Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Biologically active molecules which are covalently bound to the enzymes or binding proteins normally acting on them. Binding occurs due to activation of the label by ultraviolet light. These labels are used primarily to identify binding sites on proteins.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Protein interaction domains of about 70-90 amino acid residues, named after a common structure found in PSD-95, Discs Large, and Zona Occludens 1 proteins. PDZ domains are involved in the recruitment and interaction of proteins, and aid the formation of protein scaffolds and signaling networks. This is achieved by sequence-specific binding between a PDZ domain in one protein and a PDZ motif in another protein.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of cell surface receptors that signal via a conserved domain that extends into the cell CYTOPLASM. The conserved domain is referred to as a death domain due to the fact that many of these receptors are involved in signaling APOPTOSIS. Several DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTOR SIGNALING ADAPTOR PROTEINS can bind to the death domains of the activated receptors and through a complex series of interactions activate apoptotic mediators such as CASPASES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic death domain region found on DEATH DOMAIN RECEPTORS. Many of the proteins in this class take part in intracellular signaling from TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR RECEPTORS.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
They contain a heptahelical transmembrane domain and a large glycosylated ectodomain, distantly related to the receptors for ... such as the LH-receptor or FSH-receptor. Relaxin receptors have been found in the heart, smooth muscle, the connective tissue, ... Relaxin interacts with the relaxin receptor LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8 (RXFP2), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor ... Hsu SY, Nakabayashi K, Nishi S, Kumagai J, Kudo M, Sherwood OD, Hsueh AJ (January 2002). "Activation of orphan receptors by the ...
2001). "Mutations in a novel gene with transmembrane domains underlie Usher syndrome type 3". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69 (4): 673-84 ... Probable G-protein coupled receptor 171 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR171 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... "Entrez Gene: GPR171 G protein-coupled receptor 171". Adams MD, Kerlavage AR, Fleischmann RD, et al. (1995). "Initial assessment ...
Leitinger B (May 2011). "Transmembrane collagen receptors". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 27: 265-90. doi:10.1146/annurev-cellbio- ... Ikeda K, Wang LH, Torres R, Zhao H, Olaso E, Eng FJ, Labrador P, Klein R, Lovett D, Yancopoulos GD, Friedman SL, Lin HC (May ... Discoidin domain-containing receptor 2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). RTKs play a key role in the communication of cells ... Leitinger B, Kwan AP (2006). "The discoidin domain receptor DDR2 is a receptor for type X collagen". Matrix Biol. 25 (6): 355- ...
transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity. • protein tyrosine kinase collagen receptor activity. • protein ... Ikeda K, Wang LH, Torres R, Zhao H, Olaso E, Eng FJ, Labrador P, Klein R, Lovett D, Yancopoulos GD, Friedman SL, Lin HC (May ... Leitinger B, Kwan AP (2006). "The discoidin domain receptor DDR2 is a receptor for type X collagen". Matrix Biol. 25 (6): 355- ... Mohan RR, Mohan RR, Wilson SE (2001). "Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 1 and 2: collagen-activated tyrosine kinase receptors in ...
... and topology of a peptide segment of the 6th transmembrane domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisae alpha-factor receptor in ... Burkholder AC, Hartwell LH (1985). "The yeast alpha-factor receptor: structural properties deduced from the sequence of the ... Fungal pheromone mating factor receptors form a distinct family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Mating factor receptors STE2 ... The amino acid sequences of both receptors contain high proportions of hydrophobic residues grouped into 7 domains, in a manner ...
Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ... "Entrez Gene: OR5L1 olfactory receptor, family 5, subfamily L, member 1". Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003 ... Olfactory receptor 5L1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR5L1 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
... the LHCG receptor possess seven membrane-spanning domains or transmembrane helices.[7] The extracellular domain of the receptor ... The binding of LH (or CG) to the receptor shifts the equilibrium between active and inactive receptors. LH and LH-agonists ... also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LCGR) or luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a transmembrane receptor found ... "Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors: LH". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
2001). "Mutations in a Novel Gene with Transmembrane Domains Underlie Usher Syndrome Type 3". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69 (4): 673- ... 2003). "Characterization of the UDP-glucose receptor (re-named here the P2Y14 receptor) adds diversity to the P2Y receptor ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... This receptor is a P2Y purinergic receptor for UDP-glucose and other UDP-sugars coupled to G-proteins. It has been implicated ...
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, or GPRs) contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... "Entrez Gene: GPR78 G protein-coupled receptor 78". van Laar T, Schouten T, Hoogervorst E, et al. (2000). "The novel MMS- ... Probable G-protein coupled receptor 78 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR78 gene. ...
Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... Olfactory receptor 2C3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OR2C3 gene. Olfactory receptors interact with odorant ... The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding- ...
Both human, rat and mouse homologs contain 907 amino acids and seven transmembrane domains. After translation, the signal ... RNF43 and ZNRF3 are transmembrane E3 ligases that negatively regulate wnt signaling by ubiquitinating frizzled receptors. ... LH and TSH, which in turn are homologous to mammalian bone morphogenetic factors (BMPs) such as gremlin and cerberus. Therefore ... Sequence analyses showed that the transmembrane regions and cysteine-flanked junction between TM1 and the extracellular domain ...
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, or GPRs) contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... "Entrez Gene: GPR82 G protein-coupled receptor 82". Takeda S, Kadowaki S, Haga T, et al. (2002). "Identification of G protein- ... Probable G-protein coupled receptor 82 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR82 gene. ...
The encoded protein inhibits osteoclast formation and contains a transmembrane domain near the N-terminus as well as the C-type ... 2004). "The LLT1 receptor induces IFN-gamma production by human natural killer cells". Mol. Immunol. 40 (16): 1157-63. doi: ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... C-type lectin domain family 2 member D is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLEC2D gene. This gene encodes a member of ...
Morita K, Furuse M, Fujimoto K, Tsukita S (1999). "Claudin multigene family encoding four-transmembrane domain protein ... 1999). "Genes for the CPE receptor (CPETR1) and the human homolog of RVP1 (CPETR2) are localized within the Williams-Beuren ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... Colegio OR, Van Itallie C, Rahner C, Anderson JM (2003). "Claudin extracellular domains determine paracellular charge ...
Transmembrane emp24 domain-containing protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMED1 gene. The protein encoded ... Chan WL, Pejnovic N, Lee CA, Al-Ali NA (Jul 2001). "Human IL-18 receptor and ST2L are stable and selective markers for the ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... "Entrez Gene: TMED1 transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 1". Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, et al. (2005). " ...
Cheng J, Wang H, Guggino WB (2004). "Modulation of mature cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein by the PDZ domain ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... 2003). "Fusion of FIG to the receptor tyrosine kinase ROS in a glioblastoma with an interstitial del(6)(q21q21)". Genes ... 2002). "A Golgi-associated PDZ domain protein modulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator plasma membrane expression". J ...
... a transmembrane spanning domain and a C-terminal intracellular domain. However, in contrast to other receptor tyrosine kinases ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... Hovens CM, Stacker SA (1992). "RYK, a receptor tyrosine kinase-related molecule with unusual kinase domain motifs". Proc. Natl ... The related to receptor tyrosine kinase (RYK) gene encodes the protein Ryk. The protein encoded by this gene is an atypical ...
It is composed of 398 amino acids that form seven transmembrane domains, like most G-protein coupled receptors. Sequences found ... A greater addition of kisspeptin peptide resulted in greater release of LH and FSH. Kisspeptin was found to evoke one of the ... Additionally, two years later, this receptor's ortholog in humans would be isolated. Using the identified receptors, endogenous ... "Discovery of a receptor related to the galanin receptors". FEBS Letters. 446 (1): 103-107. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00009-5. ...
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, or GPRs) contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... "Entrez Gene: GPR63 G protein-coupled receptor 63". Kawasawa Y, Kume K, Nakade S, et al. (2000). "Brain-specific expression of ... 2001). "Identification of four novel human G protein-coupled receptors expressed in the brain". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 86 ( ...
CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor ( ... Foord SM, Marshall FH (1999). "RAMPs: accessory proteins for seven transmembrane domain receptors". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 20 ( ...
"Entrez Gene: CLEC4A C-type lectin domain family 4, member A". Drickamer K (1999). "C-type lectin-like domains". Curr. Opin. ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may play a role in inflammatory and immune response. Multiple transcript variants ... 2007). "Association of arthritis with a gene complex encoding C-type lectin-like receptors". Arthritis Rheum. 56 (8): 2620-32. ...
"Mutations in a novel gene with transmembrane domains underlie Usher syndrome type 3.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69 (4): 673-84. PMC ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and ... GPR171, G protein-spregnuti receptor 171, je protein koji je kod čoveka kodiran GPR171 genom.[1][2] ...
As with other members of the superfamily, activins interact with two types of cell surface transmembrane receptors (Types I and ... It participates in androgen synthesis enhancing LH action in the ovary and testis. In the male, activin enhances ... II) which have intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activities in their cytoplasmic domains: Activin type 1 receptors: ACVR1, ... ACVR1B, ACVR1C Activin type 2 receptors: ACVR2A, ACVR2B Activin binds to the Type II receptor and initiates a cascade reaction ...
Correlation of exon structure to transmembrane domains. . In: J. Biol. Chem.. . 263, Nr. 25, 1988, S. 12274-7. PMID 3410843. ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al.: Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse ... Human mitochondrial import receptor, Tom20p. Use of glutathione to reveal specific interactions between Tom20-glutathione S- ... variant of the uncoupling protein gene and the Trp64Arg mutation of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene on weight gain in ...
... evidence from a site-directed mutagenesis study of the ORL1 receptor transmembrane-binding domain.". Mol. Pharmacol. 57 (3): ... P, Deloukas; LH, Matthews; J, Ashurst; et al. (2002). „The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20.". ... Nociceptinski receptor (NOP, orfaninski FQ receptor, kapa tip 3 opioidni receptor) je protein koji je kod čoveka kodiran OPRL1 ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ...
"Cloning and sequencing of a 1.3 KB variant of human thyrotropin receptor mRNA lacking the transmembrane domain". Biochemical ... "Isolation of TSH and LH/CG receptor cDNAs from human thyroid: regulation by tissue specific splicing". Molecular Endocrinology ... The thyrotropin receptor (or TSH receptor) is a receptor (and associated protein) that responds to thyroid-stimulating hormone ... signaling receptor activity. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • receptor complex. • integral component of ...
Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... olfactory receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. Cellular component. • plasma membrane. • membrane. • ...
... while the smaller β-subunits have a transmembrane domain as well as extra-and intracellular domains. In the absence of insulin ... Insulin receptors[edit]. Another example is the binding of insulin to insulin receptors. Once released into the bloodstream ... Chao LH, Pellicena P, Deindl S, Barclay LA, Schulman H, Kuriyan J (Mar 2010). "Intersubunit capture of regulatory segments is a ... The inactive ATM exists as dimer, where the kinase domain of one monomer is bound to the internal domain of the other monomer, ...
... is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and phosphorylated upon receptor stimulation". J. Immunol. 157 (9 ... Strausberg RL، Feingold EA، Grouse LH، وآخرون. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... "Functional requirements for interactions between CD84 and Src homology 2 domain-containing proteins and their contribution to ... "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane ...
... a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of the secretion receptor superfamily with an unusual extracellular domain". Journal of ... Jaspars LH, Vos W, Aust G, Van Lier RA, Hamann J (Apr 2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue ... G-protein coupled receptor activity. • protein binding. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • signal transducer ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • cell surface receptor signaling pathway. • movement of cell or subcellular ...
GABA-A receptor activity. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel ... This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... Receptor/signaling modulators GABAA receptor positive modulators GABA metabolism/transport modulators ...
"Delineation of the endocytic pathway of substance P and its seven-transmembrane domain NK1 receptor". Molecular Biology of the ... Geracioti TD, Carpenter LL, Owens MJ, Baker DG, Ekhator NN, Horn PS, Strawn JR, Sanacora G, Kinkead B, Price LH, Nemeroff CB ( ... ReceptorEdit. The endogenous receptor for substance P is neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1-receptor, NK1R).[8] It belongs to the ... "Absence of the SP/SP receptor circuitry in the substance P-precursor knockout mice or SP receptor, neurokinin (NK)1 knockout ...
Members of the 'frizzled' gene family encode 7-transmembrane domain proteins that are receptors for Wnt signaling proteins. The ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • Wnt-activated receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. ... This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. • peripheral nervous system development. • memory. • nerve ... BDNF signaling leads to the autophosphorylation of the intracellular domain of the TrkB receptor (ICD-TrkB). Upon ... The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ... receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ...
transmembrane signaling receptor activity. • tumor necrosis factor-activated receptor activity. • nerve growth factor binding. ... "Entrez Gene: TNFRSF8 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 8".. *^ Teng LH, Lu DH, Xu QZ, Fu YJ, Yang H, He ZL ( ... "T cell receptor-dependent cell death of T cell hybridomas mediated by the CD30 cytoplasmic domain in association with tumor ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ...
... targeted against the external domain of the transmembrane viral M2 protein (M2e), is being done at the University of Ghent by ... Pinto LH, Lamb RA (April 2006). "The M2 proton channels of influenza A and B viruses". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 281 ... In contrast, the highly lethal H5N1 strain binds to receptors that are mostly found deep in the lungs.[94] This difference in ... Shinya K, Ebina M, Yamada S, Ono M, Kasai N, Kawaoka Y (March 2006). "Avian flu: influenza virus receptors in the human airway ...
This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ... This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. ... LH/CG. *Agonists: Choriogonadotropin alfa. *Human chorionic gonadotropin. *Luteinizing hormone. *Lutropin alfa ... Galanin receptor 1 (GAL1) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the GALR1 gene.[5] ...
Chemokine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors containing 7 transmembrane domains [5] that are found predominantly on the ... Murphy PM, Baggiolini M, Charo IF, Hébert CA, Horuk R, Matsushima K, Miller LH, Oppenheim JJ, Power CA (2000). "International ... with seven transmembrane domains and a characteristic "DRY" motif in the second intracellular domain. Chemokine receptors are ... CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine receptors and XC chemokine receptors that correspond to the 4 ...
transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity. • epidermal growth factor receptor binding. • Wnt-protein ... 1nql: Structure of the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in an inactive (low pH) complex ... activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity. • regulation of cell motility. • activation of MAPKK ... 1ivo: Crystal Structure of the Complex of Human Epidermal Growth Factor and Receptor Extracellular Domains. ...
... a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of the secretion receptor superfamily with an unusual extracellular domain". J Immunol ... Jaspars LH; Vos W; Aust G et al. (2001). "Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens 57 (4): 325- ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ... 1997). "CD97 is a processed, seven-transmembrane, heterodimeric receptor associated with inflammation". J. Immunol. 157 (12): ...
"Seven Transmembrane Receptors: Robert Lefkowitz". 2012-09-09. Retrieved 2016-07-11.. ... Signaling molecules bind to a domain of the GPCR located outside the cell, and an intracellular GPCR domain then in turn ... LH - Stimulates follicular maturation and ovulation in women; or testosterone production and spermatogenesis in men ... These include receptor antagonists, neurotransmitters, neurotransmitter reuptake, G protein-coupled receptors, G proteins, ...
receptor tyrosine kinase. • transmembrane signaling receptor activity. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • ... Zeng L, Sachdev P, Yan L, Chan JL, Trenkle T, McClelland M, Welsh J, Wang LH (December 2000). "Vav3 mediates receptor protein ... including kinase domain mutations in ROS1 and bypass signaling via RAS and EGFR.[21][22][23] Although the most preclinical and ... transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity. • protein tyrosine kinase activity. • protein phosphatase binding. • ...
... a new seven-span transmembrane molecule of the secretion receptor superfamily with an unusual extracellular domain". J Immunol ... Jaspars LH; Vos W; Aust G; et al. (2001). „Tissue distribution of the human CD97 EGF-TM7 receptor". Tissue Antigens. 57 (4): ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ... Hamann J, Vogel B, van Schijndel GM, van Lier RA (1997). „The seven-span transmembrane receptor CD97 has a cellular ligand ( ...
N-APP triggers the self-destruct pathway by binding to a neuronal receptor called death receptor 6 (DR6, also known as TNFRSF21 ... These domains are equivalent to the NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer's Criteria as listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of ... Kuller LH (August 2007). "Statins and dementia". Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 9 (2): 154-61. doi:10.1007/s11883-007-0012-9 ... APP is a transmembrane protein that penetrates through the neuron's membrane. APP is critical to neuron growth, survival, and ...
2002). "Human VPAC1 receptor selectivity filter. Identification of a critical domain for restricting secretin binding". J. Biol ... Luttrell LM (2008). "Reviews in molecular biology and biotechnology: transmembrane signaling by G protein-coupled receptors". ... Con subunidade α (FSH, LH, TSH) · prolactina · Derivadas da POMC (CLIP, ACTH, MSH, endorfinas, lipotropina) · hormona do ... Gardner JD (1978). "Receptors and gastrointestinal hormones". En Sleisenger MH, Fordtran JS. Gastrointestinal Disease (2nd ed ...
transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase adaptor activity. • insulin receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKA receptor ... domain and a C-terminal Src-homology2(SH2) domain. Both of the domains for the three proteins can bind to tyrosine- ... Shih HJ, Chen HH, Chen YA, Wu MH, Liou GG, Chang WW, Chen L, Wang LH, Hsu HL (Nov 2012). "Targeting MCT-1 oncogene inhibits Shc ... ephrin receptor binding. • epidermal growth factor receptor binding. • receptor tyrosine kinase binding. • protein binding. • ...
The CB1 receptor shares the structure characteristic of all G-protein-coupled receptors, possessing seven transmembrane domains ... Sidhpura N, Parsons LH (December 2011). "Endocannabinoid-mediated synaptic plasticity and addiction-related behavior". ... Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), also known as cannabinoid receptor 1, is a G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor that in ... Repeated administration of receptor agonists may result in receptor internalization and/ or a reduction in receptor protein ...
As with other members of the superfamily, activins interact with two types of cell surface transmembrane receptors (Types I and ... II) which have intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activities in their cytoplasmic domains:. *Activin type 1 receptors: ACVR1, ... It participates in androgen synthesis enhancing LH action in the ovary and testis. In the male, activin enhances ... Activin type 2 receptors: ACVR2A, ACVR2B. Activin binds to the Type II receptor and initiates a cascade reaction that leads to ...
This transmembrane receptor-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... G-protein coupled receptor activity. • lysophosphatidic acid receptor activity. Cellular component. • integral component of ...
Matsushima S, Kuroda J, Ago T, Zhai P, Park JY, Xie LH, Tian B, Sadoshima J (February 2013). "Increased oxidative stress in the ... In the mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of Trx1, the proteomics study found that SET and MYND domain-containing ... possible involvement of dithiol-reduction in the IL-2 receptor induction". The EMBO Journal. 8 (3): 757-64. doi:10.1002/j.1460- ... Single-pass transmembrane proteins. *Moonlighting proteins. Hidden categories: *All articles with unsourced statements ...
"Peptide binding consensus of the NHE-RF-PDZ1 domain matches the C-terminal sequence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane ... positive regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway. • progesterone receptor signaling pathway. • cell ... Zhao B, Li L, Lu Q, Wang LH, Liu CY, Lei Q, Guan KL (January 2011). "Angiomotin is a novel Hippo pathway component that ... Cloning of the YAP1 gene facilitated the identification of a modular protein domain, known as the WW domain.[8][9][10] Two ...
receptor binding. • protein self-association. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • cell projection. • membrane. • ... transmembrane transport. • negative regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation. • positive regulation of integrin-mediated ... Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human ... "Headpiece domain of dematin is required for the stability of the erythrocyte membrane". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99 (10): ...
... a single-span trans-membrane domain and an intracellular split tyrosine kinase domain. FGFs interact with the D2 and D3 domains ... ReceptorsEdit. The mammalian fibroblast growth factor receptor family has 4 members, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4. The FGFRs ... Eriksson AE, Cousens LS, Weaver LH, Matthews BW (Apr 1991). "Three-dimensional structure of human basic fibroblast growth ... Members FGF1 through FGF10 all bind fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs). FGF1 is also known as acidic fibroblast growth ...
1996). "A large family of putative transmembrane receptors homologous to the product of the Drosophila tissue polarity gene ... Strausberg RL; Feingold EA; Grouse LH et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and ... 2001). "Insights into Wnt binding and signalling from the structures of two Frizzled cysteine-rich domains". Nature 412 (6842 ... Kalcijum-detektujući receptor • GABA B (1, 2) • Glutamatni receptor (Metabotropni glutamat (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)) • GPRC6A ...
Cloning and sequencing of porcine LH-hCG receptor cDNA: variants lacking transmembrane domain ... Cloning and sequencing of porcine LH-hCG receptor cDNA: variants lacking transmembrane domain ... Cloning and sequencing of porcine LH-hCG receptor cDNA: variants lacking transmembrane domain ... Cloning and sequencing of porcine LH-hCG receptor cDNA: variants lacking transmembrane domain ...
Cloning and sequencing of porcine LH-hCG receptor cDNA : Variants lacking transmembrane domain LOOSFELT H. ... A splice variant of the human LH receptor modulates the expression of wild type human LH receptor NAKAMURA K. ... Cloning of rat lutropin (LH) receptor analogs lacking the soybean lectin domain BERNARD M. P. ... Expression of the LH/CG receptor gene in rat ovarian tissue is regulated by an extensive alternative splicing of the primary ...
LH/hCG receptors belong to the sGC-coupled seven-transmembrane-domain receptor family, whose activation leads to stimulation of ... M. L. Dufau, "The luteinizing hormone receptor," Annual Review of Physiology, vol. 60, pp. 461-496, 1998. View at Publisher · ... J. H. Yuan, J. L. Chunn, T. J. Mi et al., "Adenosine deaminase knockout in mice induces priapism via A2b receptor," Journal of ... All four subtypes are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The activation of the A1 and A3 adenosine ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Thermo Scientific Lab Vision GnRH Receptor/LH-RH Receptor Ab-3, Mouse ... GnRH receptor contains seven hydrophobic transmembrane domains connected by hydrophilic extracellular and intracellular loops ... Thermo Scientific Lab Vision GnRH Receptor/LH-RH Receptor Ab-3, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody ... Thermo Scientific Lab Vision GnRH Receptor/LH-RH Receptor Ab-3, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody ...
They contain a heptahelical transmembrane domain and a large glycosylated ectodomain, distantly related to the receptors for ... such as the LH-receptor or FSH-receptor. Relaxin receptors have been found in the heart, smooth muscle, the connective tissue, ... Relaxin interacts with the relaxin receptor LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8 (RXFP2), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor ... Hsu SY, Nakabayashi K, Nishi S, Kumagai J, Kudo M, Sherwood OD, Hsueh AJ (January 2002). "Activation of orphan receptors by the ...
Leitinger B (May 2011). "Transmembrane collagen receptors". Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 27: 265-90. doi:10.1146/annurev-cellbio- ... Ikeda K, Wang LH, Torres R, Zhao H, Olaso E, Eng FJ, Labrador P, Klein R, Lovett D, Yancopoulos GD, Friedman SL, Lin HC (May ... Discoidin domain-containing receptor 2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). RTKs play a key role in the communication of cells ... Leitinger B, Kwan AP (2006). "The discoidin domain receptor DDR2 is a receptor for type X collagen". Matrix Biol. 25 (6): 355- ...
LH-RH Receptor Antibody - With BSA and Azide, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone A9E4 ] validated in IF, FC (AH11340-20), Abgent ... GnRH receptor contains seven hydrophobic transmembrane domains connected by hydrophilic extracellular and intracellular loops ... AH11338: GnRH-Receptor / LH-RH Receptor Antibody - With BSA and Azide. AH11340: GnRH-Receptor / LH-RH Receptor Antibody - With ... LH-RH Receptor Antibody - With BSA and Azide GnRH-Receptor / LH-RH Receptor Antibody - With BSA and Azide. Mouse Monoclonal ...
The LH/hCG receptor is composed of seven highly conserved transmembrane domains (I through VII), a large extracellular domain ... Cloning and sequencing of porcine LH-hCG receptor cDNA: Variants lacking transmembrane domain. Science 245: 525- 528, 1989 ... 2 The central region of the receptor consists of one or more transmembrane-spanning domains that anchor the receptor to the ... 35 The large extracellular domain in the LH/hCG receptor is necessary and sufficient for binding hCG and LH.36 ...
GnRH receptor contains seven hydrophobic transmembrane domains connected by hydrophilic extracellular and intracellular loops ... GnRH stimulates the gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary to secrete luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as follicle-stimulating ... Mouse Monoclonal Anti-GnRH Receptor (LHRH Receptor) (F1G4) Recognizes an epitope on the extracellular domain of gonadotropin ... Recognizes an epitope on the extracellular domain of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor or luteinizing hormone ...
LH, whereas the second form lacked two transmembrane domains, rendering it incapable of coupling to G proteins to produce the ... but not cells expressing one or the other receptor, responded to LH to generate cAMP. The authors then generated transgenic ... G. Vassart, An in vivo demonstration of functional G protein-coupled receptor dimers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 1819- ... In the classical model of signaling by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), a single ligand binds to a single GPCR, which ...
GnRH binds specifically to a seven-transmembrane-domain G protein-coupled receptor that activates a number of intracellular ... LH (6 IU) and FSH (6 IU) at proestrus and FSH (6 IU) at estrus;5) LH (6 IU) at proestrus and FSH (6 IU) at estrus; 6) LH (6 IU ... It can be seen that hypokalemia does not affect LH values during estrus and diestrus, but it decreases the LH surge at ... The analysis of frequencies of mice with LH values at proestrus over a fixed LH concentration in the three experimental groups ...
N-terminal exofacial domain of the FSH receptor (Fig. 1B). Substitution of the FSH receptor N terminus resulted in a FSH/LH ... Making use of various combinations of three basic domains of the receptors (i.e., exofacial, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic ... In the case of adrenergic receptors, this 7-TMS domain is the ligand-binding domain. The exofacial domain of GPCR includes the ... The 7TMS and exofacial domains of the orphan/target receptor provide the core receptor to which the cytoplasmic domains of a ...
transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity. • protein tyrosine kinase collagen receptor activity. • protein ... Ikeda K, Wang LH, Torres R, Zhao H, Olaso E, Eng FJ, Labrador P, Klein R, Lovett D, Yancopoulos GD, Friedman SL, Lin HC (May ... Leitinger B, Kwan AP (2006). "The discoidin domain receptor DDR2 is a receptor for type X collagen". Matrix Biol. 25 (6): 355- ... Mohan RR, Mohan RR, Wilson SE (2001). "Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 1 and 2: collagen-activated tyrosine kinase receptors in ...
1989). Cloning and sequencing of porcine LH-hCG receptor cDNA: variants lacking transmembrane domain. Science 245: 525-528. ... LH) receptor modulates the expression of wild-type human LH receptor. Mol. Endocrinol. 18: 1461-1470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1210 ... 2003). Presence of LH receptor mRNA in granulosa cells as a potential marker of oocyte developmental competence and ... Aatsinki JT, Pietila EM, Lakkakorpi JT and Rajaniemi HJ (1992). Expression of the LH/CG receptor gene in rat ovarian tissue is ...
For Osteocalcin to regulate Lh expression it would first require that its receptor, Gprc6a, is expressed in the hypothalamus or ... resulting in an amino acid substitution in a transmembrane domain of GPRC6A (F464Y) (Figure 7, A and B, and Supplemental Figure ... Osteocalcin and LH do not regulate each other. In the next set of experiments, we asked whether osteocalcin regulates Lh ... We studied patients who were infertile for more than 24 consecutive months and harboring an elevated LH, over 10 UI/l (LH IRMA ...
... the LHCG receptor possess seven membrane-spanning domains or transmembrane helices.[7] The extracellular domain of the receptor ... The binding of LH (or CG) to the receptor shifts the equilibrium between active and inactive receptors. LH and LH-agonists ... also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LCGR) or luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a transmembrane receptor found ... "Glycoprotein Hormone Receptors: LH". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
Murine Leydig cells are naturally expressing the murine LH receptor (mLhr), which binds human LH/hCG. Cultured Leydig cells ... We found that hCG is about 10-fold more potent than LH in cAMP recruitment, and slightly but significantly more potent on cAMP- ... These data demonstrate that the responses to human LH/hCG are only quantitatively and not qualitatively different in murine ... However, no significant differences occur between LH and hCG treatments, measured as activation of downstream signals, such as ...
... Identifiers Symbol(s) LHCGR; ... also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LCGR) is a transmembrane receptor that interacts with both luteinizing hormone (LH) ... The extracellular domain of the receptor is heavily glycosylated. These transmembrane domain contains two highly conserved ... The binding of LH (or CG) to the receptor shifts the equilibrium between active and inactive receptors. LH and LH-agonists ...
... as the first primer and a probe corresponding to the motif ATVNYFT found in the third transmembrane domain M3 of all vertebrate ... having homology to vertebrate GABA receptors (see Abstract, first 3 lines on page 363; page 364, l-h column, second paragraph; ... corresponding to the motif TTVLTMTT found in the second transmembrane domain M2. The second primer site was provided by ... two homology probing procedures which make use of degenerate primers designed on conserved motifs in the transmembrane domains ...
Another possibility is that serum hCG levels remain high due to reduced availability of the hormones cognate receptor, LHCGR, ... Cloning and sequencing of porcine LH-hCG receptor cDNA: variants lacking transmembrane domain. Science. 1989, 245: 525-528.View ... Since hCG and LH receptors are identical, it is often referred to as the LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR) and is encoded by a single ... Regions of mRNA encoding the extracellular domain (ECD), transmembrane (TM) domain, the hinge region and the intra-cellular ...
Severed channels probe regulation of gating of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by its cytoplasmic domains. ... Allosteric changes of the NMDA receptor trap diffusible dopamine 1 receptors in spines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jan 17; ... Huang HB, Chen YC, Horiuchi A, Tsai LH, Liu HT, Chyan CL, Hsieh MJ, Liu CK, Lin FM, Greengard P, Nairn AC, Shiao MS, Lin TH: ... Metabotropic mGlu5 receptors regulate adenosine A2A receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 4; 2003 Jan 21. PMID ...
Plexins are a large family of receptors for transmembrane, secreted, and GPI-anchored semaphorins in vertebrates. Cell 99: 71- ... transmembrane proteins with homology in their extracellular domain to semaphorins, bind to neuropilins. Plexins colocalized ... Takahashi, T., Fournier, A., Nakamura, F., Wang, L-H., Murakami, Y., Kalb, R.G., Fujisawa, H., and Strittmatter, S.M. (1999) ... Both groups propose that a plexin-neuropilin protein complex acts as a semaphorin receptor to regulate growth cone collapse. ...
Luteotropic Hormone Receptors: DISCUSSION(4). The putative transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of the mink LH receptor cDNA ... Luteotropic Hormone Receptors: DISCUSSION(1). A significant portion of the extracellular and all of the transmembrane domain of ... in the intracellular region of rat LH receptor, 19 were conserved in the deduced amino acid sequence of the mink LH receptor. ... Luteotropic Hormone Receptors: c. In Northern analysis, a single mink LH receptor mRNA transcript predominated over two much- ...
The GnRH receptor is a member of the seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled family of receptors. ... Gonadotrophin releasing hormone simultaneously regulates FSH and LH secretion. It has a short plasma half-life, of 2-4 minutes ... Follicle stimulating hormone and LH are glycopeptides consisting of two subunits, alpha and beta. They share the alpha subunit ... GnRH, gonadotrophin releasing hormone; LH, luteinising hormone; FSH, follicle stimulating hormone.. The neurons have rhythmic ...
The TSH receptor is a member of the superfamily of receptors with seven transmembrane domains linked to G proteins. The ... At variance with the LH/CG receptor and the FSH receptor, the extracellular portion of the TSH receptor is post-translationally ... and intracellular loops of the transmembrane domains. Activation of G proteins by the hormone receptor complex results in ... receptor mostly from porcine origin. Recombinant TSH receptor preparations will soon become available (83). Current receptor ...
... seven-transmembrane domain receptors. The LH/CG receptor is comprised of two structurally and functionally distinct domains, ... LH Receptor. The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a member of the subfamily of glycoprotein hormone receptors within the ... Home › Products › G-Protein Coupled Receptors › Glycoprotein Hormone ReceptorsLH Receptor. Products. ... These two domains can separately be expressed and processed, including folding. The exodomain alone has the high-affinity ...
... modeling predicts that this SNP stabilizes two alpha helices within the XCT on the surface of the IRAK-4 kinase domain and ... modeling predicts that this SNP stabilizes two alpha helices within the XCT on the surface of the IRAK-4 kinase domain and ... Transmembrane helical domain of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Biophys J (2009) 96:3251-62. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2008.12.3934 ... Essmann U, Perera L, Berkowitz ML, Darden T, Lee H, Pedersen LH, et al. A smooth Particle Mesh Ewald method. J Chem Phys (1995 ...
... sequencing determined that the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced lesion is in the third transmembrane domain of the GnRH receptor ... There was also a dramatic reduction in the numbers of FSH- and LH-producing gonadotrophs. Meiotic mapping of the mutation and ... sequencing determined that the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced lesion is in the third transmembrane domain of the GnRH receptor ... sequencing determined that the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced lesion is in the third transmembrane domain of the GnRH receptor ...
EC, extracellular domain; TM, transmembrane domain; IC, intracellular domain. (Aittomaki K: FSH receptor defects and ... Luteinizing hormone receptor (46,XX) Perturbation of the LH receptor gene (LHR) causes XX gonadal dysgenesis. The gene is 75 kd ... LH receptor (LHR) - see above.. Inhibin α (INHα) - inhibins (INH) are heterodimeric glycoproteins, synthesized by granulose ... Most mutations have been found in the transmembrane domain (exon). Latronico and colleagues45 reported primary amenorrhea in a ...
2003 N-terminal transmembrane domain of the SUR controls trafficking and gating of Kir6 channel subunits. EMBO J. 22, 3833-3843 ... Xie LH, *Weiss JN. . 2006 ATP-sensitive K+ channels: regulation of bursting by the sulphonylurea receptor, PIP2 and regions of ... 2011 N-terminal transmembrane domain of SUR1 controls gating of Kir6.2 by modulating channel sensitivity to PIP2. J. Gen. ... the NBDs are locked together and the transmembrane domains are in the outward configuration [54]. The heterodimeric ABC protein ...
  • GnRH receptor contains seven hydrophobic transmembrane domains connected by hydrophilic extracellular and intracellular loops characteristic of G-protein coupled receptors. (fishersci.com)
  • In several cases the biochemical mechanism by which RTKs transduce signals across the membrane has been shown to be ligand induced receptor oligomerization and subsequent intracellular phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • there have since been numerous studies demonstrating that functional cell membrane receptors are also present in intracellular organelles and that steroid hormone receptors are present on the cell surface. (glowm.com)
  • The binding of peptide hormones, growth factors, cytokines, or eicosanoids to cell membrane receptors activates one or more signal transduction systems, which initiate different cascades of events that alter the concentration of intracellular second messengers, such as cAMP or Ca 2+ . (glowm.com)
  • The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, the largest group of membrane receptors, uses guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) to couple to specific intracellular effector systems. (glowm.com)
  • GnRH binds specifically to a seven-transmembrane-domain G protein-coupled receptor that activates a number of intracellular secondary messengers, including calcium, inositol phosphates, protein kinase C, and mitogen-activated protein kinases ( 28 ). (physiology.org)
  • The cytoplasmic domains of a GPCR include three or four (in the case of palmitoylated GPCRs such as the β 2 -adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin) intracellular loops (iLoops 1-4) and a C-terminal sequence of variable length (70+ residues for β 2 -adrenergic, 20+ residues in Frizzled-1, etc. (aspetjournals.org)
  • [8] The C-terminal domain is intracellular and brief, rich in serine and threonine residues for possible phosphorylation . (wikipedia.org)
  • Of 22 potential phosphorylation sites (serine, threonine, tyrosine residues) in the intracellular region of rat LH receptor, 19 were conserved in the deduced amino acid sequence of the mink LH receptor. (pcdior.com)
  • Innate immune capabilities enable most tissues, including breast epithelia, to mount a first response to infection through several surface and intracellular membrane receptors ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Other hormones (eg, steroids, thyroid hormone) bind to intracellular receptors that act in the nucleus. (doctorlib.info)
  • The splice site mutation results in skipping of exon 16, which leads to a truncated protein of 831 amino acids lacking both the transmembrane and intracellular domains. (cags.org.ae)
  • PTK, the intracellular protein tyrosine kinase domain. (els.net)
  • There are seven transmembrane helices and an intracellular C-terminus. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The interaction of semaphorins and their receptor complexes triggers elaborate intracellular signalling pathways that in many cases regulate the cytoskeleton to control growth cone or cellular morphology. (els.net)
  • Remarkably, it is equally effective on mutants with mutations in the extracellular or the transmembrane/intracellular portions of the receptor (i.e. not accessible to direct CS-17 contact). (thyroidmanager.org)
  • intracellular kinase receptor binding? (kmle.co.kr)
  • EGFR is a membrane glycoprotein with an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane lipophilic segment, and an intracellular domain that has tyrosine kinase activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Making use of various combinations of three basic domains of the receptors (i.e., exofacial, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic segments) that couple agonist binding into activation of effectors through heterotrimeric G-proteins, molecular pharmacology has probed the basic organization, structure/function relationships of this superfamily of heptahelical receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Human luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones which bind the same receptor (LHCGR), belonging to the superfamily of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (Ascoli et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It also displayed 5354% homology with the rat, human, and rabbit growth hormone receptor gene from the same GH/ prolactin/cytokine receptor superfamily. (pcdior.com)
  • The luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) is a member of the subfamily of glycoprotein hormone receptors within the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)/seven-transmembrane domain receptors. (alomone.com)
  • Relaxin' interacts with the relaxin' receptor LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8 (RXFP2), which belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. (alchetron.com)
  • Adrenergic receptors (ARs) are members of the 7-transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily that bind the endogenous catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. (thermofisher.com)
  • CD137 (also known as 4-1BB) is a surface co-stimulatory glycoprotein originally described as present on activated T lymphocytes, which belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The TSH receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily of integral membrane proteins [5] and is coupled to the G s protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • CXCR4 belongs to the superfamily of the seven transmembrane domain heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors and is functionally expressed on the cell surface of various types of cancer cells. (dovepress.com)
  • Hydropathy analysis suggests the existence of seven transmembrane domains that show homology with the corresponding regions of other G protein-coupled receptors. (sciencemag.org)
  • The PACAP receptor is G protein-coupled with seven transmembrane domains and also belongs to the VIP receptor family. (nih.gov)
  • They also have seven transmembrane domains, a characteristic unique to this subfamily. (wikidoc.org)
  • 2 , 3 In contrast, antibodies to steroid hormones could not achieve the same effects, suggesting that steroid hormone receptors were not located on the cell surface. (glowm.com)
  • Not all membrane hormone receptors fall neatly into one of these three major classes. (glowm.com)
  • Noting that some glycoprotein hormone receptors appear to act in vitro by trans activation (intermolecular cooperation), Rivero-Müller et al . (sciencemag.org)
  • Relative to the other glycoprotein hormone receptors (LH/CG & FSH receptors), the wild type TSHR has readily measurable ligand-independent (constitutive) activity. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • Amongst the rhodospin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the glycoprotein hormone receptors display a bipartite structure which parallels a functional dichotomy: a large ectodomain with leucine-riche repeats is responsible for binding of the hormones, while a serpentine domain with seven transmembrane alpha helices resembling rhodopsin transmits the activation signal to the Gsa protein. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • The TSH receptor is peculiar, among the glycoprotein hormone receptors, as it displays readily measurable basal activity, when expressed by transfection in any cell type. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • Membrane organization of luteinizing hormone receptors differs between actively signaling and desensitized receptors. (virginia.edu)
  • In the classical model of signaling by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), a single ligand binds to a single GPCR, which transduces a signal by coupling to the appropriate G protein. (sciencemag.org)
  • however, this concept is controversial, because some receptors definitively signal in a monomeric state, and most of the evidence of signaling by dimeric GPCRs comes from studies of transfected cells in vitro (see commentary by Vassart). (sciencemag.org)
  • Many important discoveries in the structure, function, and biology of GPCRs are the result of innovative use of chimeric receptors composed of domains of various GPCRs in an attempt to overcome formidable obstacles. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The central thrust of this review is to ascertain how the chimeric receptor strategy has been applied to studies of GPCRs and what we have learned about the values and limitations of the approach. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The ligand binding domain of GPCRs is not uniform with respect to the role of the N terminus, because for many GPCRs (e.g., adrenergic and serotonergic receptors), the ligand binding occurs somewhere within in the lipid bilayer ( Tota and Strader, 1990 ), although the N terminus and exofacial "loops" must contribute to the forces that organize the binding pocket for the ligand in these receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Like other GPCRs, the LHCG receptor possess seven membrane-spanning domains or transmembrane helices . (wikipedia.org)
  • The transmembrane part is highly homologous with other members of the rhodopsin family of GPCRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 , 3 Chemokine receptors are a family of G protein-coupled cell surface receptors (GPCRs) with seven transmembrane-spanning domains. (dovepress.com)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, or GPRs) contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins . (wikidoc.org)
  • Recognizes an epitope on the extracellular domain of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor or luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR). (biotium.com)
  • [7] The extracellular domain of the receptor is heavily glycosylated . (wikipedia.org)
  • now demonstrate that plexins, transmembrane proteins with homology in their extracellular domain to semaphorins, bind to neuropilins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Also of interest was the finding that two of three positive clones isolated from the hen ovarian cDNA library contained an 86-bp insert located in the extracellular domain within 69 bp of the putative transmembrane domain. (elsevier.com)
  • Their cognate GPH receptors (GPHRs) are type A leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing G-protein-coupled receptors (LGR) with a large glycoprotein extracellular domain (ECD). (frontiersin.org)
  • By interacting with the large TSHR extracellular domain, CS-17 is the first antibody reported to be an inverse agonist for a member of the G protein receptor super family. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • extracellular domain? (kmle.co.kr)
  • Sequence analysis suggests that APP is a transmembrane protein having a long N-terminal extracellular domain, a transmembrane region and a short cytoplasmic tail (Kang et al. (springer.com)
  • The GnRH receptor is a member of the seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled family of receptors. (mussenhealth.us)
  • In the case of DDR2, the ligand is collagen which binds to its extracellular discoidin domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The channel-linked receptors function as ligand-gated ion channels. (glowm.com)
  • One form contained a mutation that prevented the binding of its ligand, LH, whereas the second form lacked two transmembrane domains, rendering it incapable of coupling to G proteins to produce the second messenger cAMP. (sciencemag.org)
  • Transgenic mice that coexpress binding-defective and signaling-defective forms of luteinizing hormone receptor respond normally to its ligand. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chimeric G-protein-coupled receptors obviate the need for a particular agonist ligand when the ligand is resistant to purification or, in the case of orphan receptors, is not known. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The literature highlights more than 100 examples using this strategy to address issues such as the molecular nature of the ligand binding domain, the roles of specific transmembrane spanning segments (TMS), and the nature of the cytoplasmic domains in defining downstream signaling and receptor regulation/trafficking ( Table 1 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In vitro expression studies showed that this mutated receptor binds human choriogonadotropin with a normal KD, but the ligand binding does not result in increased production of cAMP. (nih.gov)
  • Major advances in understanding of the ligand-receptor relationships are heralding the dawn of a new era for GPHs and their receptors, although many basic questions still remain unanswered. (frontiersin.org)
  • This article examines retrospectively several basic science aspects of GPH super-agonists and related "biosuperiors" in a broader context of the advances in the ligand-receptor structure-function relationships and new mechanistic models generated based on the structure elucidation. (frontiersin.org)
  • An evolution of the receptor-ligand interface likely progressed through the series of fine-tuning within the concave face of the LRRs and activating configuration within the hinge region located between the LRRs and TMD. (frontiersin.org)
  • [1] Nociceptinski receptor je G protein-spregnuti receptor čiji prirodni ligand je poznat kao nociceptin ili orfanin FQ, koji je neuropeptid sa 17 aminokiselina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Semaphorin receptor complexes are composed of ligand binding, signal‐transducing and modulatory subunits. (els.net)
  • 2006). "A neuropeptide ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor GPR103 regulates feeding, behavioral arousal, and blood pressure in mice" . (wikidoc.org)
  • Nicotinic receptors are members of the ligand-gated ion channel family. (allindianpatents.com)
  • PACAP ≥10 −6 M) and GHRH was much more potent than PACAP, suggesting that cGHRHR-v1 is a functional membrane-spanning receptor with an impairment in high-affinity ligand binding, rather than in receptor activation and ligand-binding specificity. (bioscientifica.com)
  • This finding also points out the possibility that Asp 56 is not a critical determinant for receptor activation and direct ligand-receptor interaction. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Taken together, our findings not only suggest that cGHRHR variants may play a role in controlling normal pituitary functions, but also support that Asp 56 is nonessential for receptor activation and direct ligand-receptor interaction. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Ligand-Biased and Probe-Dependent Modulation of Chemokine Receptor CXCR3 Signaling by Negative Allosteric Modulators. (discoverx.com)
  • Bernat V, Brox R, Heinrich MR, Auberson YP, Tschammer N. Ligand-Biased and Probe-Dependent Modulation of Chemokine Receptor CXCR3 Signaling by Negative Allosteric Modulators. (discoverx.com)
  • It is postulated that these proteins are receptors involved in contact-mediated communication, with cadherin domains acting as homophilic binding regions and the EGF-like domains involved in cell adhesion and receptor-ligand interactions. (wikidoc.org)
  • Other families of GPCR make use of large N-terminal domains and exofacial domains (e.g., gonadotropin receptors and Frizzleds) that are essential for signal propagation, whereas some seem to depend mostly on the N-terminal domain itself for receptor binding and activation by agonist (e.g., glutamate metabotropic receptors). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The receptor interacts with both luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropins (such as hCG in humans) and represents a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • 4 , 5 The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a 352-amino acid rhodopsin-like GPCR that selectively binds to the CXC chemokine SDF-1 or CXCL12. (dovepress.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR) is a member of the seven-transmembrane, G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family. (lsbio.com)
  • Three other types of clones corresponding to shorter proteins were observed, in which the putative transmembrane domain was absent. (sciencemag.org)
  • These cytoplasmic domains are sites of post-translational modifications (including protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, palmitoylation, and ubiquitination), interaction with their cognate heterotrimeric G-proteins, and association with scaffolds, cytoskeletal attachments, and other protein targets. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The different mRNAs domains have are apoptotic centromere components free as binding, history or dual-function as the domain to include genes, nucleotides or proteins also. (evakoch.com)
  • Both proteins are large transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by the podocyte, and both induce IgG4-predominant humoral immune responses that produce circulating autoantibodies that can be used clinically for diagnostic and monitoring purposes. (nih.gov)
  • A schematic of the domain structures of PLA2R and THSD7A demonstrates that both proteins are large transmembrane glycoproteins with short cytoplasmic tails. (nih.gov)
  • Early ancestors of GPHs and their receptors emerged at the origin of metazoan animals (multicellular mitochondrial eukaryotes) ( 4 ), although two domains of GPHRs, LRRs and 7-helix transmembrane domain (TMD), have much earlier evolutionary origin and are very well-diversified in extremely large number of functionally unrelated proteins in animals and plants ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This receptor is a P2Y purinergic receptor for UDP-glucose and other UDP-sugars coupled to G-proteins. (ipfs.io)
  • CD28 is the receptor for CD80 (B7.1) and CD86 (B7.2) proteins which are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC). (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Following binding of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, the receptor associates with G-proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. (lsbio.com)
  • 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation of membrane domains by the envelope proteins of vesicular stomatitis virus. (virginia.edu)
  • These transmembrane domains contain two highly conserved cysteine residues, which build disulfide bonds to stabilize the receptor structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CS-17 epitope is conformational and lies in the C-terminal region of the TSHR leucine-rich domain (residues 260-289). (thyroidmanager.org)
  • cGHRHR-v1 is characterized by an N-terminal deletion of 36 amino acid residues, including an aspartate at position 56 (Asp 56 ) conserved in G protein-coupled receptor B-I subfamily. (bioscientifica.com)
  • This mechanism of degradation also required the MCL1 transmembrane domain and distinct MCL1 lysine residues to proceed, suggesting that the components likely act on the MCL1:NOXA complex by associating with it in a specific orientation within the mitochondrial outer membrane. (nature.com)
  • Complementary DNA clones, encoding the LH-hCG (luteinizing hormone-human choriogonadotropic hormone) receptor were isolated by screening a lambda gt11 library with monoclonal antibodies. (sciencemag.org)
  • GnRH stimulates the gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary to secrete luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). (fishersci.com)
  • studied signaling by mutant forms of luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR). (sciencemag.org)
  • Supplementation with luteinizing hormone (LH), FSH, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at proestrus rapidly normalized plasma and ovarian progesterone levels at this stage of the estrous cycle. (physiology.org)
  • The reason for the fall in testosterone production was related to the decrease in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and was caused by alteration of the pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus ( 49 ). (physiology.org)
  • 2006). Luteinizing hormone receptor ectodomain splice variant misroutes the full-length receptor into a subcompartment of the endoplasmic reticulum. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Characterization and relative abundance of alternatively spliced luteinizing hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the ovine ovary. (geneticsmr.com)
  • 1999). Characterization of the translated products of the alternatively spliced luteinizing hormone receptor in the ovine ovary throughout the oestrous cycle. (geneticsmr.com)
  • The luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor ( LHCGR ), also lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor ( LCGR ) or luteinizing hormone receptor ( LHR ) is a transmembrane receptor found predominantly in the ovary and testis , but also many extragonadal organs such as the uterus and breasts . (wikipedia.org)
  • Human luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones regulating development and reproductive functions by acting on the same receptor (LHCGR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has also been called luteinizing hormone receptor ( LHR ). (bionity.com)
  • It is a member of the family of glycoprotein hormones that includes luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating and thyroid stimulating hormones, each member of which functions through the formation of a non-covalent heterodimer from two subunits, α and β. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have studied two Leydig cell hypoplasia patients (siblings born to consanguineous parents), and found them to be homozygous for a missense mutation (Ala593Pro) in the sixth transmembrane domain of the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor gene. (nih.gov)
  • The family of glycoprotein hormones (GPHs) consists of luteinizing hormone (LH), chorionic gonadotropin (CG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which are heterodimers formed by the non-covalent association of a common alpha (α) and a hormone-specific beta (β) subunit. (frontiersin.org)
  • Norepinephrine can increase nitric oxide synthase (NOS) levels in the hypothalamus by activating alpha-1 AR which may indirectly suppress the release of luteinizing hormone (LH), the androgens, estrogen, and progesterone. (thermofisher.com)
  • In females, but not in males, required for normal accumulation and secretion of pituitary hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (By similarity). (genecards.org)
  • Activation of GNRHR ultimately causes the release of gonadotropic luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). (lsbio.com)
  • In vitro studies indicate that the mutant receptor is not coupled to the plasma membrane signal transduction system. (elsevier.com)
  • G. Vassart, An in vivo demonstration of functional G protein-coupled receptor dimers. (sciencemag.org)
  • These data demonstrate the modular nature of NMDA receptors, and show that the ATD of the different NR2 subunits plays an important role in fine-tuning the functional properties of the individual NMDA receptor subtypes. (jneurosci.org)
  • NMDA receptors, one functional class of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, have unique features including the requirement of simultaneous binding of glutamate and glycine for activation, high Ca 2+ permeability, and voltage-dependent Mg 2+ block. (jneurosci.org)
  • Functional NMDA receptors are composed of two glycine-binding NR1 subunits and two glutamate-binding NR2 subunits. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we investigate the role of the NR2 ATD on the functional properties of NMDA receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • The presence of arginine carboxypeptidases in functional systems frequently distorts the potency estimates for BK or Lys-BK on the B 1 receptor, as these ligands are transformed into their respectice des-Arg 9 metabolites [ 40 ]. (guidetoimmunopharmacology.org)
  • Development and preliminary validation of a plate-based CB1/CB2 receptor functional assay. (discoverx.com)
  • Dossou KS, Devkota KP, Kavanagh PV, Beutler JA, Egan JM and Moaddel R. Development and preliminary validation of a plate-based CB1/CB2 receptor functional assay. (discoverx.com)
  • The concept of cellular receptors for chemicals within living tissues was made possible by the availability of highly purified peptide hormones, the development of methods to iodinate them to high specific activity without the loss of biologic activity, and the application of the principle of competitive binding between labeled and unlabeled ligands. (glowm.com)
  • In sharp contrast, human LHRs and FSHRs are activated almost exclusively by their respective ligands and the number of natural or artificial receptor mutations in their respective ECDs causing constitutive activity is very low ( 14 - 16 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Peptide and nonpeptide ligands for the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor ORL1: research tools and potential therapeutic agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Semaphorins can act as ligands and receptors, a process called bi‐directional signalling. (els.net)
  • The present invention relates generally to the field of ligands for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), activation of nAChRs, and the treatment of disease conditions associated with defective or malfunctioning nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, especially of the brain. (allindianpatents.com)
  • It is therefore of interest to develop novel compounds, which act as ligands for the o7 nAChR subtype, for the treatment of disease conditions associated with defective or malfunctioning nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Biol Reprod 63:1115-1123 Ascoli M, Fanelli F, Segaloff DL (2002) The lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor, a 2002 perspective. (mitchmedical.us)
  • 2001). "Mutations in a novel gene with transmembrane domains underlie Usher syndrome type 3." . (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, the observation that point mutations in a specific residue of the ectodomain (Ser 281) were associated with a strong increase in constitutive activity (in the absence of hormone binding), led to the hypothesis that an -activated- conformation of the ectodomain functioned as the immediate agonist of the serpentine domain. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • To identify and determine the frequency of mutations in the coding region of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene in forty Chinese patients with normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) and establish genotype/phenotype correlations where possible. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The gonadotropin axis dysfunction associated with nCHH due to TAC3/TACR3 mutations is related to a low GnRH pulsatile frequency leading to a low frequency of alpha-subunit pulses and to an elevated FSH/LH ratio. (nih.gov)
  • Six heterozygous mutations were identified in 7 of the 55 patients with hypothalamic amenorrhea: two variants in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene FGFR1 (G260E and R756H), two in the prokineticin receptor 2 gene PROKR2 (R85H and L173R), one in the GnRH receptor gene GNRHR (R262Q), and one in the Kallmann syndrome 1 sequence gene KAL1 (V371I). (cdc.gov)
  • Although surgical resection remains standard treatment for early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is now essential to confirm the status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations when planning treatment strategies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Obtain accurate, reproducible results in immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry experiments with Thermo Scientific GnRH Receptor/LH-RH Receptor Ab-3, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody. (fishersci.com)
  • A synthetic peptide aa 1-29 (MANSASPEQNQHCSAINNSIPLMQGNLPY) from the N-terminal of human GnRH receptor. (biotium.com)
  • Meiotic mapping of the mutation and candidate gene sequencing determined that the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced lesion is in the third transmembrane domain of the GnRH receptor gene (Gnrhr). (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, this mutant cannot be rescued with defined GnRH receptor pharmacoperones (pharmacological chaperones), an approach that rescues many other misfolded mutants. (elsevier.com)
  • The mutant GnRH receptor was also shown to exert a dominant-negative effect on wild-type receptor function, indicating that the mutant receptor is unable to fold properly and likely misrouted within the cell, not reaching the plasma membrane. (elsevier.com)
  • We compared the LH and hCG activity in gonadal cells from male mouse in vitro, i.e. primary Leydig cells, which is a common tool used for gonadotropin bioassay. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:14877-14881 Chen HL, Hardy MP, Zirkin BR (2002) Agerelateddecreasesin Leydig cell testosterone production are not restored by exposure to LH in vitro. (mitchmedical.us)
  • Collectively, these results are consistent with previous observations that granulosa cells from prehierarchal follicles fail to produce cAMP or steroids in response to short-term incubation with ovine LH, in vitro, and that granulosa cells acquire LH responsiveness only subsequent to follicle selection into the rapid growth phase. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we show that targeting GAIP interacting protein C-terminal (GIPC, also known as Synectin) and its PDZ-domain reduces pancreatic cancer growth significantly in vitro and in vivo . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nicotinic alpha-7 receptor protein forms a homo-pentameric channel in vitro that is highly permeable to a variety of cations (e.g. (allindianpatents.com)
  • In the current study, treatment of animals with bromocriptine prevented the transient LH receptor mRNA peak between March 19 and 25 and reduced LH receptor mRNA levels below those of the pretreatment controls. (pcdior.com)
  • This hypothesis is indirectly supported by a number of studies showing that prolactin and/or placental lactogens increase LH receptor binding sites and LH receptor mRNA in the CL of other species. (pcdior.com)
  • If present, the stimulatory effect of prolactin on mink LH receptors is transient, as it is not present during later gestation when prolactin levels are elevated and LH receptor mRNA remains constant. (pcdior.com)
  • In Northern analysis, a single mink LH receptor mRNA transcript predominated over two much-weaker bands in mink ovary and testis. (pcdior.com)
  • The abundance both of prolactin receptor mRNA and of the number of prolactin binding sites in the ovary increased substantially after March 29, and highest levels were during implantation and early-postimplantation gestation, the time when progesterone production is maximal. (pcdior.com)
  • The present result differs from findings in the rat, where the level of ovarian expression of both short and long forms of prolactin receptor mRNA was constant through most of gestation, declining only as parturition approached. (pcdior.com)
  • Studies were conducted to characterize the chicken ovarian LH receptor (cLH-R) cDNA and to evaluate expression of cLH-R mRNA in follicles at different stages of development. (elsevier.com)
  • 1996). „Expression of alternate forms of brain opioid 'orphan' receptor mRNA in activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes and lymphocytic cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pituitary gonadotropins LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which regulate steroidogenesis, maturation of ovarian follicles, and luteinization, are secreted by the same gonadotropes ( 55 ). (physiology.org)
  • LH is produced by the pituitary in a pulsatile fashion, inducing ovulation and maintenance of the corpus luteum in females. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, two novel GHRHR receptor splice variants, named chicken GHRHR-v1 (cGHRHR-v1) and cGHRHR-v2 respectively, were identified from chicken pituitary using RT-PCR assay. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone and LH are glycopeptides consisting of two subunits, alpha and beta. (mussenhealth.us)
  • While the former is associated with pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits, DAMN is generally a slower process involving the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We speculate that it arises when SUR subunits enter non-physiological conformational states associated with the loss of SUR nucleotide-binding domain dimerization following prolonged exposure to nucleotide-free conditions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The channel is an octameric complex of 4 pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and 4 regulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • NMDA receptors comprised of different NR2 subunits exhibit strikingly unique biophysical and pharmacological properties. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, understanding how the ATD affects the function of NR2 subunits will provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of channel activation for NMDA receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Groot Kormelink PJ, Luyten WH: Cloning and sequence of full-length cDNAs encoding the human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits beta3 and beta4 and expression of seven nAChR subunits in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and/or IMR-32. (drugbank.ca)
  • Murine Leydig cells are naturally expressing the murine LH receptor (mLhr), which binds human LH/hCG. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When the online receptor anxiolytics GH it binds a imaginary aka which is to reductase of unusual slavery reactions in its transcriptional rafts and molecule of second energy type JAK2. (evakoch.com)
  • This portion of the receptor gene had sequence homology of 84%, 85%, 90%, and 91% with the murine, rat, porcine, and human LH receptor gene sequences and 64-65% with the rat, human, ovine, and bovine FSH receptor cDNA. (pcdior.com)
  • The human LH receptor (LHR) plays a key role in luteal function and the establishment of pregnancy through its interaction with the gonadotropins LH and human chorionic gonadotropin. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • The gene for the LHCGR is found on chromosome 2 p21 in humans, close to the FSH receptor gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the hCG action on LHCGR and the long half-life, this hormone is used instead of LH for treatment of infertility in males and for assisted reproduction in females. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another possibility is that serum hCG levels remain high due to reduced availability of the hormone's cognate receptor, LHCGR, leading to lack of hormone utilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This finding is relevant for gonadotropin quantification used in the official pharmacopoeia, which are based on murine, in vivo bioassay and rely on the evaluation of long-term, testosterone-dependent effects mediated by rodent receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other mechanisms by which mutant genes could act include interference with germ-cell migration, connective tissue abnormalities, or gonadotropin receptor abnormalities. (glowm.com)
  • Brinkmann AO, Leemborg FG, Rommerts FFG, van der Molen HJ (1982) Translocation of the testicular oestradiol receptor is not an obligatory step in the gonadotropin-induced inhibition ofC17-20-lyase. (mitchmedical.us)
  • 2004) Anosmin‐1 modulates fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 signaling in human gonadotropin‐releasing hormone olfactory neuroblasts through a heparan sulfate‐dependent mechanism. (els.net)
  • The encoded protein contains twelve putative transmembrane domains and is a plasma integral membrane protein. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • cGHRHR-v2 is a carboxyl-terminal truncated receptor variant with four putative transmembrane domains, which arose from alternative use of a splice acceptor site on intron 8. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Document D1 disclosed the cloning of a GABA receptor from Drosophila melanogaster using two homology probing procedures which made use of degenerate primers designed on conserved motifs in the transmembrane domains M2 and M3. (epo.org)
  • Despite the sizable homology of the structures of PACAP and VIP and their receptors, the distribution of these peptides and receptors is quite different. (nih.gov)
  • In the ovary, the LHCG receptor is necessary for follicular maturation and ovulation, as well as luteal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in accordance with findings in the ovary of the pregnant mouse, where the long form of the prolactin receptor is most abundant during the luteal phase. (pcdior.com)
  • Tissue distribution analysis revealed a strong prolactin receptor hybridization signal in mink ovary and testes, and longer exposure of the blot indicated a signal in the uterus, adrenal, kidney, and liver. (pcdior.com)
  • In the ovary, PACAP is transiently expressed in the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicles and appears to be involved in the LH-induced cellular events in the ovary, including prevention of follicular apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • The lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor, a 2002 perspective. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Bulow HE, Berry KL, Topper LH, Peles E and Hobert O (2002) Heparan sulfate proteoglycan‐dependent induction of axon branching and axon misrouting by the Kallmann syndrome gene kal‐1. (els.net)
  • Receptors for some hormones operate through effector systems that have yet to be definitively established, and others appear to use multiple regulatory pathways. (glowm.com)
  • Various studies have demonstrated the importance of GAIP interacting protein, C-terminus (GIPC, also known as Synectin) as a central adaptor molecule in different signaling pathways and as an important mediator of receptor stability. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This missense mutation introduces a potential phosphorylation site in the extreme carboxy terminus (XCT) of the IRAK4 kinase domain. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that a homozygous LH receptor gene mutation underlies the syndrome of autosomal recessive congenital Leydig cell hypoplasia in this family. (nih.gov)
  • This latter mutation affects a conserved amino acid in the fifth transmembrane domain (p.Y267N). (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. (nih.gov)
  • Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LILRB5 gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • The encoded protein belongs to the subfamily B class of LIR receptors which contain two or four extracellular immunoglobulin domains, a transmembrane domain, and two to four cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). (wikidoc.org)
  • Several other LIR subfamily B receptors are expressed on immune cells where they bind to MHC class I molecules on antigen-presenting cells and inhibit stimulation of an immune response. (wikidoc.org)
  • However, prolactin levels were correlated with prolactin receptor expression and were of sufficient magnitude to reactivate the CL, as indicated by the increase in progesterone secretion on March 27 and by the termination of embryonic diapause. (pcdior.com)
  • Gonadotrophin releasing hormone simultaneously regulates FSH and LH secretion. (mussenhealth.us)
  • The endocrine system uses internal secretion of hormones into the circulation to convey information to target cells that express cognate receptors. (doctorlib.info)
  • This system of internal hormone secretion is subject to complex regulatory mechanisms that govern receptor activity and hormone synthesis, release, transport, metabolism, and delivery to the interior of the target cells. (doctorlib.info)
  • 4 In the ensuing years, there has been a virtual explosion of information on cell membrane receptors and on the signal transducers and effectors that mediate hormone action in the cell. (glowm.com)
  • Most cell membrane receptors can be grouped into three major classes on the basis of the transducer and effector systems that mediate their action in the cell 5 ( Table 1 ). (glowm.com)
  • The T cells are genetically modified through transduction with a lentiviral vector expressing scFv of anti-LHR antibody linked to CD28, 4-1BB (CD137) and CD3ζ signaling domains. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Title: Suppression of thyrotropin receptor constitutive activity by a monoclonal antibody with inverse agonist activity. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • Inhibition of metastasis of rhabdomyosarcoma by a novel neutralizing antibody to CXC chemokine receptor-4. (discoverx.com)
  • Kashima K, Watanabe M, Sato Y, Hata J, Ishii N, Aoki Y. Inhibition of metastasis of rhabdomyosarcoma by a novel neutralizing antibody to CXC chemokine receptor-4. (discoverx.com)
  • The putative transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of the mink LH receptor cDNA were cloned and sequenced. (pcdior.com)
  • Anand R, Lindstrom J: Nucleotide sequence of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta 2 subunit gene. (drugbank.ca)
  • Rempel N, Heyers S, Engels H, Sleegers E, Steinlein OK: The structures of the human neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta2- and alpha3-subunit genes (CHRNB2 and CHRNA3). (drugbank.ca)
  • Lueders KK, Elliott RW, Marenholz I, Mischke D, DuPree M, Hamer D: Genomic organization and mapping of the human and mouse neuronal beta2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes. (drugbank.ca)
  • There are two types of receptors for the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine: muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors, based on the selectivity of action of muscarine and nicotine, respectively. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Here, we report that the extracellular amino-terminal domain (ATD) of the NR2 subunit controls pharmacological and kinetic properties of recombinant NMDA receptors, such as agonist potency, deactivation time course, open probability ( P OPEN ), and mean open/shut duration. (jneurosci.org)
  • Association study of common variants within the G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 gene and schizophrenia susceptibility in Han Chinese. (nih.gov)
  • Preliminary molecular modeling predicts that this SNP stabilizes two alpha helices within the XCT on the surface of the IRAK4 kinase domain and increases the size of the groove between them. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biased and constitutive signaling in the CC-chemokine receptor CCR5 by manipulating the interface between transmembrane helices 6 and 7. (discoverx.com)
  • Steen A, Thiele S, Guo D, Hansen LS, Frimurer TM and Rosenkilde MM. Biased and constitutive signaling in the CC-chemokine receptor CCR5 by manipulating the interface between transmembrane helices 6 and 7. (discoverx.com)
  • RTKs have a tripartite structure with extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Discoidin domain-containing receptor 2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). (wikipedia.org)
  • PTPRN (Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type N) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Indeed, a rare non-pathological TSH receptor variant, with the tyrosine in position 601 replaced by histidine, is virtually devoid of constitutive activity. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • 1996). "Distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in ZAP-70 mediate activation and negative regulation of antigen receptor function" . (wikipedia.org)
  • Failure of normal Leydig cell development in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor-deficient mice, but not FSHbeta-deficient mice: role for constitutive FSH receptor activity. (mitchmedical.us)
  • The nicotinic alpha-7 receptor channel is expressed in various brain regions and is believed to be involved in many important biological processes in the central nervous system (CNS), including learning and memory. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Relaxin' receptors have been found in the heart, smooth muscle, the connective tissue, and central and autonomous nervous system. (alchetron.com)
  • There is a relaxin receptor binding motif (shown in red and green). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • They contain a heptahelical transmembrane domain and a large glycosylated ectodomain, distantly related to the receptors for the glycoproteohormones, such as the LH-receptor or FSH-receptor. (alchetron.com)
  • These receptors have a large and very distinctive ectodomain which includes an LDLa module at the far end of the N-terminus followed by a LRR domain (10 LRR). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The mechanisms implicated in the intramolecular transduction of the activation signal, from the hormone-bound ectodomain to the serpentine domain remain unknown. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • The observation that removal by truncation of the ectodomain of the receptor resulted in increase in its constitutive activity led to the notion that the ectodomain would function as an inverse agonist of the serpentine domain. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • The flamingo cadherins are located at the plasma membrane and have nine cadherin domains, seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. (wikidoc.org)
  • This deletion results in the emergence of a premature stop codon (Q161HfsX23), truncating NK3R after the third transmembrane segment. (nih.gov)
  • Nine receptor subtypes have been identified thus far including three alpha-1 AR subtypes (1A/D, 1B, and 1C), three alpha-2 ARs (2A, 2B, and 2C), and three beta AR subtypes (1, 2, and 3). (thermofisher.com)
  • The product of this gene, P2Y 14 belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors, which contains several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. (ipfs.io)
  • The M2 domain that lines the channel is identical in protein sequence from chicken to human. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Chimeric receptors created from distant members of the heptahelical receptors enable new strategies in understanding how these receptors transduce agonist binding into receptor activation and may be able to offer insights into the evolution of G-protein-coupled receptors from yeast to humans. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2003). "HE6, a two-subunit heptahelical receptor associated with apical membranes of efferent and epididymal duct epithelia. (thefullwiki.org)
  • In addition, comparative analysis of GPHRs signaling may suggest that G s /cAMP pathway as the only mechanism of the agonist-dependent and -independent receptor activation has evolved into more diversified and complex signaling system ( 9 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Anti-amnesic and neuroprotective actions of the sigma-1 receptor agonist (-)-MR22 in rats with selective cholinergic lesion and amyloid infusion. (atsbio.com)
  • These data demonstrate that the responses to human LH/hCG are only quantitatively and not qualitatively different in murine cells, at least in terms of cAMP and Erk1/2 activation, and equal in activating downstream steroidogenic events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The vector of anti-LHR chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is constructed for the engineering of T cells to target human LHR. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Expectedly, chicken or human GHRH could still activate both receptor mutants with reduced potencies (about 2- to 14-fold less potent). (bioscientifica.com)
  • In the absence of animal models, studies of human neuroendocrine phenotypes associated with neurokinin B and NK3R receptor dysfunction can help to decipher the pathophysiology of this signaling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Palmert MR, Podlisny MB, Witker DS, Olderstorf T, Younkin LH, Selkoe DJ, Younkin SG (1989) The β -amyloid protein precursor of alzheimer disease has soluble derivatives found in human brain and cerebrospinal fluid. (springer.com)
  • β-Arrestin recruitment and G protein signaling by the atypical human chemokine decoy receptor CCX-CKR. (discoverx.com)
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor internalization through clathrin-coated pits requires Cbl RING finger and proline-rich domains but not receptor polyubiquitylation. (virginia.edu)
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is considered particularly important. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Initial evidence for hormones acting through cell surface receptors came from studies using antibodies to peptide hormones that caused cross-linking of hormone-receptor complexes, preventing mobility in the membrane and internalization, thereby blocking or reversing the biologic effects of these hormones. (glowm.com)
  • Hormones are released by endocrine glands and transported through the bloodstream to tissues where they bind to specific receptor molecules and regulate target tissue function (Chapter 3). (doctorlib.info)
  • In addition to this traditional view, hormones can also act locally by binding to receptors that are expressed by cells that are close to the site of release. (doctorlib.info)
  • As a variant of this mechanism, peptide hormones can remain in the membrane of one cell and interact with a receptor on a juxtaposed cell. (doctorlib.info)
  • Last two decades of structure-function studies performed in numerous laboratories provided substantial progress in understanding basic science, physiological, pathophysiological, pharmacological, and comparative aspects of glycoprotein hormones (GPHs) and their cognate receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, no significant differences occur between LH and hCG treatments, measured as activation of downstream signals, such as Creb phosphorylation, Stard1 gene expression and testosterone synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This suggests a role for prolactin in regulation and maintenance of LH receptors. (pcdior.com)
  • Northern analysis revealed that the mink prolactin receptor probe hybridized with multiple transcripts of 3.4, 4.4, and 10.5 kb. (pcdior.com)
  • A significant portion of the extracellular and all of the transmembrane domain of the mink prolactin receptor gene was cloned and sequenced. (pcdior.com)