The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae best known for cucumber (CUCUMIS SATIVUS) and cantaloupe (CUCUMIS MELO). Watermelon is a different genus, CITRULLUS. Bitter melon may refer to MOMORDICA or this genus.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Cytotaxins liberated from normal or invading cells that specifically attract eosinophils; they may be complement fragments, lymphokines, neutrophil products, histamine or other; the best known is the tetrapeptide ECF-A, released mainly by mast cells.
A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.
Prenatal interventions to correct fetal anomalies or treat FETAL DISEASES in utero. Fetal therapies include several major areas, such as open surgery; FETOSCOPY; pharmacological therapy; INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION; STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and GENETIC THERAPY.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, this corresponds to the period from the third month after fertilization until birth.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary conditions characterized by malformed DENTAL ENAMEL, usually involving DENTAL ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA and/or TOOTH HYPOMINERALIZATION.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
A chain of islands, cays, and reefs in the West Indies, lying southeast of Florida and north of Cuba. It is an independent state, called also the Commonwealth of the Bahamas or the Bahama Islands. The name likely represents the local name Guanahani, itself of uncertain origin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p106 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p45)
Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.

Chimerism and xenotransplantation. New concepts. (1/954)

In both transplant and infectious circumstances, the immune response is governed by migration and localization of the antigen. If the antigenic epitopes of transgenic xenografts are sufficiently altered to avoid evoking the destructive force of innate immunity, the mechanisms of engraftment should be the same as those that permit the chimerism-dependent immunologic confrontation and resolution that is the basis of allograft acceptance. In addition to "humanizing" the epitopes, one of the unanswered questions is whether the species restriction of complement described in 1994 by Valdivia and colleagues also necessitates the introduction of human complement regulatory genes in animal donors. Because the liver is the principal or sole source of most complement components, the complement quickly is transformed to that of the donor after hepatic transplantation. Thus, the need for complementary regulatory transgenes may vary according to the kind of xenograft used. Much evidence shows that physiologically important peptides produced by xenografts (e.g., insulin, clotting factors, and enzymes) are incorporated into the metabolic machinery of the recipient body. To the extent that this is not true, xenotransplantation could result in the production of diseases that are analogous to inborn errors of metabolism. In the climate of pessimism that followed the failures of baboon to human liver xenotransplantation in 1992-1993, it seemed inconceivable that the use of even more discordant donors, such as the pig, could ever be seriously entertained; however, this preceded insight into the xenogeneic and allogeneic barriers that has brought transplantation infectious immunity to common ground. With this new insight and the increasing ease of producing transgenic donors, the goal of clinical xenotransplantation may not be so distant.  (+info)

Effective treatment of autoimmune disease and progressive renal disease by mixed bone-marrow transplantation that establishes a stable mixed chimerism in BXSB recipient mice. (2/954)

Male BXSB mice spontaneously develop autoimmune disease with features similar to systemic lupus erythematosus. To determine whether this autoimmune disease can be treated as well as prevented by bone-marrow transplantation (BMT) and, at the same time, whether the immunity functions of lethally irradiated recipients can be reconstituted fully, male BXSB mice were engrafted with mixed T cell-depleted marrow (TCDM) both from fully allogeneic autoimmune-resistant BALB/c mice and from syngeneic autoimmune-prone BXSB mice, after the onset of autoimmune disease in the recipient mice. BMT with mixed TCDM from both resistant and susceptible strains of mice (mixed BMT) established stable mixed chimerism, prolonged the median life span, and arrested development of glomerulonephritis in BXSB mice. BMT with mixed TCDM also reduced the formation of anti-DNA antibodies that are observed typically in male mice of this strain. Furthermore, mixed BMT reconstituted the primary antibody production in BXSB recipients impressively. These findings indicate that transplantation of allogeneic autoimmune-resistant TCDM plus syngeneic autoimmune-prone TCDM into lethally irradiated BXSB mice can be used to treat autoimmune and renal disease in this strain of mice. In addition, this dual bone-marrow transplantation reconstitutes the immunity functions and avoids the immunodeficiencies that occur regularly in fully allogeneic chimeras after total body irradiation. This report describes an effective treatment of progressive renal disease and autoimmunity by establishing a stable mixed chimerism of TCDM transplantation from allogeneic autoimmune-resistant BALB/c mice plus syngeneic autoimmune-prone BXSB mice into BXSB mice.  (+info)

Polymorphisms for the size of heterochromatic regions allow sex-independent quantification of post-BMT chimerism targeting metaphase and interphase cells. (3/954)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fully quantitative cytological techniques for the analysis of hemopoietic chimerism are very limited and largely restricted to sex-chromosome detection after sex-mismatched bone marrow transplants (BMTs). The aim of the present investigation was to assess the usefulness of autosomal polymorphisms for the size of heterochromatic regions in the identification of donor and recipient cells and therefore in the quantification of the hemopoietic chimerism after sex-matched BMT. DESIGN AND METHODS: Hemopoietic chimerism was followed up in 3 transplanted patients targeting a polymorphism for the size of the pericentromeric heterochromatin (PCH) of chromosome 9, uncovered by restriction endonuclease (RE) in situ digestion (REISD) with the RE Sau3A, to differentiate donor and recipient cells on conventional bone marrow chromosome preparations. RESULTS: The polymorphism for the size of the PCH of chromosome 9 allowed differentiation of donor and recipient cells targeting both metaphase and interphase nuclei. The misidentification error for the polymorphism for the size of HPC of chromosome 9 was estimated as 1% for metaphases and 6-11% for interphases. The 3 cases studied showed complete chimerism in the first post-BMT sample analyzed, which was maintained in 2 of them. One patient relapsed and showed transient mixed chimerism. One month later, this patient achieved a second complete remission, showing complete chimerism again. In this patient, who received a sex-mismatched BMT, chimerism was also quantified by sex-chromosome identification using established methods, such as conventional cytogenetics and FISH, and the results obtained were similar to those rendered by Sau3A-REISD. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The polymorphism for the size of the PCH of chromosome 9 uncovered by Sau3A-REISD allows accurate quantification of the hemopoietic chimerism after sex-matched BMT.  (+info)

Increasing mixed haematopoietic chimaerism after BMT with total depletion of CD4+ and partial depletion of CD8+ lymphocytes is associated with a higher incidence of relapse. (4/954)

In this study we analysed the incidence and clinical impact of the persistence of host haemopoiesis (mixed chimaerism, MC) after allogeneic BMT in 35 consecutive patients with haematologic malignancies using a total CD4+ cell-depleted graft with an adjusted dose of CD8+ cells (1x10(8)/kg). Chimaerism was assessed by PCR amplification of VNTRs in 30 evaluable patients: 19 non-CML and 11 CML cases which were also evaluated for the BCR-ABL transcript by RT-PCR. All but one had complete engraftment with a donor profile early post-BMT. At the end of the study period, 12 of 30 patients displayed MC (40%). The overall disease-free survival for MC patients was clearly unfavourable when compared to those who exhibited a donor profile (24.7% vs. 100%, P = 0.005). However, we found that only two of five patients with MC in the non-CML group relapsed, whereas a clear correlation could be made between MC and relapse in CML (seven showed MC, preceding cytogenetic or haematological relapse in six of them, which displayed a prior BCR-ABL mRNA positivity). In addition, a quantitative-PCR approach enabled us to demonstrate that increasing amounts of MC are invariably associated with subsequent relapse, whereas a low stable level of host or complete donor haemopoiesis is consistent with clinical complete remission. Although these results suggest that the clinical impact of MC may depend on the underlying disease, it is compatible with the concept that the graft-versus-leukaemia effect against CML is mainly exerted by donor CD4+ lymphocytes. Elimination of this cellular subset may be responsible for the inability of the graft to prevent a progressive increase in the tumor cell burden.  (+info)

Survival of donor leukocyte subpopulations in immunocompetent transfusion recipients: frequent long-term microchimerism in severe trauma patients. (5/954)

We recently reported detection of a transient increase in circulating donor leukocytes (WBCs) in immunocompetent recipients 3 to 5 days posttransfusion (tx) (Blood 85:1207, 1995). We have now characterized survival kinetics of specific donor WBC subsets in additional tx populations. Eight female elective surgery patients (pts) were sampled pre-tx and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 post-tx. Ten female trauma pts transfused with a total of 4 to 18 U of relatively fresh red blood cells were sampled up to 1.5 years post-tx. WBC subsets from frozen whole blood were isolated using CD4, CD8 (T cell), CD15 (myeloid), and CD19 (B cell) antibody-coated magnetic beads. Donor WBCs were counted by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of male-specific sex determining region (SRY) sequences. PCR HLA typing and mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) between recipient and donor WBCs were performed on two of the trauma tx recipients who had long-term chimerism of donor cells post-tx. In 6 of 8 female surgery pts, circulating CD4(+) male donor cells peaked at day 3 or 5 (0.01 to 1 cell/microL), followed by clearance by day 14. In 7 of 10 female trauma pts, we observed multilineage persistence of male donor WBCs (CD4, CD8, CD15, CD19) for 6 months to 1.5 years post-tx at concentrations of 10 to 100 cells/microL. In 2 trauma recipients studied, MLR showed no, or very low, response to WBC of the single donor implicated as the source of microchimerism by HLA typing. Establishment of long-term multilineage chimerism in trauma recipients is probably caused by engraftment of donor stem cells and mutual tolerance between recipient and donor leukocytes. A better understanding of factors determining clearance versus chimerism of transfused leukocytes is critical to prevention of alloimmunization and transfusion-induced graft-versus-host disease, and, potentially, to induction of tolerance for transplantation.  (+info)

Umbilical cord blood transplant from unrelated HLA-mismatched donors in children with high risk leukemia. (6/954)

In the last 3 years, 14 children with high-risk leukemia (11 ALL, 2 AML and 1 CML) underwent cord blood transplantation from unrelated HLA-mismatched donors at a median of 99 days from the start of search. Eight patients were transplanted in second CR, one in accelerated phase, three at relapse and two patients in first CR. Conditioning regimen (fractionated TBI, etoposide, CY and anti-lymphocyte serum) and prophylaxis of GVHD (CsA and 6-methylprednisolone) were identical for all patients. Neutrophils >0.5x10(9)/l were reached at a median of 33 days from transplant, but in four cases we observed an autologous hematopoietic reconstitution (three spontaneous, one after autologous BM rescue). Acute and chronic GVHD were observed in 10/14 and 3/8 evaluable cases, respectively. Three patients died of transplant-related toxicity and three patients relapsed. The probabilities of event-free, disease-free and overall survival were 50, 53 and 64%, respectively. Cord blood transplant from HLA-mismatched unrelated donor is a valid option for the treatment of children with high-risk leukemia. With our eligibility criteria, conditioning regimen and prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease, the main obstacles to successful transplant were represented by graft failure and fatal acute GVHD.  (+info)

Chemotherapy and donor peripheral blood progenitor cells for acute leukemia in early relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. (7/954)

Ten patients with acute leukemia (AL) in early relapse after allo-BMT were treated with a modified MEC (mitoxantrone, etoposide and Ara-C) regimen followed by donor PBPC collected after mobilization with G-CSF. Seven patients achieved CR or had normal hemopoietic reconstitution: two had an early relapse at days +53 and +48, two patients died from acute GVHD at days +31 and +96, one died of interstitial pneumonia at day +55, and two patients experienced long-term survival. One patient with refractory disease and nodal involvement who did not respond to the first BMT had overt expansion of the leukemia at day +36; one patient with Ph+ ALL and one with ANLL evolving from MDS, both with skin involvement, had blast cells in peripheral blood at day +27 and +26, respectively. Transient cytopenia occurred in all patients; a normal granulocyte and platelet count was achieved within 3 weeks in all patients but one; acute GVHD occurred in six patients, and four had chronic GVHD. This approach is feasible in patients in early relapse after allo-BMT. It assists prompt re-establishment of normal donor hematopoiesis avoiding the prolonged cytopenia observed after donor lymphocyte infusion in AL patients relapsed after allo-BMT.  (+info)

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in an osteopetrosis patient: first report in Thailand. (8/954)

We described the successful allogeneic matched sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in a 5-year-old Thai boy in whom osteopetrosis was diagnosed on the basis of anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukoerythroblastosis, sclerotic bone, hepatosplenomegaly, and visual deficit from an encroachment of cranial nerve foramina. The preparative regimen included 4 days of busulfan 4 mg/kg/day, and 4 days of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day. Complete hematopoietic engraftment and no evidence of graft versus host disease were shown after BMT. Complete hematologic findings were corrected. His hematopoietic chimerism was changed to that of his donor. Post BMT, he has no hepatosplenomegaly. His bone radiographic findings revealed normal after BMT. Bone marrow biopsy showed normalized bone and bone marrow matrix. However, his vision remained impaired. We believe that this is the first case of successful bone marrow transplantation in an osteopetrosis patient in Thailand.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Donor bone marrow infusions are tolerogenic in human renal transplantation. AU - Ciancio, G.. AU - Garcia-Morales, R.. AU - Mathew, J.. AU - Carreno, M.. AU - Burke, G. W.. AU - Ricordi, C.. AU - Kenyon, N.. AU - Esquenazi, V.. AU - Cirocco, R.. AU - Tzakis, A.. AU - Miller, J.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/S0041-1345(00)02485-4. DO - 10.1016/S0041-1345(00)02485-4. M3 - Article. C2 - 11267299. AN - SCOPUS:0035087150. VL - 33. SP - 1295. EP - 1296. JO - Transplantation Proceedings. JF - Transplantation Proceedings. SN - 0041-1345. IS - 1-2. ER - ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Chimerism analysis is one part of the monitoring process for bone marrow transplant patients. The pre-transplant chimerism analysis of both donor and recipient is necessary in order to evaluate for the presence of hematopoietic microchimerism in patients at various time points subsequent to allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Hematopoietic microchimerism will be determined by PCR analysis using a panel of highly-polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers. DNA will be extracted from the recipients peripheral blood cells or bone marrow. The number of alleles in the profile established by the STR panel at the time of the pre-transplant chimerism analysis will determine the complexity of the post-transplant chimerism analysis. Screen-informative STRs from post-transplant recipient samples will be quantified to determine the percent of hematopoietic microchimerism in the patient.. ...
The term chimerism in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation refers to the engraftment or presence of lymphohematopoietic cells of donor origin, typically detected by using techniques of DNA analysis (18). Mixed chimerism, in contrast to full donor chimerism, indicates the presence of both donor and recipient lymphohematopoietic cells. Because mixed versus total donor chimerism can now be reliably generated with specific NST regimens and avoided with other NST regimens, investigators must address an important question: is the state of mixed chimerism after transplantation desirable?. There are at least 3 theoretical advantages of mixed chimerism over full chimerism as an approach to transplantation tolerance (19), as follows: 1) mixed chimerism can be achieved with nonmyeloablative regimens that are less toxic, 2) mixed chimeras have better immune function, and 3) thymic deletion of host-reactive cells occurs to a greater degree in mixed chimeras due to the intrathymic presence ...
Intestinal transplantation is being increasingly performed to treat patients with irreversible intestinal failure. The major cause of intestinal graft failure is graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) that represents a life-threatening complication after small bowel transplantation (Itx). The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of skin biopsy histological changes for acute GVHD after Itx in pigs. Thirty-four Large White pigs were divided into three groups: Group I with Itx only, Group 2 with Itx and donor bone marrow infusion (Itx BM) and Group 3 (control group-before the operation). Animals received tacrolimus-based immunosuppression from day 0 to day 30 postoperatively. Skin and small bowel biopsies were histologically assessed, analysed and classified from grade I to 4 on postoperative days 15, 30, 45 and 60. There was a strong correlation between the histological grading values of skin biopsy changes and the histological grading values of small bowel biopsy ...
Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) engraftment for chimerism and transplantation tolerance may be promoted by combinations of costimulation blocking biologics and small molecular weight inhibitors. We showed previously in a mouse model that anti-CD40Ligand (anti-CD40L, CD154) combined with anti-LFA-1 or everolimus (40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin) resulted in stable chimerism in almost all BM recipients, whereas anti-LFA-1 plus everolimus conferred approximately 50% chimerism stability. Here, we investigated whether this lower incidence could be increased with deoxyspergualin (DSG) in place of or in addition to everolimus. However, DSG and everolimus were similarly synergistic with costimulation blockade for stable hematopoietic chimerism. This correlated with allospecific T cell depletion and inhibition of acute but not chronic skin allograft rejection. Different treatments were also compared for their inhibition of alloreactive T cell proliferation in vivo. While anti-CD40L did not impair T cell ...
Target cell isolation ideal for chimerism analysis. Positive selection with MACS® MicroBead Technology for multiple cell types from whole blood in 30 min. - 대한민국
TY - JOUR. T1 - Promotion of xenogeneic hematopoietic chimerism in rodents by mononuclear phagocyte depletion. AU - Cheng, J.. AU - Glaser, R. M.. AU - Kruger-Grey, H.. AU - White-Scharf, M. E.. AU - Cooper, D. K.C.. AU - Thall, A. D.. PY - 2002/11. Y1 - 2002/11. N2 - The successful establishment of tolerance toward pig tissues in primates through hematopoietic progenitor cell engraftment is restricted by the rapid disappearance of these cells in the recipient following infusion. We developed and tested the hypothesis that phagocytes of the reticuloendothelial system are responsible for the rapid clearance of infused pig hematopoietic cells using a mouse model. Mice received non-myeloablative conditioning and, on various days, were injected with medronate-encapsulated liposomes (M-L) or control blank liposomes, followed by the intravenous infusion of miniature swine hematopoietic cells. M-L were well-tolerated in mice (n = 100) at levels that deplete mononuclear phagocytes. Depletion of ...
The invention relates to the methods for producing hematopoietic chimerism and central tolerance by peripheral tolerance induction without myeloablative conditioning.
In a murine model, nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) led to mixed chimerism and subsequent tolerance to an allogeneic skin graft (19). Mixed chimerism implies stable coexistence of donor and recipient lymphohematopoietic cells in a transplant recipient. Translating this approach to NHP kidney transplantation required successive modifications of the conditioning regimen, finally including total body irradiation, thymic irradiation, and ATG, followed by combined BMT and kidney transplantation, splenectomy, and short-term cyclosporine immunosuppressive treatment (20). Most (9 of 13) NHP transplant recipients had long-term normal renal function without maintenance immunosuppression despite losing chimerism within months of BMT, indicating that long-term tolerance relied upon peripheral rather than central tolerance mechanisms. The same regimen did not achieve tolerance of cardiac allografts (21), suggesting that organ-specific differences influence the ...
Ariffin, H.; Daud, S.S.; Mohamed, Z.; Ibrahim, K.; Lee, T.F.; Chong, L.A. (2007) Evaluation of two short tandem repeat multiplex systems for post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation chimerism analysis. Singapore Medical Journal, 48 (4). pp. 333-340. ISSN 0037-5675. ...
We analyzed the clinical course and risk factors of 18 patients with poor engraftment after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), defined as absolute neutrophil count below 0.1×10 9/1 28 days post-BMT. Significant risks associated with non-engraftment included HLA one antigen mismatch, BMT from matched unrelated donor, and a low dose of colony-forming units-granulocyte-macrophage (,10 4/kg). Examined by a semi-quantitative analysis of polymorphic microsatellite markers, donor DNA chimerism on day 28 was found to be predictive of treatment outcome. Seven patients had detectable donor DNA, varying from 43 to 100%. Five of them responded to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and achieved engraftment. Two were given further infusions of peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells (PBSC) from the same donors, resulting in engraftment in one of them. Eleven patients had no detectable donor DNA, and none responded to G-CSF. Autologous regeneration occurred in six of these patients, ...
The mechanism by which mixed chimerism reverses autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes has not been defined. NOD mice have a well-characterized defect in the production of myeloid progenitors that is believed to contribute significantly to the autoimmune process. We therefore investigated whether chimerism induces a correction of this defect. Mixed chimerism restored production of myeloid progenitors in NOD mice to normal levels. Notably, NOD bone marrow cells as well as donor bone marrow cells produced the mature myeloid progeny, and the level of donor chimerism was not correlated with the degree of restoration of the defect. Moreover, NOD bone marrow cells cultured with Flt3-ligand developed a heat-stable antigen-positive/Ly6C+ population comprised primarily of mature myeloid dendritic cells, suggesting that the underlying abnormality is not cell intrinsic but rather due to a block in development of mature myeloid progeny, including myeloid dendritic cells. Strikingly, treatment of NOD mice with ...
Successful induction of allograft tolerance has been achieved in nonhuman primates (NHPs) and humans via induction of transient hematopoietic chimerism. Since allograft tolerance was achieved in these recipients without durable chimerism, peripheral mechanisms are postulated to play a major role. Here, we report our studies of T cell immunity in NHP recipients that achieved long-term tolerance versus those that rejected the allograft (AR). All kidney, heart, and lung transplant recipients underwent simultaneous or delayed donor bone marrow transplantation (DBMT) following conditioning with a nonmyeloablative regimen. After DBMT, mixed lymphocyte culture with CFSE consistently revealed donor-specific loss of CD8+ T cell responses in tolerant (TOL) recipients, while marked CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to donor antigens was found to persist. Interestingly, a significant proportion of the proliferated CD4+ cells were FOXP3+ in TOL recipients, but not in AR or naive NHPs. In TOL recipients, ...
Having a donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) means youll get more cells from your original donor. It aims to push your chimerism levels up towards 100%.
Chimerism genetic testing is used to monitor the success of haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) by evaluating the ratio of donor and recipient DNA in the recipients blood or bone marrow.. This guides treatment to help prevent engraftment failure, to maximise graft-versus-tumour effect and to minimise opportunistic infection and graft-versus-host disease.. Flow sorted chimerism analysis of peripheral blood can be used to monitor T-cell, B-cell and myeloid lineage specific engraftment upon request.. ...
The results of a small clinical trial offer a way to make umbilical cord blood transplants for leukemia and lymphoma more effective.
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Our clinical investigations demonstrate, that nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation (NST) is a novel therapeutic option in patients with high-risk ALL or AML. NST can be administered to patients eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation with contraindications against high-dose radio- and chemotherapy (standard SCT). After NST, infections and late onset acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) frequently occurred, but transplant-related mortality was low in contrast to standard SCT. Leukemia-free survival and overall survival were similar after NST and standard SCT. A higher relapse rate after NST was balanced by a higher transplant-related mortality after standard SCT. The conditioning regimen itself had no relevant impact on survival. Sequential chimerism analyses of leukocyte subpopulations resulted in early diagnosis of mixed chimerism, which proved to be predictive for later relapses. Stable mixed chimerism was not established in these patients. Adoptive immunotherapy in patients, ...
OUTLINE: Patients receive allogeneic white blood cell infusions once daily for 5-10 infusions.. Patients undergo blood sample collection periodically for correlative laboratory studies. The samples are evaluated by in vitro white cell kill assay before the first infusion, immediately after the first infusion, on day 2, and then immediately after the last infusion to assess in vitro cancer cell killing activity. Chimerism studies are performed before the first infusion, immediately after the first infusion, and then on days 2 and 7. Complete chimerism is assayed by short tandem repeat analysis using PCR. Patients with readily accessible tumor tissue (e.g., cervical or axillary lymph nodes or subcutaneous tumor nodules) may also undergo biopsy during the first week of treatment to demonstrate the presence or absence of tumor infiltrating granulocytes.. After completion of study therapy, patients are followed periodically for 3 months. ...
Guest: Dr. Xunrong Luo, Instructor, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Duke University School of Medicine; Director of Translation, Duke Transplant Center Topic: Transplantation state of the science, transplantation tolerance, immunosuppression, non-chimeric approach, new technologies in transplantation Xunrong Luo Duke faculty page Transplantation Tolerance through Hematopoietic Chimerism: Progress and Challenges for Clinical Translation article…
Abstract. Abstract 4101Background:. Despite the curative promise of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), many patients with hematologic malignancies rela
To the Editor:. The article entitled Evidence for Cardiomyocyte Repopulation by Extracardiac Progenitors in Transplanted Human Hearts by Laflamme et al,1 published in Circulation Research, confirms our early observations2 that cardiac chimerism occurs after transplantation of a female heart in a male patient. These results are also in agreement with the detection of chimerism in multiple organs after bone marrow transplantation.3 The authors of the study in Circulation Research are perturbed by the low frequency of chimerism in their samples compared with ours2 (as well as in a subsequent recent report3). They attribute this discrepancy to …technical differences… (pages 637 and 638) between the two studies. We agree completely with their assessment.. Given the resolution of the histological sections included in the article in Circulation Research, 1 we are pleasantly surprised that they could identify even this relatively low level of chimerism. Laflamme et al place special emphasis on ...
If Im going to the trouble of cloning myself, I want the clone to be a copy of me! Im imagining what someone might say if they were told that their expensive and ethically dubious personal cloning efforts produced a […]. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cellular immune responses of human cadaver donor bone marrow cells and their susceptibility to commonly used immunosuppressive drugs in transplantation. AU - Mathew, James M.. AU - Carreno, Manuel. AU - Zucker, Keith. AU - Fuller, Laphalle. AU - Kenyon, Norma. AU - Esquenazi, Violet. AU - Ricordi, Camillo. AU - Tzakis, Andreas G.. AU - Miller, Joshua. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998/4/15. Y1 - 1998/4/15. N2 - Background. The cascade of immunological effects brought about by donor bone marrow cell (DBMC) infusions in human organ transplantation, especially in the context of continuous pharmacologic immunosuppression, is not fully understood. Yet, in inbred rodents and even primates, administration of specific bone marrow cells has caused a state of acquired immunologic tolerance. Methods. In vitro mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) and cell-mediated lympholysis (CML) culture systems were used to compare the responding and regulatory ...
To investigate the antigen specificity of regulatory T cells capable of preventing transplant rejection, we have developed two different strategies to achieve tolerance to fully mismatched skin grafts in euthymic mice. A combination of nondepleting Abs targeting CD4, CD8, and CD154 (CD40 ligand) induces dominant transplantation tolerance to fully mismatched skin allografts. Such tolerance is antigen-specific, mediated by regulatory T cells, and can be extended through linked suppression to naïve lymphocytes. The same protocol, when combined with allogeneic bone marrow, enables the development of mixed hematopoietic chimerism and deletional tolerance. Although we cannot exclude that some regulatory T cells may persist in chimeric mice, these cells are insufficient to mediate linked suppression. CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, whether taken from naïve mice or from mice tolerized through either treatment protocol, were always able to prevent rejection of skin grafts by naïve CD4(+) T cells, and did so with no
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute graft-versus-host disease of the heart. AU - Roberts, Stephen S.. AU - Leeborg, Nicky. AU - Loriaux, Marc. AU - Johnson, F. Leonard. AU - Huang, Meei Li. AU - Stenzel, Peter. AU - Thiede, Christian. AU - Godder, Kamar T.. PY - 2006/10/15. Y1 - 2006/10/15. N2 - Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality after bone marrow transplantation. Acute GVHD most commonly involves the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. Involvement of other organ systems is rare and remains controversial. We report a patient with GVHD who suffered a fatal ventricular arrhythmia shortly after bone marrow transplantation. Autopsy of the heart showed lymphocyte infiltration. Investigations for cardiotrophic viruses were negative, and chimerism analysis of the heart showed both donor and recipient DNA. We conclude that the cause of death was possibly graft-versus-host disease of the heart. A review of the literature revealed a total of 14 cases of possible cardiac ...
Donor lymphocyte infusions for patients who relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia.: The understanding of the use of d
Results: In untreated control groups (n=5) animals rejected skin grafts, solid organ grafts and hind limb transplants acutely by POD 14 (± 1 day), POD 9 (± 2 days), and 8 (± 1 day), respectively. The induction regimen extended skin graft survival to 32 ± 8 days (n=5). Additional donor BM augmentation lead to allograft survival of 150 days in 4 of 5 recipients. However, indefinite graft survival of ,150 days was observed in all animals receiving the induction regimen and a VCA. Mixed chimerism analysis showed engraftment of donor BM in groups receiving BM at the time of skin transplantation (6.8% ± 3.1%). In groups receiving a VCA alone or an allograft augmented with donor BM and splenocytes, donor chimerism was detected at 22.51% ± 5.96% and 30.17% ± 8.72%, respectively. Vβ-T cell receptor staining showed decreased expression of Vβ 5.1/5.1 and Vβ 8.1/8.2 in animals receiving the full induction regimen compared to controls indicating a central selection and depletion mechanism for ...
Abstract. Introduction: Early response rates to non-myeloablative therapy are encouraging, however long term remissions remain elusive. Manipulating donor lymp
The present invention relates to the use of a non-lethal preparative regimen for the treatment of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. In a clinical trial, an HIV-positive patient was conditioned by non-lethal doses of irradiation and a chemotherapeutic drug prior to receiving donor bone marrow cells from a baboon. While long-term engraftment of donor cells was not observed, the non-lethal preparative conditioning regimen was able to reduce the viral burden and improved the clinical outcome. Such method is useful for treatment of patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) from HLA -haploidentical donors is a safe procedure that will not cause Graft ... (consolidation) at 1.0 g/m2 for 6 dosages followed by HLA-mismatched DLI after the second consolidation. Biological: DLI HLA-mismatched DLI will be administered Day 9, approximately 24-48 hours .... Clinical Trial last updated 05/03/2016 - 9:59am.. ...
We have reached the point in science when creating Chimera is possible, should we continue down this path or does it spell the end for the Human race ...
Peter Rost, M.D., is a former Pfizer Marketing Vice President providing services as a drug expert witness, pharmaceutical marketing expert witness, pharma marketing expert witness, drug industry expert witness, speaker and writer.
Recipient-derived cells integrate into renal allografts inducing organ-specific microchimerism. Circulating pluripotent progenitor cells with high plasticity for differentiation were suggested as a potential source of allograft chimerism. Whether or not these cells also contribute to tumor formation in renal transplants is unknown. We analyzed six histologically different tumors in renal allografts for the presence of recipient-derived cells. To circumvent dependency on gender mismatch, a polymerase chain reaction assay for highly polymorphic short tandem repeat marker (DNA fingerprinting) in combination with laser microdissection was applied. Pure tumor cell populations were harvested by laser microdissection after immunohistochemical (CD45/CD68) marking of contaminating leukocytes. In cases of gender mismatch (n = 2), results were confirmed by sex chromosome in situ hybridization. Two metanephric adenomas demonstrated microchimerism comprising both donor- and recipient-derived tumor cells. Two ...
Following a bone marrow transplant, patients are monitored closely for evidence of graft rejection or recurrence of the original disease. Bone marrow transplantation creates a donor-recipient cellular chimerism in the patient, which can be quantitively measured through short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of peripheral whole blood to determine the percent chimerism of the sample. Increasing recipient chimerism is an indication of graft rejection or relapse. Software programs designed to analyze forensic mixture samples have the potential to be useful in analyzing post-transplant mixed chimeric samples. Post-transplant samples were analyzed using three mixture deconvolution software programs. The programs were fast, accurate and consistent in determining the mixing proportions of the samples and the three programs gave concordant results.
Simon Collins, HIV i-Base. One of the most interesting and intriguing posters at the conference was a case study presented by Gero Hutter from the Medical University of Berlin.. The patient, a 40-year-old man diagnosed in 1995, experienced a relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that was first diagnosed in 2006. He underwent allogeneic transplant of peripheral stem cells (alloSCT) with an HLA-matched donor, selected to be homozygous for CCR5-delta 32.. A bone marrow registry search identified 232 individuals who had matched HLA, and PCR identified homozygousity for CCR5-d32. HAART was stopped on the day of the transplant. GvHD prophylaxis followed standard regimens and engraftment was achieved on day 13. Complete chimerism detected by competitive PCR was observed on day 60.. Viral load was measured both by RNA-PCR and proviral DNA-PCR. DNA-PCR was negative from day +68.. Previous attempts to use stem cell transplantation as HIV therapy have failed. Here, the investigators claim to have ...
We investigated the impact of the host environment on the survival, expansion, function, and long-term memory function of differentiated GVH-reactive CD4 and CD8 primed T cells. Transfer of GVH-reactive primed T cells generated in lethally irradiated recipients to quiescent mixed chimeras or secondary irradiated hosts allowed us to determine the impact of inflammation on host alloantigen-primed GVH-reactive T cells in the effector phase of GVH alloresponses. Whereas previous studies (14, 15) investigated the effects of inflammation on transferred T cells primed by in vitro antigenic stimulation, GVH-reactive primed T cells in our study were generated in vivo in primary recipients with irradiation-induced inflammation and GVHD. Transfer of GVH-reactive primed T cells from recipients developing GVHD to quiescent mixed chimeras was associated with decreased ability to increase donor chimerism compared with transfer of naive T cells. Consistent with their decreased ability to convert mixed to full ...
One of the functions of the preparative or conditioning regimen before marrow infusion is to create space for the transplanted autologous or allogeneic donor marrow. Marrow for transplantation can be...
BOSTON -- Six organ-transplant recipients have remained healthy for up to five years without anti-rejection drugs, said researchers in the U.S. and Australia whose strategy was chimerism.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mixed Chimerism and Secondary Graft Failure in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Aplastic Anemia. AU - Adult Aplastic Anemia Working Group of the Japanese Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. AU - Kako, Shinichi. AU - Yamazaki, Hirohito. AU - Ohashi, Kazuteru. AU - Ozawa, Yukiyasu. AU - Ota, Shuichi. AU - Kanda, Yoshinobu. AU - Maeda, Tetsuo. AU - Kato, Jun. AU - Ishiyama, Ken. AU - Matsuoka, Ken ichi. AU - Miyamoto, Toshihiro. AU - Iida, Hiroatsu. AU - Ikegame, Kazuhiro. AU - Fukuda, Takahiro. AU - Ichinohe, Tatsuo. AU - Atsuta, Yoshiko. AU - Mori, Takehiko. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Mixed chimerism (MC) and/or secondary graft failure (SGF) with recipient- or donor-type chimerism is a major obstacle in allogeneic transplantation for aplastic anemia (AA). From a registry database in Japan, patients with AA age ,15 years who underwent a first allogeneic bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation between 2000 and 2014 and ...
ContextA minimally toxic nonmyeloablative regimen was developed for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to treat patients with advanced hematolo
Paediatric cancer is a disease where the cells of the body grow in an uncontrolled way. Paediatric cancers are those that primarily occur in children. The most common of these are leukaemias, brain tumours and lymphoma. Almost all cancer cells show genetic changes that can be the cause of the cancer or can indicate disease progression.. Paediatric cancer genetic testing is a vital tool, used to identify the cause of the cancer, the type of cancer, help direct the best course of treatment, and to monitor disease progression and the efficacy of treatment.. Chimerism genetic testing is used to monitor the success of blood stem cell transplantation (like bone marrow transplantation). The test looks at the level of donor bone marrow versus the level of bone marrow from the patient (recipient). VCGS has developed an advanced chimerism test which can detect very small changes in the levels of donor and recipient bone marrow. This is used, with high levels of accuracy, to monitor the health of the ...
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Donor T cells are key mediators in pathogenesis, but a contribution from host T cells has not been explored, as conditioning regimens are believed to deplete host T cells. To evaluate a potential role for host T cells in GVHD, the origin of skin and blood T cells was assessed prospectively in patients after HSCT in the absence of GVHD. While blood contained primarily donor-derived T cells, most T cells in the skin were host derived. We next examined patient skin, colon, and blood during acute GVHD. Host T cells were present in all skin and colon acute GVHD specimens studied, yet were largely absent in blood. We observed acute skin GVHD in the presence of 100% host T cells. Analysis demonstrated that a subset of host T cells in peripheral tissues were proliferating (Ki67+) and producing the proinflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 in situ. Comparatively, the majority ...
Regardless of the MHC mismatching, all animals displayed high-level chimerism at all time points in lymphoid (50-70%), myeloid (40-80%) and granulocyte (40-80%) lineages. MHC Class II-mismatched chimeras remained tolerant of VCAs, without significant histological or clinical features of rejection at any time-point. In contrast, both MHC Class I-mismatched animals experienced acute rejection crises of the epidermal component of the VCAs following tapering of immunosuppression, with one of these animals mounting recurrent rejection episodes. Histological visualization confirmed that rejection was confined to skin epidermis. In vitro assays in all animals demonstrated donor-specific non-responsiveness at all points, including after rejection crises, suggesting that the epidermal rejection in the MHC class I-mismatched animals was a local effect ...
This is a phase II multi-institutional therapeutic study of a non-myeloablative T cell receptor (TCR) alpha/beta depleted haploidentical transplantation with
The two patients in the Boston study had battled HIV for years. They agreed to stop taking their HIV medications earlier this year to test whether the medicine was holding the infections in check, or whether it was the transplant of healthy donor bone marrow cells each received that was vanquishing signs of the virus in their bodies. Both had received the transplants after chemotherapy and other treatments had failed to stop their Hodgkins lymphoma, a cancer of the blood.. For weeks, Henrichs team carefully tested the patients blood, searching for signs of HIV. In July, with one patient off the HIV medications for seven weeks, and the other patient off for 15, the scientists reported their early, encouraging results: They could find no trace of the virus in their blood cells.. But in August, the scientists detected HIV in one of the patients, who then resumed taking medication. The other remained seemingly HIV-free. Concerned about the ethics of continuing the study, the scientists gave the ...
OA Text is an independent open-access scientific publisher showcases innovative research and ideas aimed at improving health by linking research and practice to the benefit of society.
Loss of chimerism is one of the major problems after allogeneic stem cell transplantation(SCT). Donor- lymphocyte infusions(DLI) are used as a treatment after taper or stopping immunosuppression. In this study, DLI ...
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
ashley.hunt60 Wrote:How about the interspecies chimera some are pushing for? Yes please. But in reality, its kind of strange to me. But strange doesnt mean bad. Quote:Souls - If life starts at conce
"Production of sheep-goat chimeras by inner cell mass transplantation". Journal of Animal Science. 65 (1): 325-330. doi:10.2527/ ...
However, it is feasible that human-compatible organs for transplantation could be grown in these chimeras. There is evidence ... As with those embryos, the human-monkey chimeras were reportedly only allowed to develop for a few weeks. Although development ... Davis, Nicola (2019-08-03). "First human-monkey chimera raises concern among scientists". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. ... successfully produced the first human-monkey chimeras. Belmonte and others had previously produced pig and sheep embryos ...
Chimeras, generated through transplantation, enabled researchers to distinguish neural crest cells of one species from the ...
The Chimera, and Transplantation Science. Husband to vascular surgeon Rhoda Dafoe, he is a father of two and is the brother of ... He previously worked at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, where he was Director, Pancreas Transplantation, Kidney and Pancreas ... where he is chief of transplantation surgery. ...
"Transplantation of Human Brain Organoids: Revisiting the Science and Ethics of Brain Chimeras". Cell Stem Cell. 25 (4): 462-472 ... His work in the Cell journal Stem Cell discusses the controversial topic of the ethics of brain chimeras. He graduated from ...
Chen HI, Wolf JA, Blue R, Song MM, Moreno JD, Ming GL, Song H (October 2019). "Transplantation of Human Brain Organoids: ... Revisiting the Science and Ethics of Brain Chimeras". Cell Stem Cell. 25 (4): 462-472. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2019.09.002. PMC ... Cerebral organoids might serve as the basis for transplantation and rebuilding in the human brain due to the similarity in ... Additionally, the "humanization" of animal models has been raised as a topic of concern in transplantation of human SC derived ...
... transplantation chimera MeSH B01.050.530.750.760 - radiation chimera MeSH B01.050.680.136 - animals, genetically modified MeSH ...
... cells in parental-to-F1 hematopoietic chimeras that restored normal stem cell concentration after initial transplantation". ... March 1997). "Factors predicting morbidity following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation". Bone Marrow Transplantation. 19 ... Transplantation. 78 (4): 516-23. doi:10.1097/01.TP.0000128854.20831.6F. PMID 15446309. Valente T, Junyent F, Auladell C (June ... Bone Marrow Transplantation. 37 (5): 499-502. doi:10.1038/sj.bmt.1705262. PMID 16415895. Suzuki A, Nakauchi H, Taniguchi H ( ...
An example of artificial chimerism in animals are the quail-chick chimeras. By utilizing transplantation and ablation in the ... A genetic chimerism or chimera (/kaɪˈmɪərə/ ky-MEER-ə or /kɪˈmɪərə/ kə-MEER-ə, also spelled chimaera or chimæra) is a single ... The term genetic chimera has been used at least since the 1944 article of Belgovskii. An animal chimera is a single organism ... Most chimeras will go through life without realizing they are chimeras. The difference in phenotypes may be subtle (e.g., ...
The earliest examples of this involved transplantation experiments (technically creating chimeras) where cells from a blastula ... Fitzgerald, P. H.; Donald, R. A.; Kirk, R. L (1979). "A true hermaphrodite dispermic chimera with 46,XX and 46,XY karyotypes". ...
The History of Pediatric Solid Organ Transplantation". In Nadey S Hakim (ed.). History Of Organ And Cell Transplantation. ... "Clive Callender Chimera Chronicles". American Society of Transplant Surgeons. Retrieved 28 March 2020. Cavers, ... He did pioneering work in kidney transplantations in children during the 1970s, developing the anti-rejection drug anti- ... lymphocyte globulin, in pediatric liver transplantation and in xenotransplantation of porcine Islets for Type I diabetes. He'd ...
These neural chimeras have permitted researchers to look at neurological diseases in an animal model where traumatic and ... Clarke, D. L. (2003). "Neural stem cells". Bone Marrow Transplantation. 32: S13-S17. doi:10.1038/sj.bmt.1703937. PMID 12931233 ... These neural chimeras give researchers a comprehensive way of studying the molecular mechanisms behind cell repair and ... Eventually researchers hope to be able to use the information taken from these neural chimera experiments to repair regions of ...
Nature 261, 141 (1976). Allo-MHC-restricted CD4 and CD8 T cells in hemopoietic chimeras reveal plasticity of MHC-restricted ... 141, 322 (1975). Graft-versus-host disease-free allogeneic bone marrow transplantation after T cell removal (used later to cure ... Collaboration of histo-incompatible T and B lymphocytes using cells from tetraparental bone manow chimeras. J. Exp. Med. ... Tolerance to histocompatibility determinants in tetraparental bone marrow chimeras. J. Exp. Med. ...
Biology portal Canid hybrid Chimera (genetics) Chloroplast capture (botany) Eukaryote hybrid genome Felid hybrids Genetic ... transplantation of cells or tissue across species Horizontal gene transfer List of plant hybrids List of genetic hybrids ... chimera (goat/lion/snake), hippocamp (fish/horse), and sphinx (woman/lion). The Old Testament mentions a first generation of ...
After HSC transplantation both GvL and GvHD develop. The interconnection of those two effects can be seen by comparison of ... Kolb HJ, Schmid C, Barrett AJ, Schendel DJ (February 2004). "Graft-versus-leukemia reactions in allogeneic chimeras". Blood. ... There are some strategies to suppress the GvHD after transplantation or to enhance GvL but none of them provide an ideal ... Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used to mobilize HSC and mediate T cell tolerance during transplantation. G- ...
This technique is also routinely used when generating chimeras. An alternative system is the use of CD90 (Thy1) alleles, which ... This strain was designed for competitive bone marrow transplantation assays and demonstrated perfect equivalence, unlike the ... "Single Targeted Exon Mutation Creates a True Congenic Mouse for Competitive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The C57BL/ ...
... known as a chimera, which has developed from the fusion of cells originating from separate zygotes; each population of cells ... by allogeneic transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs from a genetically non-identical donor); in plants, it can result ...
Singer A, Hathcock KS, Hodes RJ: Self recognition in allogeneic thymic chimeras. Self recognition by T helper cells from thymus ... Using a unique approach to thymus transplantation, Singer showed that it is the thymus that educates self-recognition ... Singer, A.; Hathcock, K. S.; Hodes, R. J. (1982-01-01). "Self recognition in allogeneic thymic chimeras. Self recognition by T ...
July 2009). "Generation and transplantation of an autologous vascularized bioartificial human tissue". Transplantation. 88 (2 ... Bourret R, Martinez E, Vialla F, Giquel C, Thonnat-Marin A, De Vos J (June 2016). "Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about ... Artificial hearts are usually used to bridge the heart transplantation or can be applied as replacement therapy for terminal ... It is anticipated that this technology will enable the production of livers in the future for transplantation and theoretically ...
The resulting individuals are termed radiation bone marrow chimeras. The abovementioned methods have been researched ... 2009). "Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation." Retrieved 13 Nov, 2009, from [2].. ...
A chimera is not the same thing as a hybrid because it is a being composed of two or more genetically distinct cell lines in ... Although its main use will be to make organ transplantation easier, this can be considered the first more effective step of ... As well, a U.S. patent has notably been granted for a mouse chimera with a human immune system. In terms of scientific ethics, ... While at first being a concept in the likes of legends and thought experiments, the first stable human-animal chimeras (not ...
Chimera term. *^ Wu, J; et al. (2017). "Interspecies Chimerism with Mammalian Pluripotent Stem Cells". Cell. 168: 473-486.e15. ... Pig lungs from genetically modified pigs for instance are already being considered for transplantation into humans.[93][94] ... Such animals, which are hence composed of a mixture of cells from more than one species, are called "chimera's"[95][96] One ... Some chimeras, like the blotched mouse shown, are created through genetic modification techniques like gene targeting. ...
... organ transplantation, physician-assisted death, and stem cell research. The chapters are written by leading ethicists and are ... Actionable Ethics Oversight of Human-Animal Chimera Research; and ongoing work on immigrant health. Hastings Center research ...
Allogeneic embryonic stem cell transplantation (i.e. from a healthy donor) may be more practical in these cases than gene ... a tetragametic chimera). Since a fertilized egg has the potential to be two individuals or half of one, some believe it can ... This has included the many complications inherent in stem cell transplantation (almost 200 allogeneic marrow transplants were ... and the role of irradiation-based therapies in preparation for transplantation. The discovery of adult stem cells led ...
Oncology and Transplantation of the University of Minnesota's Medical School. She holds the Anderson Chair in Stem Cell Biology ... "I have not seen any convincing data showing that anyone has repeated the chimaera experiment, so I don't think this part of it ...
Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation In National Cancer Institute Fact Sheet web site. ... and viable chimera formation, but there are many differences within these properties. The chromatin of iPSCs appears to be more ... Bone marrow transplantation is, as of 2009, the only established use of stem cells. Hanna V, Gassei K, Orwig KE (2015). "Stem ... Hanson C, Hardarson T, Ellerström C, Nordberg M, Caisander G, Rao M, Hyllner J, Stenevi U (March 2013). "Transplantation of ...
... transplantation experiments on a myotonic mouse mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1988 Jun; 85(11):3880-4. PMID 3375245 Mehrke G ... Clonal and territorial development of the pancreas as revealed by eGFP-labelled mouse chimeras. Cell Tissue Res. 2010 Oct;342(1 ... Patterns of myocardial histogenesis as revealed by mouse chimeras. Dev Biol. 2005 Feb15;278(2):336-46. PMID 15680354 Eberhard D ...
... brain chimeras). The Opinion presents recommendations on these examples. Upon request of the Federal Government, the Council ... the importance of transparency as well as an open public discussion in order to strengthen confidence in transplantation ...
They took cells from a chimera that had been grown from IPSC clones and a mouse embryo, this tissue was then transplanted into ... A proof-of-concept of using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to generate human organ for transplantation was reported by ... The process took longer and was not as efficient, but the resulting chimeras didn't develop cancer. Inactivation or deletion of ... "Information on p=roposed pilot study of the safety and feasibility of transplantation of autologous hiPSC-derived retinal ...
He is a well known pioneer of many nuclear transplantation studies and was named in 2013 by journal Nature as "the cloning ... Award in China in the category of the Recruitment Program for Foreign Experts Uyghur Americans Chimera (genetics) Human cloning ...
Olsson MJ, Juhlin L (October 1992). "Melanocyte transplantation in vitiligo". Lancet 340 (8825): 981. DOI:10.1016/0140-6736(92) ... Chimera (genetics). *Coloboma. *Erythrism, pretjerana crvenkasta pigmentacija. *Heterochromia iridum, drukčije stanje ...
Matzinger P., Mirkwood G. (1978). "In a fully H-2 incompatible chimera, T cells of donor origin can respond to minor ... The danger model is broad, covering topics as diverse as transplantation, maternal/fetal immunity, autoimmunity, cancer ... Polly Matzinger; Galadriel Mirkwood (1978). "In A Fully H-2 Incompatible Chimera, T Cells of Donor Origin Can Respond to Minor ... The lectures cover immunological theory, transplantation, pregnancy, tumors, autoimmunity, T regulatory cells, tissue control ...
... is a result of pregnancy, possibility that foreign cells were of transfusion or transplantation origin was ... " + "chimerism" based on the Chimera of Greek mythology. In humans (and perhaps in all placentals), the most common form is ... or acuteness of bone marrow transplantation graft-versus-host disease is reduced, when recipients of donor stem cells are NIMA- ... "Fetomaternal Microchimerism Is Associated with Better Outcome in Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation". Blood ...
Upon learning that it'd specialized in magically-altered human "chimeras" with animalistic features, Peter nicknames it the " ... In addition, immune responses to foreign tissues make transplantation within one species very complicated, let alone between ...
Transplantation. 16 Suppl 1: 34-9. doi:10.1093/ndt/16.suppl_1.34. PMID 11369818. Michelle Letarte. "Structure and function of ... "Antiangiogenic therapy of established tumors in human skin/severe combined immunodeficiency mouse chimeras by anti-endoglin ( ...
Single cell transplantation reveals interspecific cell communication in Drosophila chimeras Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Following interspecific transplantation, the development of single ectodermal cells was traced in order to test their abilities ...
Shortage of organs for transplantation - is more research on human-animal chimeras the right approach?. 12 September 2016 ... I certainly did not mean to suggest that we should promote chimera research as the BEST or ONLY way to address this dire ... Second, and on a related note, I also do not believe that NIH funding for chimera research and social and political efforts to ... There is currently a dire shortage of organs for transplantation in the United States, leading to approximately 22 deaths per ...
Blastoderm / cytology*, metabolism, transplantation*. Breeding / methods. Chick Embryo. Chickens / anatomy & histology, ...
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after ... "Radiation Chimera" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Radiation Chimera" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ... A New Stem Cell Biology: Transplantation and Baseline, Cell Cycle and Exosomes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018; 1056:3-9. ...
Beyond transplantation, a human-animal chimera could also transform the way we hunt for drugs. ... They included a goat-sheep chimera, dubbed a geep. The animal was striking to see, a patchwork of wool and coarse hair. Time ... For millennia, chimeras were literally the stuff of legend. The term comes from Greek mythology, with Homer describing a ... "The chimeras were somewhat in between.". With todays understanding of neuroscience, Rossant thinks this could help us to ...
Bone marrow transplantation to obtain mixed chimera. Recipient mice underwent a lethal total-body irradiation as reported ... 43) reported a smaller neutrophil recruitment with TLR4KO→WT chimera than with WT→TLR4KO chimera and concluded on an effect of ... Bone marrow chimeras were prepared by lethal irradiation of WT and MyD88−/− (KO) mice and reconstitution with either source of ... Bone marrow chimeras were prepared by lethal irradiation of either WT and MyD88−/− mice, followed by bone marrow cell ...
Radiation chimeras and stem cell transplantation. On day −1, 8- to 10-wk-old male B6 CD45.1 congenic mice were irradiated with ... We used VIP-KO mice as donors of hematopoietic cells and created radiation chimeras with syngenic BM transplantation in which ... Donor cell preparation for transplantation. BM transplantation was performed to create chimeric mice with hematopoietic cells ... WT radiation chimeras. Homogeneous cultures of DC and T cells recovered from VIP-KO→WT radiation chimera generated more ...
Secondary transplantation of EAR-2 bone marrow chimeras results in acute leukemia. To investigate the effect of EAR-2 over- ... Secondary transplantation of EAR-2 bone marrow chimeras results in acute leukemia. a Survival of secondary transplant ... c Survival curve for bone marrow transplant chimera not receiving secondary transplantation. d Immunophenotype of the blast ... 1a) and there was an increase in overall bone marrow cellularity in the EAR-2 chimeras, a difference that was more marked in a ...
Transplantation Chimera / genetics Substances * Agouti Signaling Protein * DNA Primers * a protein, mouse ...
... clinical solid organ transplantation continues to rely on the use of non-specific immunosuppressive protocols in order to ... Organ Transplantation / physiology* * Transplantation Chimera / immunology * Transplantation Chimera / physiology * ... At the present time, clinical solid organ transplantation continues to rely on the use of non-specific immunosuppressive ...
Transplantation patients: enigmas or chimeras? University Hospital Zurich researchers have determined a way in which to prevent ... Transplantation medicine is potentially useful in treating a variety of diseases, but the need for life-long suppression of the ... The results suggest that inducing donor cell microchimerism at the time of solid organ transplantation may be beneficial for ...
... new stem cell-assisted technologies such as mitochondrial replacement therapy and generating chimeras for organ transplantation ... Cell differentiation, Therapeutic Cloning & Chimeras: Part One21:02. Cell differentiation, Therapeutic Cloning & Chimeras: Part ... Cell differentiation, Therapeutic Cloning & Chimeras: Part One. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider ...
Transplantation Chimera. An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more ... Transplantation Organ transplantation is the moving of an organ from one body to another or from a donor site to another ... Home » Topics » Liver Transplantation » Research » Successful management of living donor liver transplantation for biliary ... Orthotopic Liver Transplantation Using a Living Donor. The purpose of this study is to: determine the safety of donor right ...
... transplantation; "human chimera"; stem cells, bioreactors, and coronavirus disease ... Condition: Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Intervention: Procedure: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation Sponsor: ... T-cell lymphoma with a granulomatous lesion of the lungs after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Epstein - ... Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation - October 9, 2020. Category: Hematology Authors: Zehva Khan, Nidhi. B. ...
"Production of sheep-goat chimeras by inner cell mass transplantation". Journal of Animal Science. 65 (1): 325-330. doi:10.2527/ ...
This makes a useful marker in chimera and transplantation experiments. As described (10), cytoplasmic β-gal activity provides ... and bone marrow transfer experiments illustrate the general utility of this strain for chimera and transplantation studies. The ... The majority of mature T cells (high CD5+) in the spleens of all the reconstituted mice 4 weeks after transplantation were β- ... transplantation. Gene traps provide a general strategy to identify genes exhibiting discrete patterns of expression during ...
... still remains the most significant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The disease usually ... Chronic graftversus- host disease in the rat radiation chimera. Transplantation. 1982;34:289-294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... histology and immunopathology in long-term chimeras. Transplantation. 1982;33:393-399.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2000:413-433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Consistent with this finding, bone marrow chimeras made from Slit3−/− donors that lacked SLIT3 expression at all stages of ... The resulting bone marrow chimeras were euthanized 16 weeks after transplantation. Congenic CD45.1/CD45.2 mice were used to ... Bone marrow transplantation. We followed a published protocol for bone marrow transplantation.34 Briefly, recipient mice (6- ... The resulting chimeras were maintained for 12 weeks before the analysis outlined in Fig. 6a. Micro-CT analysis showed that the ...
Transplantation Chimera. Join CureHunter, for free Research Interface BASIC access!. Take advantage of free CureHunter research ...
However, it is feasible that human-compatible organs for transplantation could be grown in these chimeras. There is evidence ... As with those embryos, the human-monkey chimeras were reportedly only allowed to develop for a few weeks. Although development ... Davis, Nicola (2019-08-03). "First human-monkey chimera raises concern among scientists". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. ... successfully produced the first human-monkey chimeras. Belmonte and others had previously produced pig and sheep embryos ...
A human chimera for von Willebrand disease following bone marrow transplantation. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1993; 15: 338-342 ...
... had relapsed disease at transplantation. Three patients received double CB transplants. The 100-day and 1-year treatment- ... transplantation. We investigated a strategy in which CB units should contain at least 2 × 107 total nucleated cells/kg of ... Barker JN, Weisdorf DJ, Wagner JE . Creation of a double chimera after the transplantation of umbilical-cord blood from two ... Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adults: results of the prospective Cord Blood Transplantation (COBLT). Biol Blood ...
B) IgD MFI on peripheral blood B cells from mixed BM chimeras measured at 14 wk after BM transplantation. Black dots represent ... D) Serum IgD concentration in the chimeras at 14 wk after BM transplantation. Data points represent individual mice. P values ... Recapitulation of hyper-IgD syndrome in BM chimeras. (A) IgD MFI on peripheral blood B cells of BM chimeras rescued from lethal ... BM Chimeras.. Recipient mice were lethally irradiated with 9 Gy (Trp53bp1−/− mice) or 15 Gy (WT mice) via gamma radiation (X- ...
Transplantation Chimera. en. dc.title. Fetal mesenchymal stem-cell engraftment in bone after in utero transplantation in a ...
Chimera 13. Nuclear transplantation 14. In vitro Fertilization 15. Bastocyst 16. Whole animal Cloning 17. Induced Pluripotent ...
Mixed Chimera Allogeneic Transplantation From Matched Unrelated Donors For The Treatment Of Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting The ... Outcomes after heart transplantation for amyloid cardiomyopathy in the modern era. American journal of transplantation Davis, M ... High prevalence of metabolic syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Majhail, ... matched-related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Johnston, L., Florek, M., Armstrong, R., ...
Mixed Chimera Allogeneic Transplantation From Matched Unrelated Donors For The Treatment Of Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting The ... Approaches to transplantation tolerance in humans TRANSPLANTATION Strober, S., Lowsky, R. J., Shizuru, J. A., Scandling, J. D ... Nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Transplantation for the 21(st) century FRONTIERS IN BIOSCIENCE- ... The Stanford Medical Center Program in Multi-Organ Transplantation and the Division of Bone marrow Transplantation are ...
Mixed Chimera Allogeneic Transplantation From Matched Unrelated Donors For The Treatment Of Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting The ... Approaches to transplantation tolerance in humans TRANSPLANTATION Strober, S., Lowsky, R. J., Shizuru, J. A., Scandling, J. D ... Nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Transplantation for the 21(st) century FRONTIERS IN BIOSCIENCE- ... Professor of Medicine (Blood and Marrow Transplantation) and of Pediatrics (Stem Cell Transplantation). Medicine - Blood & ...
"Clonal deletion is one mechanism responsible for tolerance in mixed hematopoietic chimeras" Transplantation Proceedings 1997 ... "Keeping high model for end-stage liver disease score liver transplantation candidates alive" Liver Transplantation November 1 ... "An unusual presentation of altered mental status after orthotopic liver transplantation" Transplantation June 27 2013 ... Susan L. Orloff is professor of surgery and the director and chief of the Division of Abdominal Transplantation at Oregon ...
Efforts to create human-animal chimeras have rebooted an ethical debate after reports emerged that scientists have produced ... "Making human-monkey chimeras could teach us how to make human-pig chimeras with the hope of making organs for transplantation. ... Chimeras are seen as a potential way to address the lack of organs for transplantation, as well as problems of organ rejection. ... Human-monkey chimeras and scientific ethics. Chimeras could grow transplant organs and help find cures for diseases, but are we ...
  • Mouse and human cellular genomics coupled with advances in cell biology in donorrecipient tolerance will improve our understanding of transplantation immunology and may offer new approaches to the challenge of ameliorating chronic GVHD. (
  • Chronic graft-versus-host disease in the rat radiation chimera, III: immunology and immunopathology in rapidly induced models. (
  • I am a member of the Stanford Blood and Marrow Transplantation (BMT) faculty, the Stanford Immunology Program and the Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. (
  • As professor of surgery, she holds joint appointments in the Division of Abdominal Transplantation and the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology. (
  • Dr. Orloff established, and now supervises, a highly productive NIH- and VA merit review-funded laboratory in transplantation biology and immunology where she mentors post-doctoral fellows, Ph.D. graduate students and general surgery residents. (
  • His work in neuroscience, metabolism, transplantation and immunology has brought life and hope to countless patients, and his teaching in these areas has spread that capacity for good to countless practitioners and researchers everywhere," his family wrote in a statement issued Sunday by UPMC and the University of Pittsburgh. (
  • Mixed Allogeneic Chimerism as an Approach to Transplantation Tolerance", Immunology Today 9(1):23-27 (1988). (
  • In parallel with the progressive improvements in clinical results has come an explosion in immunology, transplantation biology, immunogenetics, cell and molecular biology, pharmacology, and other relevant biosciences, with knowledge burgeoning at a rate not dreamed of by the original pioneers. (
  • Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) still remains the most significant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Chronic graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Late effects of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Both genetic and clinical factors predict the development of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the treatment of choice for a variety of hematologic malignancies, but only 20-30% of the patients in need of HSCT are expected to have a suitable donor in the family. (
  • She has a clinical practice seeing all diseases in hematopoietic cell transplantation, with a clinical research focus on the prevention and treatment of post-transplant complications. (
  • My current clinical efforts and basic research focus on improving the safety and efficacy of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) which is the most widely practiced and powerful form of cellular therapy. (
  • This study performs HLA matched stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors in adults who require stem cell transplantation but do not have a matched related donor available. (
  • The incidence of graft-versus-host disease in unrelated stem cell transplantation is recorded. (
  • This study also monitors the activity and toxicity of total body irradiation and cyclosphosphamide followed by stem cell transplantation from matched unrelated donors. (
  • Dechorionation of medaka embryos and cell transplantation for the generation of chimeras. (
  • and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the development of techniques for establishing stable hematopoietic chimeras in order to treat heritable blood diseases. (
  • Umbilical cord blood transplantation has been increasingly used over the past years for both malignant and non-malignant hematologic and other diseases as an alternative to mismatched-related or matched-unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Since than much progress has been made and nowadays Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is considered the most effective treatment of numerous severe haematological diseases. (
  • In addition, students will be introduced to techniques for labeling and visualizing individual cells, including photoconversion, optogenetics control of subcellular localization, cell transplantation/chimera analysis, and in vivo, time-resolved imaging. (
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). (
  • Conditioning regimens preceding allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) can cause tissue damage and acceleration of the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (
  • After allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) can be induced by donor T-cells recognizing normal tissues of the recipient. (
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is established as a therapeutic option for treatment of hematological disorders. (
  • which is of particular relevance for human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Shortage of organs for transplantation - is more research on human-animal chimeras the right approach? (
  • There is currently a dire shortage of organs for transplantation in the United States, leading to approximately 22 deaths per day among patients waiting for organs. (
  • Chimeras could grow transplant organs and help find cures for diseases, but are we willing to accept the result of such efforts? (
  • Chimeras are seen as a potential way to address the lack of organs for transplantation, as well as problems of organ rejection. (
  • Pig-human and sheep-human chimeras are attractive in part because pigs and sheep have organs about the right size for transplantation into humans. (
  • Making human-monkey chimeras could teach us how to make human-pig chimeras with the hope of making organs for transplantation. (
  • De Los Angeles pointed out that, as with previous work in pigs and sheep, the human-monkey chimeras have reportedly only been allowed to develop for a few weeks - ie, before organs actually form. (
  • Some (relatively) recent notable and controversial developments in medical science and biotechnology include: markets in organs and transplantation therapy, the accessibility of biotechnological developments in reproductive healthcare, genetic testing and gene therapy, the End-of-Life, the "right to die" and palliative care, as well as life extension, healthy aging and regenerative medicine. (
  • In this case, the goal is to alleviate the shortage of human organs available for transplantation, a loaded phrase in and of itself. (
  • Even so, the chimeras created contained so few human cells that any organs created by this method, at least at this point, would be rejected by our immune system. (
  • As the organism develops, the resulting chimera can come to possess organs that have different sets of chromosomes . (
  • It may soon be possible to generate human organs inside of human-pig chimeras via a process called interspecies blastocyst complementation. (
  • This paper discusses what arguably the central ethical concern is raised by this potential source of transplantable organs: that farming human-pig chimeras for their organs risks perpetrating a serious moral wrong because the moral status of human-pig chimeras is uncertain, and potentially significant. (
  • This reveals an important tension between two common moral views: that farming human-pig chimeras for their organs is ethically concerning, and that farming non-chimeric pigs for food or research is ethically benign. (
  • Interspecies blastocyst complementation has already been used to generate rat organs inside rat-mouse chimeras 2 3 and, conversely, to generate mouse organs inside mouse-rat chimeras. (
  • Xenotransplantation using organs from human‐pig chimeras has great potential to alleviate the shortage of donor organs and benefit patients. (
  • While the mythical Chimera is the stuff of fantasy, researchers across the country are developing their own real-life chimeras - animals that are bred to incorporate the cells of other animals or humans - in an effort to better study human diseases or to create more viable organs for people needing transplants. (
  • But creating chimeras isn't only about curing disease by creating more transplant-friendly organs and blood for human recipients. (
  • An alternative and longer term goal would be to produce organs directly for human transplantation. (
  • They were interested in addressing the shortage of life-saving organs for human transplantation. (
  • In this recent study, researchers weren't attempting to create human-monkey chimeras with a view to harvest organs. (
  • From the Greek word for a fire-breathing animal with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a snake's tail, "chimera" in this context means a non-human organism that has human components - such as human tissues or organs. (
  • One day, we may be able to grow livers and other organs in pigs for transplantation. (
  • The shortage of human organs available for transplantation in the U.S. and around the world has led scientists to consider how to grow them in animals to be harvested later for transplants. (
  • There is no question that the shortage of human organs available for transplantation is a pressing issue. (
  • Such animals could be used as sources of organs for transplantation. (
  • Pablo Ross, a veterinary researcher at the University of California, Davis, who previously worked with Salk on the pig-human chimeras, says he doesn't think it makes sense to try to grow human organs in monkeys. (
  • At the present time, clinical solid organ transplantation continues to rely on the use of non-specific immunosuppressive protocols in order to prevent graft rejection. (
  • Dr. Mazzoni will also talk about new stem cell-assisted technologies such as mitochondrial replacement therapy and generating chimeras for organ transplantation. (
  • Currently, she has a busy practice in hepatobiliary surgery and multi-organ abdominal transplantation. (
  • All of which makes it possible that the whole organ transplantation rationale is just a smokescreen obscuring the real reason for creating human-ham hybrids … just to see if we can. (
  • What if technology allows us to create and farm human-pig chimeras to harvest for human organ transplantation? (
  • Shapiro RI, Cerra FB (1978) A model for reimplantation and transplantation of a complex organ: the rat hind limb. (
  • If done successfully, a chimera could grow an organ suitable for direct transplant into a human. (
  • Chimeras allow scientists to study human tissue and organ development and human diseases without doing experiments on actual humans. (
  • Ravindra K, Leventhal J, Song D, Ildstad ST (2012) Chimerism and Tolerance in Solid Organ Transplantation. (
  • Transplantation has become standard of care to treat end-organ failure, replacing a failed organ with a functioning one. (
  • Donor-specific tolerance has been referred to as the "Holy Grail" of organ transplantation. (
  • The recent application of the bone marrow techniques in clinical solid organ transplantation has yielded results that could fundamentally alter the role of immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients in the near future. (
  • Conventional HSCT involves the use of aggressive myeloablative conditioning that would not be acceptable in the context of organ transplantation where the recipients have severe physiologic derangement from end stage organ failure. (
  • Recent success with 'mini bone marrow transplants' using non-myeloablative conditioning in elderly patients with hematologic malignancy [ 1 ] have opened a new avenue for the application of chimerism in solid organ transplantation. (
  • One protocol: a unified approach to evaluating cellular immunotherapy in solid organ transplantation. (
  • Organ transplantation and its biology are examples of this parallel relationship. (
  • In the majority of patients undergoing double umbilical cord blood transplantation, transient chimerism, due to the presence of cells from both donor units early post transplant, is replaced by sustained dominance of one unit from which long-term hematopoiesis is derived. (
  • An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells. (
  • Successful management of living donor liver transplantation for biliary atresia with single ventricle physiology-from peri-transplant through total cavopulmonary connection: A case report. (
  • Living donor liver transplantation and situs inversus totalis: cutting the Gordian knot. (
  • The effects of Kasai procedure on living donor liver transplantation for children with biliary atresia. (
  • To evaluate the effects of Kasai procedure (hepatic portoenterostomy) on living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) for children with biliary atresia (BA). (
  • Evolution of living donor liver transplantation: A global perspective. (
  • In this editorial, we aimed to provide an outline of the world history of liver transplantation (LT), with a special focus on the innovation, development, and current controversies of living donor (LD. (
  • The purpose of this study is to: determine the safety of donor right hepatic lobectomy as a procedure to provide a liver graft for living donor liver transplantation. (
  • This opens up the possibility of HPC transplantation to patients who either could not find a match within the bone marrow donor pool or were too ill to be able to wait for the process of searching and harvesting of bone marrow from adult donors. (
  • Factors already shown to influence the outcome of cord blood transplantation include the numbers of cells in the cord blood, the size of the recipient, and the degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match 4 between the donor and the recipient. (
  • Over the past years, studies have shown that after hematopoietic allo-transplantation with BM or G-CSF-mobilized blood, a small percentage of donor cells can also be detected as nonhematopoietic tissue ( 5 - 9 ). (
  • Conversely, VASP deficiency induced proinflammatory M1 macrophage activation, and the transplantation of bone marrow from VASP-deficient donor mice into normal recipients caused hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance resembling that induced in normal mice by consumption of an HFD. (
  • Development for donor-host lymphoid chimeras in long-term survivors. (
  • Even substantial dosages of donor C57BL/6 CD4 + T cells were unable to elicit lethal GVHD when transplanted into [BALB.B→C57BL/6] chimeras. (
  • Since graft-versus-tumor reactivity is reduced after TCD alloSCT, postponed donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs) are frequently administered after transplantation to promote antitumor reactivity with a lower risk of GVHD ( 2 , 5 - 7 ). (
  • Mixed chimaera with donor for patients who did not want to be on immunosuppressive pills in the rest of their life. (
  • There is evidence that upon adoptive bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT), donor-derived cells can give rise to neuronal phenotypes in the brains of recipient mice. (
  • Two cases showed complete chimera and 2 had donor and host cells simultaneously. (
  • One of the well-proven techniques to deliver donor germ cells into a recipient is the transplantation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) during the blastula stage. (
  • In order to distinguish donor from competitor cells upon transplantation, usually competitor mice are congenic and carry the differential B cell antigen originally designated Ly5.1 and CD45.1. (
  • A typical competitive bone marrow transplantation experiment will contain two transplantation groups, donor (transgenic mice of choice and their controls) are transplanted in competition with normal competitors and engraftment efficiency is evaluated in both blood and bone marrow. (
  • Early research specifically into cord blood transplantation was based on the hypothesis that the immune cells in cord blood may be less mature than those in adult bone marrow or peripheral blood. (
  • A disadvantage of cord blood is its low cell content which limits cord blood transplantation to generally low weight recipients, such as children. (
  • Various alternatives have been used to overcome this limitation, including co-infusion of two partially HLA-matched cord blood units.According to Eurocord Registry data, this strategy has been applied in approximately 993 adult patients with hematologic diseases since the first double umbilical cord blood transplantation in 1999. (
  • In fact, since 2005, the number of adult patients receiving double umbilical cord blood transplantation has surpassed the number of adults transplanted with single cord blood units. (
  • The engraftment rate is comparable for both single and double umbilical cord blood transplantation, although the latter is accompanied by a higher incidence of grade II acute graft- versus -host disease and lower leukemia relapse for patients in first complete remission. (
  • Although the biology and the factors that determine unit dominance have not been clarified, the implication of immune-mediated mechanisms has been reported.Preliminary data have demonstrated the safety of double umbilical cord blood transplantation. (
  • We present here a brief overview of the clinical experience on double umbilical cord blood transplantation and its underlying biology. (
  • According to Eurocord Registry data, this strategy has been applied in approximately 993 adult patients with hematologic diseases since the first double umbilical cord blood transplantation in 1999. (
  • Preliminary data have demonstrated the safety of double umbilical cord blood transplantation. (
  • The origin of the avian cardiovascular system from the primitive streak has been mapped by the construction of quail/chick transplantation chimeras, the use of QH-1 (an antiquail endothelial/endocardial cell marker), and injections of a vital fluorescent dye (DiI) into the primitive streak. (
  • In 1980, she published a paper in the journal Science announcing a chimera that combined two mice species: an albino laboratory mouse ( Mus musculus ) and a Ryukyu mouse ( Mus caroli ), a wild species from east Asia. (
  • We tested the role of physiological levels of VIP on immune responses to murine CMV (mCMV) using VIP-knockout (VIP-KO) mice and radiation chimeras engrafted with syngenic VIP-KO hematopoietic cells. (
  • In a mouse model of allogeneic BM transplantation, DC that were differentiated in the presence of VIP, and then transplanted along with BM cells and splenic T cells, induced the generation of regulatory T cells and protected mice from acute graft versus host disease ( 12 ). (
  • Previously, the same team created rat-mice chimeras by using the gene-editing technology CRISPR "to hack into mouse blastocysts. (
  • Aggregation chimeras are produced by a technique that involves removing the zonae pellucidae from around 8-16 cell embryos of different strains of mice and pushing the morulae together so that the cells can aggregate. (
  • Using established bone marrow irradiation chimeras across the multiple minor histocompatibility antigen-disparate, C57BL/6→BALB.B combination, we studied the occurrence of lethal GVHD mediated by CD4 + T cells in recipient mice expressing only hematopoietically derived alloantigens. (
  • Engraftment and Development of Human T and B Cells in Mice After Bone Marrow Transplantation", Reports, Apr. (
  • Successful Liver Allografts in Mice by Combination with Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation", Proc. (
  • Despite the NIH ban on chimera research, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and other institutions, continued to review and fund research on chimeric rats and mice. (
  • To better define the translational potential of PI3Kγ inhibition in preclinical models and to clarify the cell types involved, we analyzed PI3Kγ KD mice and BM chimeras with BM-derived cells and hearts of different genotypes in long-term pressure overload. (
  • Potential and Limitations of the murine models associated to the above-mentioned autoimmune disorders (Production and analysis of transgenic animals - Gene targeting technologies - Production and analysis of knock out animals - Conditional gene targeting - In vivo experiment planning - Legislation - Models of experimental pathology in autoimmunity and transplantation - Production and analysis of bone marrow chimeras - Xenografts and humanized mice). (
  • GFP-positive Purkinje cells were also detected in BM chimeras from transgenic mice that ubiquitously express GFP. (
  • To validate widefield autofluorescence (AF) in vivo imaging of the retina in mice expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp) in microglia, and to monitor retinal microglia reconstitution in vivo after lethal irradiation and bone marrow transplantation. (
  • Competitive bone marrow transplantation assay measures multi-lineage reconstitution of hematopoiesis in irradiated transplant recipient mice. (
  • Irradiate C57BL6 (CD45.2) host females (5 mice per transplantation group) with 9.5 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), (Gamma cell 40 Exactor machine). (
  • Recent work using GFP-labeled bone marrow (BM) chimeras and total-body irradiation increased the longstanding controversy over the issue of whether endogenous microglia or BM-derived phagocytes are beneficial or detrimental in neurodegeneration. (
  • Efforts to create human-animal chimeras have rebooted an ethical debate after reports emerged that scientists have produced monkey embryos containing human cells. (
  • Researchers have previously created human-pig chimeras , where pig embryos containing human cells were allowed to grow into a foetus. (
  • Radiation Chimera" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Radiation Chimera" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Radiation Chimera" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Radiation Chimera" by people in Profiles. (
  • Chronic graft-versushost disease in the rat radiation chimera, I: clinical features, hematology, histology and immunopathology in long-term chimeras. (
  • Chronic graftversus- host disease in the rat radiation chimera. (
  • Experimental chimeras have been used to study a number of biological questions, including the origin and fate of cell lineages during embryonic development, immunological self-tolerance, tumor susceptibility, and the nature of malignancy. (
  • Dendritic cells as a tool to induce transplantation tolerance: obstacles and opportunities. (
  • David Sachs (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA) Translational aspects of transplantation tolerance. (
  • Here, we show that EAR-2 inhibits maturation of normal BM in vitro and in vivo and that EAR-2 transplant chimeras demonstrate key features of MDS. (
  • This data suggest that NR2F6 inhibits maturation of normal BM in vitro and in vivo and that the NR2F6 transplant chimera system demonstrates key features of MDS, and could provide a mouse model for MDS. (
  • It's quite probable that within our children's lifetimes, if not sooner, transplant surgeons will "print" compatible livers and hearts on demand, no chimera necessary. (
  • The present review aims at describing principal features of the aforementioned gynaecological complications of HSCT, and to define, on the basis of current international literature, a specific protocol for the prevention, diagnosis, management and follow-up of gynaecological complications of both autologous and heterologous transplantation, before and after the procedure. (
  • Following interspecific transplantation, the development of single ectodermal cells was traced in order to test their abilities to proliferate and differentiate in a heterologous environment. (
  • Production of chicken chimeras by fusing blastodermal cells with electroporation. (
  • Most often, however, the cells mix to form a subtler mosaic across the whole body, and chimeras look and act like other individuals within the species. (
  • Staining of ROSA26 tissues and fluorescence-activated cell sorter-Gal analysis of hematopoietic cells demonstrates ubiquitous expression of the proviral βgeo reporter gene, and bone marrow transfer experiments illustrate the general utility of this strain for chimera and transplantation studies. (
  • The major limitation of the use of UCB transplantation for adults is the relatively small number of hematopoietic stem cells. (
  • Conventional BM transplantation involves the transfer of heterogeneous populations of cells composed of rare hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and differentiated blood cell types. (
  • A chimera is an organism whose cells come from two or more "individuals," with recent work looking at combinations from different species. (
  • However, Alejandro De Los Angeles, from the department of psychiatry at Yale University, said it was likely that monkey-human chimeras were being developed to explore how to improve the proportion of human cells in such organisms. (
  • This team of 40 researchers worked for more than four years to create their human-pig chimera (an organism that contains cells from two different species). (
  • More than 20% albumin-producing human parenchymal hepatic cells with absence of cell fusion and substantial numbers of human cardiomyocytes in both atria and ventricles of the sheep heart were detected many months after USSC transplantation. (
  • Although embryonic stem cells have the broadest differentiation potential ( 2 ), their use for cellular therapeutics is excluded for several reasons: the uncontrollable development of teratomas in a syngeneic transplantation model ( 3 ), imprinting-related developmental abnormalities ( 4 ), and ethical issues ( 1 ). (
  • Chimeras are formed from four parent cells (two fertilized eggs or early embryos fuse together) or from three parent cells (a fertilized egg is fused with an unfertilized egg or a fertilized egg is fused with an extra sperm). (
  • This condition is either inherited, or it is acquired through the infusion of allogeneic hematopoietic cells during transplantation or transfusion. (
  • For example, the chimera may have a liver composed of cells with one set of chromosomes and have a kidney composed of cells with a second set of chromosomes. (
  • The technique, if successful, should create a part-human chimera-a creature comprising cells from different embryonic origins. (
  • Although some chimeras do arise naturally, most are produced experimentally, either by mixing cells of very early embryos or by tissue grafting in late embryos or adults. (
  • Two techniques used to form chimeras by mixing embryo cells are aggregation and injection. (
  • Embryonal carcinoma cells from several sources, including spontaneous and embryo-derived tumors and cultured lines selected to carry specific mutations or even human chromosomes, have contributed to normal chimeras. (
  • Published as part of a larger report on human embryonic stem cell research - human embryonic stem cells are often implanted in animal embryos to create "chimeras" - the NAS guidelines discourage the transplantation of animal embryonic stem cells into human embryos. (
  • The guidelines also say that any chimera possessing human cells should not be allowed to breed, and that human stem cells should not be put into other primates, such as chimpanzees, where a more human-like brain might be apt to develop. (
  • Transplantation for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency With HLA-A,B,D,DR Incompatible Parental Marrow Cells Fractioned by Soybean Agglutinin and Sheep Red Blood Cells", Blood 61:341 (1983). (
  • Transplantation for Acute Leukaemia with HLA-A and B Nonidentical Parental Marrow Cells Fractioned with Soybean Agglutinsin and Sheep Red Blood Cells", Lancet ii:327 (1987). (
  • Inter-species chimeras are made by mixing cells belonging to one species with those of another. (
  • Scientists create chimeras by inserting human cells (usually induced pluripotent cells) into a non-human animal embryo. (
  • These include welfare concerns over animals whose brains might contain human brain cells, husbandry concerns, and what might happen if chimeras reproduce. (
  • After prolonged pressure overload, chimeras with PI3Kγ KD bone marrow-derived cells showed slower development of left ventricular dilation and higher fractional shortening than controls. (
  • Sometimes human chimeras are detected through paternity tests: a woman's somatic cells, which are sampled to get her genotype, might be from one zygote, while her ovaries, which produce the eggs, could be from another. (
  • Although her kids were almost removed from her, they eventually found out that Ms. Fairchild was a chimera: her skin and hair cells didn't match the genotype of her kids to the required degree, but her cervical cells did. (
  • B cells in transplantation: it is not all about antibodies Heidt S. et al. (
  • Here we report the first successful case of chromosome transplantation by replacement of an endogenous X chromosome carrying a mutation in the Hprt genewith a normal one in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), correcting the genetic defect. (
  • At least 0.2% of all cells expressing the neuronal marker, NeuN, were BM-derived 4 mo after BM transplantation (BMT). (
  • Their objective is to create "human-animal chimeras," in this case monkey embryos to which human cells are added. (
  • The technique for making chimeras involves injecting human embryonic stem cells into a days-old embryo of another species. (
  • Izpisúa Belmonte tried making human-animal chimeras previously by adding human cells to pig embryos, but the human cells didn't take hold effectively . (
  • Clinical HSC transplantation exploits this natural phenomenon through the enforced release of stem cells (referred to as "mobilization") by cytokines, such as G-CSF, and/or chemotherapy to facilitate their collection in blood by leukapheresis. (
  • Recently, transplantation of germ cells has attracted attention as a potential technique for efficient reproduction of fish. (
  • These results clearly showed that the MBT is the best stage for transplantation of PGCs or any cells in pikeperch. (
  • Lacerda Samyra M. S. N., Batlouni Sergio R., Costa Guilherme M. J., Segatelli Tânia M., Quirino Bruno R., Queiroz Bruno M., Kalapothakis Evanguedes, França Luiz R., Wang Hongmei (2010): A New and Fast Technique to Generate Offspring after Germ Cells Transplantation in Adult Fish: The Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Model. (
  • Such an organism is called a tetragametic chimera as it is formed from four gametes - two eggs and two sperm . (
  • What an innovative way to improve upon transplantation medicine! (
  • This research complements our interest in clinical BM transplantation and aspects of these studies are aimed at solving some of the major problems of BM transplantation which include graft-vs-host disease and BM engraftment failure. (
  • We analyzed the clinical course and risk factors of 18 patients with poor engraftment after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), defined as absolute neutrophil count below 0.1×10 9/1 28 days post-BMT. (
  • Transplantation of USSCs in a noninjury model, the preimmune fetal sheep, resulted in up to 5% human hematopoietic engraftment. (
  • We therefore used a combinational approach of bone marrow transplantation and partial-body irradiation (head shielded, protected CNS) versus whole-body irradiation (unprotected CNS) to examine the engraftment of myeloid subsets and to circumvent the caveats of brain irradiation in mouse models of AD. (
  • Several approaches to achieve immune reconstitution have been attempted, including allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and adoptive transfer of lymphocytes (Holland et al. (
  • Bony reconstitution was observed after transplantation of USSC-loaded calcium phosphate cylinders in nude rat femurs. (
  • Immune Reconstitution Following Bone Marrow Transplantation: Comparison of Recipients of T-Cell Depleted Marrow With Recipients of Conventional Marrow Grafts", Blood 73:1340 (1989). (
  • Jones NF, Hebebraud D, Buttemeyer R et al (2001) Comparison of long-term immunosuppression for limb transplantation using cyclosporine, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil: implications for clinical com posite tissue transplantation. (
  • Lin S., Long W., Chen J., Hopkins N. (1992): Production of germ-line chimeras in zebrafish by cell transplants from genetically pigmented to albino embryos. (
  • One mouse gene trap line, ROSA26, displays ubiquitous expression of the reporter gene during embryonic development and, therefore, has been useful as a marker line in chimera experiments ( 2 ). (
  • Meanwhile, EsM transplantation significantly reduced gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. (
  • Advances in stem cell and gene editing technologies are enabling scientists to create human-animal organisms called chimeras. (
  • In 2014, more living donors than dead donors are counted in the Netherlands.The Dutch Transplantation Foundation coordinates an exchange program of pairs of donors and recipients. (
  • We agree with his precautionary stance, which is consistent with the existing ethical standards for chimera research developed by the International Society for Stem Cell Research in 2007 and which has more emphasis on animal welfare than on speculative concerns about moral humanisation of the human/non-human animal chimera. (
  • A New Stem Cell Biology: Transplantation and Baseline, Cell Cycle and Exosomes. (
  • Another kind of cell-the pluripotent stem cell of mouse teratocarcinomas-was found to give rise to normal tissues in adult chimeras after injection into the mouse blastocyst. (
  • Chromosome transplanted clones maintained in vitro and in vivo features of stemness and contributed to chimera formation. (
  • secondary transplantation resulted in acute leukemia. (
  • Acute-on-chronic liver failure in children with biliary atresia awaiting liver transplantation. (
  • Liver transplantation (LT) is a live-saving therapy for patients with complicated chronic liver diseases and acute liver failure .Even though many complications can occur after LT, biliary. (
  • Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Es maintains its anti-obesity effect through Es-altered gut microbiota (EsM) transplantation. (
  • Previous attempts to produce a hybrid "interspecific" chimera often ended in disappointment. (
  • KIR-ligand mismatches are associated with reduced long-term graft survival in HLA-compatible kidney transplantation. (
  • Proposal to elevate the genetic variant MAC-A, included in the Mycobacterium avium complex, to species rank as Mycobacterium chimaera sp. (
  • As liver transplantation for patients with single ventricle physiology is particularly challenging, only a few reports have been published. (
  • The likelihood of a child being a chimera is increased if the child is created via in vitro fertilization . (
  • For some patients reality:HLA-Mismatched renal transplantation without maintenance immunosuppression. (
  • Background: In mainland China, the development of pediatric liver transplantation (LT) has lagged behind that of adult LT during the past two decades, but it has been progressing immensely. (
  • The latest report, published in the Spanish newspaper El Pais, claims a team of researchers led by Juan Carlos Izpis Belmonte from the Salk Institute in the US have produced monkey-human chimeras. (
  • The news of the monkey-human chimeras came shortly after it was reported that Japanese researchers, including Hiromitsu Nakauchi, received government support to create mouse-human chimeras. (
  • Using bone marrow chimeras, a specialized transplantation technique, the researchers were able to make 10 million. (
  • But as scientists continue to create more varied chimeras - especially those that have some amount of human brain matter - questions continue to rise from ethicists, religious groups, and even other biomedical researchers, about the types of limitations that should be set on the scientific community. (
  • Liver transplantation for biliary atresia splenic malformation syndrome associated with situs inversus totalis is a challenging task due to the complexity of associated malformations and the technical. (
  • Long-term outcome and necessity of liver transplantation in infants with biliary atresia are independent of cytokine milieu in native liver and serum. (
  • She is also chief of the Liver Transplantation Program at Portland VA Medical Center. (
  • Within three months of transplantation, up to 20 percent of the mouse liver is repopulated by human hepatocytes. (
  • Infection with human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) and tumor relapse are key problems in the therapy of hematopoietic malignancies by bone marrow transplantation (BMT). (
  • Frankenstein scientists developing part-human part-animal chimera," exclaimed the UK's Daily Mirror in May 2016. (
  • But this has not stopped scientists from trying to create their own hybrid chimeras in the lab. (
  • To define the cell types involved in this protection, bone marrow chimeras, lacking kinase activity in the immune system or the heart, were studied after transverse aortic constriction. (