Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Platelet Transfusion: The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Plasmapheresis: Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Blood Transfusion, Autologous: Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Blood Component Transfusion: The transfer of blood components such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma from a donor to a recipient or back to the donor. This process differs from the procedures undertaken in PLASMAPHERESIS and types of CYTAPHERESIS; (PLATELETPHERESIS and LEUKAPHERESIS) where, following the removal of plasma or the specific cell components, the remainder is transfused back to the donor.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Blood Group Incompatibility: An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine: In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Fetofetal Transfusion: Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Leukocyte Transfusion: The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Blood Banks: Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Blood DonorsTissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Blood Preservation: The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Anemia, Neonatal: The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Erythroblastosis, Fetal: A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Plateletpheresis: The preparation of platelet concentrates with the return of red cells and platelet-poor plasma to the donor.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Operative Blood Salvage: Recovery of blood lost from surgical procedures for reuse by the same patient in AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS. It is collected during (intraoperatively) or after completion of (postoperatively) the surgical procedures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Tranexamic Acid: Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Blood Substitutes: Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.Blood Safety: The degree to which the blood supply for BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS is free of harmful substances or infectious agents, and properly typed and crossmatched (BLOOD GROUPING AND CROSSMATCHING) to insure serological compatibility between BLOOD DONORS and recipients.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Fetomaternal Transfusion: Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Rh Isoimmunization: The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.Leukocyte Reduction Procedures: The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Fetoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Hemostatics: Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Hemostasis, Surgical: Control of bleeding during or after surgery.Hematinics: Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Aprotinin: A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Rh-Hr Blood-Group System: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Chelation Therapy: Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Antigens, Human Platelet: Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Exsanguination: Rapid and extreme blood loss leading to HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Hydrops Fetalis: Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Aminocaproic Acid: An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.Coronary Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with acute cardiac disorders receive intensive care.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Trauma Centers: Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Erythrocyte Aging: The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Anemia, Refractory: A severe sometimes chronic anemia, usually macrocytic in type, that does not respond to ordinary antianemic therapy.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Blood Component Removal: Any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion is separated and retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Infant, Premature, DiseasesHospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Postpartum Hemorrhage: Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Shock, Hemorrhagic: Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Materials Management, Hospital: The management of all procurement, distribution, and storage of equipment and supplies, as well as logistics management including laundry, processing of reusables, etc.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Anemia, Hemolytic: A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures: The treatment of patients without the use of allogeneic BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS or blood products.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Arteriovenous Anastomosis: A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Transfusion Medicine: The area of hematology that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components, and in prevention and treatment of adverse effects from BLOOD TRANSFUSION errors.Polyhydramnios: A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Multiple Organ Failure: A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.Thrombocytopenia, Neonatal Alloimmune: A condition in newborns caused by immunity of the mother to PLATELET ALLOANTIGENS on the fetal platelets. The PLATELETS, coated with maternal ANTIBODIES, are destroyed and removed by the fetal MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. Affected infants may have INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Reticulocyte Count: The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Leukapheresis: The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Patient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Antisickling Agents: Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage: Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Respiratory Care Units: The hospital unit in which patients with respiratory conditions requiring special attention receive intensive medical care and surveillance.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Antigen negative units are then tested against the patient plasma using an antiglobulin/indirect crossmatch technique at 37 ... Transfusion Evidence Library searchable source of evidence for transfusion medicine.. Blood Transfusion Societies. * ... A massive transfusion protocol is used when significant blood loss is present such as in major trauma, when more than ten units ... Transfusion inefficacy or insufficient efficacy of a given unit(s) of blood product, while not itself a "complication" per se, ...
In transfusion medicine, cross-matching or crossmatching (part of series of steps in blood compatibility tests) is testing ... This is the required cross-match prior to release of a unit of packed cells. Minor cross-match: Recipient red cells are tested ... Electronic cross-matching is a computer-assisted analysis using data, from the donor unit (where a donor's blood is tested ... This includes ABO/Rh typing of the unit and of the recipient, and an antibody screen of the recipient. Electronic cross- ...
Academically, each unit is studied alone in one course. Other courses pertaining to this section include anatomy, physiology, ... It also prepares blood components, derivatives, and products for transfusion. Regulated by the FDA since giving blood is ... Pathology to observe Blood grouping, Haematology & cross matching reactions. It also involves PRO department for the ... Clinical Chemistry: Units under this busy section include instrumental analysis of blood components, enzymology, toxicology and ...
More testing, including a crossmatch, is usually done before a transfusion. Group O is often cited as the "universal donor" but ... From three to ten units of whole blood are required for a therapeutic dose. Plateletpheresis provides at least one full dose ... "Transfusion handbook, Summary information for Red Blood Cells". National Blood Transfusion Committee. Retrieved 2008-06-02. " ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-3148.2006.00694_4.x. "Transfusion Handbook, summary information for Platelets". National Blood Transfusion ...
Typing and cross-matching of blood was unknown at the time, but the injured patient recovered. By 1914, it became evident that ... The only unit remaining open in the Dee Hospital was the Tuberculosis ward, until those patients were moved to the Weber County ... Ezra Rich did the first blood transfusion in Ogden at the Dee on February 9, 1913. It was a direct gravity flow between two ... Establishment of the unit and training of 40 perfusionists to operate the heart-lung by-pass pump were approved by the ...
Autolgous blood transfusion, Nurs Times, 13-19; 84(2):33-5 Jan 1988 Autologous Blood Transfusion Education Program, Training ... If the patients HCT is normal, the amount needed to process a unit is roughly two times the bowl volume. When aspirating the ... After the war, blood testing, typing, and crossmatching techniques were improved making blood banks the answer to the increased ... The usual ratio of heparinized saline is 5,000 units of heparin per 1,000 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride. The heparin is removed ...
One unit brings up hemoglobin levels by about 10 g/L. Repeated transfusions may be required in people receiving cancer ... Cross matching is typically required before the blood is given. It is given by injection into a vein. Side effects include ... "Complications of Transfusion: Transfusion Medicine: Merck Manual Professional". Archived from the original on 23 October 2010. ... Blood transfusion is typically recommended when hemoglobin levels reach 70 g/L (7 g/dL) in those who have stable vital signs. ...
This is typical of minor blood group exposure (e.g. Kell) following allogenic blood transfusion or trauma during pregnancy. At ... In humans MHC is also called human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Though cytotoxic-crossmatch assay can predict rejection mediated by ... whose basic unit is shaped like the letter Y: the two arms are the Fab regions, while the single stalk is the Fc region. Each ... Cases refractory to immunosuppressive or antibody therapy are sometimes given blood transfusions-removing antibody molecules ...
Risks can be further reduced by cross-matching blood, but this may be skipped when blood is required for an emergency. Cross- ... Units of packed red cells are made by removing as much of the plasma as possible from whole blood units. Clotting factors ... possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs ... and sensitization to platelet or WBC antigens can occur as a result of transfusion. For transfusions of plasma, this situation ...
Units of packed red cells are made by removing as much of the plasma as possible from whole blood units. ... Risks can be further reduced by cross-matching blood, but this may be skipped when blood is required for an emergency. Cross- ... ප්රධාන ලිපිය: Blood transfusion. Transfusion medicine is a specialized branch of hematology that is concerned with the study ... possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs ...
... specifically in the erythroid burst-forming unit and erythroid colony-forming unit. The mRNA from human erythroblasts is ~1.4 ... Antibodies to the Gerbich antigens have been associated with transfusion reactions and mild hemolytic disease of the newborn. ... during post operative blood cross matching for an aortic aneurism repair. In Finland the incidence of this antigen was found to ... Transfusion. 34 (11): 966-9. doi:10.1046/j.1537-2995.1994.341195065034.x. PMID 7526492. Kornstad L, Green CA, Sistonen P, ...
Though cytotoxic-crossmatch assay can predict rejection mediated by cellular immunity, genetic-expression tests specific to the ... This is typical of minor blood group exposure (e.g. Kell) following allogenic blood transfusion or trauma during pregnancy. At ... whose basic unit is shaped like the letter Y: the two arms are the Fab regions, while the single stalk is the Fc region. Each ... 77 (3): 209-21. doi:10.1002/mrd.21127. PMID 19998476.. *^ Galili, U (Dec 2005). "The alpha-gal epitope and the anti-Gal ...
Figure 1B shows two µL units linked by a disulfide bond in the Cµ2 domains; this (µL)2 structure is often referred to as the ... 2004). "Protective anti-donor IgM production after crossmatch positive liver-kidney transplantation". Liver Transplantation. 10 ... of red blood cells if the recipient of a blood transfusion receives blood that is not compatible with their blood type. ... 4 (3): 217-228. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.1975.tb02620.x. PMID 807966. Davis, A. C.; Roux, K. H.; Shulman, M. J. (1988). "On the ...
Blood transfusion. *Coombs test (direct and indirect). *Cross-matching. *Exchange transfusion. *International Society of Blood ... A unit of donated fresh plasma. Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood ... Plasma Equipment and Packaging, and Transfusion Equipment *^ Starr, Douglas P. (2000). Blood: An Epic History of Medicine and ... Plasma as a blood product prepared from blood donations is used in blood transfusions, typically as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) ...
Cross-matching. Determination of blood type for blood transfusion or transplants. *Blood cultures are commonly taken if ... Unit. Comments. Sodium (Na). 136. 145. mmol/L. Potassium (K). 3.5. 5.0. mmol/L. ... Also, respiratory therapists are trained to extract arterial blood to examine arterial blood gases. ...
Blood transfusion. *Coombs test (direct and indirect). *Cross-matching. *Exchange transfusion. *International Society of Blood ... Pooled whole-blood platelets, sometimes called "random" platelets, are separated by one of two methods. In the US, a unit ... Transfusion. Main article: Platelet transfusion. Indications. Platelet transfusion is most frequently used to ... When recipients fail to demonstrate an adequate post-transfusion increment, this is termed platelet transfusion refractoriness ...
Cross-matching. Determination of blood type for blood transfusion or transplants. *Blood cultures are commonly taken if ... Unit. Comments. Sodium (Na). 134. 145. mmol/L. Potassium (K). 3.5. 5.0. mmol/L. ... Also, respiratory therapists are trained to extract arterial blood to examine arterial blood gases. ...
The only unit remaining open in the Dee Hospital was the Tuberculosis ward, until those patients were moved to the Weber County ... Ezra Rich did the first blood transfusion in Ogden at the Dee on February 9, 1913. It was a direct gravity flow between two ... Typing and cross-matching of blood was unknown at the time, but the injured patient recovered. ... Establishment of the unit and training of 40 perfusionists to operate the heart-lung by-pass pump were approved by the ...
1) Give random platelet units 2) Crossmatch 3) Find platelets without the antigen that causes the reaction ... This is done to prevent TRANSFUSION ASSOCIATED GRAFT VS. HOST DISEASE. *****This is indicated in patients that are ... Leukoreduction i.e. whole blood unit is hung and run through a filter - Filters OUT leukocytes ...
... sample is submitted to the blood bank for type and screen along with a request for crossmatch of one irradiated RBC unit; the ... The patient has received red blood cell (RBC) and platelet transfusions in the hospital in the past but none in the prior 3 ... In: Immunohematology and Transfusion Medicine. Springer, Cham. * First Online 01 August 2018 ... 2.Department of Transfusion MedicineNational Institutes of Health Clinical CenterBethesdaUSA ...
In addition, a blood cross-match was performed and a matched donor horse was made available in case Lost In The Fog needed ... As soon as the plasma transfusion had been completed and Lost In The Fogs clotting times had been rechecked to make sure the ... He was returned to his stall in the ICU unit where he was maintained on intravenous fluids and had his condition monitored ... In Lost In The Fogs case, one of the clotting times (PTT) was abnormally prolonged; therefore, a transfusion with 3 units of ...
Unit 9 Other Blood Group Systems Part 1. Terry Kotrla, MS, MT(ASCP)BB. Introduction. ISBT recognizes 30 blood group systems ... It is not necessary to phenotype donors for Lewis antigens prior to transfusion, give crossmatch compatible ... Whole Blood -After transfusion with one unit of whole blood, 1.0g/dl hemoglobin indications for transfusion with whole blood ... Unit 7 -. unit 7 human body systems 5 functions of the skeletal system. gives shape and support to the body protects the ...
A full cross-match and antibody screen of new antibodies should be performed before each transfusion. In centers that meet ... It is recommended to maintain a record of transfusion including the volume or weight of administered units, the Hb/Hct of the ... Preoperative transfusion (simple transfusion to Hb 10 g/dl if Hb , 9 g/dl or exchange if Hb ≥ 9 g/dl) is recommended for SCD ... If allo-antibodie(s) are identified, RBCs used for transfusion should be negative for the corresponding antigen(s) and cross ...
Antigen negative units are then tested against the patient plasma using an antiglobulin/indirect crossmatch technique at 37 ... Transfusion Evidence Library searchable source of evidence for transfusion medicine.. Blood Transfusion Societies. * ... A massive transfusion protocol is used when significant blood loss is present such as in major trauma, when more than ten units ... Transfusion inefficacy or insufficient efficacy of a given unit(s) of blood product, while not itself a "complication" per se, ...
Transfusion. Compatible blood can last a good 3 to 4 weeks in the recipients body. Well-matched whole blood or packed red ... Cross matching of red cells is ideal but still may not lead to a good match given the hyperactivity of the patients immune ... cells (a unit of whole blood with most of the plasma, leaving only a concentrated solution of red blood cells) may last longer ... If the hematocrit has dropped to a dangerously low level, then blood transfusion is needed and quickly. It is not unusual for a ...
Once a unit of blood has been requested for transfusion, it is vitally important to make sure the donor (unit of blood) and ... Hemagglutination assays are also used to screen and cross-match donor and recipient blood to ensure that the transfusion ... When units of blood are being considered for transfusion, pretransfusion blood testing must be performed. For the blood unit, ... Following determination of the blood type, immediately prior to releasing the blood for transfusion, a cross-match is performed ...
... and transfusion reactions. Students will consolidate and further develop professional behaviours and competencies, as well as ... Provides students with knowledge and practical skills required for blood banking and the discipline of blood transfusion. ... Unit content. • Foundations of blood banking and transfusion practices. • Major blood group systems and their clinical ... perform blood grouping, antibody screening, and cross matching procedures, interpret the results, and select blood products for ...
Many believe blood transfusions are safe. Whether they are or not is debatable. In any case, studies show, there are risks. ... The exact cost of blood transfusion is yet to be determined but it is at least $200 per unit to process. ... However, at that time physicians had no concept of blood groups and cross matching processes. Therefore, an estimated 1 out of ... However, blood transfusions are given for many reasons other than AIDS. Jon Barron, a board member of the Health Sciences ...
Why should donor units that are crossmatch-compatible NOT be released, unless life-threatening, before the antibody is ... If the DAT done on the patients post-transfusion EDTA blood sample is positive:. * DAT on the pre-transfusion blood sample ( ... NOTE: The DAT on the patients post-transfusion specimen may be negative - even though a hemolytic transfusion reaction has ... antigen-negative red cells must be selected for crossmatch and the crossmatch must be performed by the antiglobulin (IAT) ...
... and international news related to current best practices in transfusion medicine. ... promotes quality improvement among transfusion medicine professionals through timely sharing of educational resources, case ... Why should donor units that are crossmatch-compatible NOT be released, unless life-threatening, before the antibody is ... If the DAT done on the patients post-transfusion EDTA blood sample is positive:. * DAT on the pre-transfusion blood sample ( ...
The time and date of collection of the cross match specimen is indicated in the Electronic Medical Record (EMR). If a unit of ... Typical RBC units are 260 mL (+/-19 mL) volume. Indications for red blood cell transfusion:. *Hb ,70g/L; a RBC transfusion is ... Indicate any previous transfusion history, in particular intrauterine transfusion, or transfusion outside RCH. Indicate ... If patient >20kg, typically 1 unit and reassess*(Higher doses allowed in MTP/ red cell exchange/chronic transfusion programmes/ ...
... number of units of blood provided and number of units of blood transfused. Cross-match/transfusion ratio, degree of over/under ... cross-match transfusion ratio, over under transfusion, over-ordering of blood, transfusion index, transfusion probability ... The data gathered was subjected to analysis and the cross- match: transfusion ratio (CTr), transfusion index (TI), transfusion ... the cross-match to transfusion ratio was 2.83. Transfusion probability was 42% while transfusion index was 0.62%. Among these ...
A 41-year-old woman with Crohns disease presents for outpatient transfusion. The patient has a history of symptomatic chronic ... Friedman M.T., West K.A., Bizargity P., Annen K., Jhang J.S. (2018) Crossmatch Crisscross. In: Immunohematology and Transfusion ... for type and screen along with a request for crossmatch of two red blood cell (RBC) units. There are no prior test (i.e., type ... Antihuman globulin crossmatch Electronic/computer crossmatch Immediate spin crossmatch Wrong blood in tube ...
This unit cannot be used for any other patient, so a "type and crossmatch" should only be ordered when a transfusion is highly ... When crossmatching a unit of blood for a transfusion, the biggest concern is to avoid giving the patient antigen that would ... c. Stop the transfusion. Draw blood for type and cross to check the crossmatch for that unit. Give diphenhydramine, and proceed ... a. Transfuse 2 units, each over 6 hours, with furosemide in between the units. . . . . . b. Transfuse 1 unit over 3 hours ...
In autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), typing and cross-matching may be difficult. One should use the least incompatible blood ... Therefore, one should slowly transfuse half units of packed red blood cells to prevent rapid destruction of transfused blood. ... Transfusion Therapy. One should avoid transfusions unless absolutely necessary. However, transfusions may be essential for ... Settings in which EPO therapy has reduced transfusion requirements include the following:. * Children with chronic renal ...
Check IV site and use appropriate BT set and needle B. You are preparing a unit of whole blood for transfusion. hypertension ... The earliest signs of transfusion reactions are: A. Verify client identity and blood product blood product. cross matching ... 273-2245 Situation 14 Based on studies of nurses working in special units like the intensive care unit and coronary care unit. ... Diego is undergoing blood transfusion of the first unit. which include: A. Frank s respiratory status necessitates endotracheal ...
Type and cross-match to identify units of "least incompatible" donor red blood cells for transfusion ... Initial response to transfusion may be poor as hemolysis of both transfused and autologous cells continues during transfusion. ... This test is used in transfusion medicine to determine whether patients have red cell alloantibodies from prior transfusions or ... the initial step in management is transfusion of "least incompatible" red blood cells. Red cell transfusion should be ...
A cross-match test is performed to prevent immune transfusion complications before transfusion. Our hypothesis is that the ... 4Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Unit of Blood Bank, Ankara, Turkey. 5University of Health Sciences, G lhane Training ... Incomplete Antibodies May Reduce ABO Cross-Match Incompatibility: A Pilot Study. Mehmet zen1, Soner Y lmaz2, T lin zkan3, Ye im ... Cross-match tests were performed by tube and gel centrifugation methods. The agglutination levels due to the anti-A and anti-B ...
When removing Flying Squad units, record the patient details and ensure that a sample for crossmatching is taken before ... 2 units in Orsett Day Unit Blood Bank.. This blood is ABO and Rh(D) compatible with all recipients so there is minimal risk of ... The most important aspect of safe transfusion practice is to ensure ABO compatibility between the patient and donor blood.. ... The crossmatch may be incompatible in 3% of patients. It may be necessary to transfuse incompatible blood units if the clinical ...
The transfusion of the first two units resulted in fever and brown-colored urine, but he received the transfusion of another ... 4. Crossmatching test (anti-globulin phase) with a negative Antigenic (Ag.) unit. Under this protocol. a compatible unit is ... He received five units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) during surgery. Then the transfusion of packed RBCs was required nine ... Blood Grouping and Crossmatching/methods , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching/veterinary ...
A reply to an RTI query by a doctor reveals that eight major blood banks need 95 staff such as blood transfusion officers, ... A reply to an RTI query by a doctor reveals that eight major blood banks need 95 staff such as blood transfusion officers, ... The data, accessed by a doctor through RTI, shows how the blood banks, with a total collection capacity of 81,555 units ( ... cross-matching and donation of blood and maintaining records of bags of blood collected during blood donation camps. In the ...
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Safety/methods , Transfusion Medicine/methods , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , ... crossmatching, and antibody specificity prediction. It is recommended to use fresh and ABO-matched platelets in the diagnosis ... Platelet refractoriness is defined as an inadequate response to platelet transfusions after two sequential transfusions. ... the degree of knowledge of the doctors in transfusion medicine and the indicators of transfusions; the latter through the ...
PlateletsAntibody screenRBCsRefused a blood transfusionAntigensPracticeExchange transfusionCross-match to transfusionHemolysisCell transfusionsScreen or Type and CrossmatchAcuteRisk of transfusion transmitteClinically significantLaboratorySickleProcedureMassive TransfusionHomologousIndication for red cell transfusionIndicationsHospitalClinicalCirculatory overloadDonorsRisksDyspneaChronicIron overloadNeed for blood transfusionComplications of blood transfusionMorbidityAnemiaAntigen negative2000 transfusionsElectronic crossmatchFatal
- Early transfusions used whole blood , but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells , white blood cells , plasma , clotting factors , and platelets . (wikipedia.org)
- Today, single donor platelets are usually considered the optimal product for most platelet transfusion needs. (hawaii.edu)
- A single donor unit of platelets is based on the adult dose and contains about 225 ml per unit. (hawaii.edu)
- Platelets extracted from a unit of whole blood (called random platelets) contain about 50 ml per unit. (hawaii.edu)
- need to be pooled together to equal the volume of one unit of single donor platelets. (hawaii.edu)
- Approximately 11 hours after admission, he had received a total of 56 units of blood and blood components (1 unit of whole blood, 28 units of packed red blood cells, 7 units of fresh frozen plasma, and 20 units of platelets). (cdc.gov)
- Whenever the patient requires blood transfusion, already collected autologous fresh blood is transfused back to patient with fresh platelets and coagulation factors. (allindianpatents.com)
- The risk is highest with platelet transfusion, since platelets must be stored near room temperature and cannot be refrigerated. (wikidoc.org)
- Every patient receiving a fresh blood product needs a valid pretransfusion compatibility testing/blood group and antibody screen performed at the Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) prior to blood transfusion. (rch.org.au)
- If a patient is having a planned surgery where blood loss is expected, or they may require a planned RBC transfusion, an order for a blood group and antibody screen should be made. (rch.org.au)
- A fresh blood group and antibody screen will be required for any units not commenced within the 72 hour period. (rch.org.au)
- If a unit of red cells is ordered in EMR without a current blood group and antibody screen, a prompt will appear with the option to order a blood group and antibody screen at the time of ordering the red cells. (rch.org.au)
- This includes ABO/Rh typing of the unit and of the recipient, and an antibody screen of the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
- Testing performed for ABO, Rh, antibody screen and Crossmatch for the specified number of units. (wellspanlabs.org)
- ABO and RhD group, antibody screen and crossmatch will be carried out. (spotidoc.com)
- compare the positive post-transfusion DAT to pre-transfusion DAT Post antibody screen to identify antibody, elution of DAT (+) cells Re-do pre antibody screening. (slideshare.net)
- If allo-antibodie(s) are identified, RBCs used for transfusion should be negative for the corresponding antigen(s) and cross match compatible. (isbt-web.org)
- RBCs are usually passed through filters which can impede the flow of blood - they should be changed after ~ 4 units of blood. (openanesthesia.org)
- The efficacy of RBC transfusions does not live up to its theoretical limit, as RBCs can increase blood viscosity and lower cardiac output [J Trauma 22: 741, (openanesthesia.org)
- Marino's data on RBC transfusions into euvolemic anemic post-op patients suggests that there is tremendous variability in the effects of blood on VO2 - it should not be taken for granted that RBCs will increase tissue oxygenation. (openanesthesia.org)
- I've seen massive transfusions where the patient was mistyped, receiving 20+u incompatible rbcs. (pathlabtalk.com)
- Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a common practice in the treatment of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) such that most adult patients with SCD have been transfused at one time or another, many with large number of units of blood. (biomedcentral.com)
- He had a prior transfusion history with three least incompatible RBCs. (kjbt.org)
- A novel mechanism for establishing the efficiency of the transfusion service's crossmatch policy is to calculate the crossmatch:issue (C:I) ratio over a period of time [ 1 ].To do this, a transfusion service simply divides the number of RBCs that it crossmatched over, for example, a 1 month period of time by the number of crossmatches that it had performed over the same time period. (isbtweb.org)
- Some crossmatched RBCs can be excluded from this calculation, such as those that are initially issued as uncrossmatched because the crossmatching typically occurs later. (isbtweb.org)
- Oxygen affinity of RBCs of sickle disease is decreased and 2, 3 - DPG levels are elevated. (mahasbtc.com)
- 10 units RBCs in 24 hours, but this is more useful for research purposes than for frontline physicians. (canadiem.org)
- The patient remains tachycardic with labile blood pressure despite two units of RBCs and two litres of crystalloid. (canadiem.org)
- 1. In some patients more than one platelet transfusion daily may be warranted if the post-transfusion platelet count is less than the guidelines suggest and one of the following is present: a.Significant blood loss is documented (patient requires one or more units of RBCs daily). (fairview.org)
- Thus, people with type O blood are considered to be universal donors, with regard to red blood transfusions, since there are no major (A or B) antigens on their red blood cells. (hawaii.edu)
- There are many other less common antigens, natural and acquired, that are screened for in the direct antibody test (DAT) during crossmatching. (hawaii.edu)
- For the HPA-1, -2 antigens, 63% of the samples were homozygous for phenotype (a) while heterozygosity was observed in all cases for the HPA-3 genotype. (bvsalud.org)
- 3 HLA class II antigens can also be upregulated on kidney cells. (scielo.org.za)
- Use of historical antigens - an alternative practice - would allow U.S. blood centers to select RBC units from inventory that have a record of antigen typing results from previous donations (historical results) without performing testing on the current donation. (aabb.org)
- So monitoring of blood transfusion practice is necessary for the rationale use of blood components. (openaccesspub.org)
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of blood ordering practice for Packed Red Blood Cells (PRBC) as per National Blood Transfusion Guidelines. (openaccesspub.org)
- The transfusion practice has evolved over the centuries significantly especially during the last decade to reach the present scenario. (openaccesspub.org)
- This has made caesarean section a common indication for blood transfusion in obstetric practice. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is indispensible in correcting anaemias as well as in the practice of exchange blood transfusion. (biomedcentral.com)
- audits of the latter are generally performed to ensure that clinicians are following the institutional directives or guidelines for transfusion practice. (isbtweb.org)
- Keeping close track of the inventory is essential for the transfusion service to be aware of changes in transfusion practice that could affect the demand on its inventory, unusually high wastage rates on wards, or know exactly which recipients were transfused with blood products. (isbtweb.org)
- A retrospective audit was conducted for packed red cell transfusion ordering practice over a period from June 2014~June 2015. (ijstemcell.com)
- Blood components transfusion practice requires the constant use of critical clinical judgement. (mahasbtc.com)
- Most common congenital hemolytic anemias relevant to the clinical practice of transfusion medicine are due to defects of hemogloublin. (mahasbtc.com)
- Physicians should familiarize themselves with how to activate massive transfusion protocol in their centre of practice so that blood products are not delayed in time-sensitive situations. (canadiem.org)
- This study was aimed to review and establish the practice of exchange transfusion (ET) with reconstituted blood in neonates and to observe fall of bilirubin and its comparison with related studies. (ajts.org)
- At higher, more dangerous levels of bilirubin, or in certain situations where the bilirubin is expected to rise very rapidly, such as Rh disease or other hemolytic diseases of the newborn, a more extreme treatment may be used, such as a blood exchange transfusion to rapidly remove toxic bilirubin from the blood. (childrensmercy.org)
- The baby should be blood typed for a possible exchange transfusion, which should be done as soon as possible unless there is a large drop in the hyperbilirubinemia and the baby improves before the blood is ready for an exchange transfusion. (childrensmercy.org)
- Twenty-five neonates diagnosed as hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) were selected for this study, in which exchange transfusion was carried out as one of the treatments for hyperbilirubinemia. (ajts.org)
- The exchange transfusion (ET) was carried out taking all aseptic precautions by Push-Pull technique with double-volume exchange transfusion method. (ajts.org)
- Looking into the superiority of the exchange transfusion in HDN by reconstituted blood, the reconstituted blood can be modified and supplied as per the requirement and conditions. (ajts.org)
- During general assessment of blood utilization, the cross-match to transfusion ratio was 2.83. (ispub.com)
- Cross match to Transfusion ratio (CT ratio) was also calculated. (openaccesspub.org)
- Outcome measures used in this study were (i) cross match to transfusion (C: T) ratio and (ii) transfusion trigger. (ijstemcell.com)
- Lab tests performed before red blood cell transfusions include: ABO/Rho(D) Typing, Antibody Screening and Crossmatch. (docplayer.net)
- The risk of severe bacterial infection and sepsis is estimated (as of 2001) at about 1 in 50,000 platelet transfusions, and 1 in 500,000 red blood cell transfusions. (wikidoc.org)
- Because of prolonged myelosuppression, haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients require packed red blood cell transfusions frequently. (ijstemcell.com)
- Since elimination pathways for iron are limited, a person receiving numerous red blood cell transfusions can develop iron overload , which can in turn damage the liver, heart , kidneys , and pancreas . (rightdiagnosis.com)
- Reticulocytopenic anemias can result from nutritional, toxic, infectious, malignant, and/or other conditions and may respond to red cell transfusions, but will commonly require additional, disease-specific therapy. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- TRs may be clinically insignificant (febrile non-hemolytic TR), mild (allergic TR), or potentially fatal (acute hemolytic TR, transfusion-related acute lung injury, septic TR, anaphylactic TR). (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Acute compartment syndrome is typically associated with fractures, closed soft tissue injuries, revascularization procedures, and crush injuries . (faoj.org)
- like malaria, bacterial infections and acute sequestration, thus necessitating transfusion. (biomedcentral.com)
- The underlying diagnosis included Aplastic anemia (n=8), Thalassemia major (n=3), Multiple Myeloma (n=4), Acute leukemia (n=5), Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=4), PRCA (n=1). (ijstemcell.com)
- The laboratory activities within this unit require students to fulfil certain vaccination compliance requirements prior to attending laboratory classes. (edu.au)
- For 100 years we've assumed blood transfusions are good for people, but most of these clinical practices grew before we had the research to support it," said Neil Blumberg, M.D., professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and director of Transfusion Medicine at the University of Rochester Medical Center. (hubpages.com)
- 9. Does your healthcare facility provide al of its own transfusion services, including al laboratory functions? (cdc.gov)
- 10. Is the transfusion service part of the facility's core laboratory? (cdc.gov)
- 14. Is the transfusion service laboratory accredited? (cdc.gov)
- These include BTO - blood transfusion officers, senior technicians and laboratory assistants among others. (mid-day.com)
- CPT 86850-86999), are billed using the laboratory Revenue Code 030X, whether the units are transfused or not transfused. (aabb.org)
- In an emergency, blood grouping can be done easily and quickly in 2 or 3 minutes in the laboratory on glass slides with appropriate reagents, by trained technical staff. (wikipedia.org)
- If transfusion services and laboratory support provide all of its own transfusion are provided 100% by the facility, check Yes . (cdc.gov)
- 12 Department of Laboratory Medicine and Blood Transfusion Unit, Saint George Hospital-University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. (who.int)
- The serum collected at the time of admission, before any transfusions were administered, was highly reactive on the Abbott EIAs performed at the hospital (optical density ratios = .766/.126, .556/.126) and at the North Carolina State Laboratory of Public Health (optical density ratios =.842/108, 698/.137) and was also positive by Western blot assay at the state laboratory. (cdc.gov)
- When testing was repeated, the serum collected after the blood transfusions was again seronegative by EIA at the hospital and by both EIA and Western blot methods at the state laboratory. (cdc.gov)
- The laboratory provides a full array of blood components for transfusion support and an extended menu of immunohematology tests. (wakehealth.edu)
- 2. The specific clinical or laboratory indications for transfusion should be considered. (mahasbtc.com)
- You decide to activate the hospital's massive transfusion protocol prior to the results of laboratory tests becoming available. (canadiem.org)
- He then moved to Melbourne to the Blood Transfusion laboratory of the Royal Melbourne Hospital with a view to doing research for a Master's degree. (bts.org.uk)
- Yazdanbakhsh K, Ware RE, Noizat-Pirenne F. Red blood cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease: pathophysiology, risk factors, and transfusion management. (springer.com)
- Iron overload due to multiple transfusions for chronic anemia (eg, thalassemia or sickle cell disorder) can be treated with chelation therapy. (medscape.com)
- Blood transfusion is central in the prevention and treatment of certain chronic complications of sickle cell disease. (biomedcentral.com)
- People suffering from hemophilia or sickle-cell disease may require frequent blood transfusions. (blogspot.com)
- It is important to avoid hypervolemia during the procedure and to keep the post transfusion Hb at 10 g/dl, as a high hematocrit (Hct) may worsen the neurological insult. (isbt-web.org)
- One of the tasks of the anaesthetists includes making a decision on the need for blood transfusion during surgical procedure. (ispub.com)
- BLOOD transfusion is the most frequent procedure performed during hospital admissions 1 and many transfusions are administered in the perioperative period, often on a time-sensitive basis. (asahq.org)
- More recently, advances in medical informatics have allowed the MSBOS to be updated based on institution- and procedure-specific median transfusion rates, an approach with the potential to significantly reduce unnecessary testing and crossmatching. (asahq.org)
- I believe this procedure has the benefit of using existing well-known technology and skills which are in place throughout the medical establishment, primarily that of blood transfusions, making the procedure broadly available and scalable. (macintouch.com)
- Massive transfusion of citrate anticoagulated blood products can lead to hypocalcemia characterized by paresthesias, tetany, and arrhythmias and subsequent metabolic alkalosis from citrate metabolism. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Blood and Clots Series: Massive transfusion protocol: what is it, why does it exist, and when should I call one? (canadiem.org)
- Blood transfusions use as sources of blood either one's own ( autologous transfusion), or someone else's ( allogeneic or homologous transfusion). (wikipedia.org)
- There are other multiple risks of blood transfusion when blood from individual is transfused to another individual (homologous or ordinary blood transfusion). (allindianpatents.com)
- Homologous transfusions , or transfusions using the stored blood of others. (blogspot.com)
- These indications range from those in which transfusion is strongly recommended to those where it is unproven or controversial, and therefore requiring individualized decision. (isbt-web.org)
- Transfusion for indications where evidence is limited should be based on a case-by-case assessment. (isbt-web.org)
- Anemia, surgery and bleeding were the most common indications for which transfusions were requested. (openaccesspub.org)
- The medical indications for every transfusion should be carefully evaluated, and each transufion should be monitered for therapeutic effectiveness. (mahasbtc.com)
- Some believe blood transfusions will shorten a hospital stay. (hubpages.com)
- The RTI query revealed that the blood bank of KEM Hospital, one of the busiest in the city with a total yearly capacity of blood collection of 35,000 units (12,250 litres), is functioning with two BTOs but needs nine BTOs as per standards. (mid-day.com)
- 30 weeks gestation) and more than 80% of infants with a birthweight (BW) of less than 1000 grams will receive at least one RBC transfusion during their initial hospital stay. (isbtweb.org)
- The seminar was attended by all major stakeholders involved in transfusion medicine (Lebanese National Committee of Blood Transfusion, Hospital Blood Banks directors, Lebanese Army Blood Bank, Lebanese Red Cross and Donner Sang Compter). (who.int)
- The Apple Hill Infusion Center also schedules transfusions for the York Hospital (YH) 5 Main Infusion room. (wellspanlabs.org)
- This audit was undertaken to determine the consumption of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) transfusion in the bone marrow transplant unit of the Aga Khan University Hospital. (ijstemcell.com)
- Staff #3 said Doctor #22 had recently made himself the Medical Director, but he had not been designated so by the hospital. (hospitalinspections.org)
- Provision of results by blood centers from current testing and testing performed by hospital blood banks and transfusion services was not the focus of the BPAC discussion. (aabb.org)
- The date and type of surgery or expected date of transfusion can be outlined in the clinical notes field of the order. (rch.org.au)
- A systematic review that compared the oral iron chelator deferasirox with the oral chelator deferiprone and the traditional parenteral agent deferoxamine found little clinical difference between the 3 chelation agents in terms of removing iron from the blood and liver. (medscape.com)
- In this clinical commentary, key points related to pretransfusion testing are reviewed with an emphasis on the electronic crossmatch, as well as the use of uncrossmatched erythrocytes in situations where crossmatch-compatible units are not yet available for transfusion. (asahq.org)
- In clinical trials, doses of up to 24,000 Units per kg administered to healthy volunteers were well tolerated [see 14 CLINICAL STUDIES ]. (drugs.com)
- We evaluated the effectiveness of platelet transfusion using HLA crossmatch-compatible donors without HLA typing. (bvsalud.org)
- If you plan to have directed donors, it is best that you first donate a unit (450 cc) of your blood. (tampahipandknee.com)
- Lucy receives four units of blood without cross-matching from four unrelated donors. (imj.ie)
- Members of the Blood Products Advisory Committee to the Food and Drug Administration convened for their 105th meeting in Rockville, Md., on Dec. 4-5 to advise the FDA on two issues: labeling of red blood cell units with historical antigen type results, and performance data considerations for infectious disease assays used to screen organ donors. (aabb.org)
- In cases of severe AIHA causing a symptomatic anemia (i.e., heart failure, hypotension, dyspnea, tachycardia, angina), the initial step in management is transfusion of "least incompatible" red blood cells. (neurologyadvisor.com)
- Symptoms include fever and dyspnea 1 to 6 hours after receiving the transfusion. (wikidoc.org)
- Transfusion is considered appropriate when it is used to treat conditions leading to significant morbidity and mortality and which cannot be prevented or managed effectively by other means. (openaccesspub.org)
- In developed countries, postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of major maternal morbidity and is the leading reason for obstetric related intensive care unit admission. (neurologyadvisor.com)
- "non-transfusion dependent thalassemia, NTDT" who have moderate hemolytic anemia but maintaining a hemoglobin (Hb) level that is sufficient for growth and development without transfusion support. (isbt-web.org)
- The advisory caution to use blood transfusion only with more severe anemia is in part due to evidence that outcomes are worsened if larger amounts are given. (wikipedia.org)
- His hemoglobin level at the time of the visit was 6.3 g/dL, and a blood transfusion was requested to treat his anemia. (kjbt.org)
- Transfusion protocols today are centered around a hemoglobin of 7 g/dL, although case reports involving Jehovah's Witnesses and select trials have provided insight into the outcomes of life-threatening anemia [ 11 - 14 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
- Herein we present a case report of a malnourished 72-year-old Jehovah's Witness who received HemoPure (HBOC-201, Hemoglobin Oxygen Therapeutics, Souderton, PA), an investigational blood substitute, after experiencing life threatening anemia while in the intensive care unit (ICU) [ 16 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)