Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles are covered with a lattice-like network of coat proteins, such as CLATHRIN, coat protein complex proteins, or CAVEOLINS.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the N-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A subtype of dynamin found expressed exclusively in the testis, lung and brain.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the C-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the C-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC and EC
A family of MARVEL domain-containing proteolipid proteins involved in vesicular trafficking cycling between the GOLGI COMPLEX and the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A family of proteins involved in intracellular membrane trafficking. They interact with SYNTAXINS and play important roles in vesicular docking and fusion during EXOCYTOSIS. Their name derives from the fact that they are related to Unc-18 protein, C elegans.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Transport of the OVUM or fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) from the mammalian oviduct (FALLOPIAN TUBES) to the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION in the UTERUS.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.

Exosome: from internal vesicle of the multivesicular body to intercellular signaling device. (1/1021)

Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that are secreted by a multitude of cell types as a consequence of fusion of multivesicular late endosomes/lysosomes with the plasma membrane. Depending on their origin, exosomes can play roles in different physiological processes. Maturing reticulocytes externalize obsolete membrane proteins such as the transferrin receptor by means of exosomes, whereas activated platelets release exosomes whose function is not yet known. Exosomes are also secreted by cytotoxic T cells, and these might ensure specific and efficient targeting of cytolytic substances to target cells. Antigen presenting cells, such as B lymphocytes and dendritic cells, secrete MHC class-I- and class-II-carrying exosomes that stimulate T cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, dendritic-cell-derived exosomes, when used as a cell-free vaccine, can eradicate established murine tumors. Although the precise physiological target(s) and functions of exosomes remain largely to be resolved, follicular dendritic cells (accessory cells in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs) have recently been shown to bind B-lymphocyte-derived exosomes at their cell surface, which supports the notion that exosomes play an immunoregulatory role. Finally, since exosomes are derived from multivesicular bodies, their molecular composition might provide clues to the mechanism of protein and lipid sorting in endosomes.  (+info)

Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on in vitro final oocyte maturation and ovarian steroidogenesis in striped bass, Morone saxatilis. (2/1021)

Recombinant human (rh) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was more potent than rhIGF-II at inducing in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), a marker for resumption of meiosis, in oocytes of striped bass. Treatment of ovarian fragments containing oocytes in intact follicles with rhIGF-I increased concentrations of estradiol-17beta and maturation-inducing steroid (MIS) 17,20beta, 21-trihydoxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20beta-S) in the culture medium and decreased testosterone levels. The follicles were too immature for oocytes to complete GVBD in response to 20beta-S (MIS incompetent) or hCG. Addition of 20beta-S to cultures did not increase the percentage of oocytes completing GVBD in response to rhIGF-I or rhIGF-II. Bovine insulin was without effect on GVBD or steroid production. Incubation of MIS-competent follicles with actinomycin D, cyanoketone, trilostane, 1-heptanol, or 1-octanol had no effect on rhIGF-I-induced GVBD, but attenuated hCG-induced GVBD and 20beta-S production. Cycloheximide inhibited rhIGF-I-induced GVBD. Collectively, these observations indicate that IGF-I can induce GVBD via MIS- and transcription-independent pathways without coupled gap junctions between oocytes and granulosa cells or among granulosa cells, but requires protein synthesis to do so. An rhIGF-I analogue that does not bind IGF-binding proteins, des(1,3)IGF-I, was more potent than rhIGF-I in inducing GVBD, suggesting ovarian IGF-binding proteins may inhibit IGF-I action.  (+info)

Microtubule and motor-dependent endocytic vesicle sorting in vitro. (3/1021)

Endocytic vesicles undergo fission to sort ligand from receptor. Using quantitative immunofluorescence and video imaging, we provide the first in vitro reconstitution of receptor-ligand sorting in early endocytic vesicles derived from rat liver. We show that to undergo fission, presegregation vesicles must bind to microtubules (MTs) and move upon addition of ATP. Over 13% of motile vesicles elongate and are capable of fission. After fission, one vesicle continues to move, whereas the other remains stationary, resulting in their separation. On average, almost 90% receptor is found in one daughter vesicle, whereas ligand is enriched by approximately 300% with respect to receptor in the other daughter vesicle. Although studies performed on polarity marked MTs showed approximately equal plus and minus end-directed motility, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that kinesins, but not dynein, were associated with these vesicles. Motility and fission were prevented by addition of 1 mM 5'-adenylylimido-diphosphate (AMP-PNP, an inhibitor of kinesins) or incubation with kinesin antibodies, but were unaffected by addition of 5 microM vanadate (a dynein inhibitor) or dynein antibodies. These studies indicate an essential role of kinesin-based MT motility in endocytic vesicle sorting, providing a system in which factors required for endocytic vesicle processing can be identified and characterized.  (+info)

TRAPP stimulates guanine nucleotide exchange on Ypt1p. (4/1021)

TRAPP, a novel complex that resides on early Golgi, mediates the targeting of ER-to-Golgi vesicles to the Golgi apparatus. Previous studies have shown that YPT1, which encodes the small GTP-binding protein that regulates membrane traffic at this stage of the secretory pathway, interacts genetically with BET3 and BET5. Bet3p and Bet5p are 2 of the 10 identified subunits of TRAPP. Here we show that TRAPP preferentially binds to the nucleotide-free form of Ypt1p. Mutants with defects in several TRAPP subunits are temperature-sensitive in their ability to displace GDP from Ypt1p. Furthermore, the purified TRAPP complex accelerates nucleotide exchange on Ypt1p. Our findings imply that Ypt1p, which is present on ER-to-Golgi transport vesicles, is activated at the Golgi once it interacts with TRAPP.  (+info)

Ordering the final events in yeast exocytosis. (5/1021)

In yeast, assembly of exocytic soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes between the secretory vesicle SNARE Sncp and the plasma membrane SNAREs Ssop and Sec9p occurs at a late stage of the exocytic reaction. Mutations that block either secretory vesicle delivery or tethering prevent SNARE complex assembly and the localization of Sec1p, a SNARE complex binding protein, to sites of secretion. By contrast, wild-type levels of SNARE complexes persist in the sec1-1 mutant after a secretory block is imposed, suggesting a role for Sec1p after SNARE complex assembly. In the sec18-1 mutant, cis-SNARE complexes containing surface-accessible Sncp accumulate in the plasma membrane. Thus, one function of Sec18p is to disassemble SNARE complexes on the postfusion membrane.  (+info)

Epidermal growth factor receptor distribution during chemotactic responses. (6/1021)

To determine the distribution of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) on the surface of cells responding to EGF as a chemoattractant, an EGFR-green fluorescent protein chimera was expressed in the MTLn3 mammary carcinoma cell line. The chimera was functional and easily visualized on the cell surface. In contrast to other studies indicating that the EGFR might be localized to certain regions of the plasma membrane, we found that the chimera is homogeneously distributed on the plasma membrane and becomes most concentrated in vesicles after endocytosis. In spatial gradients of EGF, endocytosed receptor accumulates on the upgradient side of the cell. Visualization of the binding of fluorescent EGF to cells reveals that the affinity properties of the receptor, together with its expression level on cells, can provide an initial amplification step in spatial gradient sensing.  (+info)

Permeability and channel-mediated transport of boric acid across membrane vesicles isolated from squash roots. (7/1021)

Boron is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and the boron content of plants differs greatly, but the mechanism(s) of its uptake into cells is not known. Boron is present in the soil solution as boric acid and it is in this form that it enters the roots. We determined the boron permeability coefficient of purified plasma membrane vesicles obtained from squash (Cucurbita pepo) roots and found it to be 3 x 10(-7) +/-1.4 x 10(-8) cm s(-1), six times higher than the permeability of microsomal vesicles. Boric acid permeation of the plasma membrane vesicles was partially inhibited (30%-39%) by mercuric chloride and phloretin, a non-specific channel blocker. The inhibition by mercuric chloride was readily reversible by 2-mercaptoethanol. The energy of activation for boron transport into the plasma membrane vesicles was 10.2 kcal mol(-1). Together these data indicate that boron enters plant cells in part by passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and in part through proteinaceous channels. Expression of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) PIP1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in a 30% increase in the boron permeability of the oocytes. Other MIPs tested (PIP3, MLM1, and GlpF) did not have this effect. We postulate that certain MIPs, like those that have recently been shown to transport small neutral solutes, may also be the channels through which boron enters plant cells.  (+info)

The Arabidopsis KNOLLE and KEULE genes interact to promote vesicle fusion during cytokinesis. (8/1021)

Partitioning of the cytoplasm during cytokinesis or cellularisation requires syntaxin-mediated membrane fusion [1-3]. Whereas in animals, membrane fusion promotes ingression of a cleavage furrow from the plasma membrane [4,5], somatic cells of higher plants form de novo a transient membrane compartment, the cell plate, which is initiated in the centre of the division plane and matures into a new cell wall and its flanking plasma membranes [6,7]. Cell plate formation results from the fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles delivered by a dynamic cytoskeletal array, the phragmoplast. Mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, KNOLLE (KN) and KEULE (KEU), cause abnormal seedlings with multinucleate cells and incomplete cell walls [1,8]. The KN gene encodes a cytokinesis-specific syntaxin which localises to the cell plate [9]. Here, we show that KN protein localisation is unaffected in keu mutant cells, which, like kn, display phragmoplast microtubules and accumulate ADL1 protein in the plane of cell division but vesicles fail to fuse with one another. Genetic interactions between KN and KEU were analysed in double mutant embryos. Whereas the haploid gametophytes gave rise to functional gametes, the embryos behaved like single cells displaying multiple, synchronously cycling nuclei, cell cycle-dependent microtubule arrays and ADL1 accumulation between pairs of daughter nuclei. This complete inhibition of cytokinesis from fertilisation indicates that KN and KEU, have partially redundant functions and interact specifically in vesicle fusion during cytokinesis of somatic cells.  (+info)

Abstract Super-resolution STED microcopy provides optical resolution beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution can be increased laterally (xy/2D) or axially (z/3D). 2D STED has been extensively used to elucidate the nanoscale membrane structure and dynamics, via imaging or combined with spectroscopy techniques such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and spectral imaging. On the contrary, z-STED has not been used in this context. Here, we show that a combination of z-STED with FCS or spectral imaging enables us to see previously unobservable aspects of cellular membranes. We show that thanks to an axial resolution of approximately 100 nm, z-STED can be used to distinguish axially close-by membranes, early endocytic vesicles or tubular membrane structures. Combination of z-STED with FCS and spectral imaging showed diffusion dynamics and lipid organization in these structures, respectively.
Drug developer vTv Therapeutics is moving forward with its plans for a public stock offering to support late-stage clinical development of its Alzheimers
Efficient and accurate protein secretion is a fundamental process that plays a pivotal role in the ability of al eukaryotic cells to function, grw and communica...
DB-ID: Database ID of variant, grouping multiple observations of the same variant together, starting with the HGNC gene symbol, followed by an underscore (_) and a six digit number (e.g. DMD_012345). _000000 is used for variants where DNA was not analysed (change predicted from RNA analysis), variants seen in animal models or variants not seen in humans but functionally tested in vitro ...
05 Mar 2020 vTv Therapeutics has potential to be strong player in up-and-coming oral drug market for type 1 diabetics Posted in Pharma vTv Therapeutics recently announced positive Phase 2 results for its oral antidiabetic drug, TTP-399, when used as an adjunct therapy to insulin in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. If the drug can show potential in allowing certain subsets of T1D patients
Golgi Dynamics. How can it happen that the resident proteins appear to remain in place while the transient proteins, destined for other sites in the cell, move through the organelle in a cis to trans direction?. Over the years a number of ideas have been put forth they fall into two general models.. 1. Vesicle Transport Model. This model assumes that the cisternae are essentially stationary and contain their resident proteins. The transient proteins are selected and concentrated in vesicles by the process of vesicle formation that is driven by coat proteins and their interaction with cargo receptor proteins as described in the last lecture. See vesicle formation animation for review of how this works.. These transport vesicles bud from the periphery of the Golgi cisterna as shown in the picture above, and then fuse with the appropriate target cisterna (trans to the point of origin) via the normal vesicle targeting process. In this manner a transient protein makes is way down the Golgi stack, cis ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Cells must be able to move molecules, digest particles, and secrete materials in order to survive. For many cellular functions, vesicles are used....
Page contains details about 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine vesicles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of membrane-enclosed vesicles, which play an important role in intercellular communication. Increasing number of studies have shown that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles might be involved in the transfer of oncogenic cargo (proteins, lipids, messenger RNA, microRNA, non-coding RNAs and DNA) through which cancer cells could shape the tumor microenvironment and influence tumor progression. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived extracellular vesicles have also reported to facilitate tumor proliferation, metastasis and immune escape. Moreover, nasopharyngeal carcinoma-derived extracellular vesicles might serve as biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapeutic targets. The present review provides information on the biological and clinical significance of extracellular vesicles in tumors, especially in nasopharyngeal carcinoma ...
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are small membrane vesicles derived from multivesicular bodies or from the plasma membrane. Most, if not all, cell types release extracellular vesicles, which then enter the bodily fluids. These vesicles contain a subset of proteins, lipids and nucleic aci …
Learn Basics of Extracellular Vesicles from Калифорнийский университет в Ирвайне. This course aims to provide the basic knowledge about extracellular vesicles (EV) a generic term including exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, ...
Recent studies suggest that extracellular vesicles may be the key to timely diagnosis and monitoring of genito-urological malignancies. In this study researchers investigated the composition and content of extracellular vesicles found in the urine of healthy donors and prostate cancer patients. Urine of 14 PCa patients
Pulmonary stenosis (PS) is a congenital heart disease characterized by a dynamic or fixed anatomic obstruction of blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arterial vasculature. In the present study, extracellular vesicle long RNAs (EVLRs) from pregnant females who had healthy infants or PS infants were analyzed by RNA sequencing, and their diagnostic potential for PS during pregnancy was evaluated. A method for the selection of genes that could be considered as informative for the prediction PS based on extracellular vesicles (EVs) from pregnant females using long‑read RNA sequencing was developed. Blood samples were collected from females carrying fetuses with PS and females carrying unaffected fetuses (n=6 in each group). Physical characterization of EVs was performed using nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. EVLRs from plasma were profiled by RNA sequencing and mRNA co‑expression modules were constructed by weighted gene ...
The EasySep™ Human Extracellular Vesicle (CD63) Positive Selection Kit is designed to isolate CD63+ extracellular vesicles from biofluids in less than 30 minutes.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid membrane vesicles released by cells. They carry active biomolecules including DNA, RNA, and protein which can be transferred to recipient cells. Isolation and purification of EVs from culture cell media and biofluids is still a major challenge. The most widely used isolation
View Notes - BIOS41_Lecture16_02222008 from BIOS 41 at Lehigh University. transport vesicles to their target membranes. 15_21_membr_fusion.jpg SNARE proteins play a central role in membrane fusion.
This article describes how extracellular vesicles are detected and the development of a robust and reproducible assay that overcomes previous limitations.
Hagiwara, K., Ochiya, T. and Kosaka, N. (2014) A Paradigm Shift for Extracellular Vesicles as Small RNA Carriers From Cellular Waste Elimination to Therapeutic Applications. Drug Delivery and Translational Research, 4, 31-37.
Evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) can play roles in physiology and pathology, providing impetus to explore their use as diagnostic and therapeutic targets
Viruses or extracellular vesicles were immunocaptured with 15 nm magnetic nanoparticles coupled to antibodies recognizing surface...
Osteikoetxea, X, et al. (2016) Extracellular vesicles in cardiovascular disease: are they Jedi or Sith?. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 2016 Jun 1; 594(11):2881-94. PM ID: ...
Researchers unravel the healing mechanisms of extracellular vesicles and demonstrate their healing power on a heart-on-a-chip - ScienceDaily - Apostz
Read The molecular characterization of transport vesicles, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
(2013) Hardij et al. Journal of Extracellular Vesicles. INTRODUCTION: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are shed from cells and carry markers of the parent cells. Vesicles derived from cancer cells reach the bloodstream and locally influence important physio...
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The compartmentalisation of mammalian cells allows the organisation of internal structures that have specific and distinct identity and function. Movement of components (proteins, lipids and solutes) between these structures is an ordered process, and occurs by the shuttling of membrane bound transport vesicles. Cargo is selectively incorporated into forming vesicles and targeted to their destination, where they fuse membranes with the acceptor compartment and deliver their cargo.. The machinery responsible for this targeted delivery needs to be returned to the original compartment to balance organelle homeostasis, and so these proteins are retrieved through a process of retrograde transport. Individual compartments are continually in a state of flux, and compartmental proteins and lipids are maintained through a balance of targeting, retention and retrieval. Components are continually moving between compartments, and it is the balance of traffic between them that defines the steady-state ...
The cells secrete extracellular vesicles (EV) which probably has its origins endosomal, or from evaginations of the plasma membrane. The former is usually called exosomes,. ...
Synaptic vesicle   In a neuron, synaptic vesicles, also called neurotransmitter vesicles, store the various neurotransmitters that are released during
GO:0006892. The directed movement of substances from the Golgi to other parts of the cell, including organelles and the plasma membrane, mediated by small transport vesicles. ...
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This Research Topic addresses the emerging role of extracellular vesicles in cellular communications and immune responses. We will emphasize their use as biomarkers (research tool to better understand extracellular vesicle functions) and immune modulators (therapeutic tool to suppress or enhance immune responses). Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are released in response to signals activating their parental cells. They are divided in two categories: small EVs (e.g. exosomes) and large EVs (e.g. microvesicles/ectosomes/microparticles). Small and large EVs differ in terms of size, release and budding mechanism, lipid and protein composition, and surface antigens. Research findings from the last decade suggest that EVs have an important, yet not completely understood, role in cell-cell communication. They can influence neighboring cells, act in an autocrine or paracrine manner, affect tumor growth, de novo-angiogenesis, and immunological functions. EVs are a novel and important tool to impact cell function and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myosin II is involved in the production of constitutive transport vesicles from the TGN. AU - Müsch, Anne. AU - Cohen, David. AU - Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique. PY - 1997/7/28. Y1 - 1997/7/28. N2 - The participation of nonmuscle myosins in the transport of organelles and vesicular carriers along actin filaments has been documented. In contrast, there is no evidence for the involvement of myosins in the production of vesicles involved in membrane traffic. Here we show that the putative TGN coat protein p200 (Narula, N., I. McMorrow, G. Plopper, J. Doherty, K.S. Matlin, B. Burke, and J.L. Stow. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 114: 1113- 1124) is myosin II. The recruitment of myosin II to Golgi membranes is dependent on actin and is regulated by G proteins. Using an assay that studies the release of transport vesicles from the TGN in vitro we provide functional evidence that p200/myosin is involved in the assembly of basolateral transport vesicles carrying vesicular stomatitis virus G protein ...
Extracellular Vesicles (EVs), membrane vesicles released by all cells, are emerging mediators of cell-cell communication. By carrying biomolecules from tissues to biofluids, EVs have attracted attention as non-invasive sources of clinical biomarkers in liquid biopsies. EVs-based liquid biopsies usually require EVs isolation before content analysis, which frequently increases sample volume requirements. We here present a Flow Cytometry (FC) strategy that does not require isolation or concentration of EVs prior to staining. By doing so, it enables population analysis of EVs in samples characterized by challenging small volumes, while reducing overall sample processing time. To illustrate its application, we performed longitudinal non-lethal population analysis of EVs in mouse plasma and in single-animal collections of murine vitreous humor. By quantifying the proportion of vesicular particles in purified and non-purified biological samples, this method also serves as a precious tool to quality control
In the 1980s, exosomes were described as vesicles of endosomal origin secreted from reticulocytes. Interest increased around these extracellular vesicles, as they appeared to participate in several cellular processes. Exosomes bear proteins, lipids, and RNAs, mediating intercellular communication be …
Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) are lipid vesicles secreted by cells that allow intercellular communication. They are decorated with surface proteins, which are membrane proteins that can be targeted by biochemical techniques to isolate EVs from background particles. EVs have recently attracted attention for their pot
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), nanoparticles originated from different cell types, seem to be implicated in several cellular activities. In the Central Nervous System (CNS), glia and neurons secrete EVs and recent studies have demonstrated that the intercellular communication mediated by EVs has versatile functional impact in the cerebral homeostasis. This essential role may be due to their proteins and RNAs cargo that possibly modify the phenotypes of the targeted cells. Despite the increasing importance of EVs, little is known about their fluctuations in physiological as well as in pathological conditions. Furthermore, only few studies have investigated the contents of contemporary EVs subgroups (microvesicles, MVs and exosomes, EXOs) with the purpose of discriminating between their features and functional roles. In order to possibly shed light on these issues, we performed a pilot study in which MVs and EXOs extracted from serum samples of a little cohort of subjects (patients with the first clinical
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, have emerged as promising drug delivery vehicles for small RNAs (siRNA and miRNA) due to their natural role in intercellular RNA...
Communication between dying cells and their environment is a critical process that promotes tissue homeostasis during normal cellular turnover, whilst during disease settings, it can contribute to inflammation through the release of intracellular factors. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous class of membrane-bound cell-derived structures that can engage in intercellular communication via the trafficking of bioactive molecules between cells and tissues. In addition to the well-described functions of EVs derived from living cells, the ability of dying cells to release EVs capable of mediating functions on target cells or tissues is also of significant interest. In particular, during inflammatory settings such as acute tissue injury, infection and autoimmunity, the EV-mediated transfer of proinflammatory cargo from dying cells is an important process that can elicit profound proinflammatory effects in recipient cells and tissues. Furthermore, the biogenesis of EVs via unique cell-death
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extracellular vesicles (EVs) show promise as a source of neurological disease biomarkers, although their precise origin is poorly understood. Current extraction techniques produce disappointing yield and purity. This study describes the application of ultrafiltration LC (UFLC) to CSF-EVs, compared with ultracentrifugation (UC), and explores CSF-EV origin. EVs are extracted from human CSF by UC and UFLC and characterized using nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, and immunoblotting. EV and CSF proteomes are analyzed by LC-MS/MS. UFLC-isolated particles have size, morphology, and marker expression characteristic of EVs. UFLC provides greater EV yield (UFLC 7.90 × 108 ± SD 1.31 × 108 EVs mL-1 CSF, UC 1.06 × 108 ± 0.57 × 108 p | 0.001). UFLC enhances purity, proteomic depth (UFLC 622 ± 49, UC 298 ± 50, p = 0.001), and consistency of quantification (CV 17% vs 23%). EVs contain more intracellular proteins (Odds ratio [OR] 2.63 p | 0.001) and fewer plasma
Table_7_Extracellular Vesicles Mediate Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Dependent Regulation of B Cell PI3K-AKT Signaling Pathway and Actin Cytoskeleton.DOCX
Arakelyan, A, Fitzgerald, W & Vagida, M. (2016) Addition of thrombin reduces the recovery of extracellular vesicles from blood plasma. Journal of Circulating Biomarkers. 2016 Oct 4;:1-5. Link: Journal of Circulating ...
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by mammalian cells and are thought to be important mediators of intercellular communication. There are many methods for isolating EVs from cell culture...
Editorial: The Immunomodulatory Properties of Extracellular Vesicles From Pathogens, Immune Cells, and Non-immune Cells Editorial Article ...
article{f64bcde2-c38f-4648-bf1a-09a66e77e807, abstract = {,p,Extracellular vesicles are cell-derived membrane particles ranging from 30 to 5,000 nm in size, including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. They are released under physiological conditions, but also upon cellular activation, senescence, and apoptosis. They play an important role in intercellular communication. Their release may also maintain cellular integrity by ridding the cell of damaging substances. This review describes the biogenesis, uptake, and detection of extracellular vesicles in addition to the impact that they have on recipient cells, focusing on mechanisms important in the pathophysiology of kidney diseases, such as thrombosis, angiogenesis, tissue regeneration, immune modulation, and inflammation. In kidney diseases, extracellular vesicles may be utilized as biomarkers, as they are detected in both blood and urine. Furthermore, they may contribute to the pathophysiology of renal disease while also having ...
Description: The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multi-protein complex essential for the polarized targeting of exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and the functions of the exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be highly conserved in higher eukaryotes. At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal remodeling and vesicle transport machinery. This interaction has been shown to mediate filopodia formation in fibroblasts. This protein has been shown to interact with the Ral subfamily of GTPases and thereby mediate exocytosis by tethering vesicles to the plasma membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants ...
Product Pig Charged multivesicular body protein 2b(CHMP2B) ELISA kit From B-Gene - A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Porcine Charged multivesicular body protein 2b(CHMP2B) in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species. Kit contents: 1. MICROTITER PLATE * 1 2. ENZYME CONJUGATE*1 vial 3. STANDARD A*1 vial 4. STANDARD B*1 vial 5. STANDARD C*1 vial 6. STANDARD D*1 vial 7. STANDARD E*1 vial 8. STANDARD F*1 vial 9. SUBSTRATE A*1 vial 10. SUBSTRATE B*1 vial 11. STOP SOLUTION*1 vial 12. WASH SOLUTION (100 x)*1 vial 13. BALANCE SOLUTION*1 vial 14. INSTRUCTION*1
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Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem worldwide. Its growing burden is particularly ominous in Asia, due to increasing rates of
Our group uses an integrated systems biology approach to understand extracellular communication in the context of the tumour microenvironment and uterine development.
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View data on how to consistently obtain purely concentrated EVs with enough yield for subsequent proteomic, genomic, and transcriptomic analyses.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rho-kinase is required for myosin-II-mediated vesicle transport during M-phase in extracts of clam oocytes.. AU - Wöllert, Torsten. AU - DePina, Ana S.. AU - DeSelm, Carl J.. AU - Langford, George M. PY - 2003/10. Y1 - 2003/10. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 14583526. AN - SCOPUS:0642336968. VL - 205. SP - 195. EP - 197. JO - Biological Bulletin. JF - Biological Bulletin. SN - 0006-3185. IS - 2. ER - ...
Background Enumeration of extracellular vesicles has clinical potential as a biomarker for disease. In biological samples, the smallest and largest vesicles typically differ 25-fold in size, 300,000-fold in concentration, 20,000-fold … ...
Vesicle (v) and target (t) SNAREs reside on opposing membranes. (A) In response to stimulus the vesicle translocates near to the target membrane and the four SN
What is the difference between Vesicle and Vacuole? Vesicles are found in eukaryotic cells while vacuoles are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
The vesicle simulation is available in two forms, one having enough for about one and a half vesicles (vesicle.obj) and the other having enough for about three (vesicle2.obj). Both can use either the vesicle_hub.tmpl or the vesicle_no_hub.tmpl template files (the first contains a sphere at the centre of each clathrin and is more polished visually, the second is faster). Note that in some runs of the simulation many fragments of vesicles form, rather than the few complete structures ...
A vesicle is a small structure consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer. Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion (exocytosis), uptake (endocytosis) and transport of materials within the cytoplasm or between cells, and exist both within the cell and in the extracellular space ...
when the contents of a vesicle are released by the cell what is it called? plz help me with this problem?. Exocytosis I believe. . thanks you are t...
Page contains details about rhodamine B-loaded bolaamphiphilic molecule-derived vesicles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles :
Models for Tsg101 recruitment and activation during MVB and HIV budding. (A) Model illustrating sites of Tsg101/Hrs interaction and a possible activation mechan
Dynein transports vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. In order to do this, dynein molecules bind organelle ... In this manner, they can facilitate the transport of proteins, vesicles and organelles along the apical-basal axis of the cell ... Kinesin is involved in the transport of a variety of intracellular cargoes, including vesicles, organelles, protein complexes, ... The C protein plays an important role in the retrograde transport of vesicles and is also known as cytoplasmic dynein. MAP-2 ...
... myosin transports cargo-containing membrane vesicles along actin filaments. The SLC46A3 protein contains a signal peptide that ... The protein works via secondary active transport, where the energy for transport is provided by an electrochemical gradient. A ... It is mainly involved in the transport of small molecules across the membrane through the substrate translocation pores ... SLC46A3 may be involved in plasma membrane electron transport (PMET), a plasma membrane analog of the mitochondrial electron ...
Implication in dynein-dependent vesicle transport". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30065-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30065. PMID ... 2004). "Receptor (CD155)-dependent endocytosis of poliovirus and retrograde axonal transport of the endosome". J. Virol. 78 (13 ... type 1 capsid protein VP26 interacts with dynein light chains RP3 and Tctex1 and plays a role in retrograde cellular transport ...
Implication in dynein-dependent vesicle transport". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30065-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30065. PMID ... it does not in fact change the calcium dependence of spontaneous synaptic vesicle release and thus can not be the calcium ... sensor for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles However, further work has shown that while DOC2b is both important for spontaneous ... "DOC2B acts as a calcium switch and enhances vesicle fusion". J Neurosci. 28 (27): 6794-806. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0538-08.2008 ...
Implication in dynein-dependent vesicle transport". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (46): 30065-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.46.30065. PMID ...
SP is synthesized by neurons and transported to synaptic vesicles; the release of SP is accomplished through the depolarizing ...
Kuo SM, Aronson PS (June 1996). "Pathways for oxalate transport in rabbit renal microvillus membrane vesicles". The Journal of ... exchange mechanism in the human proximal colonic apical membrane vesicles and its possible role in chloride transport". ... Under this model, a third transport process is required that functions as a method of recycling oxalate back into the cell, and ... Knauf F, Velazquez H, Pfann V, Jiang Z, Aronson PS (January 2019). "Characterization of renal NaCl and oxalate transport in ...
... I vesicles Clathrin vesicles Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase#ER to Golgi transport Exomer Coat+Protein+Complex+I ... This type of transport[clarification needed] is retrograde transport, in contrast to the anterograde transport associated with ... COPI is a coatomer, a protein complex that coats vesicles transporting proteins from the cis end of the Golgi complex back to ... 1997). "Bidirectional transport by distinct populations of COPI-coated vesicles". Cell. 90 (2): 335-49. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674( ...
Transport occurs via vesicles and monomeric transport in the cytosol. Sphingolipids are virtually absent from mitochondria and ... van Meer G, Lisman Q (July 2002). "Sphingolipid transport: rafts and translocators". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 ( ... were originally proposed to sort membrane proteins along the cellular pathways of membrane transport. At present, most research ...
There is a prominent low-pH folate transport activity in the cells and/or membrane vesicles derived from these tissues which, ... Horne, DW; Reed, KA; Hoefs, J; Said, HM (July 1993). "5-Methyltetrahydrofolate transport in basolateral membrane vesicles from ... "Folate binding and transport by rat kidney brush-border membrane vesicles". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes ... PCFT-mediated transport into cells is optimal at pH 5.5. The low-pH activity and the structural specificity of PCFT (high ...
VAT1L: encoding protein Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T. californica)-like ... TANGO6: encoding protein Transport and Golgi organization protein 6 homolog. *TAO2: encoding Serine/threonine-protein kinase ...
Schroer TA, Sheetz MP (December 1991). "Two activators of microtubule-based vesicle transport". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... Schroer TA, Sheetz MP (December 1991). "Two activators of microtubule-based vesicle transport". The Journal of Cell Biology. ... dynein-driven vesicle transport in the absence of membrane proteins: a role for spectrin and acidic phospholipids". Molecular ... In addition to transport of various organelles in the cytoplasm, dynactin also links kinesin II to organelles. Motor protein ...
"Substituted quinolines as inhibitors of L-glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles". Neuropharmacology. 37 (7): 839-46. doi: ... thereby preventing the movement of glutamate from the cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles, an action that it mediates via ...
Choi SI, Vidal R, Frangione B, Levy E (2004). "Axonal transport of British and Danish amyloid peptides via secretory vesicles ...
With KIF1A functioning to transport synaptic vesicle precursors (SVPs) and dense core vesicles (DCVs) along neurons, defects in ... transport of cargo. The main function of KIF1A is the long-distance transport of membranous cargo, such as synaptic vesicle ... KIF1A is known to transport Rab3-coated vesicles in the axon. Rab3 functions as a synaptic vesicle protein that controls the ... Further investigations of how the PtdIns(4,5)P2 lipid subdomain facilitates KIF1A vesicle transport led to the idea that this ...
"Substituted quinolines as inhibitors of L-glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles". Neuropharmacology. 37 (7): 839-46. doi: ... 7-CKA also acts as a potent inhibitor of the reuptake of glutamate into synaptic vesicles (or as a vesicular glutamate reuptake ...
... V is involved in the transport of cargo (e.g. RNA, vesicles, organelles, mitochondria) from the center of the cell to ... Myosin I, a ubiquitous cellular protein, functions as monomer and functions in vesicle transport. It has a step size of 10 nm ... Myosin VI is thought to transport endocytic vesicles into the cell. Myosin VII is an unconventional myosin with two FERM ... Known functions include: transporting phagosomes to the nucleus and perturbing the developmentally regulated elimination of the ...
VMATs transport monoamines from the cytosol into high-concentration storage vesicles. Transport vesicles are released into the ... This conformation occurs after the transport of one proton across the membrane and into the vesicle; proton transport drives ... is a transport protein integrated into the membrane of synaptic vesicles of presynaptic neurons. It acts to transport monoamine ... accumulates in synaptic vesicles and offsets the proton electrochemical gradient in the vesicle that drives monoamine transport ...
vesicle docking. • retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi. • Golgi vesicle transport. • protein transport. • vesicle fusion. • ... vesicle-mediated transport. • intracellular protein transport. • endocytic recycling. • synaptic vesicle to endosome fusion. ... phagocytic vesicle. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • clathrin-coated vesicle. • trans-Golgi network. • integral component ... synaptic vesicle. • integral component of synaptic vesicle membrane. • endomembrane system. Biological process. • regulation of ...
... that regulates the fusing of the vesicle to the plasma membrane and the release of its contents. The vesicle is transported to ... This is the vesicle that allows the particles that were endocytosed to be transported into the lysosome. Here there are ... The vesicles would have formed regardless of whether or not the receptors and ligand were there. This is why it is still a ... The vesicle will eventually travel to the plasma membrane and fuse with it. The contents of the cell will be released into the ...
The enzymes are packed into vesicles for further transport to established lysosomes. The late endosome itself can eventually ... Vacuolar-ATPases are responsible for transport of protons, while the counter transport of chloride ions is performed by ClC-7 ... The enzymes are trafficked from the Golgi apparatus to lysosomes in small vesicles, which fuse with larger acidic vesicles. ... They are spherical vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down many kinds of biomolecules. A lysosome has a ...
In melanocytes, melanosomes (vesicles containing the pigment melanin) are transported on microtubules. They are then bound by ... something that also depends on vesicle transport). While, the knockout of myosin Va does not cause immunodeficiency, but it ... This transfer is necessary for the transport of melanosomes from the perinuclear area to the cell periphery. The loss of any ... Griscelli syndrome is a disorder of melanosome transport, and divided into several types: Management and treatment is depended ...
Both glycoproteins and glycolipids are transported into vesicles to the plasma membrane. The cell releases secretory proteins ... The two main pathways are passive transport and active transport. Passive transport is more direct and does not require the use ... Active transport uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to transport a substance that moves against its concentration gradient.[page ... The receptor proteins that are attached to the specific solutes go inside coated pits, forming a vesicle. The vesicles then ...
VMAT2 transports monoamine neurotransmitters from the cytosol of monoamine neurons into vesicles. Developmental biologist and ... In the brain, VMAT2 proteins are located on synaptic vesicles. ...
2000). "Pantophysin is a phosphoprotein component of adipocyte transport vesicles and associates with GLUT4-containing vesicles ... "Pantophysin is a ubiquitously expressed synaptophysin homologue and defines constitutive transport vesicles". J. Cell Biol. 134 ... 1999). "Tissue expression of the vesicle protein pantophysin". Cell Tissue Res. 296 (3): 499-510. doi:10.1007/s004410051310. ... "Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a novel protein related to the neuronal vesicle protein synaptophysin". Biochim. Biophys. ...
After synthesis, hemicelluloses are transported to the plasma membrane via Golgi vesicles. Each kind of hemicellulose is ...
Protein targeting Vesicle (biology) COPI COPII Mass flow 1. Rothman J.E. and Weiland F.T. Protein sorting by transport vesicles ... In other words, bulk transport is a type of transport which involves the transport of large amount of substance like lipid ... Special processes are involved in the transport of such large quantities of materials, which include endocytosis and exocytosis ...
This pathway is referred to as retrograde transport. Before the COP I protein can coat vesicles on the Golgi membrane, it must ... COP II is a coatomer that coats the vesicles transporting proteins from the ER to the golgi complex. This pathway is referred ... Once the vesicle is coated, it begins to travel to the ER. Before the vesicle can fuse with the ER membrane, the coats ... The coatomer is a protein complex that coats membrane-bound transport vesicles. Two types of coatomers are known: COPI ( ...
TC1 is transported to the cell membrane by intracellular vesicles via microtubules. Mutations in the SLC19A2 gene can cause ... Thiamine transport is not inhibited by other organic cations nor affected by sodium ion concentration; it is stimulated by a ...
Vesicles (air bubbles) can be seen throughout the clast. Plane light above, cross-polarized light below. Scale box is 0.25 mm. ... An example of clastic environment would be a river system in which the full range of grains being transported by the moving ... As sediment transport and deposition continues, new sediments are deposited atop previously deposited beds burying them. Burial ... Geologists use the term clastic with reference to sedimentary rocks as well as to particles in sediment transport whether in ...
These proteins mainly transport chemicals and information across the membrane.[3]. The membrane contains many proteins. The ... Transmission electron microscope (TEM) image of a lipid vesicle. The two dark bands around the edge are the two leaflets of the ...
5 Ribosome on the rough ER 6 Proteins that are transported 7 Transport vesicle 8 Golgi apparatus 9 Cis face of the Golgi ... It is the transport network for molecules going to specific places, as compared to molecules that float freely in the cytoplasm ...
otic vesicle development. • metanephric distal convoluted tubule development. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell ... cell polarity and transport, cell motility and adhesion.[8] ... seminal vesicle, epididymis, pancreatic islet cells and ...
cytoplasmic vesicle. • cytoplasm. • plasma membrane. • cell cortex. • integral component of membrane. • azurophil granule ... L-glutamate transport. • brain morphogenesis. • Notch signaling pathway. • negative regulation of protein phosphorylation. • ... synaptic vesicle. • macromolecular complex. • sarcolemma. • synapse. • synaptic membrane. • integral component of presynaptic ... choline transport. • positive regulation of apoptotic process. • Notch receptor processing. • negative regulation of protein ...
dopamine transport. • hippocampus development. • response to drug. • neuronal action potential. • long-term synaptic ... positive regulation of potassium ion transport. • response to amphetamine. • научение. • пищевое поведение. • long term ... "Immunohistochemical localization of the D1 dopamine receptor in rat brain reveals its axonal transport, pre- and postsynaptic ...
for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۸۱] ...
cytoplasmic vesicle. • extracellular region. • extracellular. • synaptic vesicle. • axon. • dendrite. Biological process. • ... Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M (June 2007). "BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to dendrites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA ... In pre-synaptic neurons, actins are involved in synaptic vesicle recruitment and vesicle recovery following neurotransmitter ... BDNF is made in the endoplasmic reticulum and secreted from dense-core vesicles. It binds carboxypeptidase E (CPE), and the ...
... towards the telencephalic vesicle.[1] After reaching the telencephalic vesicle, a small layer of cells and axons cover the ... to label and track these transport-mediated cells via MRI.[13] The experiment resulted in an OEC labeling efficiency of more ... vesicle. Olfactory axons invade the basal lamina of the glia limitans and the olfactory bulb to create the olfactory nerve and ...
... are used to build small vesicles in order to transport molecules within cells. The endocytosis and exocytosis of vesicles ... After a vesicle buds into the cytoplasm, the coat rapidly disassembles, allowing the clathrin to recycle while the vesicle gets ... In non-dividing cells, the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles occurs continuously. Formation of clathrin-coated vesicles is ... micrographs of vesicle budding. *^ Ford MG, Pearse BM, Higgins MK, Vallis Y, Owen DJ, Gibson A, Hopkins CR, Evans PR, McMahon ...
Sec24C is required for docking the prechylomicron transport vesicle with the Golgi. The Journal of Lipid Research, 51, 2010, ... Külomikronite transport (ka liikumine) soolest ja lümfist verre on aeglane protsess. Vere rasvainete sisaldus on suurim umbes 3 ... Külomikronite kaudu toimub söödud rasvainete imendumine (soolte kaudu) ning transport veres ja lümfis [1]. Külomikronid ...
vesicle membrane. • actin cytoskeleton. • extracellular exosome. • cytoskeleton. • cytosol. • actin filament. • phagocytic ... endosomal transport. • actin filament polymerization. • regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation. • immune ... vesicle. Biological process. • defense response. • Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis. • protein ...
In males the vas deferens and seminal vesicles may be absent, while in females the uterus and upper vagina may be absent. Other ... Therefore, the means by which the fetus produces urine and transports it to the bladder for excretion into the amniotic sac has ...
... mRNA axon transport, neurite outgrowth during development, and neuromuscular junction formation. The causal function loss in ... the major synaptic vesicle protein-encoding gene, has been shown to be hypermethylated and thus repressed, and transcription ... SAHA treatment increased alpha-tubulin lysine 40 acetylation in mouse striatal cells and also increased intracellular transport ... "Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition compensates for the transport deficit in Huntington's disease by increasing tubulin ...
endocytic vesicle. • integral component of plasma membrane. • plasma membrane. Biological process. • hormone secretion. • ... regulation of glucose transport. • negative regulation of inflammatory response. • fat cell differentiation. • signal ...
After the fat is absorbed, the bile is also absorbed and transported back to the liver for reuse. ... Chyle is then transported through the lymphatic system to the rest of the body. ...
The endocannabinoid transporters (eCBTs) are transport proteins for the endocannabinoids. Most neurotransmitters are water- ... "Anandamide Externally Added to Lipid Vesicles Containing-Trapped Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Is Readily Hydrolyzed in a ... The blockade of anandamide transport may, at least in part, be the mechanism through which these compounds exert their anti- ... Fowler, Christopher J. (2013-05-01). "Transport of endocannabinoids across the plasma membrane and within the cell". FEBS ...
A major event in the budding of vesicles, such as transport carriers from the Golgi, is the creation and subsequent narrowing ... PA is known to play roles in both vesicle fission[11] and fusion,[12] and these roles may relate to the biophysical properties ... For example, PA may be involved in vesicle formation by promoting membrane curvature and by recruiting the proteins to carry ...
Racker, Efraim; Stoeckenius, Walther (1974). "Reconstitution of Purple Membrane Vesicles Catalyzing Light-driven Proton Uptake ... the transport and storage form of vitamin A ...
TAAR1 activity appears to depress monoamine transport and limit dopaminergic and serotonergic neuronal firing rates via ... Such a co-localization would not require release from vesicles and could explain why the TAs do not appear to be found there ( ... Phosphorylated DAT then either operates in reverse or withdraws into the axon terminal and ceases transport.[33][34] ... and p-TA may be stored in vesicles while PEA and T are not (25-27). ... the antidepressant effects of exercise have been ...
Biological transportEdit. Cystine serves as a substrate for the cystine-glutamate antiporter. This transport system, which is ... and vesicles) and extracellular spaces (e.g., ECM). Under reductive conditions (in the cytoplasm, nucleus, etc.) cysteine is ... In this system, the anionic form of cystine is transported in exchange for glutamate. Cystine is quickly reduced to cysteine.[ ...
Water may transport these chemicals rapidly over great distances. Because of the role played by water, metamorphic rocks ... and in many contact-altered lavas the vesicles are still visible, though their contents have usually entered into new ...
ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport. • blood coagulation, extrinsic pathway. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. ...
... it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated endocytosis. The pH of the vesicle is reduced ... vesicle. • HFE-transferrin receptor complex. • late endosome. • blood microparticle. • basal part of cell. • endocytic vesicle ... ion transport. • retina homeostasis. • iron ion transport. • cellular iron ion homeostasis. • membrane organization. • ferrous ... clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • endoplasmic reticulum lumen. Biological process. • positive ...
Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or the tumor ... The protein ZIP1 is responsible for the active transport of zinc into prostate cells. One of the zinc's important roles is to ... Strategies which transport zinc into transformed prostate cells effectively eliminate these cells in animals. Zinc inhibits NF- ... Aumüller, G. (1979). Prostate Gland and Seminal Vesicles. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.. ...
vesicle-mediated transport. • signal transduction. • positive regulation of MAPK cascade. • positive regulation of JNK cascade ...
Inherited disorders of trafficking / vesicular transport proteins. Vesicle formation. Lysosome/Melanosome:. *HPS1-HPS7 * ...
... use cyclic electron transport driven by a series of redox reactions.[5] Light-harvesting complexes surrounding ... and pigment-binding proteins are invaginated to form vesicle sacs, tubules, or single-paired or stacked lamellar sheets.[3][4] ... Alastair G. McEwan (March 1994). "Photosynthetic electron transport and anaerobic metabolism in purple non-sulfur phototrophic ... "Modeling the electron transport chain of purple non-sulfur bacteria". Molecular Systems Biology. 4: 156. doi:10.1038/ ...
... synthesis and vesicular GABA transport into synaptic vesicles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ... helps package GABA into vesicles for release during neurotransmission.[9] GAD67 is transcribed during early development, while ...
... This site provides information about vesicles and how these small compartments ... There is also a video that shows how vesicles look when they expel their contents outside of the cell, a real-time video that ... There is also a video that shows how vesicles look when they expel their contents outside of the cell, a real-time video that ... This site provides information about vesicles and how these small compartments carry various materials throughout the cell. ...
The cargo in vacuolar storage protein transport vesicles is stratified.. Wenzel D1, Schauermann G, von Lüpke A, Hinz G. ... Although soluble cargo proteins of the dense vesicles, they show a stratified distribution in the lumen of the dense vesicles. ... SBP follows the same vesicular route into the PSV as the main storage proteins legumin and vicilin, via the dense-vesicles. ... Whereas it is known that sorting into the lytic vacuole is performed via the conserved clathrin-coated vesicle pathway, sorting ...
The system transported glucose, but not fructose more rapidly in the presence of a sodium gradient; it transported D-glucose ... We describe here some properties of monosaccharide transport from phospholipid vesicles into which brush border proteins ... The major barrier to absorption is the brush border membrane of the epithelial cells across which glucose is transported ... against its concentration gradient in a sodium-coupled transport system. ...
Stress relaxation properties of the matrix as well as water transport through aquaporin-1 enable extracellular vesicles to ... Here we show that, in contrast to synthetic nanoparticles, EVs readily transport through nanoporous ECM. Using engineered ... Our results provide evidence for the nature of EV transport within confined environments and demonstrate an unexpected ... Furthermore, water permeation through aquaporin-1 mediates the EV deformability, which further supports EV transport in ...
Recent advances in understanding the machinery of vesicle transport have established general principles that underlie a broad ...
Here we report that one putative AZ precursor vesicle of CNS synapses-the Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicle (PTV)- … ... sites of neurotransmitter release-may be assembled from preassembled AZ precursor vesicles inserted into the presynaptic plasma ... Here we report that one putative AZ precursor vesicle of CNS synapses-the Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicle (PTV)-carries a ... Unitary assembly of presynaptic active zones from Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicles Neuron. 2003 Apr 24;38(2):237-52. doi: ...
... rough ER to cis-Golgi transport, rough ER to cis-Golgi vesicle-mediated transport, ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport View ... anterograde vesicle-mediated transport, endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi, anterograde vesicle-mediated transport, ER to Golgi, ... endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport, endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport, ER to Golgi transport, ... anterograde (ER to Golgi) transport, anterograde transport, endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi, anterograde transport, ER to Golgi ...
Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport. D Sulzer, TK Chen, YY ... Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport ... Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport ... Amphetamine redistributes dopamine from synaptic vesicles to the cytosol and promotes reverse transport ...
If NO inhibits axonal transport of synaptic vesicle precursors, it should inhibit axonal transport of other synaptic proteins ... Breakdown of Axonal Synaptic Vesicle Precursor Transport by Microglial Nitric Oxide. Massimiliano Stagi, Petra S. Dittrich, ... Breakdown of Axonal Synaptic Vesicle Precursor Transport by Microglial Nitric Oxide. Massimiliano Stagi, Petra S. Dittrich, ... Breakdown of Axonal Synaptic Vesicle Precursor Transport by Microglial Nitric Oxide Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
... was investigated in rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles. ATP-dependent transport was dependent on time and temperature and ... The ATP-dependent transport of beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) (E217G), a cholestatic metabolite of estradiol, ... ATP-dependent transport of beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) in rat canalicular membrane vesicles Am J Physiol. 1996 Nov; ... was investigated in rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles. ATP-dependent transport was dependent on time and temperature and ...
And is transport active or passive? Biochemists have long speculate on the mechanistic details of the ammonium transport family ... Using artificial lipid vesicles, biochemists show how membrane proteins transport ammonium. June 30, 2014, Albert Ludwigs ... "Direct observation of electrogenic NH4+ transport in ammonium transport (Amt) proteins," PNAS 2014; published ahead of print ... Imaging the transport of substances in living cells reveals new sorting stations for proteins. March 11, 2014 The epithelium ...
Dithiocarbamate Pesticides Affect Glutamate Transport in Brain Synaptic Vesicles. Andrea Vaccari, Pierluigi Saba, Ignazia Mocci ... Dithiocarbamate Pesticides Affect Glutamate Transport in Brain Synaptic Vesicles. Andrea Vaccari, Pierluigi Saba, Ignazia Mocci ... Dithiocarbamate Pesticides Affect Glutamate Transport in Brain Synaptic Vesicles. Andrea Vaccari, Pierluigi Saba, Ignazia Mocci ... Dithiocarbamate Pesticides Affect Glutamate Transport in Brain Synaptic Vesicles Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
2014 The vesicle protein SAM-4 regulates the processivity of synaptic vesicle transport. PLoS Genet. 10: e1004644. ... Time-lapse video microscopy of dense core vesicle and synaptic vesicle active transport in live animals. File S1 provides ... A second distinct role for synapse-assembly proteins in regulating the transport of synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles. ... 2008 Identification of an axonal kinesin-3 motor for fast anterograde vesicle transport that facilitates retrograde transport ...
Synaptotagmin I and IV define distinct populations of neuronal transport vesicles.. Authors: Berton F; Cornet V; Iborra C; ... In subcellular fractionation, synaptotagmin IV was not detected in the synaptic vesicle-enriched fraction. Immunofluorescence ...
LMAN1:MCFD2 [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * MCFD2 [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo ... hexameric LMAN1:MCFD2 [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * MCFD2 [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane ... hexameric LMAN1:MCFD2 [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * MCFD2 [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane ... hexameric LMAN1:MCFD2 [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * MCFD2 [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane ...
Then proteins are packaged into vesicles which bud of from the ER and transported to the cis-Golgi and fuse with it. The ... Transport between the organelles of the secretory pathway occurs by budding of vesicles from a donor membrane and fusion with ... It transports proteins to the extracellular space or to the vacuole. All proteins which are secreted are synthesized at the ... Der Transport zwischen den einzelnen Organellen, die in der Sekretion involviert sind, findet via Vesikel statt, die sich von ...
We report the glutathione-triggered release of an anticancer drug from vesicles constructed with peptide amphiphiles (PAs) ... peptide amphiphile vesicles rationally designed using positionable disulfide-bridges for effective drug transport† ... These included vesicles and two-dimensional sheets as functions of the cysteine (C) position in the PA, despite the use of the ... dimethylformamide led to morphological changes into the vesicles. Interestingly, the PA vesicles demonstrated markedly ...
Involved in vesicular transport from the late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. Along with VAMP7, involved in an non- ... These interactions are proposed to mediate aspects of the specificity of vesicle trafficking and to promote fusion of the lipid ... V-SNARE that mediates vesicle transport pathways through interactions with t-SNAREs on the target membrane. ... ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport Source: ParkinsonsUK-UCL. *Golgi ribbon formation Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from ...
There may be other contributing factors, for example, the speed of vesicle transport and, obviously if bidirectional transport ... and we have proposed a role for the tethering factor Vesicle Transport (YusoU is transport in Japanese) factor; yeast ... numerous vesicles including COPII vesicles accumulate in the cytosol (Novick et al., 1980). However, releasing free vesicles in ... Vesicles versus Tubes: Is Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Transport in Plants Fundamentally Different from Other Eukaryotes?. David ...
Calcium Transport in Tonoplast and Endoplasmic Reticulum Vesicles Isolated from Cultured Carrot Cells. Daniel R. Bush, Heven ... Ca2+ transport in membrane vesicles derived from isolated vacuoles equilibrated at 1.10 grams per cubic centimeter and ... Calcium Transport in Tonoplast and Endoplasmic Reticulum Vesicles Isolated from Cultured Carrot Cells ... Two active calcium (Ca2+) transport systems have been identified and partially characterized in membrane vesicles isolated from ...
... is engaged in the synthesis of ER transport vesicles that recondition cell organelles, and the inner leaflet (IL) SPT in the ... in signal-specific and selective assembly of the transport vesicles. Here, we reveal that SPT, embedded in the outer leaflet ( ... The OL SPT impacts assembly of sphingomyelinase (SMase)-susceptible ER vesicles but not the SMase-resistant and sphingolipid ( ... SPhL) core-carrying vesicles that refurbish the cell membrane. The investigation of the SPT-initiated differences in the ...
Na+ gradient-dependent p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport in rat basolateral membrane vesicles.. J S Kasher, P D Holohan and C R ... Na+ gradient-dependent p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport in rat basolateral membrane vesicles.. J S Kasher, P D Holohan and C R ... Na+ gradient-dependent p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport in rat basolateral membrane vesicles.. J S Kasher, P D Holohan and C R ... Na+ gradient-dependent p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport in rat basolateral membrane vesicles. ...
Sec6/8 complex is recruited to cell-cell contacts and specifies transport vesicle delivery to the basal-lateral membrane in ... In budding yeast, the Sec6/8p complex is essential for generating cell polarity by specifying vesicle delivery to the bud tip. ...
Expression of synaptotagmin in Drosophila reveals transport and localization of synaptic vesicles to the synapse ... Expression of synaptotagmin in Drosophila reveals transport and localization of synaptic vesicles to the synapse ... Expression of synaptotagmin in Drosophila reveals transport and localization of synaptic vesicles to the synapse ... Expression of synaptotagmin in Drosophila reveals transport and localization of synaptic vesicles to the synapse ...
MHC class II alpha/beta/Ii nonamer [transport vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * Invariant chain trimer [transport vesicle ... MHC class II alpha/beta/Ii nonamer [transport vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * Invariant chain trimer [transport vesicle ... Invariant chain trimer [transport vesicle membrane] (Bos taurus) Invariant chain trimer [transport vesicle membrane] (Canis ... Invariant chain trimer [transport vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) Invariant chain trimer [transport vesicle membrane] (Mus ...
Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T californica), isoform CRA_aImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from ... tr,A0A024R1Z6,A0A024R1Z6_HUMAN Vesicle amine transport protein 1 homolog (T californica), isoform CRA_a OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 ...
siRNA Vesicle Transport Along Microtubule siRNA Vesicle Transport Along Microtubule: SignalSilence® MEK1 siRNA II - ... Antibody Sampler Kit Synaptic Vesicle Transport Antibody Sampler Kit Synaptic Vesicle Transport: Angiogenesis Antibody Sampler ... Category listing: Rat Negative Regulation of Binding to Antibody Sampler Kit Synaptic Vesicle Transport ...
Accordingly, the vesicles were designated PAC vesicles.. The results indicate that the major storage proteins are transported ... Some vesicles contained small electron-translucent vesicle-like structures, and the content of the vesicle-like structures was ... the clathrin-coated vesicles may mediate the transport of lytic vacuolar proteins but not the transport of seed proteins to ... if it is true that the vesicles with a density of 1.24 g/cm3 function as the transport vesicles for storage proteins to the ...
ATP-dependent transport of unconjugated bilirubin by rat liver canalicular plasma membrane vesicles. Lorella PASCOLO, Enrique J ... ATP-dependent transport of unconjugated bilirubin by rat liver canalicular plasma membrane vesicles ... ATP-dependent transport of unconjugated bilirubin by rat liver canalicular plasma membrane vesicles ... ATP-dependent transport of unconjugated bilirubin by rat liver canalicular plasma membrane vesicles ...
In these membrane vesicles, there were two Ca2+ transport systems; Na+/Ca2+ exchange and ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport. An ... Calcium transport mechanisms in basolateral plasma membrane-enriched vesicles from rat parotid gland. T Takuma, B L Kuyatt, B J ... Ca2+ transport was studied by using basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from rat parotid gland prepared by a Percoll gradient ... Calcium transport mechanisms in basolateral plasma membrane-enriched vesicles from rat parotid gland ...
  • Whereas it is known that sorting into the lytic vacuole is performed via the conserved clathrin-coated vesicle pathway, sorting of proteins into the protein storage vacuole remains enigmatic. (
  • SBP follows the same vesicular route into the PSV as the main storage proteins legumin and vicilin, via the dense-vesicles. (
  • Although soluble cargo proteins of the dense vesicles, they show a stratified distribution in the lumen of the dense vesicles. (
  • This observation is discussed with respect to a putative receptor-mediated sorting of the proteins into the dense vesicles. (
  • We describe here some properties of monosaccharide transport from phospholipid vesicles into which brush border proteins obtained from neonatal pig small intestine were incorporated. (
  • Here we report that one putative AZ precursor vesicle of CNS synapses-the Piccolo-Bassoon transport vesicle (PTV)-carries a comprehensive set of AZ proteins genetically and functionally coupled to synaptic vesicle exocytosis. (
  • Synaptic vesicle precursors containing synaptophysin, synaptotagmin I, and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) are synthesized and preassembled in the cell body and then transported over long distances to the axonal terminals via kinesin motor proteins ( Hirokawa, 1998 ). (
  • The recent discovery that c- jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) scaffolding proteins may mediate the association of motor proteins with vesicles suggests that JNK kinase signaling pathways may be intimately linked to the control of kinesin-based movements (Goldstein, 2001 , 2003 ). (
  • Proteins of the Amt family transport ammonium across the lipid membrane of the cell. (
  • Biochemists have long speculate on the mechanistic details of the ammonium transport family of proteins (Amt), which include the Rhesus protein factors, known as the mammalian blood group system. (
  • What was previously known is that Amt proteins extend across cellular membranes where they specifically transport the nitrogen into bacteria and plant cells, essential nutrient for their growth and survival. (
  • A team of scientists led by Prof. Dr. Susana Andrade from the Institute of Biochemistry of the University of Freiburg and the Cluster of Excellence BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies has now determined the transport properties of Amt proteins with great precision on the basis of electrophysiology tests on artificial lipid systems. (
  • The team discovered that a positive charge travels through the membrane: The membrane proteins do not transport the gas ammonia NH3 but rather the ammonium ion NH4+. (
  • Transport proteins are responsible for moving materials such as nutrients and metabolic products through a cell's outer membrane, which seals and protects all living cells, to the cell's interior. (
  • However, it is unclear how SV transport is regulated and how SVs at clusters interact with motor proteins. (
  • In addition to their roles in SV cluster stability, all three proteins also regulate SV transport. (
  • It transports proteins to the extracellular space or to the vacuole. (
  • Because recruitment of proteins in yeasts and mammals culminates in the formation of a transport vesicle, it is logical to assume that this may also be the case for plants. (
  • Novel vesicles that accumulate large amounts of proprotein precursors of storage proteins were purified from maturing pumpkin seeds. (
  • They contained an electron-dense core of storage proteins surrounded by an electron-translucent layer, and some vesicles also contained small vesicle-like structures. (
  • These results suggest that the unique PAC vesicles might mediate a transport pathway for insoluble aggregates of storage proteins directly to protein storage vacuoles. (
  • Thus, the clathrin-coated vesicles may mediate the transport of lytic vacuolar proteins but not the transport of seed proteins to protein storage vacuoles. (
  • 1996 ) demonstrated immunocytochemically in maturing pea cotyledons that electron-dense vesicles with a diameter of ~100 nm associated with any cis , medial, and trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus contain storage proteins. (
  • These results suggest that the storage proteins are transported to protein storage vacuoles via the Golgi-derived dense vesicles. (
  • Involving proteins on the vesicle and target membrane sides bind in specific combinations, ensuring precise delivery of molecular cargo to the right destinations. (
  • Storage parenchyma cells of developing legume cotyledons actively transport large amounts of storage proteins to protein storage vacuoles (PSV). (
  • Immunoblots of highly purified CCV preparations and immunogold labelling with antibodies to the storage proteins vicilin and legumin, indicate that the dense vesicles, but not the CCV, are involved in storage protein transport in pea cotyledons. (
  • We suggest on the basis of these data that storage proteins and other vacuolar proteins such as acid hydrolases are not sorted by the same mechanism and are transported by different types of vesicles to different types of vacuoles. (
  • 15_17_Vesicles_bud.jpg Vesicles bud from one membrane and fuse with another, carrying membrane components and soluble proteins between cellular compartments. (
  • To this end, construction materials are packaged in vesicles and transported by motor proteins along microtubules and actin filaments. (
  • Our results show how motor proteins ensure the supply of vesicles to the hyphal tip, where temporally regulated exocytosis results in stepwise tip extension. (
  • Secretory proteins and extracellular glycans are transported to the extracellular space during cell growth. (
  • Mammalian and yeast cells share a similar transport system for secretory vesicles ( Bednarek and Falbel, 2002 ), and the sorting of proteins at the late secretory pathway is influenced by early, late, and recycling endosomes. (
  • Membrane trafficking is controlled by a large number of proteins that bind to specific vesicles and organelles. (
  • Transport vesicles can move molecules between locations inside the cell, e.g., proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus . (
  • These proteins travel within the cell inside of transport vesicles. (
  • For this to occur, resident proteins must be packaged into retrograde-directed transport vesicles, and to occur at the rate of anterograde transport, resident proteins must be present in vesicles at a higher concentration than in cisternal membranes. (
  • Vesicles are pulled along the microtubules by special motor proteins. (
  • Sometimes proteins need to be transported to different parts of the golgi apparatus. (
  • Transport vesicles bring proteins to the golgi apparatus. (
  • Additionally, the proteins are modified and released in secretory vesicles. (
  • Intracellular vesicle transport processes mediate the delivery of cell surface receptors, adhesion proteins and other components to the desired locales, in order to define the polarised higher eukaryotic nature of cells. (
  • Members of the Rab family of small GTPases thereby act as master regulators for the complex network of trafficking routes, as they specifically attach to intracellular membranes and recruit distinct effector proteins, including motor proteins, in order to facilitate directed transport along microtubule networks and actin tracks. (
  • The direct interaction of myosin V motors and Spir proteins identified here enables the formation of a tripartite Rab11:MyoV:Spir protein complex at vesicle surfaces in which the MyoV protein acts as a linker between Rab11 and Spir, as was shown by in vitro interaction studies and fluorescence microscopy. (
  • Previous studies have implicated membrane contact sites, vesicle trafficking, and lipid-binding proteins in the formation of thylakoids at the chloroplast inner envelope, but the molecular basis of thylakoid biogenesis and maintenance remains enigmatic. (
  • Sec14 domain proteins are found only in eukaryotes and have been well characterized in yeast, where they regulate vesicle budding at the trans -Golgi network. (
  • We propose that charge-mediated fusion provides a widely-applicable method for GUV reconstitution of clinically-important membrane transport proteins. (
  • In principle, Golgi fragmentation may result from defects in three major classes of proteins: structural Golgi proteins, cytoskeletal proteins and molecular motors, as well as proteins mediating transport to and through the Golgi. (
  • Intercellular transport of auxin is driven by PIN-formed (PIN) proteins. (
  • In this way proteins and other large molecules are transported without ever having to cross a membrane. (
  • Some vesicles form with the help of coat proteins. (
  • Geometrically arranged coat proteins on the surface of the membrane help the vesicle to bud off. (
  • Special motor proteins attach to cargo-filled vesicles and carry them along the cytoskeleton like trucks on a highway. (
  • Motor proteins attach to vesicles and walk along a microtubule of the cytoskeleton. (
  • Orthologues of most of the top-ranking proteins have previously been reported in extracellular vesicles of mammalian origin. (
  • In particular, the presence of CCV, COPI and COPII coat proteins indicates the presence of heterogeneous populations of intracellular transport vesicles. (
  • To understand how transport into synaptic vesicles contributes to neurotransmitter release, the postsynaptic response and ultimately behavior, we have focused on the proteins responsible for this basic function of the nerve terminal. (
  • In previous work, we have identified two families of proteins responsible for the transport of cationic and neutral transmitters into synaptic vesicles. (
  • We will now use the identified vesicular transport proteins to pursue several goals. (
  • Substantial work already indicates that phosphorylation regulates the membrane trafficking of certain transport proteins to specialized neurosecretory vesicles, including large dense core vesicles as well as synaptic vesicles. (
  • In particular, we will use the transporters to identify interacting proteins that may contribute to their regulation, their subcellular localization or their coordination with other events in the synaptic vesicle cycle. (
  • Required for efficient transport of a subset of secretory proteins to the Golgi. (
  • Membrane vesicles can transport DNA and proteins, and are involved in bacterial interactions. (
  • cytosolic portions of integral membrane proteins interact with the vesicle coat to. (
  • vesicle SNARE proteins in protein coat accessible in uncoated vesicle (when pinched off) binds to t-SNARE in target memb. (
  • COPI vesicles transport proteins retrograde between golgi compartments, and from cis-golgi to ER clathrin vesicles transport proteins from plasma membrane and trans-golgi to endosomes (ex. (
  • assembly of vesicle coat proteins (ex. (
  • how does the vesicle coat select the right cargo proteins? (
  • We study the biogenesis of ER-derived transport vesicles, aiming to uncover the rules that govern efficient capture of cargo proteins and the biophysical basis of membrane transformation events that give rise to spherical protein carriers. (
  • Vesicle formation encompasses three fundamental processes: deformation of the donor membrane into a spherical transport carrier;selective recruitment of cargo proteins into the nascent bud;and scission of the membrane to release the vesicle. (
  • For example, lumenally-oriented cargo proteins likely oppose the action of the COPII coat in deforming the lipid bilayer;the specific cargo composition at individual ER exit sites can thus directly impact the efficiency of vesicle formation by altering membrane properties. (
  • Furthermore, the GTP cycle of the coat, which controls coat assembly, vesicle scission and coat shedding, is regulated in part by a partnership between the cargo adaptor protein, Sec24, and the COPII accessory protein, Sec16, implicating cargo proteins in modulation of the GTP cycle. (
  • 2) To characterize the influence of cargo proteins on membrane biophysical properties that impact the ability of the COPII coat to deform the ER membrane into transport vesicles. (
  • We study the process of vesicle formation from the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum to understand how cells govern the deployment of proteins to ensure accurate and efficient delivery to a variety of cellular compartments. (
  • The binding of specific proteins to the t-SNARE/v-SNARE/SNAP25 complex, by which the Golgi vesicle prefusion complex is stabilized. (
  • Mass spectrometry revealed enrichment of outer membrane proteins, known virulence factors, phage components, flagella and extracellular proteins in the vesicle fraction, and a low, negative correlation was found between transcript-, and protein enrichment. (
  • The abundance of viral-, and flagellar proteins in the vesicle fraction underlines the importance of purification during vesicle isolation. (
  • All of those circles within the cell are vesicles packed with proteins to be released. (
  • A fundamental cellular mechanism ensures that proteins are transported to the places they are needed in the cells. (
  • Embedded in the vesicle membranes are proteins called ion channels, which control the passage of electrically charged atomic particles ('ions') into and out of these intracellular organelles. (
  • Early endosomal vesicles are formed by infolding of patches of the cell membrane in response to activation of e.g. receptor proteins by extracellular signaling molecules. (
  • According to studies of their protein populations, lysosomes and endosomes contain up to 70 distinct ion-channel transport proteins," Grimm says. (
  • When the proteins are made, they are packaged into transport vesicles and moved to the Golgi apparatus, where they can be modified and sorted before being sent to their final destination in the cell. (
  • Methotrexate was actively transported by both proteins, although more efficiently by MRP2. (
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes, transports proteins around the cell. (
  • Knockdown of clathrin interactor 1, which is one of the clathrin adaptor proteins involved in retrograde transport, did not change the amount of PrPSc, but it altered the distribution of PrPSc from ERCs to peripheral regions, including late endosomes/lysosomes. (
  • To ensure that these vesicles embark in the right direction and to further organize the cell, special motor proteins attach to cargo-filled vesicles and carry them along the cytoskeleton. (
  • Small membrane bound vesicles responsible for transporting proteins from one organelle to another are commonly found in endocytic and secretory pathways. (
  • Outbound proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum will bud off into transport vesicles that travel along the cell cortex to reach their specific destinations. (
  • Rab proteins on the surface of the transport vesicle are responsible for aligning with the complementary tethering proteins found on the respective organelle's cytosolic surface. (
  • This fusion event allows for the delivery of the vesicles contents mediated by proteins such as SNARE proteins. (
  • SNAREs are small, tail-anchored proteins which are often post-translationally inserted into membranes that are responsible for the fusion event necessary for vesicles to transport between organelles in the cytosol. (
  • The directed movement of substances from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi, mediated by COP II vesicles. (
  • Small COP II coated vesicles form from the ER and then fuse directly with the cis-Golgi. (
  • Larger structures are transported along microtubules to the cis-Golgi. (
  • Involved in vesicular transport from the late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. (
  • Vesicles versus Tubes: Is Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi Transport in Plants Fundamentally Different from Other Eukaryotes? (
  • Its products subsequently pass through the Golgi apparatus on the way to the cell surface (true secretion) or to the lytic compartment of the cell (vacuolar protein transport). (
  • In animal cells, the Golgi apparatus is present as a stationary larger order complex near the nucleus, and transport between the cortical ER and the Golgi complex occurs via an intermediate compartment which is transported on microtubules. (
  • Although many of the major molecular players involved in ER-Golgi trafficking in mammalian and yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) cells have homologs in higher plants, the narrow interface (less than 500 nm) between the Golgi and the ER, together with the motility factor, makes the identification of the transport vectors responsible for bidirectional traffic between these two organelles much more difficult. (
  • The review begins with an article by Federica Brandizzi that provides the necessary molecular background on coat protein complexes in relation to the so-called secretory units model for ER-Golgi transport in highly vacuolated plant cells. (
  • Nevertheless, it is Golgi stack motility that makes bidirectional protein transport between the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ) and the Golgi apparatus in plants conceptually more difficult to grasp and therefore even more intriguing than others in other eukaryotic kingdoms. (
  • Immunocytochemical analysis also showed that complex glycans are associated with the peripheral region of PAC vesicles but not the electron-dense cores, indicating that Golgi-derived glycoproteins are incorporated into the PAC vesicles. (
  • Chrispeels ( 1983 ) reported the presence of electron-dense vesicles close to the Golgi stacks in maturing bean cotyledons. (
  • 1992 ) reported that wheat prolamins are transported to the protein storage vacuoles without any contribution by the Golgi apparatus. (
  • However, the mechanism responsible for such Golgi-independent transport has not been characterized or determined. (
  • Visualization of a Rab9-bearing vesicle fusing with the trans-Golgi detected by time-lapse video microscopy. (
  • Clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) and small electron dense vesicles found near the trans-Golgi network (TGN) have both been implicated in the Golgi-to-vacuole transport step. (
  • 1983 ). The Golgi apparatus mediates the transport of phytohemagglutinin to the protein bodies in bean cotyledons. (
  • Biosynthetic transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the plasma membrane (PM) is mediated by secretory vesicles. (
  • These materials are carried in secretory vesicles generated at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (
  • Analysis of the mammalian post-Golgi secretory pathway demonstrated the movement of separated secretory vesicles in the cell. (
  • Thus, the SVC is a motile structure involved in mass transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane and cell plate in plant cells. (
  • These molecules are synthesized and/or modified in the Golgi apparatus and sorted into secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) for transport to the PM. (
  • A central feature of cisternal progression/maturation models for anterograde transport across the Golgi stack is the requirement that the entire population of steady-state residents of this organelle be continuously transported backward to earlier cisternae to avoid loss of these residents as the membrane of the oldest (trans-most) cisterna departs the stack. (
  • Transport vesicles can form from the membrane of part of the golgi apparatus. (
  • Coatomer, but not P200/myosin II, is required for the in vitro formation of trans-Golgi network-derived vesicles containing the envelope glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. (
  • We hypothesize that defects in COPI vesicles, microtubules and their interaction may also underlie Golgi fragmentation in human ALS linked to other mutations, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and related motor neuron diseases. (
  • Vesicles are constantly forming - especially at the plasma membrane, the ER, and the Golgi. (
  • SNARE that may be involved in targeting and fusion of Golgi-derived retrograde transport vesicles with the ER. (
  • We have examined the role played by protein kinase A (PKA) in vesicle-mediated protein transport from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the cell surface. (
  • Reversal from this inhibition correlated with a transient increase in the number of free coated vesicles in the Golgi area. (
  • JMY is involved in anterograde vesicle trafficking from the trans-Golgi network. (
  • Finally, overexpression of JMY results in Golgi dispersal by loss from the trans-site and affects VSV-G transport. (
  • These analyses, together with biochemical experiments, indicate that JMY drives vesicular trafficking in the trans-Golgi region and at ER-membrane contact sites (MCS), distinct from other Arp2/3 activators involved in vesicle transport processes such as the related WHAMM or WASH. (
  • These data indicate that E217G is substrate of both the non-bile acid organic anion transport system and P-glycoprotein but not of the ATP-dependent bile acid transport system in canalicular membranes. (
  • Sidedness of inhibitory effects as evidence for asymmetric location of the anion transport system of red blood cell membranes , Fed. (
  • 15_18_Clathrin_EM.jpg Clathrin molecules form basketlike cages that help shape membranes into vesicles. (
  • transport vesicles to their target membranes. (
  • Opritov, V. 2004-10-10 00:00:00 The inside-out vesicles of plasma membranes were isolated from pumpkin stem cells, and the kinetics of sucrose efflux induced by the K+-diffusion potential (ΔψD) was studied by measuring light transmission. (
  • The two-phase dependence of sucrose efflux from vesicles on the applied diffusion potential is discussed in the context of modern concepts on the functioning of sucrose carriers in the membranes. (
  • The inside-out vesicles of plasma membranes were isolated from pumpkin stem cells, and the kinetics of sucrose efflux induced by the K+-diffusion potential (ΔψD) was studied by measuring light transmission. (
  • The Sec1p/Munc18 (SM) protein Vps45p cycles on and off membranes during vesicle transport. (
  • By means of fluorescence microscopy and FLIM-FRET analysis, the Spir/MyoV interaction was observed in living cells at vesicle membranes as well, proving its biological significance. (
  • It has been hypothesized that membrane vesicle production is important for neutralizing environmental agents, such as antimicrobial peptides or bacteriophages, that target the membranes of bacteria. (
  • The present studies were designed to characterize the developmental aspects of Na + -dependent phosphate transport, across the hepatocyte basolateral membranes of the suckling and weanling rats. (
  • These studies demonstrate for the first time the presence of a specialized transport system for phosphate across the basolateral membranes of the rat liver during development. (
  • Due to the reverse orientation of the efflux transporter on these membranes, transported substrates accumulate inside the vesicles. (
  • ABC Transporter Vesicles, which have an inside-out structure, are prepared from ABC transporter membranes for use in vesicular transport assays. (
  • Intracellular transport is unique to eukaryotic cells because they possess organelles enclosed in membranes that need to be mediated for exchange of cargo to take place. (
  • These vesicles will typically execute cargo loading and vesicle budding, vesicle transport, the binding of the vesicle to a target membrane and the fusion of the vesicle membranes to target membrane. (
  • The transport of highly purified 3 H-labelled unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) was investigated in rat liver plasma membrane vesicles enriched in the canalicular domain and found to be stimulated (more than 5-fold) by the addition of ATP. (
  • Ca2+ transport was studied by using basolateral plasma membrane vesicles from rat parotid gland prepared by a Percoll gradient centrifugation method. (
  • A well validated technique of plasma membrane vesicles (BLMV) was utilized. (
  • Ghishan, FK & Dykes, W 1993, ' Ontogeny of phosphate transport by rat liver plasma membrane vesicles ', Journal of Developmental Physiology , vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 197-201. (
  • The predominant Ca 2+ transport system detectable in microsomal membrane preparations equilibrated at a density of 1.13 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker, antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. (
  • Here, we reveal that SPT, embedded in the outer leaflet (OL) of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is engaged in the synthesis of ER transport vesicles that recondition cell organelles, and the inner leaflet (IL) SPT in the restitution of the cell membrane. (
  • It is likely that these aggregates develop into the electron-dense cores of the PAC vesicles and then leave the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • We have developed a charge-mediated fusion method to reconstitute the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA) in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV). (
  • Constituent of COPII-coated endoplasmic reticulum-derived transport vesicles. (
  • Additionally, one of the most important goals in the synaptic vesicle transport field is to determine how the activity of KIF1A is regulated. (
  • Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic vesicle transport. (
  • The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. (
  • We suggest that microtubules (MT) facilitate the delivery of secretory vesicles to the PM by a stochastic transport, thereby increasing the probability for a vesicle/target membrane encounter. (
  • If a candidate protein binds to a specific vesicle population, dynein will be recruited to these organelles in the presence of AP21967 and subsequently transport them to the minus ends of microtubules, which, in most cell types, are clustered around a microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) in the middle of the cell. (
  • Axoplasmic organelles in the giant axon of the squid have been shown to move on both actin filaments and microtubules and to switch between actin filaments and microtubules during fast axonal transport. (
  • do some vesicles move on microtubules? (
  • Eukaryotic cells transport packets of components to particular intracellular locations by attaching them to molecular motors that haul them along microtubules and actin filaments. (
  • Since intracellular transport heavily relies on microtubules for movement, the components of the cytoskeleton play a vital role in trafficking vesicles between organelles and the plasma membrane by providing mechanical support. (
  • Recent findings that protein storage cells contain more than one type of vacuole have necessitated a re-examination of the role of both types of vesicles in vacuolar protein transport. (
  • Besides transport vesicles, there are several other types of vesicles. (
  • These various types of vesicles have different functions. (
  • There are essentially four types of vesicles used by cells. (
  • 15_19_Clathrin_vesicle.jpg Clathrin-coated vesicles transport selected cargo molecules. (
  • When a signal comes down an axon , the synaptic vesicles fuse with the cell membrane releasing the neurotransmitter so that it can be detected by receptor molecules on the next nerve cell. (
  • As a result, this produces a vesicle that contains fluid and molecules from outside of the cell! (
  • Instead, large molecules are loaded into small membrane-wrapped containers called vesicles. (
  • These results indicate that the composition of the SNARE complex and its interaction with modulatory molecules drives priming and provides a molecular basis for different pools of releasable vesicles. (
  • Three Americans won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine on Monday for discovering the machinery that regulates how cells transport major molecules in a cargo system that delivers them to the right place at the right time. (
  • Their basic research solved the mystery of how cells, which are factories producing molecules, organize a system to transport the molecules within cells and export them outside. (
  • As it turns out, the molecules are moved around the cell in small packages called vesicles, and each scientist discovered different facets of what is needed to ensure that the right cargo is shipped to the correct destination at precisely the right time. (
  • Taken together, these new findings place the cargo molecules as central players in the process of vesicle formation in vivo, which makes sense if we consider that vesicle formation must be an adaptable process that permits cells to respond to the changes in specific cargo burdens associated with changing environmental and developmental conditions. (
  • Rapid filtration of the membrane suspension through a filter allows separation of membrane vesicles and quantification of transported molecules by LC-MS/MS. (
  • Transport vesicles move molecules within the cells. (
  • To investigate these machineries, we focused on retrograde transport from endosomes to the transGolgi network, which is one of the pathways involved in recycling of molecules. (
  • Through this pathway, it is possible to facilitate the movement of essential molecules such as membrane‐bounded vesicles and organelles, mRNA, and chromosomes. (
  • Here I define the in vivo delivery cycle of a myosin-V in its essential function of secretory vesicle transport, and show how that transport is coordinated with other events in exocytosis. (
  • We analyzed secretory vesicle transport in real time using a GFP-tagged secretory protein, hCgB-GFP, consisting of human chromogranin B (hCgB) and green fluorescent protein (GFP). (
  • This aided in the creation of a timeline of events for exocytosis, allowing for the dynamics of single-vesicle populations of the Rab Sec4p, the exocyst complex, and Myo2p to be visualized. (
  • We have visualized the pulsatory dynamics of the Spitzenkörper, reflecting vesicle accumulation before exocytosis and their subsequent fusion with the apical plasma membrane. (
  • Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion ( exocytosis ), uptake ( endocytosis ) and transport of materials within the plasma membrane. (
  • We demonstrate that the efficiency of secretory transport depends on SV size, half-life of PINs on the PM, pH, exocytosis frequency and PIN density. (
  • Synaptic transmission depends on the transport of classical neurotransmitters from the cytoplasm, where they are synthesized and accumulate after reuptake from the extracellular space, into synaptic vesicles, which then undergo regulated exocytosis. (
  • Large dense-core vesicle exocytosis from adrenal chromaffin cells shares many important features with neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles in classical CNS synapses. (
  • One major question such an allele could address is what happens when synapses are allowed to develop and then anterograde transport is acutely impaired? (
  • Do all SVs go back to the soma by retrograde transport or are SV clusters stably maintained at synaptic sites? (
  • Such vesicles include COPI-coated transport vesicles involved in retrograde transport. (
  • PrPSc was co-localized with components of clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) as well as those of the retromer complex, which are known as machineries for retrograde transport. (
  • Unlabelled UCB inhibited the uptake of [ 3 H]UCB, indicating that UCB was the transported species. (
  • 3 H]UCB uptake (both with and without ATP) in canalicular vesicles obtained from TR - rats was comparable to that in vesicles obtained from Wistar rats, indicating that the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, cMOAT, does not account for UCB transport. (
  • Cheng L, Liang C, Sacktor B (1981) In-vitro effects of parathyroid hormone on kidney cortical slices: cAMP responses and concomitant inhibition of the Na + gradient-dependent uptake of phosphate by brush border membrane vesicles isolated from the renal slices. (
  • It also describes methods for the measurement of phosphate uptake by purified, inverted, inner membrane vesicles of rat liver mitochondria. (
  • More recently, we have found that a protein previously suggested to mediate the Na+-dependent uptake of inorganic phosphate across the plasma membrane, in fact transports glutamate into synaptic vesicles. (
  • We report here our evidence that F uptake by rabbit intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) occurred rapidly and with an overshoot only in the presence of an inward-directed proton gradient. (
  • Identification of a test compound as a substrate for a given efflux transporter can be accomplished by measuring the ATP-dependent uptake (accumulation) of the compound into membrane vesicles. (
  • This inhibition of ATP uptake was reversed when vesicles were permeabilized by detergent. (
  • It has been determined that cellular uptake occurs primarily by carrier-mediated transport via the RFC1 (1 , 2 , 3 , 4) and that once inside the cell, MTX acts as a potent competitive inhibitor of DHFR. (
  • This method of transport is largely intercellular in lieu of uptake of large particles such as bacteria via phagocytosis in which a cell engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle called a phagosome. (
  • These interactions are proposed to mediate aspects of the specificity of vesicle trafficking and to promote fusion of the lipid bilayers. (
  • Amiloride transport was not directly affected by the presence of 100 mM Na + in the extravesicular medium, suggesting that Na-H exchange did not mediate amiloride flux. (
  • Therefore, PINs can mediate auxin transport either by direct translocation across the PM or by pumping it into secretory vesicles (SVs), leading to its secretory release upon fusion with the PM. Which of these two mechanisms dominates is a matter of debate. (
  • Ion channels in the membrane vesicles that mediate intracellular protein transport play a crucial role in cell physiology. (
  • While ABC transporters typically mediate the efflux of substrates from cells, transporters expressed on these inside-out vesicles import substrates into the vesicles. (
  • The major barrier to absorption is the brush border membrane of the epithelial cells across which glucose is transported against its concentration gradient in a sodium-coupled transport system. (
  • Cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) to communicate over long distances, which requires EVs to traverse the extracellular matrix (ECM). (
  • As all vesicles reported in this study exhibited a superior ability to deliver anticancer drugs to certain cancer cells alone, this research, which provides a biocompatible peptide design for the synthesis of efficient drug-delivery vehicles, can serve as a solid foundation for further nanocarrier developments for biomedical applications. (
  • Two active calcium (Ca 2+ ) transport systems have been identified and partially characterized in membrane vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells ( Daucus carota Danvers). (
  • Sec6/8 complex is recruited to cell-cell contacts and specifies transport vesicle delivery to the basal-lateral membrane in epithelial cells. (
  • Thus, different targeting machineries for each type of vacuole must be involved in the protein transport in these cells. (
  • On the other hand for conductive systems operating in cells and vesicles, isotopic techniques can still be very useful when used under conditions where a large chemical gradient of the ion is established across the membrane and a radio-labeled tracer of the ion is placed at the low concentration side (Garty et al . (
  • Anion transport in red blood cells: 1. (
  • The three Nobel Laureates have discovered the molecular principles that govern how the machinery regulating vesicle traffic within cells functions. (
  • B) GFP-Rab9 vesicle velocity in BS-C-1-transfected cells with (+ nocodazole) or without (control). (
  • The components of this transport cycle are highly conserved in mammalian cells, so these results should be generally applicable to other myosin-V delivery cycles. (
  • Using secretory carrier membrane protein 2 (SCAMP2) as a marker for secretory vesicles and tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) BY-2 cell as a model cell, we characterized the transport machinery in plant cells. (
  • A combination of analyses, including electron microscopy of quick-frozen cells and four-dimensional analysis of cells expressing fluorescent-tagged SCAMP2, enabled the identification of a clustered structure of secretory vesicles generated from TGN that moves in the cell and eventually fuses with plasma membrane. (
  • Secretory vesicles hold the enzymes that are used to make the cell walls of plants , protists , fungi , bacteria and Archaea cells as well as the extracellular matrix of animal cells . (
  • Intracellular Ca 2+ transport by SERCA controls key processes in human cells such as proliferation, signaling, and contraction. (
  • Rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were used to study amiloride transport across the luminal membrane of proximal tubular cells. (
  • Busy cells are often filled with thousands of traveling vesicles. (
  • Live cell imaging allows the fate of cells during membrane vesicle formation to be followed in real time, while electron cryotomography can provide high-resolution three-dimensional structures of cells in a near-native state. (
  • Live cell imaging showed that cells that released membrane vesicles died but retained their cell structure. (
  • The live cell imaging experiments also indicated that membrane vesicle formation by a cell can trigger vesicle formation in neighboring bacteria because the released endolysin damages the cell wall of nearby cells. (
  • Using an assay that studies the release of transport vesicles from the TGN in vitro we provide functional evidence that p200/myosin is involved in the assembly of basolateral transport vesicles carrying vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSVG) from the TGN of polarized MDCK cells. (
  • Chromaffin cells from the adrenal medulla are ideally suited to distinguish and quantify the diverse pools of vesicles. (
  • Active zones, electron dense, protein rich areas with the attendant clusters of vesicles ( Zhai and Bellen, 2004 ) are not obvious in chromaffin cells. (
  • In this lesson, students study these scientists' discovery of cellular transportation systems - the compartments, called vesicles, that cells use to ferry compounds from one cell to another, or to carry materials within the cell - then build models of cells, showing how these vesicles work. (
  • Genetic sequencing data is already available for vesicles from several bacterial strains, but it is not yet clear how the genetic makeup of vesicles differ from that of their parent cells, and which properties may characterize enriched genetic material. (
  • The present study provides evidence for DNA inside vesicles from Vibrio cholerae O395, and key characteristics of their genetic and proteomic content are compared to that of whole cells. (
  • Membrane preparations from these cells contain closed membrane vesicles, a significant percentage of which are oriented "inside-out. (
  • Scientists at the University of Groningen have constructed synthetic vesicles in which ATP, the main energy carrier in living cells, is produced. (
  • The ATP taken up by vesicles and cells grown with N2 as the nitrogen source was found in the corresponding cell pools only as ATP. (
  • Tiny membrane-bound vesicles, known as endosomes and lysosomes, serve as vehicles for the transport of protein cargoes within animal cells. (
  • Extracellular vesicle-mediated transport of non-coding RNAs between stem cells and cancer cells: implications in tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. (
  • In this lesson, we will learn about vesicles and how they are used by cells. (
  • Many cells produce chemicals and then store them in secretory vesicles. (
  • Prepared from Sf9 cells which have been engineered to over-express specific ABC transporters, these "inside-out" vesicles provide high levels of transporter activity with low background, giving you a clear signal if your compound is a substrate or inhibitor of a specific efflux transporter. (
  • Vesicle budding fromthe TGN was studied in vitro using vesicular stomatitis virusinfected, permeabilized cells. (
  • Ortho-Phenylene bis-ureas serve as anionophores in cells expressing halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein, as well as in synthetic vesicles. (
  • We expressed MRP1 and MRP2 in Spodoptera frugiperda ovarian cells and compared their ATP-dependent transport properties and vanadate-sensitive ATPase activities in isolated membrane vesicles. (
  • Conversely, in prokaryotic cells, there is no need for this specialized transport mechanism because there are no membranous organelles and compartments to traffic between. (
  • Intracellular transport is an overarching category of how cells obtain nutrients and signals. (
  • abstract = "This chapter highlights early studies of mitochondrial ion permeability that used indirect and qualitative assays to identify transport systems for phosphate, adenine nucleotides, and citric-acid cycle intermediates. (
  • Recent advances in understanding the machinery of vesicle transport have established general principles that underlie a broad variety of physiological processes, including cell surface growth, the biogenesis of distinct intracellular organelles, endocytosis, and the controlled release of hormones and neurotransmitters. (
  • Restitution of the cell organelles and the membrane implicates serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) in signal-specific and selective assembly of the transport vesicles. (
  • These findings along with our previously published report (Slomiany and Slomiany, Advances in Biological Chemistry, 2013, 3, 275-287), provide a clear distinction between the processes that renovate cell membrane and its organelles from that of the endocytotic cell debridement, and show that vesicles are navigated to the specific organelles and the cell membrane by the biomembrane constituents programmed in ER. (
  • In addition, several organelles are actively transported into the growing bud. (
  • Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. (
  • Vesicles are bubble-like organelles that are made of a membrane and are full of fluid. (
  • Transport vesicles are responsible for moving materials between the cell's organelles. (
  • This material can then be transported to other organelles in the cell. (
  • Considering the large diversity of MyoV cooperation with Rab family members, the coordinated recruitment of actin nucleators and actin motors to vesicle surfaces could provide a common mechanism to control force generation and motility of vesicles and organelles in different cellular processes. (
  • Cell-derived vesicles are membrane-enclosed organelles that transport material inside and outside the cell. (
  • The participation of nonmuscle myosins in the transport of organelles and vesicular carriers along actin filaments has been documented. (
  • Vesicles are cellular organelles that are composed of a lipid bilayer. (
  • They provide platforms for intracellular transport and are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the movement of secretory vesicles, organelles, and intracellular macromolecular assemblies (see entries for dynein and kinesin). (
  • Time-lapse imaging reveals that PTVs are highly mobile, consistent with a role in intracellular transport. (
  • Intracellular transport is the movement of vesicles and substances within a cell. (
  • Intracellular transport is required for maintaining homeostasis within the cell by responding to physiological signals. (
  • One very well understood form of intracellular transport is known as endocytosis. (
  • Phagocytosis is of great importance to intracellular transport because once a substance is deemed harmful and engulfed in a vesicle, it can be trafficked to the appropriate location for degradation. (
  • There is also a video that shows how vesicles look when they expel their contents outside of the cell, a real-time video that shows vesicles traveling along neurons inside a living fruitfly embryo and a third video that shows how certain vesicles "rocket" through the cytoplasm. (
  • Direct application of a NO donor to neurons resulted in inhibition of axonal transport of synaptophysin-EGFP and synaptotagmin I tagged with EGFP, mediated via phosphorylation of c- jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). (
  • Axonal transport is essential to maintain the function, integrity, and viability of neurons ( Goldstein, 2003 ). (
  • The functional integrity of neurons requires the bidirectional active transport of synaptic vesicles (SVs) in axons. (
  • NEURONS have a unique requirement to transport synaptic vesicles (SVs) long distances along microtubule tracks in axons to establish synapses for the regulated secretion of neurotransmitters. (
  • Synaptic vesicles are located at presynaptic terminals in neurons and store neurotransmitters . (
  • Transport of ER Vesicles on Actin Filaments in Neurons by Myosin V" by George M. Langford, Joel S. Tabb et al. (
  • Transport of ER vesicles on actin filaments in neurons by myosin V. Journal of Cell Science, Vol 111, Issue 21 3221-3234. (
  • Real-time video of vesicles traveling along neurons inside a living fruitfly embryo. (
  • Here, we show that loss of ATAT1 impairs axonal transport in neurons in vivo, and cell-free motility assays confirm a requirement of α-tubulin acetylation for proper bidirectional vesicular transport. (
  • Catecholamines are stored, together with chromogranin, neuropeptide Y, and enkephalin, in large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) with a diameter of about 120 nm. (
  • Mechanism of interaction of the cyanine dye diS-C3-(5) with renal brush-border vesicles , J. Membr. (
  • Evers C, Murer H, Kinne R (1978) Effect of parathyrin on the transport properties of isolated renal brush border vesicles. (
  • Hammerman M, Hruska K (1982) Cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation in canine renal brush border membrane vesicles is associated with decreased phosphate transport. (
  • Kahn, A.M., Steplock, D. & Weinman, E.J. Effect of dibutyryl cyclic AMP on glucose transport in isolated brush border membrane vesicles from the rat kidney. (
  • Wright, SH & Wunz, TM 1989, ' Amiloride transport in rabbit renal brush-border membrane vesicles ', American Journal of Physiology - Renal Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology , vol. 256, no. 3 (25/3), pp. (
  • Furthermore, legumin and SBP are sorted together into the same dense vesicle population at the stack. (
  • The cargo in vacuolar storage protein transport vesicles is stratified. (
  • Mutations that disrupt this interaction render the motor constitutively active and compromise cargo transport functions. (
  • Careful matching of motors with their cargo helps vesicles reach their targets. (
  • Vesicles can elicit a protective immune response in a range of hosts, and as vaccine candidates, it is of interest to properly characterize their cargo. (
  • Transport vesicles are small structures within the cell consisting of a fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer that hold cargo. (
  • From here, the early endosome starts a cascade of transport where the cargo is eventually hydrolyzed inside the lysosome for degradation. (
  • V-SNARE that mediates vesicle transport pathways through interactions with t-SNAREs on the target membrane. (
  • In order for the transport vesicle to accurately undergo a fusion event, it must first recognize the correct target membrane then fuse with that membrane. (
  • Rothman, J.E. (1994) Mechanisms of Intracellular Protein Transport. (
  • After arrest of the biosynthetic protein transport at 20 degrees C, fluorescent hCgB-GFP colocalized with TGN38, a marker of the TGN. (
  • This result suggests that cisternal progression takes place substantially more slowly than most protein transport and therefore is unlikely to be the predominant mechanism of anterograde movement. (
  • Comparative analysis using motor protein deletion mutants allowed us to assign the fast movements (7 to 10 μm s −1 ) to transport of secretory vesicles by kinesin-1, and the slower ones (2 to 7 μm s −1 ) to transport by kinesin-3 on early endosomes. (
  • Rab4GTPase, found on sorting endosomes, is proposed to balance the flow of vesicles among endocytic, recycling, and degradative pathways in the presynaptic compartment. (
  • Indeed, he and his colleagues have used the new agents to show that the so-called TRPML3 ion channel, which controls the passage of positively charged cations and the pH (level of acidity) within vesicles, is active in both early and late endosomes and lysosomes. (
  • These data demonstrated that some PrPSc is transported from endosomes to ERCs by CCVs, which might be involved in the recycling of PrPSc. (
  • GFP-Rab9-bearing vesicles display microtubule-based motility. (
  • A motor protein pulls a vesicle along a microtubule. (
  • These two Ca 2+ transport systems are proposed to restore and maintain cytoplasmic Ca 2+ homeostasis under changing cellular and environmental conditions. (
  • These results suggest that in the parotid gland cellular free Ca2+ is extruded mainly by an ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport system, and Na+/Ca2+ exchange may modify the efficacy of that system. (
  • For this reason, vesicles are a basic tool used by the cell for organizing cellular substances. (
  • The Rab11 GTPase is critical for exocytic and recycling pathways and has been shown before to recruit the processive actin motor protein myosin V (MyoV) to vesicle surfaces to drive specific cellular functions. (
  • Moreover, we demonstrate that the main cellular pool of ATAT1 is transported at the cytosolic side of neuronal vesicles that are moving along axons. (
  • Tsukuba, Japan--Many bacteria release membrane vesicles, which are nanoscale spheres consisting of a cellular membrane containing various biomolecules. (
  • Electron cryotomography further demonstrated that small holes were formed in the cell wall, through which the cellular membrane protruded and formed vesicles. (
  • Of these capabilities, the facility of MRP3 in conferring resistance to and mediating the transport of MTX is of particular interest because it raises the possibility that this pump is a component of the previously described cellular efflux system for this antimetabolite. (
  • On the basis of the capacity to transport MTX but not MTX-Glu 2 , it is concluded that MRP3 and MRP1 represent components of the previously described cellular efflux system for MTX. (
  • Clues regarding the molecular identity of one or more components of the cellular efflux system have come recently from investigations of the transport properties of members of the MRP family of ATP-binding cassette transporters. (
  • For many cellular functions, vesicles are used. (
  • You can think of vesicles as cellular envelopes that are used to transport materials from one place to another. (
  • Lysosomes are cellular vesicles that contain digestive enzymes. (
  • Vesicles are small cellular containers that perform a variety of functions. (
  • Ca 2+ transport in membrane vesicles derived from isolated vacuoles equilibrated at 1.10 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with Cl − -stimulated, NO 3 − -inhibited ATPase activity on sucrose density gradients. (
  • This implicated these vesicles in the transport of the proteinase precursor to lytic vacuoles. (
  • are transported from the RER to the protein storage vacuoles via the vesicles having a density of 1.24 g/cm 3 . (
  • Vacuoles are vesicles that contain mostly water. (
  • 1994 ) demonstrated that the clathrin-coated vesicles contain a potential receptor for a precursor of barley aleurain, which is a thiol proteinase. (
  • 1996 ). Clathrin-coated vesicles in plants. (
  • Thus, overt production of reactive NO by activated microglia blocks the axonal transport of synaptic vesicle precursors via phosphorylation of JNK and could cause axonal and synaptic dysfunction. (
  • Detailed histopathological analysis of neuroinflammatory brain diseases revealed that axonal injury appears to be preceded by impairment of the axonal transport system. (
  • Intact fast axonal transport is fundamental for normal function of synapses. (
  • The mechanism by which fast axonal transport is regulated and controlled is essentially unknown. (
  • These studies provide the first direct evidence that ER vesicles are transported on actin filaments by myosin V. These data confirm the role of actin filaments in fast axonal transport and provide support for the dual filament model of vesicle transport. (
  • These experiments indicate that amphetamine acts at the vesicular level where it redistributes dopamine to the cytosol, promoting reverse transport, and dopamine release. (
  • Because it is separated from the cytosol , the inside of the vesicle can be made to be different from the cytosolic environment. (
  • when transport vesicles bud from one membrane and fuse to the next, does the same face of the membrane remain oriented toward the cytosol? (
  • Furthermore, vesicle release was decreased when PKA-depleted cytosol was used and restored by addition of C-PKA. (
  • The ATP-dependent transport of beta-estradiol 17-(beta-D-glucuronide) (E217G), a cholestatic metabolite of estradiol, was investigated in rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles. (
  • Both substrate and inhibitor interactions can be assessed using membrane vesicles prepared from mammalian cell lines over-expressing key human transporters. (
  • Electron micrograph of a cell containing a food vacuole (fv) and transport vacuole (TV) in a malaria parasite . (
  • Vesicle transport and fusion is essential for physiological processes ranging from control of nerve cell communication in the brain to immunological responses and hormone section. (
  • Traditionally, these processes were thought to be driven by discrete functions of the COPII coat, but our recent findings suggest a more intimate connection between the different events that conspire to yield a vesicle. (
  • Moreover, JMY partially colocalizes and interacts with VAP-A, which is involved in vesicle-based transport processes. (
  • Müsch, A , Cohen, D & Rodriguez-Boulan, E 1997, ' Myosin II is involved in the production of constitutive transport vesicles from the TGN ', Journal of Cell Biology , vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 291-306. (
  • Na+ gradient-dependent p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport in rat basolateral membrane vesicles. (
  • The relationship between the transmembrane Na+ gradient and p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport was examined in isolated rat basolateral membrane vesicles. (
  • We conclude that the vacuolar-derived system is a Ca 2+ /H + antiport located on the tonoplast and that the microsomal transport system is a Ca,Mg-ATPase enriched on the ER. (
  • Mutations in the VPS45 gene, a SEC1 homologue, result in vacuolar protein sorting defects and accumulation of membrane vesicles. (
  • Since the vesicular transport of neurotransmitters involves proton exchange and charge movement, we will use pH imaging and associated currents (in addition to radiotracer flux assays) to study the function of vesicle transporters that we have deliberately mislocalized to the plasma membrane, as well as related plasma membrane transporters. (
  • FERGUSON, D., BURTON, K. Reconstitution in phospholipid vesicles of a glucose transport system from pig small intestine. (
  • In vitro glucose transport in giant sarcolemmal vesicles was not decreased by acute exposure to fatty acids. (
  • Additionally, I developed a vesicletracking assay to study single-vesicle fusion dynamics at the cortex. (
  • therefore developed an assay that can directly test whether a protein binds to a specific vesicle population in vivo. (
  • The inhibitor stop transport assay technique makes the assumption that quenching of the transport reaction by inhibitor is rapid with respect to sampling time and that the mitochondrial or inner membrane vesicles are complete and stable for the duration of the isolation procedures. (
  • Addition to this assay of C-PKA stimulated vesicle release while it was suppressed by PKA inhibitory peptide, H89, and antibody against C-PKA. (
  • it transported D-glucose more rapidly than L-glucose and efflux was reduced by phlorizin. (
  • Ca2+ efflux from Ca2+-preloaded vesicles was stimulated by an inwardly directed Na+ gradient. (
  • Membrane preparations for vesicular transport assays are suitable for general drug-efflux transporter interaction studies. (
  • In cell biology , a vesicle is a structure within or outside a cell , consisting of liquid or cytoplasm enclosed by a lipid bilayer . (
  • The GUV system overcomes the problem of inhibitory Ca 2+ accumulation for SERCA in native and reconstituted small unilamellar vesicles (SUV). (
  • Accumulation of ATP was accompanied by release of ADP and AMP from the vesicles. (
  • Extracellular vesicles secreted by Gram-negative bacteria have proven to be important in bacterial defense, communication and host-pathogen relationships. (
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound bodies regularly secreted by Gram-negative bacteria ( Listgarten and Lai, 1979 ). (
  • Recent years have witnessed intensive progress in studying extracellular vesicles (EVs), both for understanding their basic biology and contribution to variety of diseases, biomarker discovery, and their potential as gene delivery vectors and source of innovative therapies. (