptic vesicles. Not fully characterized with respect to cloned VGLUTs. Also inhibit EAATs and mGlu ... j) Inhibits transport in synaptic vesicles. Not fully characterized with respect to cloned VGLUTs and other glutamate targets. ... Similar to the EAATs, vesicular glutamate transport was initially described in synaptic vesicle preparations isolated from rat ... utilize a proton electrochemical gradient to drive glutamate transport into the vesicle and exhibit a very distinct ...
Some common vesicles are lysosomes, vacuoles, and transport vesicles. Lysosomes are used to "break down" substances, usually ... If they have more than one bilayer, they are called multilamellar vesicles. Vesicles are used to store, transport, digest ... A single bilayer separates the vesicle from the cytosol. Vesicles that have only one bilayer are called unilamellar vesicles. ... The spontaneous diffusion is a form of passive transport. Because passive transport does not require energy to transport ...
  • Therefore, we investigated the molecular role of huntingtin in exocytosis and observed that huntingtin knockdown in HeLa cells causes a delay in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport and a reduction in the number of cargo vesicles leaving the trans-Golgi network. (
  • G1 and G2 glycoproteins form heterodimers and are then transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, where glycosylation is completed. (
  • Vti1 participates both in Golgi to prevacuolar transport and in traffic to the cis-Golgi. (
  • Expression of human VTI1 in yeast indicated that VTI1 can replace yeast Vti1 in both Golgi transport reactions. (
  • SEC23, the core component of the coat protein complex II (COPII), functions to transport newly synthesized proteins and lipids from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus in cells for secretion. (
  • Approximately, one-third of all newly synthesized proteins will be transported from the ER to the Golgi through COPII-coated vesicles [ 1 ]. (
  • Because both Arf and PLD1 stimulate vesicle formation in the Golgi, these data raise the possibility that vesicle formation and trafficking may play a role in the transduction of intracellular signals. (
  • Extracellular vesicle biology. (
  • Schematic of extracellular vesicle biogenesis. (
  • Urinary concentrations of phenols and phthalate metabolites reflect extracellular vesicle microRNA expression in follicular fluid. (
  • Analysis of circulating extracellular vesicle derived microRNAs in breast cancer patients with obesity: a potential role for Let-7a. (
  • Recently, circulating extracellular vesicle (EV) derived miRNAs have attracted much attention for their diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential in oncology research . (
  • Coat proteins are required for cargo selection and membrane deformation to bud a transport vesicle from a donor compartment. (
  • In this review we will discuss the literature that links coat proteins to vesicle targeting events. (
  • Endosomes bud inwards during maturation to form intraluminal vesicles, incorporating contents from the cytosol, notably sRNAs and proteins. (
  • It has similarities to heat shock proteins and clathrin-associated proteins, and may be involved in vesicle structure or trafficking. (
  • In addition to the transport of L-glutamate, a number of other naturally occurring excitatory amino acids, including L-aspartate, L-cysteine sulfinate and L-cysteate, are known substrates of these transporter proteins. (
  • The directed movement of membrane-bounded vesicles from endosomes back to the plasma membrane, a trafficking pathway that promotes the recycling of internalized transmembrane proteins. (
  • In the fusion process, proteins on the vesicles and target membranes bind to each other like the two sides of a zipper. (
  • It turned out that some of the genes Schekman had discovered in yeast coded for proteins corresponding to those Rothman identified in mammals, revealing an ancient evolutionary origin of the transport system. (
  • In addition to Atg proteins, most vesicle transport regulators are also essential for each step of autophagy.The present study showed that one Endoplasmic Reticulum protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Tip20, which controlsGolgi-to-ER retrograde transport, was also required for starvation-induced autophagy under high temperature stress. (
  • Notably, he discerned the journey tail-anchored proteins make from the ribosome to insertion in the endoplasmic reticulum-which he and colleagues dubbed the guided entry of tail-anchored proteins (GET) pathway-and discovered that certain autophagy targets signal they are ready to be recycled by activating the enzyme responsible for initiating vesicle formation. (
  • Exosomes form through invagination of endosomes to encapsulate cytoplasmic contents, and upon fusion of these multivesicular endosomes to the cell surface, exosomes are released to the extracellular space and transport mRNA, microRNA (miRNA) and proteins between cells. (
  • These transporters, responsible for packaging glutamate into synaptic vesicles for neurotransmitter release, utilize a proton electrochemical gradient to drive glutamate transport into the vesicle and exhibit a very distinct pharmacology and substrate specificity from the plasma membrane localized EAATs. (
  • Genetic analyses suggest that 5-HT secreted by both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles diffuse readily to the extrasynaptic space adjacent to the AIM and RIH neurons. (
  • The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) pumps 5-HT from the cytoplasm into the small synaptic vesicles (SVs) and dense core vesicles (DCVs) ( Liu and Edwards, 1997 ), thereby controlling the releasable pool of 5-HT. (
  • The association of huntingtin with the cytoplasmic surface of a variety of organelles, including transport vesicles, synaptic vesicles, microtubules, and mitochondria, raises the possibility of the occurrence of normal cellular interactions that might be relevant to neurodegeneration. (
  • Pyruvate transport into inside-out vesicles isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. (
  • V-ATPases are embedded in the membranes surrounding cells, where they transport protons into and out of cells. (
  • have now used artificial membranes to make closed compartments called giant vesicles that mimic certain properties of cells. (
  • Electric and electrokinetic transport properties of homogeneous weak ion exchange membranes. (
  • You will study, amongst other topics, protein and enzyme structure and function, the biosynthesis of cell components, and the role of cell membranes in barrier and transport processes. (
  • In this study, researchers explored whether extracellular vesicles-small fluid-filled particles-of brain cell membranes circulating in the blood could be found in women years after their affected pregnancies. (
  • A modified procedure for the rapid preparation of efficiently transporting vesicles from small intestinal brush border membranes. (
  • The structure of the COPII transport-vesicle coat assembled on membranes. (
  • Miniature bubble-like vesicles, surrounded by membranes, shuttle the cargo between organelles or fuse with the outer membrane of the cell and release their cargo to the outside. (
  • When studying vesicle transport in mammalian cells in the 1980s and 1990s, Rothman discovered that a protein complex enables vesicles to dock and fuse with their target membranes. (
  • 00:02:52.12 So what are the biophysical properties of these closed-up membranes, 00:03:00.08 in the form of vesicles or liposomes? (
  • 00:03:04.12 So, the most important aspect, 00:03:08.13 and something which is quite different from modern membranes 00:03:12.21 that are based on phospholipids, is that fatty acid vesicles. (
  • This reversal in the direction of movement of trypsinized plus-end vesicles, in light of further observation that cytosol promotes primarily minus-end movement of liposomes, suggests that the machinery for cytoplasmic dynein-driven, minus-end vesicle movement can establish a functional interaction with the lipid bilayers of both vesicle populations. (
  • Transport of lipid vesicles via the cilia logistic network in the brain of mice. (
  • Giant lipid vesicles are closed compartments consisting of semi-permeable shells, which isolate femto- to pico-liter quantities of aqueous core from the bulk. (
  • In this study, we show that, when subject to a hypotonic bath, giant vesicles consisting of phase separating lipid mixtures undergo osmotic relaxation exhibiting damped oscillations in phase behavior, which is synchronized with swell-burst lytic cycles: in the swelled state, osmotic pressure and elevated membrane tension due to the influx of water promote domain formation. (
  • The membrane insertion catalyzes spontaneous transport of lipid molecules between the bilayer leaflets, rapidly equilibrating the lipid composition. (
  • Through a combination of microscopic simulations and fluorescence microscopy we find the lipid transport rate catalyzed by the DNA nanostructure exceeds 10 7 molecules per second, which is three orders of magnitude higher than the rate of lipid transport catalyzed by biological enzymes. (
  • Recent evidence has now established a new modality of intercellular communication through which biomolecular species are exchanged between cells via extracellular lipid vesicles. (
  • This IgG extravasation is unaffected by depletion of Fcγ receptors, but is largely attenuated by specific ablation of dynamin-dependent endocytic vesicle formation in blood endothelial cells (BECs). (
  • They are then transported to the axon terminal, where small-molecule neurotransmitter molecules are usually packaged in small, membrane-bound bags called vesicles. (
  • the vesicle and cell membrane fuse, leading to the release of the packaged neurotransmitter, a mechanism called exocytosis . (
  • Calcium can then enter the cell and initiates the fusion of the neurotransmitter vesicles with the membrane. (
  • Generally, pumice has two types of vesicles: tubular microvesicles and subspherical vesicles. (
  • Polyethylene glycol, when free in solution, may also demonstrate attraction to the surfaces of various types of vesicles, cells or macromolecules, leading to polymer adsorption and subsequently either a repulsion or to an attraction, via bridging, of the surfaces or vesicles-again strongly depending on the temperature, molecular weight, and concentration of the polyethylene glycol. (
  • 2007) stated that this new class of highly specific, surface-surface interaction between the clathrin coat component and the cargo is distinct from the widely observed binding of short, linear cargo motifs by the assembly polypeptide (AP) complex and GGA adaptors and is therefore not vulnerable to competition from standard motif-containing cargoes for incorporation into clathrin-coated vesicles. (
  • Thus, in this review, we summarized recent research involving SEC23, COPII-vesicle transportation, autophagy, and cancer development and progression (Fig. 1 ). (
  • As a core component of COPII vesicles, SEC23 is not only involved in the protein transportation and secretion process in cells but also participates in autophagy and promotes the survival of cancer cells. (
  • Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), playing a crucial role in the intercellular communication in physiological as well as pathological processes. (
  • Exosomes are small (30-200 nm) 1 endosome-derived vesicles that are actively secreted into the extracellular environment from most cell types. (
  • Intraluminal vesicles are released as exosomes upon fusion of the MVE with the plasma membrane. (
  • Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that are present in many and perhaps all biological fluids, including blood, urine, and cultured medium of cell cultures. (
  • A particularly important class of extracellular vesicles is exosomes, which is a term generally applied to biological nanovesicles ~30-200 nm in diameter. (
  • Researchers from Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf review the RNA cargo and mechanistic details of transport via two inter-related sets of organelles: endosomes and extracellular vesicles for intra- and intercellular RNA transfer. (
  • James Rothman unravelled protein machinery that allows vesicles to fuse with their targets to permit transfer of cargo. (
  • Thomas Südhof revealed how signals instruct vesicles to release their cargo with precision. (
  • Through their discoveries, Rothman, Schekman and Südhof have revealed the exquisitely precise control system for the transport and delivery of cellular cargo. (
  • How do these vesicles know where and when to deliver their cargo? (
  • Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations. (
  • The endocytic pathway contain the virus binding to the host cell receptors, activation of signaling pathways, formation of endocytic vesicles, supply of viral cargo to endosomal compartments, sorting, and eventually escaping into the cytosol (Cossart and Helenius, 2014). (
  • Molecular mechanisms of vesicle transport between the prevacuolar compartment and the vacuole in yeast or the lysosome in mammalian cells are poorly understood. (
  • To learn more about the specificity of this intercompartmental step, we have examined the subcellular localization of a SEC1 homologue, Vps33p, a protein implicated to function in transport between the prevacuolar compartment and the vacuole. (
  • Overall, these data support a model where Vps33p cycles between soluble and particulate forms in an ATP-dependent manner, which may facilitate the specificity of transport vesicle docking or targeting to the yeast lysosome/vacuole. (
  • Intip20 conditional mutant yeast, the transport of Atg8 was impaired during starvation, resulting in multiple Atg8 punctadispersed outside the vacuole that could not be transported to the pre-autophagosomal structure/phagophore assembly site(PAS). (
  • Nucleolus which had a lot of vacuole in a large secondary nucleus and numerous dictyosomes, vesicles, mitochondria, amyloplasts in cytoplasm were seen in this cell. (
  • These membrane whorls are the infected cells was enhanced and could be involved in postulated to be replication complexes for the virus since transporting and expelling the progeny virus particles. (
  • Other reports have described double-membrane vesicles as the bending force to extrude the virus particles. (
  • However, the known human bly, the virus progeny particles are transported in vesicles coronaviruses often cause coldlike symptoms, whereas to the cell periphery for release. (
  • Bacteria release membrane-derived vesicles (MVs), which are small particles that can transport virulence factors to neighbouring bacteria or to the cells of a mammalian host. (
  • In their announcement, the ASCB award committee noted two significant contributions Denic has made to the fields of membrane protein biogenesis and autophagy-a vesicular transport process that captures unwanted intracellular structures and targets them to the cell's recycling compartment. (
  • 00:00:59.09 So, again, we think of protocells having two parts: 00:01:03.24 A membrane boundary that closes up into a spherical vesicle 00:01:11.25 that can encapsulate molecules in the internal, aqueous compartment. (
  • Jing J, Wang B, Liu P. The Functional Role of SEC23 in Vesicle Transportation, Autophagy and Cancer. (
  • In contrast, we found that the pore-forming toxin transported by membrane vesicles of Listeria monocytogenes does not trigger autophagy. (
  • being processive and tightly bound, the kinesin motor would override the activity of cytoplasmic dynein because the latter is weakly bound to vesicles and less processive. (
  • and (b) both plus- and minus-end vesicles bound cytoplasmic dynein from cytosol. (
  • Predicted to be located in cytoplasmic vesicle. (
  • Although inhibiting ATP production from mitochondria did not affect vesicles motility, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH reduced transport in cultured neurons and in Drosophila larvae. (
  • This specifically localized glycolytic machinery may supply constant energy, independent of mitochondria, for the processive movement of vesicles over long distances in axons. (
  • Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive immunodeficiency disorder characterized by abnormal intracellular protein transport. (
  • Predicted to be involved in intracellular protein transport and vesicle-mediated transport. (
  • Plus-end motors override minus-end motors during transport of squid axon vesicles on microtubules. (
  • Early endosomes containing the virus are transported in direction of the nucleus on microtubules the place in between they mature to late endosomes (Le Blanc et al. (
  • The shaped endocytic vesicles fuses with the early endosomes within the peripheral cytoplasm (Nour and Modis, 2014). (
  • Vesicles transport many types of molecules within cells. (
  • However, as the membrane stretches, a temporary hole opens up, which allows some of the excess solute molecules and water to escape, shrinking the vesicle. (
  • This cyclical expansion and contraction of the vesicle also changes the membrane, decorating it with "domains" of specialized molecules, when expanded and uniform, when shrunk. (
  • These molecules are transported around the cell in small packages called vesicles. (
  • The signalling molecules, neurotransmitters, are released from vesicles that fuse with the outer membrane of nerve cells by using the machinery discovered by Rothman and Schekman. (
  • Introduction to physical biochemistry including thermodynamics, spectroscopic principles and applications, and molecular transport and interactions. (
  • Fast axonal transport (FAT) requires consistent energy over long distances to fuel the molecular motors that transport vesicles. (
  • Low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (such as PEG-400) generally promotes cells or vesicles to adhere (depletion attraction), high molecular weight polyethylene glycol causes them to repel 18 . (
  • The double-membrane vesicle (DMV): a virus-induced organelle dedicated to the replication of SARS-CoV-2 and other positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. (
  • Nascent virions are then transported in secretory vesicles to the plasma membrane and released by exocytosis. (
  • Testosterone promotes the development of the secondary sex characteristics in men and serves to maintain the function of the prostate and seminal vesicles. (
  • A complementary perspective is that understanding the mechanisms of exosome-mediated transport may provide opportunities for "reverse engineering" such mechanisms to improve the performance of synthetic delivery vehicles. (
  • MicroRNAs can be carried in transport systems called extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are present in most biofluids. (
  • Ras homologues involved in vesicular transport. (
  • Finally, we show that vesicular GAPDH is necessary and sufficient to provide on-board energy for fast vesicular transport. (
  • To evaluate this hypothesis, intracellular vesicle transport, lysosomal acidification and rates of proteolytic degradation were studied in monocytes (CD14+ fraction) and primary skin fibroblasts from the nine age-matched controls and thirteen CHM patients carrying 10 different loss-of-function mutations. (
  • Autopsy indicated burns on his left hand and a second-degree burn with vesicle formation on his right back. (
  • The same principle operates inside the cell and when a vesicle binds to the cell´s outer membrane to release its contents. (
  • Recognizing that regenerative cells secrete therapeutically bioactive vesicles has paved the way to circumvent many failures of cell therapy. (
  • Although extracellular vesicles (EVs) have long been known to be produced by eukaryotic cells, only recently were EVs implicated as mediators of the paracrine benefits of cell therapy. (
  • Simultaneous transport and translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) on the surface of shuttling endosomes is a conserved process pertinent to highly polarised eukaryotic cells, such as hyphae or neurons. (
  • Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen that can utilize chitin as a carbon source, through its ability to produce chitin-degrading enzymes to digest chitin and membrane transporters to transport the degradation products (chitooligosaccharides) into the cells. (
  • Last week James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman, and Thomas C. Südhof won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells. (
  • Membrane traffic in eukaryotic cells requires the interaction of a vesicle-associated soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (v-SNARE) on transport vesicles with a t-SNARE on the target membrane. (
  • Localization and characterization of transport-related elements in the plasma membrane of turtle bladder epithelial cells. (
  • In a genetic screen, he identified yeast cells with defective transport machinery, giving rise to a situation resembling a poorly planned public transport system. (
  • The endothelium and the micropylar integumentary cells play a role in transport of metabolites into the embryo sac. (
  • Although detaching GAPDH from vesicles reduced transport, targeting GAPDH to vesicles was sufficient to promote FAT in GAPDH deficient neurons. (
  • NTs are stored inside neurons in packages called "vesicles. (
  • Vesicles are then targeted to, and fuse with, an acceptor membrane. (
  • A comparison of the inhibitory potency of reversibly acting inhibitors of anion transport on chloride and sulfate movements across the human red cell membrane. (
  • In addition, we found that huntingtin is required for secretory vesicle fusion at the plasma membrane. (
  • Remarkably, when treated with trypsin before incubation with cytosol, purified plus-end vesicles moved exclusively to microtubule minus ends instead of moving in the normal plus-end direction. (
  • SEC23 is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that stimulates SAR1-GTP hydrolysis in order to facilitate vesicle transportation in vivo [ 2 ], which activity could be induced by SEC31 [ 3 ]. (
  • These vesicles facilitate intercellular transport and communication. (
  • transcription cleaves an abundant endocytosis rate learned on the transport of grayed forces. (
  • transported substances are enclosed in the vesicle lumen or located in the vesicle membrane. (
  • The Effect of Harmaline on Intestinal Sodium Transport and on Sodium-Dependent D-Glucose Transport in Brush-Border Membrane Vesicles from Rabbit Jejunum. (
  • p-Aminohippuric acid transport into brush border vesicles isolated from flounder kidney. (
  • Sulphate-ion/sodium-ion co-transport by brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex. (
  • Effect of dietary phosphate intake on phosphate transport by isolated rat renal brush-border vesicles. (
  • Phosphate transport by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles: Influence of dietary phosphate, thyroparathyroidectomy, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 . (
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are newly garnering interest as mediators of intercellular communication, especially between pathogenic fungi and their hosts. (
  • Studies suggest that V-ATPases are also involved in the movement (trafficking) of small sac-like structures called vesicles. (
  • Vesicles, even small ones, contain contents that are compacting into paracrystalline form. (
  • These results demonstrate the applicability of in vitro, vesicle-based BSEP and MRP2 inhibition approaches to limit or avoid liver liabilities in humans that are not often detected by standard preclinical animal models. (
  • Plus- and minus-end vesicle populations from squid axoplasm were isolated from each other by selective extraction of the minus-end vesicle motor followed by 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP)-induced microtubule affinity purification of the plus-end vesicles. (
  • Theoretical investigation on the interactions of microplastics with a SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragment and their potential impacts on viral transport and exposure. (
  • Ca 2+ control of electrolyte permeability in plasma membrane vesicles from cat pancreas. (
  • However, recent findings have revealed a role for the coat in directing a vesicle to its correct intracellular destination. (
  • Nitric oxide is an exception, not being contained within a vesicle, but released from the neuron shortly after it is manufactured (Chamberlin and Narins 2005). (
  • When an electric current "fires" across the surface of a neuron, it causes some of the vesicles to migrate to the synapses and release their NT contents into the synaptic gap [see Figure 1]. (
  • Prinzipien des epithelialen Transportes in Niere und Darm / Principles of epithelial transport in the kidney and intestines. (
  • Vesicle coats: structure, function, and general principles of assembly. (
  • The researchers detail the endosomal mRNA transport machinery components and mRNA targets of the core RNA-binding protein Rrm4. (
  • Schekman identified three classes of genes that control different facets of the cell´s transport system, thereby providing new insights into the tightly regulated machinery that mediates vesicle transport in the cell. (
  • Collectively, they mapped critical components of the cell´s transport machinery. (
  • Scoria has bigger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls than pumice, and has a specific gravity greater than water. (
  • Moreover, the walls of these vesicles are comparatively thin. (
  • Scoria is another vesicular volcanic rock that differs from pumice in having larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls and being dark colored and denser. (