The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A dead body, usually a human body.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
The transference of a complete HAND, as a composite of many tissue types, from one individual to another.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
The period following a surgical operation.
Agents that destroy bone marrow activity. They are used to prepare patients for BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION or STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Providers of tissues for transplant to non-related individuals.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.
The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. Mutations occurring in many different genes cause human Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID).
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Veins which drain the liver.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

Classification of human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. (1/7715)

Eleven human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines established in this laboratory were classified into three groups based on morphological features (light and electron microscopy), modal chromosome number, and ability to synthesize carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Group 1 cell lines contained both dedifferentiated and differentiating cells growing in tight clusters or islands of epithelium-like cells; their modal chromosome number was about 47, and they synthesized small to moderate amounts of CEA. Group 2 cell lines were more dedifferentiated, were hyperdiploid, and synthesized small amounts of CEA. Group 3 cell lines were morphologically similar to those of Group 1 by light microscopy. They differed ultrastructurally by containing microvesicular bodies; the modal chromosome number varied from hyperdiploid to hypertriploid or they had bimodal populations of hypodiploid and hypertriploid cells, and they synthesized relatively large amounts of CEA. No correlation could be found between Broder's grade or Duke's classification of the original tumor and modal chromosome number or ability to synthesize CEA. These findings support Nowell's hypothesis that the stem line is different for each solid tumor, which makes it difficult to relate chromosomal changes to the initiation of the neoplastic state.  (+info)

Expression and differential regulation of connective tissue growth factor in pancreatic cancer cells. (2/7715)

CTGF is an immediate early growth responsive gene that has been shown to be a downstream mediator of TGFbeta actions in fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. In the present study hCTGF was isolated as immediate early target gene of EGF/TGFalpha in human pancreatic cancer cells by suppression hybridization. CTGF transcripts were found in 13/15 pancreatic cancer cell lines incubated with 10% serum. In 3/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines EGF/TGFalpha induced a significant rise of CTGF transcript levels peaking 1-2 h after the start of treatment. TGFbeta increased CTGF transcript levels in 2/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines after 4 h of treatment and this elevation was sustained after 24 h. Only treatment with TGFbeta was accompanied by a parallel induction of collagen type I transcription. 15/19 human pancreatic cancer tissues were shown to overexpress high levels of CTGF transcripts. CTGF transcript levels in pancreatic cancer tissues and nude mouse xenograft tumors showed a good correlation to the degree of fibrosis. In situ hybridization and the nude mouse experiments revealed that in pancreatic cancer tissues, fibroblasts are the predominant site of CTGF transcription, whereas the tumor cells appear to contribute to a lesser extent. We conclude that CTGF may be of paramount importance for the development of the characteristic desmoplastic reaction in pancreatic cancer tissues.  (+info)

Mechanisms related to [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of human colon cancers transplanted in nude mice. (3/7715)

[18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG), a glucose analogue, has been widely used for tumor imaging. To investigate the mechanisms related to [18F]FDG uptake by tumors, an experiment involving nude mice was performed. METHODS: Human colon cancer cell lines SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were transplanted to nude mice. Using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot, the expression of glucose transporter (Glut) isoforms (Glut-1 through -5) in xenografted tumors was analyzed. For the analysis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot were used and the enzyme activity of hexokinase in cancer tissues was measured by continuous spectrophotometric rate determination. RESULTS: [18F]FDG uptake in SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 cells was higher than in normal colon cells. Among these cells and xenografted tumors, SNU-C5 showed the highest level of [18F]FDG uptake, followed by SNU-C4 and SNU-C2A. An immunostaining experiment showed intense staining of Glut-1 in SNU-C5 tumors but somewhat faint staining in SNU-C4. SNU-C5 tumors also showed positive staining with Glut-3, although this was not the case with SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. Western blot analysis showed the expression of Glut-1 and Glut-3 in all tumors. Experiments involving Northern blot analysis and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the overexpression of Glut-1 mRNA in all tumors, with the highest level in SNU-C5. The level of Glut-3 mRNA was also elevated in SNU-C5 tumors but not in SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. The enzyme activity of hexokinase did not vary among different tumors. CONCLUSION: Gluts, especially Glut-1, are responsible for [18F]FDG uptake in a nude mouse model of colon cancer rather than hexokinase activity. Increased numbers of glucose transporters at the plasma membrane of cancer cells is attributed to an increased level of transcripts of glucose transporter genes and may be a cause of increased [18F]FDG uptake, at least in colon cancer tumors.  (+info)

99mTc-labeled vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor agonist: functional studies. (4/7715)

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a naturally occurring 28-amino acid peptide with a wide range of biological activities. Recent reports suggest that VIP receptors are expressed on a variety of malignant tumor cells and that the receptor density is higher than for somatostatin. Our aims were to label VIP with 99mTc--a generator-produced, inexpensive radionuclide that possesses ideal characteristics for scintigraphic imaging--and to evaluate 99mTc-VIP for bioactivity and its ability to detect experimental tumors. METHODS: VIP28 was modified at the carboxy terminus by the addition of four amino acids that provided an N4 configuration for a strong chelation of 99mTc. To eliminate steric hindrance, 4-aminobutyric acid (Aba) was used as a spacer. VIP28 was labeled with 1251, which served as a control. Biological activity of the modified VIP28 agonist (TP3654) was examined in vitro using a cell-binding assay and an opossum internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle relaxivity assay. Tissue distribution studies were performed at 4 and 24 h after injection, and receptor-blocking assays were also performed in nude mice bearing human colorectal cancer LS174T. Blood clearance was examined in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. RESULTS: The yield of 99mTc-TP3654 was quantitative, and the yields of 125I-VIP and 1251-TP3654 were >90%. All in vitro data strongly suggested that the biological activity of 99mTc-TP3654 agonist was equivalent to that of VIP28. As the time after injection increased, radioactivity in all tissues decreased, except in the receptor-enriched tumor (P = 0.84) and in the lungs (P = 0.78). The tumor uptake (0.23 percentage injected dose per gram of tissue [%ID/g]) was several-fold higher than 125I-VIP (0.06 %ID/g) at 24 h after injection in the similar system. In mice treated with unlabeled VIP or TP3654, the uptake of 99mTc-TP3654 decreased in all VIP receptor-rich tissues except the kidneys. The blood clearance was biphasic; the alpha half-time was 5 min and the beta half-time was approximately 120 min. CONCLUSION: VIP28 was modified and successfully labeled with 99mTc. The results of all in vitro examinations indicated that the biological activity of TP3654 was equivalent to that of native VIP28 and tumor binding was receptor specific.  (+info)

Effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and glucose and oxygen consumption in perfused tissue-isolated human melanoma xenografts. (5/7715)

The effect of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on vascular resistance, nitric oxide production, and consumption of oxygen and glucose was examined in a perfused tissue-isolated tumor model in nude mice. One experimental group was perfused with heparinized Krebs-Henseleit buffer, a second one was perfused with TNF-alpha (500 microgram/kg) 5 h before perfusion. The vascular resistance increased significantly 5 h after TNF-alpha injection. The increase in vascular resistance did not seem to be mediated by a decrease in tumor nitric oxide production, as determined by perfusate nitrate/nitrite concentrations, but may be due to aggregation of leukocytes, platelets, and erythrocytes and/or endothelial consumption among the three experimental groups. The oxygen consumption was linearly dependent on the amount of available oxygen in the perfusate, whereas the glucose consumption was constant and independent of the glucose delivery rate. The present experiments provide new insights into physiological and metabolic mechanisms of action of TNF- alpha for optimization of future treatment schedules involving TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Fish swimbladder: an excellent mesodermal inductor in primary embryonic induction. (6/7715)

Swimbladder of the crucian carp, Carassius auratus, was found to be better as a vegatalizing tissue than other tissues, such as guinea-pig bone marrow, when presumptive ectoderm of Triturus gastrulae was used as reacting tissue. Swimbladder usually induced assemblies of highly organized mesodermal tissues, such as notochord, somites and pronephric tubules, some of which were covered by mesodermal epithelium without any epidermal covering. A special character of the effect of swimbladder was the rather frequent induction of solid balls of undifferentiated cells, which were identified as mesodermal or mesodermal and probably endodermal. These findings show that swimbladder has a strong and fast spreading vegetalizing effect on the responding presumptive ectoderm.  (+info)

Mutated epithelial cadherin is associated with increased tumorigenicity and loss of adhesion and of responsiveness to the motogenic trefoil factor 2 in colon carcinoma cells. (7/7715)

Epithelial (E)-cadherin and its associated cytoplasmic proteins (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenins) are important mediators of epithelial cell-cell adhesion and intracellular signaling. Much evidence exists suggesting a tumor/invasion suppressor role for E-cadherin, and loss of expression, as well as mutations, has been described in a number of epithelial cancers. To investigate whether E-cadherin gene (CDH1) mutations occur in colorectal cancer, we screened 49 human colon carcinoma cell lines from 43 patients by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing. In addition to silent changes, polymorphisms, and intronic variants in a number of the cell lines, we detected frameshift single-base deletions in repeat regions of exon 3 (codons 120 and 126) causing premature truncations at codon 216 in four replication-error-positive (RER+) cell lines (LS174T, HCT116, GP2d, and GP5d) derived from 3 patients. In LS174T such a mutation inevitably contributes to its lack of E-cadherin protein expression and function. Transfection of full-length E-cadherin cDNA into LS174T cells enhanced intercellular adhesion, induced differentiation, retarded proliferation, inhibited tumorigenicity, and restored responsiveness to the migratory effects induced by the motogenic trefoil factor 2 (human spasmolytic polypeptide). These results indicate that, although inactivating E-cadherin mutations occur relatively infrequently in colorectal cancer cell lines overall (3/43 = 7%), they are more common in cells with an RER+ phenotype (3/10 = 30%) and may contribute to the dysfunction of the E-cadherin-catenin-mediated adhesion/signaling system commonly seen in these tumors. These results also indicate that normal E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion can restore the ability of colonic tumor cells to respond to trefoil factor 2.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue conjugates with strong selective antitumor activity. (8/7715)

Conjugation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues GnRH-III, MI-1544, and MI-1892 through lysyl side chains and a tetrapeptide spacer, Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly (X) to a copolymer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-maleic acid) (P) caused increased antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast, PC3 and LNCaP prostate, and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines in culture and against tumor development by xenografts of the breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. MCF-7 cells treated with P-X-1544 and P-X-1892 displayed characteristic signs of apoptosis, including vacuoles in the cytoplasm, rounding up, apoptotic bodies, bleb formation, and DNA fragmentation. Conjugates, but not free peptides, inhibited cdc25 phosphatase and caused accumulation of Ishikawa and PC3 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 24 h at lower doses and in the G1 and G2 phases after 48 h. Since P-X-peptides appear to be internalized, the increased cytotoxicity of the conjugates is attributed to protection of peptides from proteolysis, enhanced interaction of the peptides with the GnRH receptors, and/or internalization of P-X-peptide receptor complexes so that P can exert toxic effects inside, possibly by inhibiting enzymes involved in the cell cycle. The additional specificity of P-X-peptides compared with free peptides for direct antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells but not for interactions in the pituitary indicates the therapeutic potential of the conjugates.  (+info)

Non-human chimeric mammals are created from a mammal having hematopoietic cells replaced with hematopoietic cells from a hematopoietic deficient mammal donor, and optionally in which xenogeneic cells and/or tissue are engrafted. The xenogeneic, preferably human, cells or tissue may be hematopoietic cells, in which case the chimeric mammal can produce xenogeneic B and/or T cells, and can be used as a source of mammalian, preferably human, monoclonal antibodies and/or T cells. Alternatively, the xenogeneic cells or tissue may be non-hematopoietic, such as normal or pathological cells or tissue, which can form a stable transplant in the chimeric mammal and thus can be used as an animal model of various pathologies or to test therapeutic or diagnostic agents or modalities.
Apffel, C A. and Peters, J H., Successful heterotransplantation of l1210 mouse leukosis into un- treated adult hamsters. Abstr. (1968). Subject Strain Bibliography 1968. 45 ...
Animal models for human tumor xenografts are used for the study of biology and treatment of human cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a model for long-term tumor observations with the...
In recent years, there have been many advances in the field of biotechnology. With these advances, have come the arguments of how this information should be used, and how ethical these new processes might be. One of these processes includes xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation is a process in which animal organs are used for vital organ transplants to humans. This process is controversial for obvious reasons, but requires further examination. Besides just vital organs, there are many other types of transplants that can also be performed. These transplants include skin grafts, corneal transplants, and bone transplants. This is done to try to solve the worldwide problem of the shortage in human organs. The amount of organs available cannot compare to the amount of organs needed, therefore xenotransplantation is performed, and a human can receive a vital organ or other life saving material from an animal. Xenotransplantation could also be used to cure other diseases where there is a shortage of ...
Principal Investigator:SAITOH Youichi,斉藤 洋一, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery
Yoshimura, S; Tamaoki, N; Ueyama, Y; and Hata, J, Plasma protein production by human tumors xenotransplanted in nude mice. (1978). Subject Strain Bibliography 1978. 3452 ...
It is well understood by oncologists that tumor growth and metastasis depend on changes in the tumor microenvironment or stroma. Stromal changes have been the focus of numerous research publications and have led to insights in both tumor development and promising new avenues for treatment [1-7].. In order to study molecular changes in stroma from tissue samples, it is necessary to separate tumor tissue from stromal tissue. Without this separation we have sample heterogeneity, which is well known to severely limit the conclusions that can be made about the specificity of molecular changes and their biological causes [5, 7-11]. This separation can be difficult in contexts where tumors are small or not well differentiated. For example, in mouse tumor xenograft models, human cancer cells are grown in immune-suppressed mice [12-15]. These models are popular in oncologic research for studying mechanisms of tumor growth and metastasis, as well as drug response. In such studies, secondary tumors (at ...
Xenotransplantation involves the transplantation of living cells, tissues, or organs of animal origin or of human material that has had ex vivo contact with these living, xenogeneic materials. The most pressing concern raised by clinical xenotransplantation is the risk of transmitting infectious diseases across the species barrier; then from the xeno-recipient to her close contacts (including involved health professionals) and the wider public. This chapter presents some of the key issues relating to xenotransplantation; considers the xeno-surveillance regimes suggested or implemented to date; and examines the role of the law in protecting global health in this context.
The research theme was quite challenging. In 1988, a research group led by Stanford University in the USA published a pioneering work on reconstitution of human immunity in mice. As the engraftment levels of human cells were not that high, investigators attempted to improve the in vivo assay in varous ways. Ishikawas attempt to create an immunologically humanized mouse took a different approach. When human cells are transplanted into a mouse, the cells are rejected by the mouses immune system. To avoid rejection, we need to create an immune-deficient mouse, or an immune-suppressed mouse. Then we can transplant hematopoietic stem cells from humans into the mouse to create various blood cells, including human-derived white blood cells.. There are many types of blood cells, including white blood cells, red blood cells and blood platelets. White blood cells are responsible for the immune response and can be grouped into phagocytic cells, which ingest and consume foreign bodies, and lymphocyte ...
Summary: This zebrafish xenotransplant model of glioblastoma enables in vivo imaging of tumor cells and rapid screening for anti-glioma agents. It provides standardization of a model that is easily replicated across laboratories. ...
Xenotransplantation is the transplanting of animal tissues and organs into a human, and is being studied as a substitute for human organ donors.
xenotransplantation - Read articles from Issue 2018(07). Read article PDFs using your inistitutions subscriptions with no additional login.
How its done: Doctors take an organ that was donated by an animal source (most commonly pigs are used in this process) and surgically implant it into a human recipient that needs the new organs ...
xenogeneic transplantation (xenograft) according to the free Medical Dictionary. transplantation between members of different species; for example, the transplantation of animal organs into humans.
Studies investigating the oxygenation status and the development of hypoxia in microscopic tumors are sparse. The purpose of this study was to measure the extent of hypoxia in microscopic melanoma xenografts and to search for possible mechanisms leading to the development of hypoxia in these tumors. A-07, D-12, R-18, and U-25 human melanoma xenografts grown in dorsal window chambers or as flank tumors were used as preclinical tumor models. Morphologic and functional parameters of vascular networks were assessed with intravital microscopy, and the expression of angiogenesis-related genes was assessed with quantitative PCR. Microvessels, pericytes, and the extent of hypoxia were assessed by immunohistochemistry in microscopic tumors by using CD31, αSMA, and pimonidazole as markers, and the extent of radiobiological hypoxia was assessed in macroscopic flank tumors. Macroscopic R-18 and U-25 tumors showed extensive hypoxia, whereas macroscopic A-07 and D-12 tumors were less hypoxic. R-18 and U-25 tumors
The role of natural anti-Gal alpha 1-3Gal antibodies in hyperacute rejection of pig-to-baboon cardiac xenotransplants.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
If the synergy we observe in vivo in the A2780/cp70 xenograft is not related to MLH1 re-expression but to some other interaction between DAC and the cytotoxic drug, then it might be expected that synergy would also be observed in xenografts of A2780/cp70 that have hMLH1 reintroduced by chromosome 3 transfer. Indeed, there is a small but significant increase in sensitivity of CP70-ch3 to cisplatin (Fig. 4G ⇓ and Table 1 ⇓ ; P , 0.01), but this is a very small effect compared with the sensitization observed in A2780/cp70. DAC did not sensitize MMR-proficient CP70-ch3 xenografts to the other three cytotoxic drugs examined, carboplatin, temozolomide, and epirubicin (Table 1) ⇓ . This suggests that the small sensitization that we observe for cisplatin is attributable to a specific interaction between these two agents, which may be related to the synergy reported in cell lines in vitro (23) . A2780/cp70 and CP70-ch3 xenografts are equally sensitive to Taxol (15 mg/kg i.v.), and DAC has no effect ...
The use of animals as a source of cells, tissues, and organs for transplantation - xenotransplantation - has been of increasing interest in recent years. Transplantation of animal tissues into human patients is occurring now at various centers and the possibility of organ xenotransplants is widely discussed. This new volume presents a balanced review of recent progress in understanding the immunologic aspects of xenotransplantation and zoonotic risks. It addresses how the application of various immunosuppressive modalities might compromise the immunological competence of recipients and examines the relevant issues relating to zoonotic disease. This is the first book to deal with the issues of host defense and zoonosis in xenotransplantation and points to the critical issues that must be addressed to make the process safe from the perspective of the patient and society as well as critical questions yet to be answered Valuable reading for physicians, scientists, and those engaged in the development of
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most deadly brain tumor, and currently lacks effective treatment options. Brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) and orthotopic xenografts are widely used in investigating GBM biology and new therapies for this aggressive disease. However, the genomic characteristi …
ISIS Sustainable Science Audit #2. August 2000. Xenotransplantation How Bad Science and Big Business Put the World at Risk from Viral Pandemics. Dr. Mae-Wan Ho. Director. Institute of Science in Society. PO Box 32097. London NW1 0XR. UK. Summary. Xenotransplantation - the transplant of animal organs into human beings - is a multi-billion dollar business venture built on the anticipated sale of patented techniques and organs, as well as drugs to overcome organ-rejection (1). It has received strong criticism and opposition from scientists warning of risks of new viruses crossing from animal organs to human subjects and from there to infect the population at large. Our regulators, however, are adopting a permissive attitude for clinical trials to go ahead. Scientific reports of virus crossing from pig to human cells (2), and of viral infections in humans subjects transplanted with baboon livers (3), are being ignored or dismissed, while inconclusive, widely faulted papers are taken as evidence that ...
Identifying cell-enhancement strategies, be it genetic modification (1) or small molecule antagonism (2), is essential to improve the therapeutic efficacy of cell-based therapies. Indeed, transplanted cells in a wide variety of models demonstrate poor engraftment, with high rates of cell attrition. Herein, we highlight important differences in GSK3β signaling as a factor for enhanced EPC senescence in DM resulting in accelerated rates of apoptosis. Moreover, using a proteomics approach, we identified upregulation of cathB as protective for reductions in basal and stress-induced apoptosis. Finally, in a xenotransplant model, we confirm that cathB activity is required for GSKi-induced improvements in EPC mediated arterial repair.. Patients with DM have increased rates of cardiovascular disease and markedly higher rates of in-stent restenosis after revascularization. This, in part, is owing to attenuated EPC function in patients and fewer circulating cells (16). Multiple mechanisms of EPC ...
Creative Animodel provides the most useful human xenograft models for investigating both hematological malignances and solid tumors.
The Diaries of Despair xenotransplantation legal battle and public interest issues - justified exposure of a horrific vivisection scandal.
In Vivo: MK-2206 shows 60% TGI and inhibits more than 70 % of phospho-Akt1/2 (T308 and S473) in A2780 ovarian cancer xenografts at a dose of 240 mg/kg. [1] MK-2206 exhibits significant antitumor activity in NCI-H292 xenograft in combination with erlotinib or ...
Thanks to the groundbreaking discoveries of the last few years, these strategies are becoming more and more real, yet with still a number of key steps to overcome.
Please send the details of your project to [email protected], or call 512-433-6177 and we will be happy to provide an immediate price quote. Experimental details will help us provide an accurate quote and timeline estimate. ...
A xenograft is cells or sections of tissue that are removed from one species and grafted onto another species. The main reason for...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Single-dose versus fractionated radioimmunotherapy of human colon carcinoma xenografts using 131I-labeled multivalent CC49 single-chain Fvs1. AU - Goel, A.. AU - Augustine, S.. AU - Baranowska-Kortylewicz, Janina. AU - Colcher, D.. AU - Booth, B. J M. AU - Pavlinkova, G.. AU - Tempero, M.. AU - Batra, Surinder Kumar. PY - 2001/2/12. Y1 - 2001/2/12. N2 - The prospects of radiolabeled antibodies in cancer detection and therapy remain promising. However, efforts to achieve cures, especially of solid tumors, with the systemic administration of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have met with limited success. Using genetic engineering techniques, MAbs have been tailored to improve the therapeutic index (tumor:normal tissue ratio) in clinical radioimmunotherapy. In the present study, we investigated the potential of tetravalent {[sc(Fv)2]2} and divalent [sc(FV)2] single chain Fvs of MAb CC49 for therapy in athymic mice bearing s.c. LS-174T human colon carcinoma xenografts. Mice ...
Allogeneic islet transplantation faces difficulties because (i)organ shortage is recurrent; (ii) several pancreas donors are often needed to treat one diabetic recipient; and (iii) the intrahepatic site of islet implantation may not be the most appropriate site. Another source of insulin-producing cells, therefore, would be of major interest, and pigs represent a possible and serious source for obtaining such cells. Pig islet grafts may appear difficult because of the species barrier, but recent reports demonstrate that pig islets may function in primates for at least 6 months. Pig islet xenotransplantation, however, must still overcome several hurdles prior to becoming clinically applicable. The actual consensus is to produce more preclinical data in the pig-to-primate model as a necessary requirement to envisage any pig-to-human transplantation of islets; therefore, a summary of the actual acquired knowledge of pig islet transplantation in primates seemed useful. ...
Human tumor xenograft models are used for new drug discovery and development, and are extremely useful tools in oncology. These models can be used for general treatment research and for identifying the details of tumor growth and development. Xenograft models are also widely used for personalized cancer treatment set up and tests, as their cancerous cells are similar to those of the original tumor. Xenograft model techniques allow in vivo tests on human tumors, not on mouse tumors, which may not have the same response on a particular drug or dose concentration.. Studies with xenotransplantation can be used to measure the activity of compounds based on the rate of growth exhibited by the engrafted tumors. Experimental targets may be tumors that originate from specific tissues such as breast, colon or lung. A multitude of tissue specific models exist and more are being developed. Altogen Labs has the expertise to utilize these models and any new models as they become available. In addition, we ...
The generation of the immune system is the only known developmental process in mammals that utilizes site-specific genomic recombination mechanisms. B lymphocyte differentiation occurs in fetal liver...
The need for developing improved tumor xenograft models for evaluating anti-cancer therapies is essential as has previously been documented (27). The development of new genetically modified immunodeficient mouse models has greatly facilitated the successful engraftment and prolonged survival of normal and neoplastic human tissues (14). These newer generations of humanized mice bearing human tissue xenografts have begun to provide valuable insights into complex human biological systems including hematopoiesis, innate and adaptive immunity, autoimmunity, infectious diseases, regenerative medicine, and cancer (14). Our goal has been to utilize severely immunodeficient mice to establish xenografts of human tumors that include both the tumor cells and the associated tumor stroma, i.e., fibroblasts and inflammatory leukocytes. The implantation of human lung (7) and ovarian tumors (17) into NSG mice resulted in the long-term engraftment of the tumor and the tumor-associated nonmalignant cells that ...
In this report, we describe PD 0332991 as a potent and highly selective inhibitor of Cdk4 and Cdk6 and show that suppression of these enzymes in human tumor xenografts results in significant antitumor activity. Given that a major obstacle to establishing the usefulness of a Cdk4/6 inhibitor has been the difficulty in obtaining a molecule with complete specificity for these enzymes versus other Cdks and protein kinases, considerable effort was taken to establish the selectivity of this compound. PD 0332991 was tested against 39 individual serine, threonine, and tyrosine kinases, representing most of the primary protein kinase families (84). Other than Cdk4 and Cdk6, the compound had little or no activity against any of these enzymes. Based on the understood role of Cdk4/6 in cell cycle progression, a specific Cdk4/6 inhibitor is predicted to produce an exclusive G1 arrest. Consistent with this expectation, cells treated with concentrations of PD 0332991 as high as 200-fold above the IC50 for ...
Background: The tumor microenvironment is involved in prostate cancer progression. Several stromal‐epithelial‐interacting pathways associated with prostate cancer (PCa) progression in the bone, are also considered candidates of resistance to current therapeutic strategies applied. Hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been associated with PCa aggressiveness. Therefore Hh pathway could be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target, also contributing to therapy against prostate carcinoma metastasis in bone. Experimental work on specific chemical inhibitors of Hh signaling suggests that they may represent an entirely new class of therapeutic agents. In this study we tested the efficacy of Hh pathway inhibition with Smoothened inhibitor GDC‐0449 in 118b prostate cancer xenograft model.. Experimental Design: We employed the xenograft MDA PCa 118b, derived from the bone metastasis of a patient with castrate‐resistant prostatic adenocarcinoma. This is characterized by unique bone producing feature when ...
The final argument Ill advance against HeLa in cancer research is the fact that it has been in culture so long. HeLa should be seen as something like a bizarre new species found only in laboratories, not a representative of human cancer. All that time in culture has certainly enabled HeLa (or all the different HeLa) to evolve far away from the tumor which killed Henrietta Lacks. Again, this is a flaw in all in vitro propagated cell line studies, but given that HeLa is the oldest it is likely the most affected (granted, what wed really like to know is actual time in culture). Patient-derived xenografts are far more likely to be informative of tumors, but their expense and newness has meant they havent yet fully displaced in vitro lines from research programs ...
The final argument Ill advance against HeLa in cancer research is the fact that it has been in culture so long. HeLa should be seen as something like a bizarre new species found only in laboratories, not a representative of human cancer. All that time in culture has certainly enabled HeLa (or all the different HeLa) to evolve far away from the tumor which killed Henrietta Lacks. Again, this is a flaw in all in vitro propagated cell line studies, but given that HeLa is the oldest it is likely the most affected (granted, what wed really like to know is actual time in culture). Patient-derived xenografts are far more likely to be informative of tumors, but their expense and newness has meant they havent yet fully displaced in vitro lines from research programs ...
As a single agent, ZD1839 resulted in regression of the vulvar A431 tumor, which markedly overexpresses EGFR. Against the tumors (A549, SK-LC-16, PC-3, and TSU-PR1 LX-1) with much lower levels of EGFR expression, ZD1839 was only growth inhibitory. Growth inhibition by ZD1839 was lowest against the lung LX-1 tumor, which had the lowest EGFR expression. These results are consistent with an earlier study (17) that demonstrated antitumor activity for ZD1839 in human vulvar, lung, prostate, and ovarian tumor xenografts. ZD1839 monotherapy was well tolerated in mice, and the maximum nonlethal dose was 150 mg/kg.. The combination of ZD1839 with all cytotoxic agents in this study required a 2-fold or greater attenuation of the ZD1839 dose below its single-agent maximum nonlethal dose of 150 mg/kg for optimum tolerance. Interestingly, limiting toxicity for ZD1839 in combination was associated only with the small intestine and appears to reflect the extraordinarily rapid renewal of the mouse intestinal ...
Regional recurrence of glioblastomas is certainly a major reason behind patient mortality following definitive treatment. damage. Understanding the procedures that mediate tumour revascularisation will information the improvement of scientific strategies for stopping recurrence of glioblastoma after irradiation. research, it isnt well understood from what level these multiple indication transduction pathways are distributed among the various cell types or between regular malignant cells. The SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway in tumour metastasis and tissues injury The relationship between your CXCR4 receptor and its own ligand, SDF-1(2001) confirmed that CXCR4 is certainly expressed in principal breast cancers cells which SDF-1 was extremely expressed in the most frequent sites of metastasis, like the lymph nodes, lungs, liver organ, and bone tissue. When the CXCR4/SDF-1 relationship was blocked using a neutralising anti-CXCR4 antibody using an xenotransplant model, metastatic insert was significantly ...
BioAssay record AID 710427 submitted by ChEMBL: Binding affinity to TLR2 in human SU.86.86 cells xenografted in Harlan athymic nude mouse tumor assessed as increase in fluorescence at 100 nmol/kg, iv measured up to 24 hrs.
The laboratory mouse is the foremost model organism for interrogating the genetic and molecular basis of human cancer and is a powerful platform for identifying therapeutically effective targets for prevention and treatment of cancer. Research using genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) have led to important advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of cancer susceptibility, the function of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, and therapy responses in preclinical and co-clinical studies. Patient Derived Xenograft (PDX) models are an increasingly important model system for in vivo studies of human cancer. These models are created by implanting patient tumors into immunodeficient or humanized mouse hosts and are a powerful translational research platform for preclinical and co-clinical studies. The number of GEMM and PDX mouse models increases significantly every year and the diverse cancer-related data about human cancer models tend to be distributed in ways that makes it difficult for ...
CP 31398 dihydrochloride, p53 stabilizing agent. Stabilizes the active conformation of p53 and promotes p53 activity in cancer cell lines with mutant or wild-type p53. Inhibits growth of small human tumor xenografts in vivo.
Latest news and features on science issues that matter including earth, environment, and space. Get your science news from the most trusted source!
There are 13 fifteen-letter words containing A, 2N, P and X: EXCEPTIONALNESS EXPANSIVENESSES EXPERIMENTATION ... UNEXCEPTIONABLY UNEXCEPTIONALLY XENOTRANSPLANTS. Every word on this site is valid scrabble words. See other lists, that begin with or end with letters of your choice.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine 1317 Islet Xenotransplantation An Experimental Study of Barriers to Clinical Transplantation by Peter N. Schmidt
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antitumor activity and toxicity of anti-HER2 immunoRNase scFv 4D5-dibarnase in mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts. AU - Balandin, Taras G.. AU - Edelweiss, Evelina. AU - Andronova, Natalia V.. AU - Treshalina, Elena M.. AU - Sapozhnikov, Alexander M.. AU - Deyev, Sergey M.. PY - 2011/2. Y1 - 2011/2. N2 - Summary: Ribonucleases (RNases) are a non-mutagenic alternative to harmful DNA-damaging anticancer drugs. Targeting of RNases with antibodies to surface antigens that are selectively expressed on tumor cells endows specificity to the cytotoxic actions of RNases. Barnase, a ribonuclease from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, is a promising candidate for targeted delivery to cancer cells because of its insusceptibility to the ubiquitous cytoplasmic ribonuclease inhibitor, and its high stability and catalytic activity. Here, we characterized in vitro and in vivo an immunoRNase, scFv 4D5-dibarnase, which consists of two barnase molecules that are fused serially to the single-chain ...
Metastatic uveal melanoma is a highly fatal disease; most patients die from their hepatic metastasis within 1 year. A major drawback in the development of new treatments for metastatic uveal melanoma is the difficulty in obtaining appropriate cell lines and the lack of appropriate animal models. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models, bearing ectopically implanted tumors at a subcutaneous site, have been developed. However, these ectopically implanted PDX models have obstacles to translational research, including a low engraftment rate, slow tumor growth, and biological changes after multiple passages due to the different microenvironment. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new method to directly transplant biopsy specimens to the liver of immunocompromised mice. By using two metastatic uveal melanoma cell lines, we demonstrated that the liver provides a more suitable microenvironment for tumor growth compared to subcutaneous sites and that surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) of
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Primary nonfunction of islet xenografts in rat recipients results from non-T-cell-mediated immune responses. by Sophie X. Deng et al.
Allogeneic cells are the most attractive source for cell transplantation, as the use of xenogeneic cells is hampered by safety concerns and the use of autologous cells involves practical difficulties. The immune rejection of allogeneic cells can be overcome by physical immunoprotection provided by polymer encapsulation. To study the variability of cell and donor sources, we compared different primary human cells as candidates for gene therapy-mediated delivery of human erythropoietin (hEpo). DARC-3.1 fibroblasts, MDX-01 fibroblasts, and ARPE-19 retinal pigment epithelial cells were encapsulated into polyethersulfone hollow fibers and implanted for 1 month in nude mice as well as in immunocompetent and FK506-immunosuppressed mice to test their in vivo resistance, with the assumption that xenogeneic conditions constitute a stringent model for human application. DARC-3.1 fibroblasts showed the best survival, prompting us to evaluate cell lineages from the same donor (DARC-3.2) or another donor (DARC-4.3
Treatment for brain tumors includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. These therapies may be delivered alone or in combination. It is estimated that over 18,000 primary brain tumors occur in the United States each year. Of the those 18,000, over 60% are gliomas. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most malignant of all gliomas with 75% of patients dying within 18 months of diagnosis since they cannot be cured by surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or any other available treatment modality. The use of allogeneic/syngeneic/and xenogeneic cell lines and lysis may lead to a reduction in tumor size and perhaps rejection thereby increasing survival. In the future, allogeneic cell lines may also be used as a vaccination from common cancers. The manipulation of the immune system may be a useful way to have the body itself contribute to the treatment and prevention of cancer. Our research focuses on increasing the efficiency of the immune system to recognise and reject ...
The International Xenotransplantation Association is pleased to announce the initiation of the biennial Reemtsma Lectureship.. The lectureship will honor the memory of Dr. Keith Reemtsma. Dr. Reemtsma pioneered clinical xenotransplantation in 1963, transplanting kidneys from chimpanzees and a rhesus macaque to patients with renal failure. His later work focused on xeno islets. A founding member and Honorary Founding President of IXA, he collaborated with the other pioneers in the field, and either trained or encouraged the generations of scientists and surgeons who followed in their footsteps. In addition to his many scientific accomplishments, his vision, humility, wisdom, and wit live on through the life and work of all who knew him. This lectureship will serve as an enduring vehicle through which he can inspire future generations.. IXA expects to endow this lectureship through fundraising from IXA and TTS members, and from Dr. Reemtsmas friends and colleagues around the world. The lecture ...
SUNY Upstate Medical University currently maintains a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse facility which has been successfully used to develop human xenograft models for the testing of chemotherapeutic and immunomodulatory therapeutics.. The goal of the faculty in this highly specialized research unit is to better understand disease pathogenesis and to develop preclinical models to test novel anti-virals, vaccines and chemotherapeutic drugs. Combined with state-of-the-art imaging capabilities, we are able to visualize virus replication and cancer responses to chemotherapy in whole animals using the IVIS technology. ...
Xenotransplants - Con - Trial Laboratory Work - Because We are Leaders. Jurisprudence Topics - Any complexity and volume!!!! Professor - Writes your Essay Work!!!
What is a nude mouse and why is it used in cancer research? How come my mouse pups have a different coat color than their parents? What is a knockout mouse? Answers to these and more are in this introduction to the laboratory mouse, one of the most widely used models in biomedical research. We will explore the natural history and origin of the laboratory mouse; the ethics and regulations on the use of mice in research; the characteristics and nomenclature of commonly used mouse strains; the anatomy, physiology, and husbandry of mice; common mouse diseases and their effects on research; mouse coat color genetics and its relevance to human diseases; immunodeficient mouse models and their uses in research; and the technology for genetically engineering mice (e.g., transgenic mice). Video demonstrations of necropsy, mouse handling, anesthesia and surgery, identification methods, and research techniques will be provided. Each student is expected to read research papers that use the mouse as a ...
Un novedoso sistema que involucra el implante de grandes cantidades de células procedentes de islotes de pancreas de cerdo (micro-encapsuladas en extractos de algas : alginato), en el abdomen de diabéticos de tipo 1, amenaza revertir las complicaciones de esta enfermedad. La cubierta de alginato evita la detección y destrucción inmune. El procedimiento ha recibido el visto bueno de las autoridades de salud australianas para llevar a cabo la fase II de ensayos en humanos. El procedimiento (Diabecell), conducido por una compañía neozelandesa no emplea medicamentos antirechazo. Las pruebas piloto realizadas en humanos han constatado que el implante disminuye eventos hipoglicémicos, las complicaciones a largo plazo de la hiperglicemia y las necesidades diarias de insulina. Para minimizar los riesgos de enfermedades trasmitidas por cerdos, la compañía emplea cerdos procedentes de la isla neozelandesa de Auckland mantenidos en aislamiento por mas de 200 años. ...
As far as I know, you should be able to detect both ab and cytokines from serum as well as from plasma. However, at least cytokines can be difficult if not impossible to detect that way due to their small concentrations, and the results can be quite ambiquous. Anyways, if you manage to detect cytokines, Id probably go for Th1 vs. Th2 cytokines for example, to evaluate the function of T-cells, which are responsible for the graft rejection. Antibodies should be more straightforward to measure, probably with some ELISA system ...
Thomas Starzl performed the first successful human liver transplant in 1967 and went on to help develop drugs that improved survival for organ transplant patients.. 0 Comments. ...
Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2021 Elsevier B.V We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. ...
PHA-793887 is a novel and potent inhibitor of CDK2, CDK5 and CDK7 with IC50 of 8 nM, 5 nM and 10 nM, respectively. PHA793887 was also effective in vivo in both subcutaneous xenograft and primary leukemic disseminated models that better mimic naturally occ
Scientists have made human organs transparent with the use of a new imaging technique called SHANEL, small-micelle-mediated human organ efficient clearing and
Inoculation of 337 human tumours of different types into nude mice resulted in tumour takes in 131 cases (39%). Tumour takes varied among the various tumour categories and the various histological...
A newly funded TFRI dream team plans to tackle the most lethal and aggressive brain tumour that occurs in adults by focusing not on the original tumour, but on the relapsed cancer. &ldqu... Read More ...
nude mouse definition: a mouse with an inherited problem that prevents all of them from developing locks also stops them from immunologically rejecting personal cells and tissues; popular in preclinical…
MTB has been designed to aid researchers in such areas as choosing experimental models, reviewing patterns of mutations in specific cancers, and identifying genes that are commonly mutated across a spectrum of cancers.
Source material can be normal healthy cells from another donor (heterologous transplantation) or genetically corrected from the ... cell replacement and transplantation following acute injuries and reconstructive surgery. These applications are limited to the ...
Transplantation. 84(10):1215-9 - according to Sánchez-Fueyo A, Strom TB (2011), Immunologic basis of graft rejection and ... 441(7095):890-3 Welsh RM, Selin LK (2002), No one is naive: the significance of heterologous T-cell immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. ... This type of rejection is very fast, the graft is rejected in a few minutes or hours after the transplantation. Accelerated ... These cells may represent a serious problem after the transplantation. As the effect of being exposed to various infections in ...
The drug is used primarily in liver and kidney transplantations, although in some clinics it is used in heart, lung, and heart/ ... Heterologous polyclonal antibodies are obtained from the serum of animals (e.g., rabbit, horse), and injected with the ... Pancreas-Kidney Transplantation: Drugs, a brief history of immunosuppressive drugs. Accessed on 21 August 2005. WSAVA 2001 - ... They are used in the prophylaxis of the acute organ rejection after bilateral kidney transplantation, both being similarly ...
It is also possible to extract stem cells from amniotic fluid for both autologous or heterologous use at the time of childbirth ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ... Biology of blood and marrow transplantation. American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2 (1): 3-14. PMID 9078349. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.. *Bone marrow transplant - How it is performed ...
... (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign" or strange), or heterologous transplant, is the transplantation of ... If there is any risk to the public at all for an outbreak from transplantation there must be procedures in place to protect the ... Not only does the recipient of the transplantation have to understand the risks and benefits, but society must also understand ... The assumption is that the recipient of the transplantation will be asked to undergo lifelong monitoring, which would deny the ...
Heterologous aortic valve transplantation in the dog' Lancet, 2, 114 Duran C G, Gunning AJ (1964) 'Aortic heterograft implanted ... Heterologous aortic valve replacement' Lancet 2, 1257 Ionescu M I, Wooler G H, Smith D R, Grimshaw V A (1967) 'Mitral valve ...
He is considered a pioneer in liver transplantation. The introduction of the term "transplantation medicine" goes back to ... His postdoctoral thesis on Production and Effects of Heterologous Anti-Dog Lymphocyte Serum in 1968 received the von Langenbeck ... During his time at the MHH he was involved in 4,278 transplantations of liver, kidney and pancreas. Together with his wife Ina ... Just one year later he was head of the Department of Special Surgery and Transplantation. In 1973, Pichlmayr finally became ...
... multiple copies of heterologous DNA in target cells as well as low efficacy of cell transduction at the time of transplantation ... Stem cell transplantation[edit]. In 2007, Timothy Ray Brown,[12] a 40-year-old HIV-positive man, also known as "the Berlin ... Schneider, Thomas (2011-03-10). "Evidence for the cure of HIV infection by CCR532/32 stem cell transplantation". Blood. 117 (10 ... One supposed cure to HIV-1 involves the creation of a disease-resistant immune system through transplantation of autologous, ...
Extracting stem cells from amniotic fluid is possible for both autologous and heterologous uses at the time of childbirth. ... Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ... Stem-cell transplantation was pioneered using bone marrow-derived stem cells by a team at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research ... Bone-marrow transplantation usually requires that the recipient's own bone marrow be destroyed (myeloablation). Prior to the ...
... or heterologous transplant is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.[3] Such cells ... "Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. 18 (2): 179-85. doi:10.1097/MOT.0b013e32835f0887. PMC 4911019. PMID 23449347.. ... "Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. 16 (2): 214-21. doi:10.1097/MOT.0b013e3283446c65. PMC 3094512. PMID 21415824.. ... Campaign for Responsible Transplantation. *The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council's 2005 statement on ...
Experiments show that transplantation of other types of veto cells along with megadose haploidentical HSCT allows to reduce the ... Immunological methods utilize antibodies, either alone, in conjunction with homologous, heterologous, or rabbit complement ... This procedure is called 'megadose transplantation' and it prevents rejection because the stem cells have an ability (i.e. veto ... TCD is heavily used in haploidentical stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a process in which cancer patients receive an infusion ...
Molecular Biology - Genes suspected of causing genetic mutations are cloned and the mutation is inserted into a heterologous ... the use of a combination of pluripotent stem cells and decellularized donor hearts to created human hearts for transplantation ...
For example, the results have included the near-eradication of polio and the development of organ transplantation, and have ... protection against a heterologous subtype B FIV isolate". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 7 (1): 65-70. doi:10.1016/j. ... the Development of Tissue Transplantation. Saunders, New York Gibbon JH (1937) Arch. Surg. 34, 1105 [3] Hinshaw obituary [4] ...
In general, such heterologous seeding is less efficient than is seeding by a corrupted form of the same protein. The ... 2016). "Survival After Transplantation in Patients With Mutations Other Than Val30Met: Extracts From the FAP World Transplant ... Because TTR is mainly produced in the liver, TTR amyloidosis can be slowed in some hereditary cases by liver transplantation. ... Carvalho A, Rocha A, Lobato L (2015). "Liver transplantation in transthyretin amyloidosis: issues and challenges". Liver ...
Easty, G. C.; Easty, D. M.; Tchao, R. (1969). "The growth of heterologous tumour cells in chick embryos". European Journal of ... Levi-Montalcini, R. (1952). "Effects of mouse tumor transplantation on the nervous system". Annals of the New York Academy of ...
... host enzymes ligate the cut sites and thus produce integrated heterologous, exogenous DNA. Although successful, undesirable ... such as those who have undergone haematopoietic stem cell transplantation or are otherwise undergoing immunosuppression ...
... transplantation conditioning MeSH E05.490.630.569 - microscopy, phase-contrast MeSH E05.497.578.475 - laryngeal masks MeSH ... heterologous MeSH E05.820.800.937.525 - insemination, artificial, homologous MeSH E05.820.800.968 - oocyte donation MeSH ...
... protection against a heterologous subtype B FIV isolate". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 7 (1): 65-70. doi:10.1016/j. ... the Development of Tissue Transplantation. Saunders, New York Gibbon JH (1937) Arch. Surg. 34, 1105 Fleming A (1929) Br J Exp ... which could allow future applications in donor organ transplantation. There has been growing concern about both the methodology ...
... skin transplantation MeSH E04.936.664 - transplantation, autologous MeSH E04.936.764 - transplantation, heterologous MeSH ... heart transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.475.450 - heart-lung transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.485 - kidney transplantation MeSH ... lung transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.495.450 - heart-lung transplantation MeSH E04.936.450.650 - pancreas transplantation MeSH ... bone marrow transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.090 - brain tissue transplantation MeSH E04.936.580.225 - corneal transplantation ...
... heterologous MeSH E02.875.540.525 - insemination, artificial, homologous MeSH E02.875.800.500 - embryo transfer MeSH E02.875. ... transplantation conditioning MeSH E02.095.520.750 - radioimmunotherapy MeSH E02.095.682.884 - tissue therapy MeSH E02.120. ... heterologous MeSH E02.875.800.937.525 - insemination, artificial, homologous MeSH E02.875.800.968 - oocyte donation MeSH ...
Transplantation. 18 (4): 717-23. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfg016. PMID 12637640. Ludwig M, Waldegger S, Nuutinen M, Bökenkamp A, ... "The late endosomal ClC-6 mediates proton/chloride countertransport in heterologous plasma membrane expression". The Journal of ...
Linking specific sites on autoantigens is more difficult in humans due to the complex variation of heterologous humans, but ... The name 'HLA DQ' originally describes a transplantation antigen of MHC class II category of the major histocompatibility ... complex of humans; however, this status is an artifact of the early era of organ transplantation. HLA DQ functions as a cell ...
Regeneration and transplantation) Serotonin present in the blood then stimulates cellular growth to repair liver damage. 5HT2B ... "resulting in roughly comparable uptake efficiencies to SERT in heterologous expression systems." The study also suggests some ...
August 2007). "Genome transplantation in bacteria: changing one species to another". Science. 317 (5838): 632-8. Bibcode: ... Besides synthetic biology, various research areas like those involving heterologous gene expression, vaccine development, gene ...
Shen, J; Guo, W; Kohler, J. R (2005). "CaNAT1, a Heterologous Dominant Selectable Marker for Transformation of Candida albicans ... organ or bone marrow transplantation). C. albicans often forms biofilms inside the body. Such C. albicans biofilms may form on ...
heterologous expression The expression of a foreign gene or any other DNA sequence within a host organism which does not ... by allogeneic transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs from a genetically non-identical donor); in plants, it can result ... Insertion of foreign transgenes into heterologous hosts using recombinant vectors is a common biotechnology method for studying ...
The name 'HLA DQ' originally describes a transplantation antigen of MHC class II category of the major histocompatibility ... Linking specific sites on autoantigens is more difficult in humans due to the complex variation of heterologous humans, but ... complex of humans; however, this status is an artifact of the early era of organ transplantation. ...
Regeneration and transplantation)[66] Serotonin present in the blood then stimulates cellular growth to repair liver damage.[67 ... "resulting in roughly comparable uptake efficiencies to SERT in heterologous expression systems."[24] The study also suggests ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Here, we show that a heterologous immune response - specifically, virally induced alloreactive memory - is a potent barrier to ... and the corresponding heterologous allo-specific responses (right panels). (. b. ) The number of virus-specific (NP396-404, ...
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation ...
... on heterologous skin scaffolds transplantation in BALB/c mice, focusing on inflammation and angiogenesis. Treatment with AnxA12 ... on heterologous skin scaffolds transplantation in BALB/c mice, focusing on inflammation and angiogenesis. Treatment with AnxA12 ... Heterologous Transplantation. To carry out heterologous transplantation we used porcine decellularized skin (scaffolds). Mice ... and 60 after transplantation. Pharmacological treatments started 3 days before heterologous skin transplantation. The AnxA12-26 ...
Transplantation of Heterologous Tumors by the Intravenous Inoculation of the Chick Embryo. Doris H. Bender, Charles E. ... Transplantation of Heterologous Tumors by the Intravenous Inoculation of the Chick Embryo ... Transplantation of Heterologous Tumors by the Intravenous Inoculation of the Chick Embryo ... Transplantation of Heterologous Tumors by the Intravenous Inoculation of the Chick Embryo ...
Terkko Navigator / -/ Feeds / ( ( Heterologinen transplantaatio ),( Heterologinen siirto ),( Transplantation, Heterolog * ... Pig-to-non-human primate heart transplantation: the final step toward clinical xenotransplantation? ...
Meeting on WHO Guiding Principles on Human Organ Transplantation, 8 - 10 June 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia : report  World ... Browsing Meeting reports by Subject "Transplantation, Heterologous". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R ...
Meeting on WHO Guiding Principles on Human Organ Transplantation, 8 - 10 June 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia : report  World ...
Results of search for su:{Transplantation, Heterologous} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... of Essential Health Technologies , WHO Consultation on the Ethics, Access and Safety in Tissue and Organ Transplantation : ... Ethics, access and safety in tissue and organ transplantation : issues of global concern, Madrid, Spain, 6-9 October 2003 : ...
... ... Annexin A12-26 treatment improves skin heterologous transplantation by modulating inflammation and angiogenesis processes. ... on heterologous skin scaffolds transplantation in BALB/c mice, focusing on inflammation and angiogenesis. Treatment with AnxA12 ...
Heterologous Transplantation of Human Tumors. By MACHTELD E. SANO. Science. 16 May 1947. : 525 Full AccessRestricted Access ...
Transplantation, Heterologous Substances * Androgens * Membrane Proteins * PMEPA1 protein, human * RNA, Messenger * ...
A heterologous DNA according to the invention could also comprise a "suicide gene" which allows termination of therapy through ... T. B. Freeman, L. Brandeis, J. Pearson, E. S. Flamm, in Cell and Tissue Transplantation into the Adult Brain, Ann. N.Y. Acad. ... Cloned ungulate embryos and animals, use of cells, tissues and organs thereof for transplantation therapies including ... O. V. Kopyov et al., Cell Transplantation 5, 327 (1996). 49. T. B. Feeman et al., in Progress in Brain Research, D. M. Gash, J ...
Heterologous immunity: good news for protective immunity but a challenge for transplantation. The cumulative effects of prior ... Heterologous immunity provides a potent barrier to transplantation tolerance. J. Clin. Invest. 111: 1887-1895. ... Heterologous immunity: good news for protective immunity but a challenge for transplantation ... Heterologous immune exposures activate T cells cross-reactive for alloantigens. Virally primed T cells, which are allo-cross- ...
... the immunosuppressant that enabled widespread organ transplantation; and lovastatin, the progenitor of the statin class of ... Heterologous expression by complete BGC refactoring is an approach that is agnostic to the native host of a BGC, permitting ... Heterologous reconstitution of the intact geodin gene cluster in Aspergillus nidulans through a simple and versatile PCR based ... Cloning and heterologous expression of the grecocycline biosynthetic gene cluster. PLOS ONE 11, e0158682 (2016).. ...
... heterologous ALG , AND RECIPIENT MALIGNANCY). ... Home / Long-term survival after renal transplantation in humans ... Kidney Transplantation, *Thymectomy, *Transplantation Immunology, Adolescent, Adult, Antilymphocyte Serum / *therapeutic use, ... Long-term survival after renal transplantation in humans: (with special reference to histocompatibility matching, thymectomy, ... Long-term survival after renal transplantation in humans: (with special reference to histocompatibility matching, thymectomy, ...
Transplantation, Heterologous Substances * MACROD2 protein, human * RBFOX1 protein, human * RNA Splicing Factors ...
Not only did heterologous cell transplantation improve neovascularization and blood flow recovery, but important biological ... Cell transplantation in this case is predicated on ex vivo expansion of EPCs isolated from hPBMC population of healthy adult ... Transplantation of ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells for therapeutic neovascularization. Christoph Kalka, Haruchika ... Transplantation of ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells for therapeutic neovascularization. Christoph Kalka, Haruchika ...
The worldwide shortage of organ donors for purposes of transplantation would be overcome if the problems associated with ... Transplantation, 46, 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar. *. 20.. Eiseman, B., Liem, D.S. and Raffucci, F. (1965). Heterologous liver ... Calne, R.Y. (1970). Organ transplantation between widely disparate species. Transplant Proc., 2, 550PubMedGoogle Scholar ... In: Cooper D.K.C., Novitzky D. (eds) The Transplantation and Replacement of Thoracic Organs. Springer, Dordrecht. * DOI https ...
Transplantation, Heterologous. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0/Oligopeptides; 0/P-Glycoprotein; ... Neoplasm Transplantation. Oligopeptides / chemistry*. P-Glycoprotein / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / ...
Transplantation, Heterologous. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: P30 CA08748/CA/NCI NIH HHS; P50-CA86483/CA/NCI NIH HHS; R24 ...
Successful transplantation of bovine testicular cells to heterologous recipients. Reproduction 132, 617-624 (2006).. ... Transplantation as a quantitative assay to study mammalian male germline stem cells. Methods Mol. Biol. 1463, 155-172 (2017).. ... Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation: Insights and outlook for domestic animals. Annu. Rev. Anim. Biosci. 7, 385-401 (2019 ... Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT) has many potential applications that could impact society in a major way. ...
Heterologous immunity provides a potent barrier to transplantation tolerance. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1887-95.CrossRefGoogle ... T-cell-replete HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic transplantation for hematologic malignancies using post-transplantation ... Marrow transplantation from related donors other than HLA-identical siblings. N Engl J Med. 1985;313:765-71.CrossRefGoogle ... Haploidentical transplantation Post-transplant cyclophosphamide Lymphoma Graft-versus-host disease Immune reconstitution Graft ...
Both autologous and heterologous transplantation - healthy Healthy volunteers will receive both autologous and heterologous ... Time Frame: 1 month after transplantation. Change from Baseline - 1 day before transplantation. ]. Defined as improvement in ... Change in gut microbiome [ Time Frame: 1 month after transplantation. Change from Baseline - 1 day before transplantation. ]. ... Crohn Disease remission [ Time Frame: 1 month after transplantation. Change from Baseline - 1 day before transplantation. ]. ...
Heterologous immunity provides a potent barrier to transplantation tolerance. Andrew B. Adams, … , Rafi Ahmed, Christian P. ... Here, we show that a heterologous immune response - specifically, virally induced alloreactive memory - is a potent barrier to ...
Transplantation, Heterologous. 1. 2001. 2137. 0.040. Why? Treatment Failure. 2. 2012. 2623. 0.040. Why? ...
Transplantation, Heterologous. 1. 2014. 2160. 0.020. Why? Gastrointestinal Agents. 1. 2012. 406. 0.020. Why? ...
Heterologous transplantation of mammalian tumors. J Exp Med 1941;73:461. Abstract ...
Mouse Model of Surgically-induced Endometriosis by Auto-transplantation of Uterine Tissue…. Published 1/06/2012 ... In conventional heterologous models, the therapeutic effects of compounds of interest are commonly assessed at the end point by ... Heterologous mouse models of endometriosis similar to the one herein shown have been previously described consisting in the ... Noninvasive Monitoring of Lesion Size in a Heterologous Mouse Model of Endometriosis. Jessica Martinez1, Viviana Bisbal2, Nerea ...
... and bone marrow transplantation. These treatments are often transiently effective, indicating that new treatment options are ... Heterologous Vaccination and Checkpoint Blockade Synergize To Induce Antileukemia Immunity. Luke S. Manlove, Jason M. Schenkel ... Heterologous Vaccination and Checkpoint Blockade Synergize To Induce Antileukemia Immunity. Luke S. Manlove, Jason M. Schenkel ... Heterologous Vaccination and Checkpoint Blockade Synergize To Induce Antileukemia Immunity. Luke S. Manlove, Jason M. Schenkel ...
  • Engraftment syndrome following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation ( HSCT ) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells , usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is established as a therapeutic option for treatment of hematological disorders. (
  • This talk aims to study the available drug targets that have shown some promising results along with the challenges they are currently facing, which include anti-TNF therapies and activation of the TNF-TNFR2 pathway, stem-cell transplantation, altering the balance between pathogenic and regulatory T-cells, and genetic modulation. (
  • LSCD is best addressed with surgical procedure, limbal stem cell transplantation (LSCT). (
  • AnxA1 2-26 ) on heterologous skin scaffolds transplantation in BALB/c mice, focusing on inflammation and angiogenesis. (
  • In contrast, robust heterologous vaccination with a peptide derived from the BCR-ABL fusion (BAp), a key driver mutation, generated a small population of mice that survived long-term. (
  • Checkpoint blockade strongly synergized with heterologous vaccination to enhance overall survival in mice with leukemia. (
  • On days 3, 6 or 12 after transplantation the mice were killed and the grafts either prepared for immunohistochemistry or real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (
  • These findings demonstrate that the transplantation of heterologous T-MSC-SCs induced neuromuscular regeneration in mice and suggest they could be useful for the therapeutic treatment of patients with CMT1A disease. (
  • After transplantation into β-glucuronidase (GUSB)-deficient NOD/SCID/mucopolysaccharidosis type VII mice, we characterized the distribution of lineage-depleted human umbilical cord blood-derived cells purified by selection using high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity with CD133 coexpression. (
  • The influence of apoE gene dosage on serum lipid concentrations was determined by transplantation of homozygous apoE-deficient (apoE −/− ), heterozygous apoE-deficient (apoE +/− ), and wild-type (apoE +/+ ) bone marrow in homozygous apoE-deficient mice. (
  • Transplantation of skin tissue expressing this epitope onto naïve arthritis susceptible mice induced transient tolerance to the grafted epitope and arthritis protection. (
  • A similar observation was also made in the autologous CIA model where transgenic mice expressing the heterologous CII protein in cartilage (MMC mice) were used. (
  • Sera obtained from mice following infection with high and low doses of cultured B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, transplantation of infected tissue (host-adapted spirochetes), or tick-borne inoculation all showed protective activity in passive immunization assays. (
  • Infection and disease were similar in mice infected with cultured spirochetes or by transplantation. (
  • In contrast, actively immune mice infected with different Borrelia species ( B. burgdorferi sensu lato, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto cN40, Borrelia afzelii PKo, and Borrelia garinii PBi) and then treated with an antibiotic were resistant to challenge with cultured homologous but not heterologous spirochetes. (
  • Similar results were achieved for actively immune mice challenged by transplantation and by passive immunization with sera from mice infected with each of the Borrelia species and then challenged with cultured spirochetes. (
  • Arthritis and carditis in mice that had immunizing infections with B. afzelii and B. garinii and then challenged by transplantation with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto were equivalent in prevalence and severity to those in nonimmune recipient mice. (
  • As determined with immunoblots against cultured B. burgdorferi lysate antigen, the antibody response in mice infected following inoculation with low doses of spirochetes is similar to that in mice infected with tick-borne spirochetes as well as that in mice infected with host-adapted spirochetes introduced by transplantation of infected tissue ( 9 , 15 , 27 , 38 , 43 ). (
  • We have tested hepatocytes from multiple donors and sources and have not seen any adverse reactions in the more than 40 animals we have tested so far….We conclude that cadaveric hHeps from heterologous sources produce sustained levels of circulating FIX that can almost completely abolish the clotting defect in our hemophilic mice for up to a year after transplantation (if not longer). (
  • Successful organ transplantation requires treatment approaches that provide effective control of the undesired T cell-dependent rejection response while permitting the maintenance of protective immunity against pathogens. (
  • Much like the field of autoimmunity, recent attention in the field of transplantation has focused on the effects of pathogens and protective immunity in the transplant setting. (
  • Importantly, cyclophosphamide spares non-alloreactive T-cells, preserving immunity and leading to a low incidence of nonrelapse mortality after HLA-haploidentical transplantation. (
  • It has been widely thought that the increased immunity afforded by heterologous prime-boost vaccination is mainly due to the minimization of immune responses to the carrier vectors, which allows a progressive build up of immunity against defined epitopes and the subsequent induction of broader immune responses against pathogens. (
  • Ethics, access and safety in tissue and organ transplantation : issues of global concern, Madrid, Spain, 6-9 October 2003 : report. (
  • The resultant fetuses, embryos or offspring are especially useful for the expression of desired heterologous DNAs, and may be used as a source of cells or tissue for transplantation therapy for the treatment of diseases such as Parkinson's disease. (
  • 1. A method of treating a patient in need of cell or tissue transplantation comprising administering to or transplanting into said patient at least one cell or tissue obtained from a cloned ungulate animal or embryo. (
  • Fetuses and animals derived from a single clonal line offer a safe and genetically modifiable source of transplantation tissue. (
  • My main area of research is studying the immunobiological processes that result in tissue damage, which has applications in transplantation immunobiology and cancer immunotherapy. (
  • Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. (
  • The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous. (
  • This study provides evidence for the short-term (7-day) anatomic and functional success of corneal transplantation with a tissue-engineered corneal endothelium reconstructed on a devitalized carrier. (
  • ALDH-expressing progenitor cells demonstrated widespread and tissue-specific distribution of variable cellular phenotypes, indicating that these adult progenitor cells should be explored in transplantation models of tissue damage. (
  • Transplantation of skin tissue expressing this epitope onto naïve. (
  • Myoblasts transplantation has also been tried for skeletal muscle tissue engineering [ 6 ] but it failed due to the immunogenic properties of these cells. (
  • Using tissue transplantation, we show that melanophore patterning depends upon the underlying somitic cells, the myotomal derivatives of which - both slow- and fast-twitch muscle fibres - are themselves significantly disorganised in the region of the ectopic collar. (
  • Here, we show that a heterologous immune response - specifically, virally induced alloreactive memory - is a potent barrier to tolerance induction. (
  • Ravindra K, Leventhal J, Song D, Ildstad ST (2012) Chimerism and Tolerance in Solid Organ Transplantation. (
  • Donor-specific tolerance has been referred to as the "Holy Grail" of organ transplantation. (
  • However, since the heterologous CII sequence can be posttranslationally modified (PTM) where lysines can be glycosylated we also investigated the differential effect of these epitopes on tolerance and pathology of T cells. (
  • 2002 . Reversal of tolerance induced by transplantation of skin expressing the immunodominant T cell epitope of rat type II collagen entitles development of collagen-induced arthritis but not graft rejection. (
  • Our studies aimed to refine the balancing act of immunomodulation following transplantation, in order to promote the tolerance of a foreign organ while simultaneously maintaining protective, pathogen-specific immune responses and limiting off-target side effects. (
  • The recent application of the bone marrow techniques in clinical solid organ transplantation has yielded results that could fundamentally alter the role of immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients in the near future. (
  • Recent success with 'mini bone marrow transplants' using non-myeloablative conditioning in elderly patients with hematologic malignancy [ 1 ] have opened a new avenue for the application of chimerism in solid organ transplantation. (
  • Prior to 1995, treatment for HIV infection largely failed to extend life expectancy, and very few centers attempted solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected individuals. (
  • Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. (
  • In recent years, organ transplantation has emerged as standard medical care for many forms of end stage organ failure. (
  • The worldwide shortage of organ donors for purposes of transplantation would be overcome if the problems associated with xenografting could be solved. (
  • Organ transplantation between widely disparate species. (
  • 1995 (Sept) Lecturer in Molecular Biology of Organ Transplantation, Department of Surgery, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne. (
  • 3. I was awarded special recognition award by Roche Organ Transplantation research Fund for my contribution to research in Transplantation (cash award of 1000 Swiss Francs)-April 2011. (
  • Transplantation has become standard of care to treat end-organ failure, replacing a failed organ with a functioning one. (
  • Conventional HSCT involves the use of aggressive myeloablative conditioning that would not be acceptable in the context of organ transplantation where the recipients have severe physiologic derangement from end stage organ failure. (
  • Transplantation is a widely accepted treatment for many end-stage organ diseases. (
  • End-organ disease has emerged as a principal cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection, but organ transplantation historically was not made available to HIV-infected individuals. (
  • Pig-to-non-human primate heart transplantation: the final step toward clinical xenotransplantation? (
  • With an estimated 3.9 million North Americans chronically infected, complications from Hepatitis C infection is now the leading reason for liver transplantation in the United States. (
  • Liver or combined liver/kidney transplantation has been used to treat those with the most severe clinical manifestations. (
  • Phase I/II Trial of Liver Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Pediatric Liver Based Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective, Open Label, Multicenter, Partially Randomized, Safety Study of One Cycle of Heterologous Human Adult Liver-Derived Progenitor Cells (HepaStem®) in Urea Cycle Disorders and Crigler-Najjar Syndrome patients. (
  • FIX is produced in the liver, so liver transplantation is an alternative long-term therapeutic option. (
  • Depending on the initial number of transplanted cells, anywhere from 10%- 90% of the mouse liver can be humanized by this transplantation and selection approach," the team writes. (
  • Homologous and heterologous immune sera may inactivate leukemic cells in vitro . (
  • Resistance to homologous transplantation of leukemic cells may be overcome by inoculation of large doses of cells into very young animals. (
  • Typically, protein grafting involves the transplantation of protein side chains from a functional motif onto structurally homologous regions of scaffold proteins. (
  • The role of ABO blood group compatibility in heart transplantation between closely related animal species. (
  • Heart transplantation in man: developmental studies and report of a case. (
  • Results from a placebo-controlled trial provide a strategy for improving fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. (
  • The study, published online this week in mBio , an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology, identified microorganisms that are key for cure with fecal microbiota transplantation. (
  • CIA is induced in susceptible mouse strains after immunization with heterologous type II collagen (CII). (
  • Of these volunteers, 15 will receive autologous transplantation of fecal microbiota, 10 will receive both autologous and heterologous transplantation and 10 volunteers form a placebo-controlled group. (
  • What is autologous transplantation? (
  • Furthermore, the ability to isolate and expand from patients various types of muscle progenitor cells capable of committing to the myogenic lineage provides the opportunity to establish cell lines that can be used for transplantation following ex vivo manipulation and expansion. (
  • HLA-haploidentical transplantation utilizing post-transplant cyclophosphamide achieves comparable survival to HLA-matched transplantation and has thereby expanded the option of allogeneic transplantation to the vast majority of eligble recipients. (
  • In this study, we used heterologous MTSs of human, nuclear‐encoded mitochondrial proteins, to target the human MCM protein into the mitochondria. (
  • For his doctorate, he had worked on the transplantation of mouse cancers into rats. (
  • Evidence that intrathymic islet transplantation does not prevent diabetes or subsequent islet graft destruction in RT6-depleted, diabetes-resistant BioBreeding/Worcester rats. (
  • Effect of HLA incompatibility on graft-versus-host disease, relapse, and survival after marrow transplantation for patients with leukemia or lymphoma. (
  • In the absence of transplantation, the long-term survival of heart failure patients is worse than that associated with several types of cancer. (
  • In 2006 a total of 50,417 first hematopoietic stem cell transplants were reported as taking place worldwide, according to a global survey of 1327 centers in 71 countries conducted by the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. (
  • Bone marrow transplantation [BMT], results in the total replacement of the recipient's bone marrow by the donor's bone marrow hematopoietic cells, a condition referred to as full chimerism [ Delis et al, 2004 ]. (
  • Emphasis will be placed on describing the potential of using the patient own stem cell as source of transplantation and the challenges that gene editing technologies face in the field of regenerative biology. (
  • This work on heterologous transplants earned him a travel fellowship from the Belgian government. (
  • 1 Pseudophakic bullous keratopathy and primary endotheliopathies (including Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy), which are responsible for 28.2% to 37.8% of all corneal transplants, represent the leading indications for corneal transplantation. (
  • Mismatched family donors for bone-marrow transplantation as treatment for acute leukaemia. (
  • Marrow transplantation from related donors other than HLA-identical siblings. (
  • To select donors of fecal samples for carrying out the procedure of fecal transplantation of microbiota to patients with various nosological forms. (
  • The cure rate with the transplantation from healthy donors was 90%, which is what the researchers expected, but surprisingly several patients who received the transplant with their own stool were also cured. (
  • 4 Heterologous type I collagen (HTIC) has been shown to promote cell and fibroblast proliferation and improve cutaneous extracellular matrix metabolism. (
  • At present, the only method to cure corneal endothelial dysfunction is by transplantation of a cadaver donor cornea with normal corneal endothelial cells. (
  • Eighteen healthy adult cats underwent full-thickness corneal transplantation. (
  • The reconstructed corneal endothelium was cultured for 2 weeks before transplantation. (
  • These findings indicate that cultured adult HCECs, transplanted with DSAEK surgery, maintain corneal transparency after transplantation and suggest the feasibility of performing DSAEK with HCECs to treat endothelial dysfunction. (
  • No signs of immune rejection were observed and these results suggested that hIDPSC cell transplantation may be done without immunosuppression. (
  • More recently, simple limbal epithelial cell transplantation (SLET) has been introduced to treat LSCD. (
  • HSCs have been shown to be present in circulating blood, in quantities sufficient to permit their use as an alternative to bone marrow transplantation ( 22 - 25 ). (
  • When given on days 3 and 4 after HLA-haploidentical T-cell replete blood or marrow transplantation, high-dose cyclophosphamide depletes dividing alloreactive T-cells, resulting in low rates of acute graft -versus- host disease, comparable to HLA-matched transplantation, and chronic graft -versus- host disease incidence below that seen with T-cell replete HLA-matched transplantation. (
  • Current therapies for BCR-ABL + B-ALL include cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and bone marrow transplantation. (
  • For the journal abbreviated Bone Marrow Transplant , see Bone Marrow Transplantation (journal) . (
  • The Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation reported the millionth transplant to have been undertaken in December 2012. (
  • In 2006, 50,417 first HSCTs were recorded worldwide, according to a global survey of 1,327 centers in 71 countries conducted by the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. (
  • To study the mechanism of the lipoprotein changes on bone marrow transplantation, the in vivo turnover of autologous serum (β)VLDL was studied. (
  • Similarly, the effects of an encounter with a given pathogen can vary dramatically dependent on if the infection occurs concurrently with, before, or after transplantation. (
  • In the new study, Dr. Sadowsky and colleagues conducted a clinical trial in 27 patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, using fecal microbiota from healthy patients (a heterologous transplant ) and, as a placebo, the patient's own stool microbes (an autologous transplant). (
  • Rapamycin, an anti-fungal macrolide used for decades in transplantation to inhibit graft-specific T cell proliferation, has recently been shown to paradoxically enhance CD8 + T cell responses to pathogen infection. (
  • Data from the early years of the epidemic are limited to case reports and small case series, but in general, mortality was high, particularly in those with unrecognized HIV infection at the time of transplantation, and HIV-infected patients experienced significantly higher 5-year mortality and rates of graft loss relative to HIV-uninfected individuals. (
  • Induction of Cross-neutralizing Antibodies by Sequential Immunization with Heterologous Papillomavirus L1VLPs and its Implications for HPV Prophylactic Vaccines. (
  • The invention relates to transgenic non-human animals capable of producing heterologous antibodies and transgenic non-human animals having inactivated endogenous immunoglobulin genes. (
  • Heterologous antibodies are encoded by immunoglobulin genes not normally found in the genome of that species of non-human animal. (
  • In one aspect of the invention, one or more transgenes containing sequences of unrearranged heterologous human immunoglobulin heavy chains are introduced into a non-human animal thereby forming a transgenic animal capable of functionally rearranging transgenic immunoglobulin sequences and producing a repertoire of antibodies of various isotypes encoded by human immunoglobulin genes. (
  • Such heterologous human antibodies are produced in B-cells which are thereafter immortalized, e.g., by fusing with an immortalizing cell line such as a myeloma or by manipulating such B-cells by other techniques to perpetuate a cell line capable of producing a monoclonal heterologous antibody. (
  • Experience with transplantation of other organs is extremely limited, and few data are available. (
  • In 2014, according to the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), stem cell products provided for unrelated transplantation worldwide had increased to 20,604 (4,149 bone marrow donations, 12,506 peripheral blood stem cell donations, and 3,949 cord blood units). (
  • My subsequent work has convincingly shown that this chemokine-GAG interaction is essential for in vivo activity of these cytokines ( American Journal of Transplantation, 2010, 10:47-58, PNAS, 2012 ). (
  • Transplantation is the preferred method of treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. (
  • 18 Month Outcomes of Heterologous Bilateral Hand Transplantation in a Child: A Case Report The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health 1(1): 35-44, 2017. (
  • left panels) and the corresponding heterologous allo-specific responses (right panels). (
  • Successful transplantation requires the establishment of an ongoing state in which there is simultaneous inhibition of the undesired T cell-dependent rejection response and yet retention of the ability to develop effective cell-mediated primary and memory responses to pathogens. (
  • While CoB better targets graft-reactive immune responses and offers a reduced toxicity profile compared to current standard of care drugs, several barriers remain that limit the widespread adoption of CoB in transplantation. (
  • These viruses contain a single or plurality of sequences encoding antigens from pathogenic viruses heterologous to the recombinant virus. (
  • Using this approach, we previously transplanted the human immunodeficiency virus 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes onto heterologous proteins to design novel 'epitope-scaffold' antigens. (
  • The Role of Natural Killer Cells in the Immune Response in Kidney Transplantation. (
  • Growing evidence suggests a key role of NK cells in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated graft damage in kidney transplantation. (
  • In this review, we will describe how these cells can influence the innate and the adaptive immune response in kidney transplantation and how immunosuppression can modulate NK behavior. (
  • Initial efforts to offer transplantation to HIV-infected patients raised concerns about the potential impact of immunosuppression on accelerating HIV disease progression or reactivating AIDS-related opportunistic infections (OIs) and neoplasms. (
  • 1-3 ) Since the advent of effective HIV therapy, transplantation outcomes have improved. (