Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Ureteral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETER which may cause obstruction leading to hydroureter, HYDRONEPHROSIS, and PYELONEPHRITIS. HEMATURIA is a common symptom.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Urologic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY TRACT in either the male or the female.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.Urethral Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the URETHRA. Benign epithelial tumors of the urethra usually consist of squamous and transitional cells. Primary urethral carcinomas are rare and typically of squamous cells. Urethral carcinoma is the only urological malignancy that is more common in females than in males.Urothelium: The epithelial lining of the URINARY TRACT.Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Carcinoma, Renal Cell: A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Administration, Intravesical: The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Uroplakin II: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IA to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Uroplakin III: A uroplakin subtype that heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN IB to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Uroplakin Ib: A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN III to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Uroplakin Ia: A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN II to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Spermatocele: A cystic dilation of the EPIDIDYMIS, usually in the head portion (caput epididymis). The cyst fluid contains dead SPERMATOZOA and can be easily differentiated from TESTICULAR HYDROCELE and other testicular lesions.Carcinoma, Merkel Cell: A carcinoma arising from MERKEL CELLS located in the basal layer of the epidermis and occurring most commonly as a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Merkel cells are tactile cells of neuroectodermal origin and histologically show neurosecretory granules. The skin of the head and neck are a common site of Merkel cell carcinoma, occurring generally in elderly patients. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1245)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Brenner Tumor: A smooth, solid or cystic fibroepithelial (FIBROEPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS) tumor, usually found in the OVARIES but can also be found in the adnexal region and the KIDNEYS. It consists of a fibrous stroma with nests of epithelial cells that sometimes resemble the transitional cells lining the urinary bladder. Brenner tumors generally are benign and asymptomatic. Malignant Brenner tumors have been reported.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine: A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Papilloma, Inverted: A mucosal tumor of the urinary bladder or nasal cavity in which proliferating epithelium is invaginated beneath the surface and is more smoothly rounded than in other papillomas. (Stedman, 25th ed)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Keratin-7: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-19 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.DeoxycytidineKi-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.FANFT: A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Keratin-20: A type I keratin expressed predominately in gastrointestinal epithelia, MERKEL CELLS, and the TASTE BUDS of the oral mucosa.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Penile Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Kidney Calices: Recesses of the kidney pelvis which divides into two wide, cup-shaped major renal calices, with each major calix subdivided into 7 to 14 minor calices. Urine empties into a minor calix from collecting tubules, then passes through the major calix, renal pelvis, and ureter to enter the urinary bladder. (From Moore, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 3d ed, p211)Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell: A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Urologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its parts in the male or female. For surgery of the male genitalia, UROLOGIC SURGICAL PROCEDURES, MALE is available.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Urinary Diversion: Temporary or permanent diversion of the flow of urine through the ureter away from the URINARY BLADDER in the presence of a bladder disease or after cystectomy. There is a variety of techniques: direct anastomosis of ureter and bowel, cutaneous ureterostomy, ileal, jejunal or colon conduit, ureterosigmoidostomy, etc. (From Campbell's Urology, 6th ed, p2654)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic: Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Mitotic Index: An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine: A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Carcinoma, Medullary: A carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1141; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Carcinoma, Large Cell: A tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size. It is usually bronchogenic. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Carcinoma, Adenosquamous: A mixed adenocarcinoma and squamous cell or epidermoid carcinoma.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Schistosomiasis: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.Rats, Inbred F344Carcinoma, Acinar Cell: A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Carcinoma, Verrucous: A variant of well-differentiated epidermoid carcinoma that is most common in the oral cavity, but also occurs in the larynx, nasal cavity, esophagus, penis, anorectal region, vulva, vagina, uterine cervix, and skin, especially on the sole of the foot. Most intraoral cases occur in elderly male abusers of smokeless tobacco. The treatment is surgical resection. Radiotherapy is not indicated, as up to 30% treated with radiation become highly aggressive within six months. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid: A tumor of both low- and high-grade malignancy. The low-grade grow slowly, appear in any age group, and are readily cured by excision. The high-grade behave aggressively, widely infiltrate the salivary gland and produce lymph node and distant metastases. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas account for about 21% of the malignant tumors of the parotid gland and 10% of the sublingual gland. They are the most common malignant tumor of the parotid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240)In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Semicircular Ducts: The three membranous semicircular ducts within the bony semicircular canals. They open into the UTRICLE through five openings. Each duct has at one end a sensory area called the ampullary crest. AMPULLARY HAIR CELLS of the crests sense the movement of ENDOLYMPH resulting from rotation of the head.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
... is usually transitional cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma is "a common cause of ureter cancer and ... Of the total, 1,251 (94%) were transitional cell carcinoma of the papillary type. "Five-year relative survival rates from ... 251-262, retrieved 18 October 2013 Transitional Cell Cancer (Kidney/Ureter), National Cancer Institute Urethral Cancer, ... Transitional Cell Cancer (Kidney/Ureter), National Cancer Institute. ...
The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma. Other types include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Diagnosis ... 90% of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinoma. The other 10% are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, ... April 2009). "Intravesical mitomycin C combined with hyperthermia for patients with T1G3 transitional cell carcinoma of the ... "A Randomized Trial of Intravesical Doxorubicin and Immunotherapy with Bacille Calmette-Guérin for Transitional-Cell Carcinoma ...
I. Management of invasive transitional cell human bladder carcinoma. II. Fluorescent in situ hybridization Comets for the ... A sample of cells, either derived from an in vitro cell culture or from an in vivo test subject is dispersed into individual ... Only the DNA of the cell remains, and unravels to fill the cavity in the agarose that the whole cell formerly filled. This ... The aqueous salt disrupts proteins and their bonding patterns within the cell as well as disrupting the RNA content of the cell ...
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome due to metastatic transitional cell carcinoma". Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 8: 280-2. Koirala B ( ...
Bladder cancer - the most common type is transitional cell carcinoma. Urodynamic testing can help to explain the symptoms. In ... The inner side of the bladder is lined with a mucosal membrane consisting of a surface glycocalyx that protects the cells ... Anatomy of the male bladder, showing transitional epithelium and part of the wall in a histological cut-out. The detrusor ... beneath it from urine, the urothelium (a form of transitional epithelium), a basement membrane, and the lamina propria. The ...
Raman, JD; Scherr, DS (2007). "Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma". Nature Clinical ... Effective Tumor Immunotherapy in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder. 2005-2007 Career Development Award. Kidney Urology ... in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder". Clinical Cancer Research. 11 (24 Pt 1): 8570-6. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05- ... "Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy for Upper Urinary Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma". JSLS. 10 (4): 432-8. PMC ...
Ward AM (July 1971). "Glandular metaplasia and mucin production in transitional cell carcinomas of bladder". J. Clin. Pathol. ...
"Abnormal selective cytology predicts tumor recurrences in upper tract transitional cell carcinoma treated with endoscopic laser ... "Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy for Upper Urinary Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma". JSLS. 10 (4): 432-438. PMC ... for patients undergoing ureteroscopic biopsy and laser tumor ablation of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma". Urology. 66 ... GCO 03-0962(2). An Open Label, Single Arm Trial of Immunotherapy with Autologous Antigen Presenting Cells Loaded with PA2024 ( ...
"BCG Immunotherapy for Transitional-Cell Carcinoma in Situ of the Bladder". Retrieved 26 September 2016. "A technique for ...
2003). "High expression of human uroplakin Ia in urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 93 (5): 523- ... 2004). "Molecular cloning and expression of uroplakins in transitional cell carcinoma". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 539 (Pt A): 33-46 ... "Expression of transitional cell-specific genes, uroplakin Ia and II, in bladder cancer: detection of circulating cancer cells ... Cell. 13 (12): 4221-30. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-04-0211. PMC 138628 . PMID 12475947. Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al ...
"PTCH gene mutations in invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder". Oncogene. 17 (9): 1167-72. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... basal-cell carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer. As such, SMO is an attractive cancer drug target, along with the ... a smoothened receptor inhibitor for the treatment of basal-cell carcinoma, being investigated for the treatment of other types ... "Missense mutations in SMOH in sporadic basal cell carcinomas of the skin and primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central ...
She was being treated for transitional-cell carcinoma, a form of cancer. Thorne died of bladder cancer in Concord, ...
2001). "Prostate stem cell antigen is overexpressed in human transitional cell carcinoma". Cancer Res. 61 (12): 4660-5. PMID ... 2007). "Targeting of tumor cells expressing the prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) using genetically engineered T-cells". ... "Entrez Gene: PSCA prostate stem cell antigen". Gu Z, Thomas G, Yamashiro J, et al. (2000). "Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) ... "Prostate stem cell antigen: a cell surface marker overexpressed in prostate cancer". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95 (4): 1735-40 ...
Non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma are very rare in the endometrium. Squamous cell ... Histologically, TCCE resembles endometrioid carcinoma and is distinct from other transitional cell carcinomas. In contrast to ... Papillary serous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, and endometrioid carcinoma are the subtypes at the highest risk of recurrence ... distinct cell membranes. The p53 cell signaling system is not active in endometrial clear cell carcinoma. This form of ...
"Sperm associated antigen 9 plays an important role in bladder transitional cell carcinoma". PLoS One. 8 (12): e81348. doi: ... SPAG9 is a potential biomarker for early cervical carcinoma bladder cancer, and lung cancer. SPAG9 has been shown to interact ... This gene which is abundantly expressed in testicular haploid germ cells encodes a protein that is recognized by sperm- ... Extracellular signals are transduced into cells through mitogen-activated protein kinases. The structural organization of these ...
Rarer forms of tubal neoplasm include the leiomyosarcoma, and the transitional cell carcinoma. As the tumor is often enmeshed ... GOLDMAN JA, GANS B, ECKERLING B (November 1961). "Hydrops tubae profluens--symptom in tubal carcinoma". Obstet Gynecol. 18: 631 ... Vaginal discharge in fallopian tube carcinoma result from intermittent hydrosalphinx that is called as hydrops tubae profluens ... "Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy in carcinoma of the fallopian tube". Gynecol Oncol. UCSF. "Gynecologic Cancer: ...
He died on October 7, 2014 in Kathmandu, suffering from transitional cell carcinoma. "Dr AK Sharma, pioneer of modern surgery, ...
"Expression patterns of erbB receptor family in normal urothelium and transitional cell carcinoma. An immunohistochemical study ... Cell. 127 (1): 185-97. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.037. PMID 17018285. "Entrez Gene: ERBB4 v-erb-a erythroblastic leukemia viral ... Cohen BD, Green JM, Foy L, Fell HP (Mar 1996). "HER4-mediated biological and biochemical properties in NIH 3T3 cells. Evidence ... Culouscou JM, Plowman GD, Carlton GW, Green JM, Shoyab M (Sep 1993). "Characterization of a breast cancer cell differentiation ...
Types of urethral cancer include transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and melanoma. Surgery is ... Cancer in this location is rare, and the most common type is papillary transitional cell carcinoma. The most common site of ... Anterior urethral cancer Carcinoma of the penis Ries, LAG; Young, JL; Keel, GE; Eisner, MP; Lin, YD; Horner, M-J, eds. (2007 ... Chemotherapy is sometimes used to destroy urethral cancer cells. It is a systemic urethral cancer treatment (i.e., destroys ...
"Alterations in tropomyosin isoform expression in human transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder". Int J Cancer. 110 ( ... and highly-metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cell line. It is interesting to note that the study found that, as cells become more ... and high-metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cells". Mol Cell Biol. 8 (9): 3934-3937. PMC 365453 . PMID 3221870. Takenaga, K; ... In the initial studies, transformation of rat embryo fibroblast cell line REF-52 and of normal rat kidney cells led to ...
Also note that the bladder wall is thickened due to possible transitional cell carcinoma. Large bowel (sigmoid colon) showing ...
"High-resolution deletion mapping of 15q13.2-q21.1 in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder". Cancer Res. 63: 7657-62. PMID ...
"Protocadherin 17 promoter methylation in tumour tissue from patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma". J Int Med Res. ... The encoded protein may play a role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. PCDH17 ... Cell Res. 261 (1): 13-8. doi:10.1006/excr.2000.5039. PMID 11082270. Wu Q, Maniatis T (2000). "Large exons encoding multiple ...
Less common tumors are malignant Brenner tumor and transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Sex cord-stromal tumor, including ... Germ cell tumors tend to occur in young women (20's-30's) and girls. Whilst overall the prognosis of germ cell tumors tend to ... Germ cell tumor accounts for approximately 30% of ovarian tumors but only 5% of ovarian cancers, because most germ cell tumors ... estrogen-producing granulosa cell tumor and virilizing Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor or arrhenoblastoma, accounts for 8% of ovarian ...
2004). "Alterations in tropomyosin isoform expression in human transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder". Int. J. ... "Tmod3 regulates polarized epithelial cell morphology". J. Cell Sci. 120 (Pt 20): 3625-32. doi:10.1242/jcs.011445. PMID 17928307 ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. Fischer RS, Yarmola EG, Weber KL, et al. (2007). "Tropomodulin 3 binds to actin ... Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216. Fischer RS, Fritz-Six KL, Fowler VM (2003). "Pointed-end capping ...
Brenner tumors are an uncommon subtype of the surface epithelial-stromal tumor group of ovarian neoplasms. The majority are benign, but some can be malignant. They are most frequently found incidentally on pelvic examination or at laparotomy. Brenner tumours very rarely can occur in other locations, including the testes. On gross pathological examination, they are solid, sharply circumscribed and pale yellow-tan in colour. 90% are unilateral (arising in one ovary, the other is unaffected). The tumours can vary in size from less than 1 centimetre (0.39 in) to 30 centimetres (12 in). Borderline and malignant Brenner tumours are possible but each are rare. Histologically, there are nests of transitional epithelial (urothelial) cells with longitudinal nuclear grooves (coffee bean nuclei) lying in abundant fibrous stroma. Transitional cell ...
In urologic pathology, PUNLMP, short for papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, is an exophytic (outward growing), (microscopically) nipple-shaped (or papillary) pre-malignant growth of the lining of the upper genitourinary tract (the urothelium), which includes the renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder and part of the urethra. PUNLMP is pronounced pun-lump, like the words pun and lump. As their name suggests, PUNLMPs are neoplasms, i.e. clonal cellular proliferations, that are thought to have a low probability of developing into urothelial cancer, i.e. a malignancy such as bladder cancer. PUNLMPs can lead to blood in the urine (hematuria) or may be asymptomatic. PUNLMPs are exophytic lesions that appear friable to the naked eye and when imaged during cystoscopy. They are definitively diagnosed after removal by microscopic examination by pathologists. Histologically, they have a papillary architecture with slender fibrovascular cores and rare basal ...
... is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which cells grow abnormally and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms include blood in the urine, pain with urination, and low back pain. Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking, family history, prior radiation therapy, frequent bladder infections, and exposure to certain chemicals. The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma. Other types include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Diagnosis is typically by cystoscopy with tissue biopsies. Staging of the cancer is typically determined by medical imaging such as CT scan and bone scan. Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer. It may include some combination of ...
A ureteral neoplasm is a type of tumor that can be primary, or associated with a metastasis from another site. Treatment may involve removal of the kidney and ureter, or just the ureter. Classification of cancers often is oriented around the embryological origin of the tissue. In some contexts, the primary division is at the border of kidney and ureter, and in other contexts, the primary division is between derivatives of the metanephric blastema and those of the ureteric bud. Because of this, neoplasia of the ureters are sometimes grouped with tumors of the renal pelvis. Ureteral cancer Shimoyama Y, Ohashi M, Hashiguchi N, et al. (September 2000). "Gastric cancer recognized by metastasis to the ureter". Gastric Cancer. 3 (2): 102-105. doi:10.1007/PL00011693. PMID 11984719. "Ureteral Cancer". "Transitional Cell Cancer (Kidney/Ureter) Treatment - National Cancer Institute". "Renal Pelvis and Ureter Cancer: Cancers of the Kidney and Urinary ...
... is carcinogenic and may increase the risk of developing lymphomas, leukemia, skin cancer, transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder or other malignancies.[29] Myeloproliferative neoplasms, including acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma, occurred in 5 of 119 rheumatoid arthritis patients within the first decade after receiving cyclophosphamide, compared with one case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 119 rheumatoid arthritis patients with no history.[30] Secondary acute myeloid leukemia (therapy-related AML, or "t-AML") is thought to occur either by cyclophosphamide-inducing mutations or selecting for a high-risk myeloid clone.[31]. This risk may be dependent on dose and other factors, including the condition, other agents or treatment modalities (including radiotherapy), treatment length and intensity. For some regimens, it is rare. For instance, CMF-therapy for breast cancer ...
... (trade name Tecentriq) is a fully humanized, engineered monoclonal antibody of IgG1 isotype against the protein programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). In 2015, it was in clinical trials as an immunotherapy for several types of solid tumors. It was under investigation by Genentech/Roche. In April 2016, Roche announced that atezolizumab had been granted fast track status for lung cancer by the FDA. In May 2016, it was approved by the FDA for bladder cancer treatment., but in May 2017 it failed phase 3 trial for second line bladder cancer. In May 2016 FDA granted accelerated approval to atezolizumab for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma treatment after failure of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The confirmatory trial (to convert the accelerated approval into a full approval) failed to achieve its primary endpoint of overall survival. In October 2016, FDA approved atezolizumab for the treatment of patients with metastatic ...
... is a mitomycin that is used as a chemotherapeutic agent by virtue of its antitumour activity. It is given intravenously to treat upper gastro-intestinal cancers (e.g. esophageal carcinoma), anal cancers, and breast cancers, as well as by bladder instillation for superficial bladder tumours. It causes delayed bone marrow toxicity and therefore it is usually administered at 6-weekly intervals. Prolonged use may result in permanent bone-marrow damage. It may also cause lung fibrosis and renal damage. Mitomycin C has also been used topically rather than intravenously in several areas. The first is cancers, particularly bladder cancers and intraperitoneal tumours. It is now well known that a single instillation of this agent within 6 hours of bladder tumor resection can prevent recurrence. The second is in eye surgery where mitomycin C 0.02% is applied topically to prevent scarring during glaucoma filtering surgery and to prevent haze after PRK or LASIK; mitomycin C has also ...
In urologic pathology, PUNLMP, short for papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, is an exophytic (outward growing), (microscopically) nipple-shaped (or papillary) pre-malignant growth of the lining of the upper genitourinary tract (the urothelium), which includes the renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder and part of the urethra. PUNLMP is pronounced pun-lump, like the words pun and lump. As their name suggests, PUNLMPs are neoplasms, i.e. clonal cellular proliferations, that are thought to have a low probability of developing into urothelial cancer, i.e. a malignancy such as bladder cancer. PUNLMPs can lead to blood in the urine (hematuria) or may be asymptomatic. PUNLMPs are exophytic lesions that appear friable to the naked eye and when imaged during cystoscopy. They are definitively diagnosed after removal by microscopic examination by pathologists. Histologically, they have a papillary architecture with slender fibrovascular cores and rare basal ...
... is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which cells grow abnormally and have the potential to spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms include blood in the urine, pain with urination, and low back pain. Risk factors for bladder cancer include smoking, family history, prior radiation therapy, frequent bladder infections, and exposure to certain chemicals. The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma. Other types include squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Diagnosis is typically by cystoscopy with tissue biopsies. Staging of the cancer is typically determined by medical imaging such as CT scan and bone scan. Treatment depends on the stage of the cancer. It may include some combination of ...
... is a mitomycin that is used as a chemotherapeutic agent by virtue of its antitumour activity. It is given intravenously to treat upper gastro-intestinal cancers (e.g. esophageal carcinoma), anal cancers, and breast cancers, as well as by bladder instillation for superficial bladder tumours. It causes delayed bone marrow toxicity and therefore it is usually administered at 6-weekly intervals. Prolonged use may result in permanent bone-marrow damage. It may also cause lung fibrosis and renal damage. Mitomycin C has also been used topically rather than intravenously in several areas. The first is cancers, particularly bladder cancers and intraperitoneal tumours. It is now well known that a single instillation of this agent within 6 hours of bladder tumor resection can prevent recurrence. The second is in eye surgery where mitomycin C 0.02% is applied topically to prevent scarring during glaucoma filtering surgery and to prevent haze after PRK or LASIK; mitomycin C has also ...
A ureteral neoplasm is a type of tumor that can be primary, or associated with a metastasis from another site. Treatment may involve removal of the kidney and ureter, or just the ureter. Classification of cancers often is oriented around the embryological origin of the tissue. In some contexts, the primary division is at the border of kidney and ureter, and in other contexts, the primary division is between derivatives of the metanephric blastema and those of the ureteric bud. Because of this, neoplasia of the ureters are sometimes grouped with tumors of the renal pelvis. Ureteral cancer Shimoyama Y, Ohashi M, Hashiguchi N, et al. (September 2000). "Gastric cancer recognized by metastasis to the ureter". Gastric Cancer. 3 (2): 102-105. doi:10.1007/PL00011693. PMID 11984719. "Ureteral Cancer". "Transitional Cell Cancer (Kidney/Ureter) Treatment - National Cancer Institute". "Renal Pelvis and Ureter Cancer: Cancers of the Kidney and Urinary ...
... (trade name Tecentriq) is a fully humanized, engineered monoclonal antibody of IgG1 isotype against the protein programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). In 2015, it was in clinical trials as an immunotherapy for several types of solid tumors. It was under investigation by Genentech/Roche. In April 2016, Roche announced that atezolizumab had been granted fast track status for lung cancer by the FDA. In May 2016, it was approved by the FDA for bladder cancer treatment., but in May 2017 it failed phase 3 trial for second line bladder cancer. In May 2016 FDA granted accelerated approval to atezolizumab for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma treatment after failure of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The confirmatory trial (to convert the accelerated approval into a full approval) failed to achieve its primary endpoint of overall survival. In October 2016, FDA approved atezolizumab for the treatment of patients with metastatic ...
Ang pang-ihing pantog (Ingles: urinary bladder) ang organong kumokolekta sa ihing inilalabas ng bato (kidney) bago ang pagtatapon ng ihi sa pamamagitan ng pag-ihi. ...
Raman, Jay D. ; Scherr, Douglas S. / Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. In: Nature ... Raman, J. D., & Scherr, D. S. (2007). Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Nature ... Raman, JD & Scherr, DS 2007, Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma, Nature Clinical ... Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. / Raman, Jay D.; Scherr, Douglas S. ...
... are prognostic factors of overall survival for patients with invasive upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC ... Microsatellite instability as predictor of survival in patients with invasive upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. ... Aged, Carcinoma, Transitional Cell, Female, Humans, Kidney Neoplasms, Male, Microsatellite Repeats, MutS Homolog 2 Protein, ... Microsatellite instability as predictor of survival in patients with invasive upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. ...
Dysmorphic red blood cells, cellular casts, proteinuria, elevated creatinine levels, or hypertension in the presence of ... which is defined as the presence of three or more red blood cells per high-power field visible in a properly collected urine ... Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: spectrum of imaging findings. Radiographics. 2005;25(6):1609-1627. ... Multiphasic computed tomography urography in a 71-year-old woman with gross hematuria secondary to transitional cell carcinoma ...
UPPER URINARY-TRACT ; TRANSITIONAL-CELL-CARCINOMA ; INVASIVE BLADDER-CANCER ; PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION ; RENAL PELVIS ; TUMORS ... Methylation Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Contralateral Recurrence Radical Nephroureterectomy Predictors 刊名. JOURNAL OF ... 3.Peking Univ, Canc Hosp & Inst, Minist Educ, Dept Cell Biol,Key Lab Carcinogenesis & Translat, Beijing 100142, Peoples R China ... However, it is unknown the predictive role of methylation to contralateral new upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after ...
The third possibility is that of signet ring cell carcinoma arising from metaplastic transitional cell carcinoma [4, 10-14]. ... normal transitional cell carcinoma will reveal signet ring cells in many cases and the exact percentage of signet ring cells ... Most patients present in middle-age with symptoms indistinguishable from the much more common transitional cell carcinoma of ... Those consisting of a mix of signet-ring cells and transitional cells are more likely to be of primary bladder origin [1]. Also ...
Drugs & Diseases , Radiology , Transitional Cell Carcinoma Imaging Q&A How are transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) staged?. ... encoded search term (How are transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) staged?) and How are transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) ... Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: staging by MRI. Abdom Imaging. 1995 Jul-Aug. 20(4):365-7. [Medline]. ... A provisional diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma was made. Subsequent investigations and the course of events proved that ...
Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary "transitional cell carcinoma" at Dorlands Medical Dictionary Colin P, Koenig P, ... Micrograph of urethral urothelial cell carcinoma. H&E stain. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) can be very difficult to treat. ... Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) also urothelial carcinoma (UCC), is a type of cancer that typically occurs in the urinary ... Njinou Ngninkeu B, Lorge F, Moulin P, Jamart J, Van Cangh PJ (January 2003). "Transitional cell carcinoma involving the ...
Transitional Cell Carcinoma Imaging Q&A Which ultrasonography findings are characteristic of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC)? ... Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: staging by MRI. Abdom Imaging. 1995 Jul-Aug. 20(4):365-7. [Medline]. ... A provisional diagnosis of transitional cell carcinoma was made. Subsequent investigations and the course of events proved that ... The histologic diagnosis was a right renal pelvis neurofibroma and a bladder transitional cell carcinoma. ...
... we analyzed the proteomic profiling of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines to search for novel biomarkers for human ... Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the one of the most commonly observed types of cancer globally. The identification of ... Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, the second most common urologic malignancy, is amenable to early diagnosis. This ... Effect of CD44 gene polymorphisms on risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Taiwan. The carcinogenesis ...
Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary, abbreviated TCC of the ovary, is a rare type of ovarian cancer that has an appearance ... Apr 2004). "Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary: a morphologic study of 100 cases with emphasis on differential diagnosis ... It is not related urothelial carcinoma. It is in the transitional cell category of ovarian tumours which also includes ... Brenner tumour Tazi, EM.; Lalya, I.; Tazi, MF.; Ahellal, Y.; Mrabti, H.; Errihani, H. (2010). "Transitional cell carcinoma of ...
Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a malignancy that metastasizes frequently to lymph nodes including the ... Mediastinal metastases from transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder either are asymptomatic or may more commonly produce the ... S. S. Dhillon, D. Singh, B. Dass, and C. R. Schaub, "Transitional cell carcinoma manifesting as acute cor pulmonale: cause of ... We report the case of a 59-year-old man with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma for whom mediastinal lymphadenopathy led to ...
As a result of this development, tumors of the renal collecting system have cell origins different from those of the renal ... Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Urothelial Carcinoma) Imaging * Sections Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Urothelial Carcinoma) ... Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Urothelial Carcinoma) Imaging) and Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Urothelial Carcinoma) Imaging What ... What are transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs)?. What is the role of imaging in the workup of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC)? ...
Treatment for Murine Transitional Cell Carcinoma http://www.chiro.org/nutrition/ABSTRACTS/Allium_Sativum_Garlic_Treatment.shtml ... Murine Transitional Cell Carcinoma This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.. Send all comments or additions to: ... further investigation and suggests that AS may provide a new and effective form of therapy for transitional cell carcinoma of ... is the most effective treatment for superficial bladder carcinoma, but treatment-related toxicity may limit its use in some ...
Transitional cell carcinoma can be distinguished from adenocarcinoma and carcinoma endometriode exclusively for its ... Transitional cell carcinoma has its origin at the level of the periurethral ducts in the area of the junction of the ... Transitional cell carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with an reported incidence of 2%. It is biologically different from ... Various therapies have been used to treat transitional cell carcinoma but with poor results. Surgical treatment is still today ...
Urothelial (Transitional Cell) Carcinoma. Urothelial carcinoma (formerly known as transitional cell carcinoma) is a cancer ... People with urothelial carcinoma of the kidney often have the same symptoms as patients with renal cell cancer. The most ... Chemotherapy is sometimes used in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma. Follow up is important because urothelial carcinoma is ... The cells use to be called transitional because they can stretch and change shape without breaking. ...
Ninety percent of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas. Other types are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, ... Pelvic renal transitional cell carcinoma represents about 10% of all renal carcinomas. ... About 10% of transitional cell carcinomas of the ureteral tract arise in the renal pelvis. Tumors arising in the renal pelvis ... Transitional cell carcinoma arises from the epithelial layer found in the renal pelvis, ureter, or bladder. They are noted for ...
Epidemiology Upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) are relatively rare, accounting for 5-7% of all renal ... Background of Upper Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma. Epidemiology. Upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) ... Komatsu H, Tanabe N, Kubodera S, Maezawa H, Ueno A. The role of lymphadenectomy in the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma ... Miyake H, Hara I, Gohji K, Arakawa S, Kamidono S. The significance of lymphadenectomy in transitional cell carcinoma of the ...
Tamoxifen for Progressive Transitional Cell Carcinoma Following Previous Chemotherapy Treatment. Official Title ICMJE H-16848 ... Tamoxifen for Progressive Transitional Cell Carcinoma Following Previous Chemotherapy Treatment. This study has been completed ... Phase II Pilot Study With Correlative Markers of Tamoxifen for Progressive Transitional Cell Carcinoma Following Previous ... Expression of estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta in bladder cancer cell lines and human bladder tumor tissue. Cancer. 2006 Jun ...
Coverage of the Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Urothelial Cell Carcinoma) pipeline on the basis of target, MoA, route of ... Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Urothelial Cell Carcinoma) - Pipeline Review, H2 2014: Order report by calling Rnrmarketsresearch. ... The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Urothelial Cell Carcinoma) ... It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Transitional Cell Carcinoma (Urothelial Cell Carcinoma ...
Ninety percent of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas. Other types are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, ... Urothelial Cell Carcinoma Linked to High Albumin Excretion *Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Transitional Cell ... Pelvic renal transitional cell carcinoma represents about 10% of all renal carcinomas. ... About 10% of transitional cell carcinomas of the ureteral tract arise in the renal pelvis. Tumors arising in the renal pelvis ...
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from transitional epithelium, occurring chiefly in the urinary ... Transitional cell carcinomas are graded 1 to 3 or 4 according to the degree of anaplasia, grade 1 appearing histologically ...
... in Muscle Invasive or Recurrent Transitional Cell Carcinoma Requiring Cystectomy. Trial Phase:. Phase 2. Minimum Age:. 18 Years ... in Muscle Invasive or Recurrent Transitional Cell Carcinoma Requiring Cystectomy. The Study Drug:. Erlotinib hydrochloride is ... focal on pathology); Small cell carcinoma; 3-D mass on exam under anesthesia (EUA);. Lymphovascular invasion; Hydronephrosis ( ... the case for small cell variant which is traditionally treated with cytoreductive. chemotherapy. Patients with small cell who ...
... cancer arising from the transitional epithelium - the highly stretchable lining of the urinary tract system - of the kidney, ... Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a malignant (aggressive) and metastasizing (spreading) ... Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Renal, Bladder and Urethra in Dogs. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is a malignant ( ... Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Tract in Dogs. 3 min read ...
Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Tract in Dogs. 3 min read ... Also referred to as a UTI; a medical condition of the urinary tract and system in which the cells are damaged by microorganisms ... A covering of cells that turns into the outermost layer of skin and covers the body ...
  • Multiple therapeutic options are available for the management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). (elsevier.com)
  • Raman, JD & Scherr, DS 2007, ' Management of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma ', Nature Clinical Practice Urology , vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 432-443. (elsevier.com)
  • Microsatellite instability as predictor of survival in patients with invasive upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVES: To establish whether high microsatellite instability (MSI) (present in almost 20% of cases) and loss of MSH2 protein expression (sometimes used to predict MSI status) are prognostic factors of overall survival for patients with invasive upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Primary signet ring cell carcinoma of urinary bladder is a rare type of bladder tumor and carries a very high mortality rate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diagnostic work up including abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) scan, retrograde pyelogram, cystography and cystoscopic biopsies revealed the diagnosis of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the most effective treatment for superficial bladder carcinoma, but treatment-related toxicity may limit its use in some patients. (chiro.org)