A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A family of secreted multidomain proteins that were originally identified by their association with the latent form of TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS. They interact with a variety of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and may play a role in the regulation of TGB-beta bioavailability.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to both PDGF-A chains and PDGF-B chains. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A non-DNA binding transcription factor that is a subunit of core binding factor. It forms heterodimeric complexes with CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS, and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

The integrin alpha v beta 6 binds and activates latent TGF beta 1: a mechanism for regulating pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. (1/4386)

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family members are secreted in inactive complexes with a latency-associated peptide (LAP), a protein derived from the N-terminal region of the TGF beta gene product. Extracellular activation of these complexes is a critical but incompletely understood step in regulation of TGF beta function in vivo. We show that TGF beta 1 LAP is a ligand for the integrin alpha v beta 6 and that alpha v beta 6-expressing cells induce spatially restricted activation of TGF beta 1. This finding explains why mice lacking this integrin develop exaggerated inflammation and, as we show, are protected from pulmonary fibrosis. These data identify a novel mechanism for locally regulating TGF beta 1 function in vivo by regulating expression of the alpha v beta 6 integrin.  (+info)

The activation sequence of thrombospondin-1 interacts with the latency-associated peptide to regulate activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta. (2/4386)

One of the primary points of regulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activity is control of its conversion from the latent precursor to the biologically active form. We have identified thrombospondin-1 as a major physiological regulator of latent TGF-beta activation. Activation is dependent on the interaction of a specific sequence in thrombospondin-1 (K412RFK415) with the latent TGF-beta complex. Platelet thrombospon-din-1 has TGF-beta activity and immunoreactive mature TGF-beta associated with it. We now report that the latency-associated peptide (LAP) of the latent TGF-beta complex also interacts with thrombospondin-1 as part of a biologically active complex. Thrombospondin.LAP complex formation involves the activation sequence of thrombospondin-1 (KRFK) and a sequence (LSKL) near the amino terminus of LAP that is conserved in TGF-beta1-5. The interactions of LAP with thrombospondin-1 through the LSKL and KRFK sequences are important for thrombospondin-mediated activation of latent TGF-beta since LSKL peptides can competitively inhibit latent TGF-beta activation by thrombospondin or KRFK-containing peptides. In addition, the association of LAP with thrombospondin-1 may function to prevent the re-formation of an inactive LAP.TGF-beta complex since thrombospondin-bound LAP no longer confers latency on active TGF-beta. The mechanism of TGF-beta activation by thrombospondin-1 appears to be conserved among TGF-beta isoforms as latent TGF-beta2 can also be activated by thrombospondin-1 or KRFK peptides in a manner that is sensitive to inhibition by LSKL peptides.  (+info)

Regulation of transforming growth factor beta1 by nitric oxide. (3/4386)

Many tumor cells or their secreted products suppress the function of tumor-infiltrating macrophages. Tumor cells often produce abundant transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), which in addition to other immunosuppressive actions suppresses the inducible isoform of NO synthase. TGF-beta1 is secreted in a latent form, which consists of TGF-beta1 noncovalently associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP) and which can be activated efficiently by exposure to reactive oxygen species. Coculture of the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 and ANA-1 macrophages activated with IFN-gamma plus lipopolysaccharide resulted in increased synthesis and activation of latent TGF-beta1 protein by both A549 and ANA-1 cells, whereas unstimulated cultures of either cell type alone expressed only latent TGF-beta1. We investigated whether exposure of tumor cells to NO influences the production, activation, or activity of TGF-beta1.A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed to the chemical NO donor diethylamine-NONOate showed increased immunoreactivity of cell-associated latent and active TGF-beta1 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion at 24-48 h after treatment. Exposure of latent TGF-beta1 to solution sources of NO neither led to recombinant latent TGF-beta1 activation nor modified recombinant TGF-beta1 activity. A novel mechanism was observed, however: treatment of recombinant LAP with NO resulted in its nitrosylation and interfered with its ability to neutralize active TGF-beta1. These results provide the first evidence that nitrosative stress influences the regulation of TGF-beta1 and raise the possibility that NO production may augment TGF-beta1 activity by modifying a naturally occurring neutralizing peptide.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor beta from multiple myeloma cells inhibits proliferation and IL-2 responsiveness in T lymphocytes. (4/4386)

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer of plasma cells, characterized by profound suppression of host immune responses. Here we show that MM cell lines significantly suppress the proliferation, blasting, response to interleukin-2 (IL-2), and expression of CD25 by concanavalin A (Con A)-activated or allostimulated peripheral blood T lymphocytes. T cells arrest in the G1 stage of the cell cycle, and do not enter the IL-2 autocrine growth pathway. T cell inhibition was mediated by a soluble factor. MM cell lines did not produce IL-10 but did produce large amounts of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). T cells were assessed for their ability to respond to IL-2 when co-cultured with MM cells in the presence or absence of the TGF-beta inhibitor, TGF-beta latency-associated peptide (LAP). MM cells suppressed IL-2 responses but this inhibition was completely reversed by TGF-beta LAP. A CD25-, IL-2-dependent blast cell line was not inhibited by MM cells or rhTGF-beta, confirming the specificity of the inhibition mechanism for the IL-2 autocrine growth pathway. We conclude that MM cells suppress T cells in their entry into the autocrine IL-2/CD25 pathway and in response to IL-2, and that TGF-beta has a significant role to play.  (+info)

Involvement of activator protein 1 complexes in the epithelium-specific activation of the laminin gamma2-chain gene promoter by hepatocyte growth factor (scatter factor). (5/4386)

Laminin-5 is a trimer of laminin alpha3, beta3 and gamma2 chains that is found in the intestinal basement membrane. Deposition of the laminin gamma2 chain at the basement membrane is of great interest because it undergoes a developmental shift in its cellular expression. Here we study the regulatory elements that control basal and cytokine-activated transcriptional expression of the LAMC2 gene, which encodes the laminin gamma2 chain. By using transient transfection experiments we demonstrated the presence of constitutive and cytokine-responsive cis-elements. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the LAMC2 promoter in the epithelial HT29mtx cells with that in small-intestinal fibroblastic cells (C20 cells) led us to conclude that two regions with constitutive epithelium-specific activity are present between positions -1.2 and -0.12 kb. This was further validated by transfections of primary foetal intestinal endoderm and mesenchyme. A 2.5 kb portion of the LAMC2 5' flanking region was equally responsive to PMA and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), whereas it was less responsive to transforming growth factor beta1. A minimal promoter limited to the initial 120 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site maintained inducibility by PMA and HGF. This short promoter fragment contains two activator protein 1 (AP-1) elements and the 5'-most of these is a composite AP-1/Sp1 element. The 5'AP-1 element is crucial to the HGF-mediated activity of the promoter; analysis of interacting nuclear proteins demonstrated that AP-1 proteins containing JunD mediate the response to HGF.  (+info)

Requirement of Ras/MAPK pathway activation by transforming growth factor beta for transforming growth factor beta 1 production in a Smad-dependent pathway. (6/4386)

Our previous results have shown that transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) rapidly activates Ras, as well as both ERKs and SAPKs. In order to address the biological significance of the activation of these pathways by TGFbeta, here we examined the role of the Ras/MAPK pathways and the Smads in TGFbeta(3) induction of TGFbeta(1) expression in untransformed lung and intestinal epithelial cells. Expression of either a dominant-negative mutant of Ras (RasN17) or a dominant-negative mutant of MKK4 (DN MKK4), or addition of the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059, inhibited the ability of TGFbeta(3) to induce AP-1 complex formation at the TGFbeta(1) promoter, and the subsequent induction of TGFbeta(1) mRNA. The primary components present in this TGFbeta(3)-inducible AP-1 complex at the TGFbeta(1) promoter were JunD and Fra-2, although c-Jun and FosB were also involved. Furthermore, deletion of the AP-1 site in the TGFbeta(1) promoter or addition of PD98059 inhibited the ability of TGFbeta(3) to stimulate TGFbeta(1) promoter activity. Collectively, our data demonstrate that TGFbeta(3) induction of TGFbeta(1) is mediated through a signaling cascade consisting of Ras, the MAPKKs MKK4 and MEK1, the MAPKs SAPKs and ERKs, and the specific AP-1 proteins Fra-2 and JunD. Although Smad3 and Smad4 were not detectable in TGFbeta(3)-inducible AP-1 complexes at the TGFbeta(1) promoter, stable expression of dominant-negative Smad3 could significantly inhibit the ability of TGFbeta(3) to stimulate TGFbeta(1) promoter activity. Transient expression of dominant-negative Smad4 also inhibited the ability of TGFbeta(3) to transactivate the TGFbeta(1) promoter. Thus, although the Ras/MAPK pathways are essential for TGFbeta(3) induction of TGFbeta(1), Smads may only contribute to this biological response in an indirect manner.  (+info)

Transforming growth factor-beta1 is a potent inhibitor of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor expression in a bronchial epithelial cell line. Munich Lung Transplant Group. (7/4386)

Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the major long-term complication following lung and heart-lung transplantation. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from patients suffering from OB, a marked increase in the number of neutrophils and elevated expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 had been found. The goal of the study was to evaluate whether TGF-beta1 is capable of interfering with the expression of the secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), the dominating defence of the conducting airways against neutrophil elastase (NE). The authors analysed the effects of TGF-beta1 on gene expression and protein release of SLPI by cultured human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. SLPI protein levels in the supernatants were quantified with a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; SLPI messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Incubation with TGF-beta1 induced a marked decrease in SLPI protein levels (1 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: stimulation index (SI; protein: relation to SLPI protein release of resting cells)=0.56; 10 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: SI=0.48; 50 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: SI=0.37, p<0.01 each) and mRNA expression (1 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: SI (SI mRNA: relation to SLPI mRNA expression of resting cells)=0.46; 10 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: SI=0.31; 50 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: SI=0.18, p<0.01 each) in a dose dependent fashion. Simultaneous incubation of BEAS-2B cells with TGF-beta1 and NE also caused a significant reduction in SLPI synthesis (10 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1 + 7.5 U x mL(-1) NE: mRNA SI=0.61, p<0.05; protein SI=0.65, p<0.05; 50 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1 + 7.5 U x mL(-1) NE: mRNASI=0.52, p<0.05; protein SI=0.58, p<0.05; 10 ng x mL(-1) TGF-beta1: mRNA SI=0.33, p<0.01; protein SI=0.38, p<0.01). In conclusion, the data suggest that the coincidence of neutrophilia and upregulation of transforming growth factor-beta1 in obliterative bronchiolitis may lead to uninhibited neutrophil elastase activity by downregulation of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor, with the consequence of ongoing injury to the epithelium.  (+info)

Activation of phospholipase D activity in transforming growth factor-beta-induced cell growth inhibition. (8/4386)

Cells regulate phospholipase D (PLD) activity in response to numerous extracellular signals. Here, we investigated the involvement of PLD activity in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1)-mediated growth inhibition of epithelial cells. TGF-beta1 inhibits the growth of MDCK, Mv1Lu, and A-549 cells. In the presence of 0.4% butanol, TGF-beta1 induces an increase in the formation of phosphatidylbutanol, a unique product catalyzed by PLD. TGF-beta1 also induces an increase in phosphatidic acid (PA) level in A-549 and MDCK cells. TGF-beta1 induces an increase in the levels of DAG labeled with [3H]-myristic acid in A-549 and MDCK cells but not in Mv1Lu cells. No increase of DAG was observed in cells prelabeled with [3H]-arachidonic acid. The data presented suggest that PLD activation is involved in the TGF-beta1-induced cell growth inhibition.  (+info)

TGF-β1, human recombinant protein (E. Coli) , Transforming growth factor beta-1, TGF-beta-1, CED, DPD1, TGFB, TGF-b 1, LAP, TGFB1. validated in (PBV11402r-10), Abgent
|p|Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling facilitates tumor growth and metastasis in advanced cancer. Use of inhibitors of TGF-β signaling may thus be a novel strategy for the treatment of patients with such cancer. A-77-01 is a close anal
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of simvastatin on transforming growth factor beta-1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts. AU - Park, Il Ho. AU - Park, Se Jin. AU - Cho, Jung Sun. AU - Moon, You Mi. AU - Moon, Jun Hyeok. AU - Kim, Tae Hoon. AU - Lee, Sang Hag. AU - Lee, Heung Man. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Background: Statins are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Statins exert not only lipid-lowering but also other cellular effects, including antifibrotic properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simvastatin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production in nasal polyp- derived fibroblasts (NPDFs) and to verify the mechanism of the effect of simvastatin in TGF-beta-1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in NPDFs. Methods: NPDFs were pretreated with simvastatin with or without mevalonate or Y-27643 for 2 hours ...
Protective action of hepatocyte growth factor on transforming growth factor beta-1-induced alpha-smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix in cultured human peritoneal fibroblasts - Get your full text copy in PDF #881097
Janssens K., ten Dijke P., Ralston S.H., Bergmann C., Van Hul W.. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is secreted as a latent precursor, consisting of a homodimer of the latency-associated peptide and the mature peptide. TGFbeta-1 can only exert its many functions after going from this latent to an active state, in which the binding site of the mature peptide for its receptor is no longer shielded by the latency-associated peptide. We and others reported that mutations in TGFB1 cause Camurati-Engelmann disease, a rare bone disorder. Until now, seven mutations have been published. In this study, we investigate the effect of the LLL12-13ins, Y81H, R218C, H222D, and C225R mutations on the functioning of TGF-beta1 in vitro. A luciferase reporter assay specific for TGF-beta-induced transcriptional response with wild type and mutant TGF-beta1 constructs showed a positive effect of all mutations on TGF-beta1 activity. By way of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that in the R218C, ...
Definition of transforming growth factor [beta] in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is transforming growth factor [beta]? Meaning of transforming growth factor [beta] as a finance term. What does transforming growth factor [beta] mean in finance?
Keloid disease is a benign but progressive form of abnormal wound healing associated with skin fibrosis and can cause a major functional disability and morbidity. TGF bet..
Human TGF-beta1 ELISA Kit from Proteintech (96 tests) . Quantitate Human TGF-beta1 in Serum, Plasma, Cell culture supernatant, Urine. Cat.No. KE00002.
Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
The 1D11.16.8 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse, human, rat, monkey, hamster, canine and bovine TGF-β (transforming growth factor beta) isoforms 1, 2 and 3. TGF-β is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates the proliferation of epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, neurons, lymphoid cells including T lymphocytes and NK cells, and other hematopoietic cell types. TGF-β also regulates the activities of activated macrophages and the development of regulatory T cells. Additionally, TGF-β plays roles in immune function, tissue remodeling and wound repair. TGF-β exists as five highly similar isoforms (TGF-β 1-5) with homologies of 70-80%. TGF-β1 is synthesized by the enzymatic cleavage of a long precursor TGF-β1 polypeptide encoded by the |em|TGFB1|/em| gene which yields the mature protein and the Latency Associated Peptide (LAP). The LAP and mature TGF-β1 non-covalently associate during secretion. TGF-β is ubiquitously expressed by many cell types including macrophages and platelets
The TGFB1 gene provides instructions for producing a protein called transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ-1). Learn about this gene and related health conditions.
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor ...
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In the present study, concentrations of TGF-β1 in plasma were decreased in 87% of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on admission, increased with motor function up to control concentrations during the next 15 days at the time of early recovery, and correlated well with the disability score. TNF-α concentrations were raised in 60% of patients on admission, and did not significantly decrease from day 1 to day 15 of the hospital stay. Other cytokines were either randomly increased (IL-2, IL-6), or undetectable in the circulation (IL-1, IL-4, IL-7, IL-10).. Treatments could not account for the down regulation of TGF-β1 seen on admission of patients. During treatment, both patients undergoing PE and patients receiving IVIg had decreased plasma concentrations of TGF-β1. PE was associated with lower concentrations of TGF-β1 in plasma than IVIg at day 7. This could have resulted from some removal of TGF-β1 (PE), or addition of TGF-β1 (IVIg) at the time of treatment.. Direct down regulation of ...
SCA124Hu, CLIA Kit for Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGFb1), 转化生长因子β1(TGFb1)检测试剂盒(化学发光免疫分析法), TGF-B1; CED; DPD1; LAP; Camurati-Engelmann Disease; Latency-associated peptide | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
BMP-4 is a transforming growth factor beta (TGF- beta) superfamily member which plays important roles in various developmental processes in vertebrate embryogenesis. In this study the expression pattern of BMP-4 was examined during early chick and quail embryonic development. Transcripts were found …
TGF-β and its related factors regulate a broad range of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and adhesion. These factors are also very important in the pathogenesis of cancer and many other diseases. Although much has been known about the TGF-β signaling pathway since the discovery of Smads 15 years ago, remarkable progress has been made in revealing details of different regulatory mechanisms that afford a full range of control of the biological functions of these factors in the TGF-β family. Specific physiological and pathological roles of TGF-β/Smad in different cellular context also start to emerge. This collection of review articles provides a broad, albeit not all-inclusive, overview of the latest breakthroughs and developments in TGF-β signaling and biology. Dr Ying Zhang. ...
View mouse Tgfb1i1 Chr7:128246812-128255699 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
TGF beta     Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a protein that comes in three isoforms called TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3; it was also the
Роль TGF-β1/SMAD-сигнального каскада в регуляции экспрессии циклооксигеназы-2 в клетках молочной железы человека
Clone CH6-17E5.1 reacts with the N-terminal latency-associated peptide (LAP) of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) dimer. TGF-β1 belongs to a family of homologous, disulfide-linked, homodimeric proteins. These highly pleiotropic cytokines inhibit proliferation of most cells, but can promote the growth of mesenchymal cells and enhance extracellular matrix formation. The pivotal function of TGF-β1 in the immune system is to mediate immunosuppression and maintain tolerance by regulating lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation, and survival. TGF-β1 is produced by many cell types, but is reported to be most abundant in mammalian platelets and bone. It is secreted predominantly as an inactive latent complex. After proteolytical processing of the TGF-β1 precursor, the resulting N-terminal latency-associated peptide (LAP) remains non-covalently associated with the TGF-β1 dimer. Mature and biologically active TGF-β1 can be released from the complex by action of proteases and/or conformational
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effect of TGF-\beta1 on Cell Proliferation and Proteoglycan Production in Human Melanoma Depends on the Degree of Cell Differentiation. AU - Heredia, A.. AU - Villena, J.. AU - Romarís, M.. AU - Molist, A.. AU - Bassols, A.. PY - 1998/1/1. Y1 - 1998/1/1. M3 - Article. VL - 0. SP - 1. EP - 1. IS - 0. ER - ...
SCA124Hu, CLIA Kit for Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGFb1), TGF-B1; CED; DPD1; LAP; Camurati-Engelmann Disease; Latency-associated peptide | Products for research use only!
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages. Activated TGF-β complexes with other factors to form a serine/threonine kinase complex that binds to TGF-β receptors, which is composed of both type 1 and type 2 receptor subunits. After the binding of TGF-β, the type 2 receptor kinase phosphorylates and activates the type 1 receptor kinase that activates a signaling cascade. This leads to the activation of different downstream substrates and regulatory proteins, inducing transcription of different target genes that function in differentiation, chemotaxis, proliferation, and activation of many immune cells. TGF-β is secreted by many cell types, including macrophages, in a latent form in which it is complexed with two other polypeptides, latent ...
Delivery of a transforming growth factor β-1 plasmid to mesenchymal stem cells via cationized Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide nanoparticles Wen Wen Deng*, Xia Cao*, Miao Wang*, Rui Qu, Wei Yan Su, Yan Yang, Ya Wei Wei, Xi Ming Xu, Jiang Nan YuDepartment of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy and Center for Nano Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Peoples Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of cationized Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharide (CPEPS) as a nonviral gene delivery vehicle to transfer plasmid DNA encoding transforming growth factor beta-1 (pTGF-β1) into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. Crude P. eryngii polysaccharide was purified, and then cationized by grafting spermine onto the backbone of the polysaccharide. Agarose gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopy, and a Nano Sense Zetasizer (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, UK) were used to characterize
Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines. It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions, including the control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis. In humans, TGF-β1 is encoded by the TGFB1 gene. TGF-β is a multifunctional set of peptides that controls proliferation, differentiation, and other functions in many cell types. TGF-β acts synergistically with TGFA in inducing transformation. It also acts as a negative autocrine growth factor. Dysregulation of TGF-β activation and signaling may result in apoptosis. Many cells synthesize TGF-β and almost all of them have specific receptors for this peptide. TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 all function through the same receptor signaling systems. TGF-β1 was first identified in human platelets as a protein with a molecular mass of 25 kilodaltons with a potential role in wound healing. It was later ...
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family comprising a large group of extracellular growth factors controls the development of the organism. TGF-beta family members consists of a large number of structurally related polypeptide growth factors, each capable of regulating a fascinating array of cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, adhesion, and death. TGF-beta and related factors play a prominent role in the development, homeostasis and repair of virtually all tissues in organisms. ...
Zatajenje srca je jedan od glavnih uzroka smrti u razvijenom svijetu. Promjena u strukturi srca (remodeliranje srca) nakon ozljede karakterizirana je diferencijacijom fibroblasta u miofibroblaste. Miofibroblasti su stanice koje eksprimiraju kolagen i alpha SMA i smatraju se glavnim pokazateljima promjena u strukturi srca uzrokovanih ozljedom. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je odabir lijekova, već odobrenih od U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), koji imaju učinak na dvije osnovne promjene koje se događaju prilikom remodeliranja srca, a povezne su sa lošom prognozom bolesti: povećano odlaganje kolagena od strane srčanih fibroblasta i tranzicija fibroblasta u miofibroblaste. U tu svrhu, u istraživanju su korištene metode visokoprotočne stanične analize lijekova za ispitivanje supstanci koje pozitivno utječu na regeneraciju srčanog tkiva, te genetski modificirani životinjski model (miša koji ekspresira zeleni fluorescentni protein (GFP) pod kontrolom kolagenskog promotora i crveni ...
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Scientists have long known that a small protein Dr. Saikumar was studying, Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-B), behaves in a paradoxical way. When a cell begins undergoing the transformation into a cancerous state, TGF-B can stop that growth and protects us from developing cancer. But if that cell escapes the TGF-B surveillance, then it will advance into a full-blown cancer cell and TGF-B can help it thrive and spread faster.. Turning off this treasonous action of TGF-B alone may indeed be advantageous, the pathologist said.. Although TGF-B has received intense scrutiny in the 30 years since its discovery, little is understood as to just how it turns from a tumor suppressor into a tumor promoter. Researchers found that if they suppress TGF-B activity to starve a cancerous tumor, a new tumor is likely to start growing, since the proteins helpful function in preventing new cancerous development is also switched off.. But Dr. Saikumar found a clue in an obscure protein called TMEPAI, and ...
|p|SD-208 Description:|br /|EC50: SD-208 inhibits the growth inhibition of TGF-β–sensitive CCL64 cells at an EC50 of 0.1 μmol/L .|br /|The cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has become a major target for the experimental treatm
Background: TGF-β1 is known to promote cardiac remodeling and fibrosis during Congestive Heart Failure (CHF). In this study, an attempt was made
Activin A is a TGF-β family member that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of cellular proliferation
MDCK cells constitutively secrete endogenous TGF-β1 but only activate it under subconfluent conditions. (A) Latent TGF-β1 is activated only in subconfluent ce
Laboratory of molecular bases of embryogenesis: Brain development, regulation of gene expression, transgenic organisms, homeobox genes, regulators of TGF-beta signaling, small GTPases, Zyxin
This gene encodes a secreted ligand of the TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) superfamily of proteins. Ligands of this family bind various TGF-beta receptors leading to recruitment and activation of SMAD family transcription factors that regulate gene expression. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate a latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a mature peptide, and is found in either a latent form composed of a mature peptide homodimer, a LAP homodimer, and a latent TGF-beta binding protein, or in an active form consisting solely of the mature peptide homodimer. The mature peptide may also form heterodimers with other TGF-beta family members. This protein is involved in embryogenesis and cell differentiation, and may play a role in wound healing. Mutations in this gene are a cause of aortic aneurysms and dissections, as well as familial arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 1. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2016 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased transforming growth factor beta1 in autism. T2 - A potential link between immune dysregulation and impairment in clinical behavioral outcomes. AU - Ashwood, Paul. AU - Enstrom, Amanda. AU - Krakowiak, Paula. AU - Hertz-Picciotto, Irva. AU - Hansen, Robin L. AU - Croen, Lisa A.. AU - Ozonoff, Sally J. AU - Pessah, Isaac N. AU - Van de Water, Judith A. PY - 2008/11/15. Y1 - 2008/11/15. N2 - Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social interactions, communication deficits, and restricted repetitive interests and behaviors. There is evidence of both immune dysregulation and autoimmune phenomena in autism. We examined the regulatory cytokine transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) because of its role in controlling immune responses. Plasma levels of active TGFβ1 were evaluated in 75 children with ASD compared with 68 controls. Children with ASD had significantly lower plasma TGFβ1 levels compared with typically developing controls (p = ...
Objective-Mitomycin C (MMC) is used clinically to treat corneal scarring in human patients. We investigated the safety and efficacy of MMC to treat corneal scarring in horses by examining its effects at the early and late stages of disease using an in-vitro model. Procedure-An in-vitro model of equine corneal fibroblast (ECF) developed was used. The equine corneal fibroblast or myofibroblast cultures were produced by growing primary ECF in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) under serum-free conditions. The MMC dose for the equine cornea was defined with dose-dependent trypan blue exclusion and MTT [(3-4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays after applying MMC to the cultures once for 2 minutes. The efficacy of MMC to control corneal scarring in horses was determined by measuring mRNA and protein expression of corneal scarring markers (α-smooth muscle actin and F-actin) with western blotting, immunocytochemistry and/or quantitative realtime
Research Question: Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) causes growth stimulation and transformation in fibroblasts, but growth inhibition/apoptosis in other cell types. Previously, TGF-β has been shown to activate the Smad signalling cascade in all cell types. Alternative signalling pathways have been described in response to TGF-β. To explain how TGF-β controls growth, we investigated a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) called Akt. Akt inactivates glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) and FOXO. We propose that PI3K signalling is partially responsible for the different phenotypic effects of TGF-β in mesenchymal and epithelial cells. -- Methods: Western blotting was used to describe temporal changes (0-3 hours) in PDK-1, Akt, GSK-3β and Cyclin Dl phosphorylation/protein levels with TGF-β2 stimulation of normal fibroblast and epithelial cell lines. Additionally, we blocked the effects of TGF-β on Akt/GSK-3β using PI3K/Akt specific inhibitors and TGF-β ...
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that 13-cis-retinoic acid (CRA) and alpha-interferon (IFN-alpha) have antitumor activity in patients with early recurrence of prostate cancer measured by rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after local therapy, and that this activity is associated with the increase of plasma transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). Thirty patients with a PSA , 7 ng/ml that increased ,0.4 ng/ml/month after initial radiation therapy or a PSA , 2.0 ng/ml after prostatectomy were treated with 1 mg/kg/day of CRA and 3 million units of IFN-alpha administered three times per week. Patients were followed clinically with serum measurements of PSA and assessment of toxicity. Biological activity of CRA and IFN-alpha was assessed by the measurement of plasma TGF-beta1. Twenty-six percent of patients had a partial (50% decrease maintained for 1 month) or minimal (,50% decrease maintained for 1 month) biochemical response of PSA, with a median decrease of 23% ...
Alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin, eFluor 660, clone: 1A4, eBioscience™ 25μg; eFluor 660 Alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin, eFluor 660, clone: 1A4, eBioscience™ Primary...
LAVAL, QUEBEC--(Marketwired - June 1, 2015) - ProMetic Life Sciences Inc. (TSX:PLI) (OTCQX:PFSCF), (ProMetic or the Corporation) presented new data at the European Renal Association (ERA) annual meeting in London, UK. The new data confirms that PBI-4050s anti-fibrotic effect demonstrated in the kidney in several different animal models has been...
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rabbit Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGFb1) in samples from serum, platelet-poor plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jianping Lu, Xinxiu Li, Mingcao Zhang, Zhaohong Chen, Yaping Wang, Caihong Zeng, Zhihong Liu, Huimei Chen].
Migration of colonic lamina propria fibroblasts (CLPF) plays an important role during the progression of fibrosis and fistulae in Crohns disease. Transforming growth factor- beta (TGF- beta) is involved in the regulation of cell migration, cell differentiation, extracellular matrix deposition, and immune responses.
The production of TGF-beta1 is under genetic control, and this in turn influences the development of lung fibrosis. Hence, the TGF-beta1 genotype has prognostic significance in transplant recipients.
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Complete information for TGFB3 gene (Protein Coding), Transforming Growth Factor Beta 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta 2) in rat thymic stromal cells and thymocytes and investigate the roles of TGF-beta 2 in thymopoiesis during the ...
ROC curve for TGF-β1 and MCP-1 according to progression of CWP (n=85). The areasunder the ROC curve for TGF-β1 and MCP-1 were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.55-0.84,p=0.01
Inside all three new Dermaheal products - highest concentrations in Ultra Renewal Cream. Youll want to remember the name TGF-B3. It is probably the most potent human growth factor in existence. And its incredibly rare/scarce because your body only expresses it once in your lifetime - when youre a baby in the womb.. If youve ever marvelled at how a human foetus grows from just a set of basic cells into a near fully-formed baby in just a few months, youll appreciate that how advanced the growth factors are that go to work while a babys in gestation. TGF-B3 is one of these. And its so powerful that it gives baby the ability to heal without any scarring.. Ever notice how quickly and blemish-free a young childs skin heals? Thats because of the residual TGF-B3 thats still present after birth. It disappears completely after a while, your super skin healing abilities are lost forever. Until now. With new Dermaheal, you can recapture that kind of skin-healing power as an adult.. ...
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) strongly reduces KLF15 expression. Adenoviral overexpression of KLF15 inhibits ... "The Kruppel-like factor KLF15 inhibits connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in cardiac fibroblasts". J. Mol. Cell ... Krüppel-like factor 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF15 gene in the Krüppel-like factor family. Its former ... Zhou J, Tan T, Tian Y, Zheng B, Ou JH, Huang EJ, Yen TS (July 2011). "Krüppel-like factor 15 activates hepatitis B virus gene ...
Itóh S, Landström M, Hermansson A, Itoh F, Heldin CH, Heldin NE, ten Dijke P (October 1998). "Transforming growth factor beta1 ... "Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta)-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells involves Smad7-dependent activation of ... "Remarkable versatility of Smad proteins in the nucleus of transforming growth factor-beta activated cells". Cytokine Growth ... Wicks SJ, Lui S, Abdel-Wahab N, Mason RM, Chantry A (November 2000). "Inactivation of smad-transforming growth factor beta ...
"Leukotriene D4 induces production of transforming growth factor-beta1 by eosinophils". International Archives of Allergy and ... Horiuchi T, Weller PF (July 1997). "Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by human eosinophils: upregulation by ... such as elastase Growth factors such as TGF beta, VEGF, and PDGF Cytokines such as IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, ... TH2 and ILC2 cells both express the transcription factor GATA-3, which promotes the production of TH2 cytokines, including the ...
Sun Y, Zhang JQ, Zhang J, Ramires FJ (August 1998). "Angiotensin II, transforming growth factor-beta1 and repair in the ...
... in transforming growth factor-beta1-mediated growth suppression". Cancer Res. 64 (2): 490-9. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-03-2284 ... "Loss of p12CDK2-AP1 Expression in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Disrupted Transforming Growth Factor-β-Smad Signaling ... A similar gene in hamster was isolated from, and functions as a growth suppressor of normal keratinocytes. CDK2AP1 has been ... a growth suppressor, associates with DNA polymerase alpha/primase". FASEB J. 14 (10): 1318-24. doi:10.1096/fj.14.10.1318. PMID ...
2011). "Post-transcriptional regulation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 by microRNA-744". PLOS ONE. 6 (10): e25044. ... Multiple miR-744 binding sites have been identified in the proximal 3' untranslated region of transforming growth factor beta 1 ... miR-744 plays a role in tumour development and growth in mouse cell lines. Its expression induces cyclin B1 expression, whilst ... miR-744 directly targets translation elongation factor and known protooncogene EEF1A2. mIR-744 also upregulates during ...
2008) Identification of transforming growth factor beta1-driven genetic programs of acute lung fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol ... 2008) Identification of transforming growth factor beta1-driven genetic programs of acute lung fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol ... 2007) Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 stimulates pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation via a Bax-dependent, bid-activated ... 2007) Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 stimulates pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation via a Bax-dependent, bid-activated ...
Engle SJ, Hoying JB, Boivin GP, Ormsby I, Gartside PS, Doetschman T (1999). "Transforming growth factor beta1 suppresses ... Mice with mutations in transforming growth factor-β1 gene introduced into 129/Sv Rag2 mutant mouse accelerates adenocarcinomas ...
Srinivasan Y, Lovicu FJ, Overbeek PA (February 1998). "Lens-specific expression of transforming growth factor beta1 in ... Transcriptional activation by transforming growth factor-beta via a nuclear factor 1-binding element". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (8): ... a receptor for fibroblast growth factors. Perlecan binds to growth factors involved in growth plate development. Perlecan ... A number of signaling molecules can effect changes in perlecan expression including the transforming growth factor-Beta (TGF-β ...
Jardine H, MacNee W, Donaldson K, Rahman I (2002). "Molecular mechanism of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-induced ... AP-1 complex subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AP1B1 gene. Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the ...
Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P01137 (Transforming growth factor beta-1) at the ... Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of ... TGFB1 transforming growth factor, beta 1". Assoian RK, Komoriya A, Meyers CA, Miller DM, Sporn MB (1983). "Transforming growth ... Yamada Y (2001). "Association of polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with genetic susceptibility to ...
Jardine H, MacNee W, Donaldson K, Rahman I (Jun 2002). "Molecular mechanism of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-induced ... AP-1 (transcription factor) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000175592 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Herdegen T, Leah JD (Dec 1998). "Inducible and constitutive transcription factors in the mammalian nervous system: control of ... thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell ...
"Conditional overexpression of active transforming growth factor beta1 in vivo accelerates metastases of transgenic mammary ... Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). The role of autocrine transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-β1) signaling on ... Siegel, P. M.; Shu, W; Cardiff, R. D.; Muller, W. J.; Massagué, J (2003). "Transforming growth factor beta signaling impairs ... "Transforming growth factor-beta regulates mammary carcinoma cell survival and interaction with the adjacent microenvironment". ...
"Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) induces angiogenesis through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated ... The principal function of αvβ6 is the activation of cytokine transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-β1). Latent-TGF-β1 is bound to ... Midgley AC, Rogers M, Hallett MB, Clayton A, Bowen T, Phillips AO, Steadman R (May 2013). "Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF- ... Li MO, Wan YY, Sanjabi S, Robertson AK, Flavell RA (2006). "Transforming growth factor-beta regulation of immune responses". ...
... identification of transforming growth factor-beta1 and promoter elements". Endocrinology. 145 (4): 1988-95. doi:10.1210/en.2003 ... cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. Fibroblast growth factor 10 is a paracrine signaling ... "Immunohistochemical analysis of keratinocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 10 expression in psoriasis". ... Fibroblast growth factor 10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF10 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a ...
Bouzahzah B, Fu M, Iavarone A, Factor VM, Thorgeirsson SS, Pestell RG (Aug 2000). "Transforming growth factor-beta1 recruits ... Sutcliffe JE, Cairns CA, McLees A, Allison SJ, Tosh K, White RJ (Jun 1999). "RNA polymerase III transcription factor IIIB is a ... Lavender P, Vandel L, Bannister AJ, Kouzarides T (Jun 1997). "The HMG-box transcription factor HBP1 is targeted by the pocket ... "Functions of cyclin A1 in the cell cycle and its interactions with transcription factor E2F-1 and the Rb family of proteins". ...
2005). "NAD(P)H oxidase 4 mediates transforming growth factor-beta1-induced differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts into ... regulation by interleukin-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha". Inflamm. Res. 55 (11): 483-90. doi:10.1007/s00011-006-6036-8 ...
"The integrin alphavbeta3 is a receptor for the latency-associated peptides of transforming growth factors beta1 and beta3". ... Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTBP3 gene. GRCh38: ... Brooke JS, Cha JH, Eidels L (2002). "Latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein-3 and fibulin-1C interact with the ... Oklü R, Hesketh R (2001). "The latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein (LTBP) family". Biochem. J. 352 Pt 3 (Pt ...
Bouzahzah B, Fu M, Iavarone A, Factor VM, Thorgeirsson SS, Pestell RG (August 2000). "Transforming growth factor-beta1 recruits ... Wu WS, Vallian S, Seto E, Yang WM, Edmondson D, Roth S, Chang KS (April 2001). "The growth suppressor PML represses ... Together with metastasis-associated protein-2 MTA2, it deacetylates p53 and modulates its effect on cell growth and apoptosis. ... Vinatzer U, Taplick J, Seiser C, Fonatsch C, Wieser R (September 2001). "The leukaemia-associated transcription factors EVI-1 ...
"The integrin alphavbeta3 is a receptor for the latency-associated peptides of transforming growth factors beta1 and beta3". ... Gui Y, Murphy LJ (2004). "Interaction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 with latent transforming growth factor- ... Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTBP1 gene. The protein ... 2003). "Latent transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 1 interacts with fibrillin and is a microfibril-associated ...
... and characterization of a novel transforming growth factor-beta1-induced TIAF1 protein that inhibits tumor necrosis factor ... "Entrez Gene: TIAF1 TGFB1-induced anti-apoptotic factor 1". Ji H, Zhai Q, Zhu J, Yan M, Sun L, Liu X, Zheng Z (April 2000). "A ... TGFB1-induced anti-apoptotic factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TIAF1 gene. TIAF1 has been shown to ...
2007). "Transforming growth factor beta1-regulated xylosyltransferase I activity in human cardiac fibroblasts and its impact ... 2007). "The xylosyltransferase I gene polymorphism c.343G>T (p.A125S) is a risk factor for diabetic nephropathy in type 1 ... growth of the corticospinal tract, no effect on neuropathic pain when using mechanical and thermal allodynia tests and no ... "Deoxyribozyme-mediated knock down of xylosyltransferase-1 mRNA promotes axon growth in the adult rat spinal cord". Brain. 131 ( ...
... a transforming growth factor beta1 and beta3 binding protein, in human melanoma". British Journal of Cancer. 74 (10): 1586-91. ... "Endoglin is a component of the transforming growth factor-beta receptor system in human endothelial cells". The Journal of ... "Extracellular and cytoplasmic domains of endoglin interact with the transforming growth factor-beta receptors I and II". The ... "Coculture with prostate cancer cells alters endoglin expression and attenuates transforming growth factor-beta signaling in ...
2006). "Renin increases mesangial cell transforming growth factor-beta1 and matrix proteins through receptor-mediated, ... signal transduction cascade involving direct physical interaction of the renin/prorenin receptor with the transcription factor ...
... transforming growth factor beta1 expression and rejection grade". Transplantation. 71 (2): 306-13. doi:10.1097/00007890- ...
1999). "Cloning and characterization of a novel transforming growth factor-beta1-induced TIAF1 protein that inhibits tumor ... necrosis factor cytotoxicity". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 253 (3): 743-9. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9846. PMID 9918798. Ji H, ...
Lux A, Attisano L, Marchuk DA (1999). "Assignment of transforming growth factor beta1 and beta3 and a third new ligand to the ... Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) ... D'Abronzo FH, Swearingen B, Klibanski A, Alexander JM (1999). "Mutational analysis of activin/transforming growth factor-beta ... an accessory protein that interacts with the signaling receptor complex of multiple members of the transforming growth factor- ...
Yang Y, Gil M, Byun SM, Choi I, Pyun KH, Ha H (1996). "Transforming growth factor-beta1 inhibits human keratinocyte ... Wang SE, Wu FY, Shin I, Qu S, Arteaga CL (2005). "Transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta})-Smad target gene protein ... PTPRK has been shown to interact with: Beta-catenin, E-cadherin (CDH-1), Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, ... "Receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase-kappa regulates epidermal growth factor receptor function". J Biol Chem. 280 (52): ...
Zhao BM, Hoffmann FM (September 2006). "Inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta1-induced signaling and epithelial-to- ... interacts with Smad4 and facilitates transforming growth factor-beta signaling". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (13 ...
"Epidermal growth factor and its receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor beta-1, and interleukin-1 ... Transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TGFB1I1 gene. ...
Transforming growth factor-beta controls development, homeostasis, and tolerance of T cells by regulatory T cell-dependent and ... TGF-beta1 maintains suppressor function and Foxp3 expression in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. „J Exp Med". 201 (7), s. 1061- ... Transforming growth factor-beta signaling curbs thymic negative selection promoting regulatory T cell development. „Immunity". ... Regulatory T cells in the control of autoimmunity: the essential role of transforming growth factor beta and interleukin 4 in ...
Yamada Y (2002). «Association of polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with genetic susceptibility to ... TGFB1 transforming growth factor, beta 1». *↑ Assoian R, Komoriya A, Meyers C, Miller D, Sporn M (1983). «Transforming growth ... Human transforming growth factor-beta complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells». Nature 316 ( ... Wahl SM (2007). «Transforming growth factor-beta: innately bipolar.». Curr. Opin. Immunol. 19 (1): 55-62. PMID 17137775. doi: ...
TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein. ... Burt DW, Law AS (1994). "Evolution of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily". Prog. Growth Factor Res. 5 (1): 99-118 ... The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of structurally related cell regulatory proteins that ... Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)[6] is a multifunctional peptide that controls proliferation, differentiation and ...
displaystyle {\frac {x^{\alpha -1}(1-x)^{\beta -1}}{B(\alpha ,\beta )}}}. (. 2. α. ). B. (. α. +. β. ,. α. +. β. ). B. (. α. , ... Because of this, factors such as age distribution within a population and mobility within income classes can create the ... This trend appears to have peaked and begun a reversal with rapid economic growth in emerging economies, particularly in the ... Simpson index is often transformed into inverse Simpson, or using the complement 1. −. λ. {\displaystyle 1-\lambda }. , known ...
positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta1 production. • cartilage development. • keratan sulfate catabolic ... response to growth factor. • keratan sulfate biosynthetic process. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase ... Lumican is involved in collagen fibril organization and circumferential growth, corneal transparency, and epithelial cell ... "Extracellular lumican inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth and is associated with prolonged survival after surgery" ...
Lux A, Attisano L, Marchuk DA (Apr 1999). "Assignment of transforming growth factor beta1 and beta3 and a third new ligand to ... transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • transforming growth factor beta binding. • type ... type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • type I transforming growth factor beta ... TGFB3, ARVD, ARVD1, RNHF, TGF-beta3, Transforming growth factor, beta 3, LDS5, transforming growth factor beta 3. ...
positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta1 production. • negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ... These mutated cells will then produce large quantities of TGF-β and IL-10, (a Transforming Growth Factor β and an inhibitory ... Murine studies point to IL-6 whereas human studies have shown IL-21.[citation needed] Foxp3 is the major transcription factor ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • NFAT protein binding. • histone acetyltransferase binding. • ...
Many of these remodelling effects seem to be mediated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), which is a common ... Binding to beta-1 receptors in the myocardium increases the heart rate and makes contractions more forceful in an attempt to ... October 2003). "Aldosterone stimulates epidermal growth factor receptor expression". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (44): 43060-66. doi: ... and also by epidermal growth factor (EGF), which is a target of the signaling pathway activated by aldosterone[35] ...
Progesterone is believed to counteract growth by downregulating IGF-1.[30] Expression of transforming growth interacting factor ... It is believed that estrogen promotes growth by up-regulating IGF-1, EGFR, TGF-beta1, TGF-beta3 and PDGF, and promotes aberrant ... growth factors and xenoestrogens cause fibroid growth. Known risk factors are African descent, obesity, polycystic ovary ... "Transforming growth interacting factor expression in leiomyoma compared with myometrium". Fertil. Steril. 94 (3): 1078-83. doi: ...
... modulation by transforming growth factor-beta". Human Reproduction. 11 Suppl 2: 62-82. doi:10.1093/humrep/11.suppl_2.62. PMID ... Lam MH, Hu W, Xiao CY, Gillespie MT, Jans DA (March 2001). "Molecular dissection of the importin beta1-recognized nuclear ... It regulates endochondral bone development by maintaining the endochondral growth plate at a constant width. It also regulates ... Fiaschi-Taesch NM, Stewart AF (February 2003). "Minireview: parathyroid hormone-related protein as an intracrine factor-- ...
Yamada Y (2001). "Association of polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with genetic susceptibility to ... Factor de crecemento transformante beta. BibliografíaEditar. *. Border WA, Noble NA (1994). "Transforming growth factor beta in ... TGFB1 transforming growth factor, beta 1".. *↑ Assoian RK, Komoriya A, Meyers CA, Miller DM, Sporn MB (1983). "Transforming ... "Human transforming growth factor-beta complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells". Nature 316 ( ...
negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta1 production. • GO:0019067 viral life cycle. • secretion by cell. • ... nerve growth factor processing. • nerve growth factor production. • cellular proliferation. • transforming growth factor beta ... Some of its substrates are: proparathyroid hormone, transforming growth factor beta 1 precursor, proalbumin, pro-beta-secretase ... "Processing of transforming growth factor beta 1 precursor by human furin convertase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 ...
... transforming growth factor - transforming growth factor alpha - transforming growth factor beta - transforming growth factor ... beta-1 adrenergic receptor - beta-2 adrenergic receptor - beta-thromboglobulin - bioaccumulation - biochemistry - biodiversity ... nerve growth factor - nerve growth factor receptor - nerve tissue protein - nerve tissue protein S 100 - nervous system - ... fibroblast growth factor - fibroblast growth factor receptor - fibronectin - Fick's law of diffusion - Filtration - fitness ( ...
... vascular endothelial growth factor A (angiogenic growth factor) (6p21.1) VPS52: GARP complex subunit ZNF76: zinc finger protein ... N-acetyllactosaminide beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (6p24.3) GMDS: GDP-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (6p25.3) HCG4P11: ... encoding protein Epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 oncogene-like ESR1: Estrogen receptor 1 (6q25) EYA4: eyes absent ... "T brachyury transcription factor". T - T brachyury transcription factor - Genetics Home Reference. Genome Decoration Page, NCBI ...
Sieg DJ, Hauck CR, Ilic D, Klingbeil CK, Schaefer E, Damsky CH, Schlaepfer DD (May 2000). "FAK integrates growth-factor and ... The function of the amino-terminal domain is less clear, but it has been shown to interact with the beta-1 integrin subunit in ... "p130CAS forms a signaling complex with the adapter protein CRKL in hematopoietic cells transformed by the BCR/ABL oncogene". ... Abedi H, Zachary I (June 1997). "Vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation and recruitment to new ...
Vogel T, Ahrens S, Büttner N, Krieglstein K (2010). "Transforming growth factor beta promotes neuronal cell fate of mouse ... "Differential signaling after beta1 integrin ligation is mediated through binding of CRKL to p120(CBL) and p110(HEF1)". J. Biol ... interacting protein 4/human Itch is a ubiquitin E3 ligase for human enhancer of filamentation 1 in transforming growth factor- ... "Crk-associated substrate lymphocyte type regulates transforming growth factor-beta signaling by inhibiting Smad6 and Smad7". ...
As previously shown for IL-7 signaling, it was found that a member of the transforming growth factor family (TGF-beta) induces ... "Distinct hematopoietic stem cell subtypes are differentially regulated by TGF-beta1". Cell Stem Cell. 6 (3): 265-78. doi: ... Deficiency of NHEJ factor 1 in mice leads to premature aging of hematopoietic stem cells as indicated by several lines of ... Hematopoietic stem cells, like all adult stem cells, mostly exist in a state of quiescence, or reversible growth arrest. The ...
... regulation of expression in human vascular endothelial cells by transforming growth factor-beta". Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. 47 (6): ... It consists of alternating glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine residues that are linked by beta-1-3 and beta-1-4 glycosidic ... 2005). "The human hyaluronan synthase 2 gene is a primary retinoic acid and epidermal growth factor responding gene". J. Biol. ...
"Self-renewal and differentiation of a basic fibroblast growth factor-dependent multipotent hematopoietic cell line derived from ... Okawa H, Okuda O, Arai H, Sakuragawa N, Sato K (December 2001). "Amniotic epithelial cells transform into neuron-like cells in ... of ROSA26 mice beta1-integrin bromodeoxyuridine c-kit (CD117) c-Met C1qR(p) END (CD105) PROM1 (CD133) ALCAM (CD166) ITGB1 (CD29 ... 2005). "Leukemia inhibitory factor as an anti-apoptotic mitogen for pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells in a serum-free ...
... promotes prostate tumor growth and microinvasion via inhibition of transforming growth factor β expression and enhanced matrix ... "Vascular endothelial growth factor up-regulation via p21-activated kinase-1 signaling regulates heregulin-beta1-mediated ... promotes prostate tumor growth and microinvasion via inhibition of transforming growth factor β expression and enhanced matrix ... "Platelet-derived growth factor requires epidermal growth factor receptor to activate p21-activated kinase family kinases". The ...
... vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). These ... "Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-beta1 from prostate cancer cells ... Rini BI (February 2007). "Vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy in renal cell carcinoma: current status and ... Hugo H. Marti, "Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor", Madame Curie Bioscience Database, Landes Bioscience, retrieved January 25 ...
... and the transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), all of which have tissue proliferative effects that are blocked by the ... Youn, T. J.; Kim, H. S.; Oh, B. H. (1999). "Ventricular remodeling and transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA expression after ... effects of moexipril have also been demonstrated by in vitro studies where moexipril inhibits the estrogen-stimulated growth of ...
"Signaling of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) to the small GTPase Rap1 via the large docking protein Gab1 and the ... CRKL has been shown to activate the RAS and JUN kinase signaling pathways and transform fibroblasts in a RAS-dependent fashion ... "Differential signaling after beta1 integrin ligation is mediated through binding of CRKL to p120(CBL) and p110(HEF1)". The ... Wu C, Lai CF, Mobley WC (August 2001). "Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes". The Journal of ...
... binds ADAM12/meltrin alpha and up-regulates ectodomain shedding of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor ... "The adaptor protein fish associates with members of the ADAMs family and localizes to podosomes of Src-transformed cells". J. ... cysteine-rich domain of human ADAM 12 supports cell adhesion through syndecans and triggers signaling events that lead to beta1 ... ADAM 12, a metalloprotease that binds insulin growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), appears to be an effective early Down ...
Midgley AC, Rogers M, Hallett MB, Clayton A, Bowen T, Phillips AO, Steadman R (May 2013). "Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF- ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Evans RA, Tian YC, Steadman R, Phillips AO (January 2003). "TGF-beta1- ... facilitated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and CD44 co-localization in lipid rafts". The Journal of Biological ... More recently it has been shown that fibroblasts can transform into myofibroblasts with photobiomodulation. After healing is ...
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a cytokine that upregulates the production by fibroblasts of extracellular matrix ... Transforming growth factor-beta1: a possible signal molecule for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus? Pediatr Res. 1999 Nov;46(5):576 ... Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a cytokine that upregulates the production by fibroblasts of extracellular matrix ... Total TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 were measured by immunoassay in CSF samples from 12 normal preterm infants, nine preterm infants ...
... J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1998 Aug;30(8):1559-69. ... In the present study we sought to determine whether AngII is correlated to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) ... Transforming Growth Factor beta / drug effects * Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics * Transforming Growth Factor beta ... We found: (1) low-density ACE, AngII and TGF-beta1 receptor binding and low mRNA for type I collagen and TGF-beta1 in the ...
Evaluation of the transforming growth factor beta1 codon 25 (Arg--,Pro) polymorphism in alcoholic liver disease.. Osterreicher ... Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta1) is a key profibrogenic cytokine in fibrosis and its gene contains several ... Genetic factors may account for some variation in the progression of fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ... Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics*. *Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism. Substances. *Codon ...
May play a role in the processes of cell growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation and senescence. May have a zinc- ... Transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 proteinAdd BLAST. 461. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s ... Transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 protein. Alternative name(s):. Androgen receptor coactivator 55 kDa ... sp,O43294,TGFI1_HUMAN Transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 protein OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=TGFB1I1 PE=1 SV ...
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor ... Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME. ... molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage ... Transforming Growth Factors: 4743*Transforming Growth Factor beta: 11179*Transforming Growth Factor beta1: 4733*human TGFB1 ...
Association of a polymorphism of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with genetic susceptibility to osteoporosis in ... Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is both abundant in bone and an important regulator of bone metabolism. A T--,C ... of the TGF-beta1 gene is one of the genetic determinants of bone mass and that the T allele is an independent risk factor for ... A significant association of TGF-beta1 genotype with bone mass was detected in both populations; bone mineral density (BMD) at ...
High glucose-induced transforming growth factor beta1 production is mediated by the hexosamine pathway in porcine glomerular ... contributes to the high glucose-induced TGF-beta1 production. Inhibition of GFAT by the substrate analogue azaserine or by ... that exposure of mesangial cells to high glucose concentration induces the production of matrix proteins mediated by TGF-beta1 ... with antisense oligonucleotide prevented the high glucose-induced increase in cellular glucosamine metabolites and TGF-beta1 ...
To examine the relationship between cytokine levels of transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), ... As expected, RP is associated with a higher dose of irradiation (,60 Gy); no other factors, including dose-volume histogram, ... Transforming growth factor-beta-1 is a serum biomarker of radiation-induced pneumonitis in esophageal cancer patients treated ... 12 Transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates the growth and differentiation of cells ...
Here we found that during transforming growth factor-beta ... Here we found that during transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF ... 0/Cortactin; 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0/Transforming Growth Factor beta1; EC 2.3.1.48/ELP3 protein, human; EC 2.3.1.48/Histone ... Previous Document: Human Elongator complex is involved in cell cycle and suppresses cell growth in 293T human embryonic.... ... Additionally, knockdown of cortactin further promoted TGF-beta1-induced EMT in AML-12 cells, as determined by EMT markers and ...
Mediation of interleukin-1beta-induced transforming growth factor beta1 expression by activator protein 4 transcription factor ... DNATranscription FactorsTransfectionTransforming Growth Factor betaTransforming Growth Factor beta1 ... Interleukin-1beta impairment of transforming growth factor beta1 signaling by down-regulation of transforming growth factor ... Mediation of interleukin-1beta-induced transforming growth factor beta1 expression by activator protein 4 transcription factor ...
Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is secreted as a latent precursor, consisting of a homodimer of the latency- ... Transforming growth factor-beta-1 mutations in Camurati-Engelmann disease lead to increased signaling by altering either ... The LLL12-13ins and Y81H mutations on the contrary have a profound effect on secretion; a decreased amount of TGF-beta1 is ... Our data indicate that the mutations in the signal peptide and latency-associated peptide facilitate TGF-beta1 signaling, thus ...
Because transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is a potent inducer of PAI-1 synthesis and has been shown to influence adipocyte ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, transforming growth factor-beta1, and BMI are closely associated in human adipose tissue ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, transforming growth factor-beta1, and BMI are closely associated in human adipose tissue ... Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, transforming growth factor-beta1, and BMI are closely associated in human adipose tissue ...
Overexpression of regucalcin suppresses cell response for tumor necrosis factor-alpha or transforming growth factor-beta1 in ... Overexpression of regucalcin suppresses cell response for tumor necrosis factor-alpha or transforming growth factor-beta1 in ... "Overexpression of Regucalcin Suppresses Cell Response for Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha or Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 in ... factor_alpha_or_transforming_growth_factor_beta1_in_cloned_normal_rat_kidney_proximal_tubular_epithelial_NRK52E_cells_ L2 - ...
Stimulation of astrocytes with transforming growth factor (TGF)beta1 decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) ... affect astrocyte modulation of brain endothelial barrier function in response to transforming growth factor beta1. Brain ... affect astrocyte modulation of brain endothelial barrier function in response to transforming growth factor beta1. ...
Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) signaling increases radiosensitivity in breast cancer cell lines. ... Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) signaling increases radiosensitivity in breast cancer cell lines ... Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) signaling increases radiosensitivity in breast cancer cell lines ... Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) signaling increases radiosensitivity in breast cancer cell lines ...
... here review the more recently discovered role of integrins in activating the pleiotrophic cytokine transforming growth factor ... active TGF-beta1 is generated by dissociation from a large latent protein complex that sequesters latent TGF-beta1 in the ... This close vicinity at the cell surface improves enzymatic cleavage of the latent complex to release active TGF-beta1. (2) ... Understanding that different integrins use different mechanisms to activate latent TGF-beta1 opens new possibilities to develop ...
Protective action of hepatocyte growth factor on transforming growth factor beta-1-induced alpha-smooth muscle actin and ... Protective action of hepatocyte growth factor on transforming growth factor beta-1-induced alpha-smooth muscle actin and ... The aim of this study was to determine the impact of HGF on markers of adhesion formation induced by TGF-beta1 in human ... TGF-beta1 plays an important role in matrix production associated with postoperative peritoneal adhesion development. Recent ...
Transforming growth factor beta1 gene polymorphism in patients with systemic sclerosis.. Yoshiki Sugiura, Shogo Banno, ... Transforming growth factor beta1 gene polymorphism in patients with systemic sclerosis.. Yoshiki Sugiura, Shogo Banno, ... Transforming growth factor beta1 gene polymorphism in patients with systemic sclerosis. Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Transforming growth factor beta1 gene polymorphism in patients with systemic sclerosis.. Yoshiki Sugiura, Shogo Banno, ...
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Co-upregulation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 and Nitric Oxide Synthase in Keloid by comparison to normal human skin-A ... Citation: SA Abd El-Aleem, Abdelwahab S, Osman NMS (2017) Co-upregulation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 and Nitric Oxide ... 1996) Arrest of endotoxin-induced hypotension by transforming growth factor beta1. Proc Natl Acad Sci 5and 93: 2054-9. ... control of nitric oxide synthase Expression by transforming growth Factor-bata: implications for homeostasis. Prog Growth ...
Increases in transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA and biological activity in the early phase of human ... The IE2 regulatory protein of human cytomegalovirus induces expression of the human transforming growth factor beta1 gene ... The IE2 regulatory protein of human cytomegalovirus induces expression of the human transforming growth factor beta1 gene ... The IE2 regulatory protein of human cytomegalovirus induces expression of the human transforming growth factor beta1 gene ...
Shuai Yang, Haipei Yao, Min Li, Hui Li, Fang Wang; Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 mediates transforming growth factor beta1-induced ... Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 mediates transforming growth factor beta1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in retinal ... Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 mediates transforming growth factor beta1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in retinal ...
... and that this activity is associated with the increase of plasma transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). Thirty patients ... Effect of 13-cis-retinoic acid and alpha-interferon on transforming growth factor beta1 in patients with rising prostate- ... Effect of 13-cis-retinoic acid and alpha-interferon on transforming growth factor beta1 in patients with rising prostate- ... Effect of 13-cis-retinoic acid and alpha-interferon on transforming growth factor beta1 in patients with rising prostate- ...
Epidermal growth factor and its receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor beta-1, and interleukin-1 ... Epidermal growth factor and its receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor beta-1, and interleukin-1 ... Epidermal growth factor and its receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor beta-1, and interleukin-1 ... coding for epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb), transforming growth factor beta- ...
Our findings suggest that in pancreatic carcinoma, TGF-β1 expression is related to tumor growth and metastasis. But it is not ... There was a statistically significant difference among TGF-β1 staining scores in terms of clinicopathologic factors such as ... Expression of transforming growth factor-beta-1 and p27Kip1 in pancreatic adenocarcinomas: relation with cell-cycle-associated ... Wikstrom P, Stattin P, Franck-Lissbrant I, Damber JE, Bergh A: Transforming growth factor beta1 is associated with angiogenesis ...
Transforming growth factor beta-1, TGF-beta-1, CED, DPD1, TGFB, TGF-b 1, LAP, TGFB1. validated in (PBV11402r-10), Abgent ... Transforming growth factor beta-1, TGF-beta-1, CED, DPD1, TGFB, TGF-b 1, LAP, TGFB1.. ... Transforming growth factor beta-1, TGF-beta-1, CED, DPD1, TGFB, TGF-b 1, LAP, TGFB1. ... Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-βs) mediate many cell-cell interactions that occur during embryonic development. Three ...
Intragraft expression of transforming growth factor beta1 gene in isolated glomeruli from human renal transplants. ... Experimental evidence suggests that transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 is a fibrogenic cytokine. The histopathological ...
... bind to the murine TGF-beta1 promoter, contribute to carbohydrate-induced renal TGF-beta1 expression, and may play a role in ... Wild-type and USF2 knockout mice exhibited a 2.5-fold stimulation of renal TGF-beta1 expression upon fasting and refeeding with ... Transient cotransfection studies of 293 cells with USF1 led to a twofold increase in TGF-beta1 promoter activity and a 46% ... In the present study, we evaluated the role of upstream stimulatory factors (USFs) in mediating glucose-induced stimulation of ...
Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) in physiology and pathology. Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Bogdan Marek, Halina Borgiel-Marek ... transforming growth factor beta 1. endocrine gland. liver. cancer. neoplasm. fibrosis. angiogenesis. physiology. ... TGFbeta1, transforming growth factor beta 1; endocrine gland; liver; cancer; neoplasm; fibrosis; angiogenesis; physiology; ... of profibrogenic abundant factors such as TGFbeta1 and leads to the development of liver cirrhosis. The results of experimental ...
Transforming growth factor beta-1: Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Transforming growth factor beta-1: Interacts with TGF-beta ... Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein: Precursor of the Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor ... Interacts with Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chain; interaction is non-covalent and maintains (TGF-beta-1) in ... beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chains, which constitute the regulatory and active subunit of TGF-beta-1, respectively. UniProt ...
  • Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFbeta1) is a key profibrogenic cytokine in fibrosis and its gene contains several polymorphic sites. (nih.gov)
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) play major roles in osteoarticular diseases, exerting opposite effects on both the catabolism and anabolism of cartilage matrix. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) gene DNA polymorphism is associated with pathogenesis in the fibrosis of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). (jrheum.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that TGFbeta1 polymorphisms do not play a role in the pathogenesis of SSc, even though there remains the possibility of a risk factor for genetic susceptibility to pulmonary fibrosis. (jrheum.org)
  • However, there are constant functions of TGFbeta1 inducing no controversy: it participates in foetal development, control of cell growth and differentiation, induces fibrosis and scar formation (the process of 'wound healing'), causes the suppression of immune response, is involved in angiogenesis, the development of tumours, and inflammatory processes. (viamedica.pl)
  • There are three fundamental directions of its activities: I. TGFbeta1 regulates cell proliferation, growth, differentiation and cells movement. (viamedica.pl)
  • In chronic hepatitis, the prolonged stimulation of hepatic stellate cells being the result of chronic damage to hepatocytes results in the release of profibrogenic abundant factors such as TGFbeta1 and leads to the development of liver cirrhosis. (viamedica.pl)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) strongly reduces KLF15 expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to assess whether interleukin-10 (IL-10) and/or transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFbeta1) downregulate HLA-DR expression using the HT29 cell line as a model of colonic epithelial cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families play a pivotal role during vascular development and in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. (qxmd.com)
  • Functional studies with deletion and site-directed mutation analysis of the SM22alpha promoter demonstrated that TGFbeta1 activated the SM22alpha promoter through a CC(A/T-rich)6GG (CArG) box, which serves as a serum response factor (SRF)-binding site. (qxmd.com)
  • By way of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that in the R218C, H222D, and C225R mutant constructs, this effect is caused by an increase in active TGF-beta1 in the medium of transfected cells. (uniprot.org)
  • In most of these conditions, active TGF-beta1 is generated by dissociation from a large latent protein complex that sequesters latent TGF-beta1 in the extracellular matrix (ECM). (epfl.ch)
  • This close vicinity at the cell surface improves enzymatic cleavage of the latent complex to release active TGF-beta1. (epfl.ch)
  • Genzyme Corporation is currently investigating a human monoclonal antibody (CAT-192) that neutralizes active TGF-beta1. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Also, the serum concentration of TGF-beta1 in individuals with the CC genotype was significantly higher than that in age-matched subjects with the TC or TT genotype in osteoporotic or osteopenic as well as healthy control groups. (nih.gov)
  • TGFbeta mediated activation of p38 MAPK decreases KLF15 permitting the upreg of myocardin and stimulate the expression of serum response factor target genes, such as atrial natriuretic factor eventually leading to left ventricular hypertrophy which often progresses to heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined the serum levels of growth factors, YKL-40, and clusterin in children with acute asthma or stable asthma, and investigated their correlation with clinical findings and lung function parameters. (bvsalud.org)
  • The serum levels of VEGF, TGF-beta1, PDGF-BB, YKL-40, and clusterin were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed in relation to clinical manifestations and spirometric parameters. (bvsalud.org)
  • The serum levels of VEGF, TGF-beta1, and YKL-40 were significantly elevated in children with acute asthma compared to controls. (bvsalud.org)
  • The serum levels of VEGF, TGF-beta1, and YKL-40 were not different between the acute asthma and stable asthma groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • The serum TGF-beta1 levels in stable asthma group showed a significant inverse correlation with (FEV1) forced expiratory volume in one second and FEF(25%-75%) (forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 percent of expired vital capacity). (bvsalud.org)
  • Our study suggests that increased serum levels of VEGF and YKL-40 might affect asthmatic airways not only during acute exacerbation but also in stable state and that serum TGF-beta1 might be a biomarker for airway obstruction in children with asthma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Homeobox protein Hex facilitates serum responsive factor-mediated activation of the SM22alpha gene transcription in embryonic fibroblasts. (qxmd.com)
  • Sphingosine 1-phosphate stimulates smooth muscle cell differentiation and proliferation by activating separate serum response factor co-factors. (qxmd.com)
  • The aim of this study is to detect the pattern of genetic polymorphism of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677 T and A1298 C), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 T869 C) and lymphotoxin-α (LT-α A252G) in patients having rheumatoid arthritis and correlate these patterns to disease activity and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), B-Cell Activating Factor (BAFF), and osteopontin. (scielo.br)
  • Serum transforming growth factor-beta1 as a risk stratifier of sudden cardiac death. (medscape.com)
  • The authors tried to determine whether human corneal endothelial cells in primary culture synthesize messenger RNA (mRNA) coding for epidermal growth factor (EGF), EGF receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFb1), and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha). (arvojournals.org)
  • The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the growth factors (EGF, FGFb, TGFb1, and IL-1 alpha), EGF receptor, and beta actin sequences from each of the cDNA samples. (arvojournals.org)
  • Association between transforming growth factor beta-1 gene (TGFB1) 869T/C polymorphism and hypertension has been widely evaluated, yet with conflicting results. (cdc.gov)
  • The TGFB1 gene provides instructions for producing a protein called transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ-1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Evidence implicating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) gene is steadily accumulating. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Key regulator of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3) that controls TGF-beta activation by maintaining it in a latent state during storage in extracellular space (PubMed:2022183, PubMed:8617200, PubMed:8939931). (genecards.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a cytokine that upregulates the production by fibroblasts of extracellular matrix proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies revealed that exposure of mesangial cells to high glucose concentration induces the production of matrix proteins mediated by TGF-beta1. (jci.org)
  • Upstream stimulatory factor (USF) proteins induce human TGF-beta1 gene activation via the glucose-response element-1013/-1002 in mesangial cells: up-regulation of USF activity by the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this study, we examined the expression of core proteins of the Hippo signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells treated with transforming growth factor-β 1(TGF-β1) and investigated the relationship between TGF-β1 and the Hippo signaling pathway, in order to better understand their roles in HCC and their potential implications for cancer therapy. (oncotarget.com)
  • In the present study we sought to determine whether AngII is correlated to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1) expression, a regulator of fibrous tissue formation, at these sites of tissue repair. (nih.gov)
  • These observations suggest locally generated AngII via ATi receptor binding is correlated to TGF-beta1 expression and synthesis at sites of repair and remote sites in the infarcted rat heart. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of GFAT by the substrate analogue azaserine or by inhibition of GFAT protein synthesis with antisense oligonucleotide prevented the high glucose-induced increase in cellular glucosamine metabolites and TGF-beta1 expression and bioactivity and subsequent effects on mesangial cell proliferation and matrix production. (jci.org)
  • This elevated expression has been shown to be partly controlled by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This increased PAI-1 expression could be the result of tissue cytokine disturbances, such as elevated TGF-beta1 expression. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Smad 2 mRNA expression was significantly enhanced in wild-type cells cultured with TGF-beta1. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Stimulation of astrocytes with transforming growth factor (TGF)beta1 decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and reduced expression of claudin-5 in co-cultures, whereas treatment of endothelial cells in the absence of astrocytes was without effect. (rti.org)
  • The IE2 regulatory protein of human cytomegalovirus induces expression of the human transforming growth factor beta1 gene through an Egr-1 binding site. (asm.org)
  • Our findings suggest that in pancreatic carcinoma, TGF-β1 expression is related to tumor growth and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Leicester Research Archive: Intragraft expression of transforming growth factor beta1 gene in isolated glomeruli from human renal transplants. (le.ac.uk)
  • Decorin suppresses transforming growth factor-beta-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in human mesangial cells through a mechanism that involves Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation of Smad2 at serine-240. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have previously shown that chronic alcohol ingestion in rats increases oxidative stress [ 3 ] and transforming growth factor 1 (TGFβ1) expression in the lung [ 4 ], and inflammatory insults such as sepsis release activated TGFβ1 into the alveolar space, which can intensify lung injury by further disrupting alveolar barrier function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Progesterone receptor-mediated induction of Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15), which can bind to GC-rich DNA within the E2F1 promoter, is required for maximal induction of E2F1 expression by progestins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 and alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin is Increased in the Human Myxomatous Valve. (jpatholtm.org)
  • The activation of TGF-beta1 might increase the expression of alpha-SMA in human myxomatous valves. (jpatholtm.org)
  • Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-beta and Its Receptors during Acetic Acid-induced Duodenal Ulcer Healing in Rats. (jpatholtm.org)
  • The Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-1 and Its Signaling Receptors in Human Colorectal Carcinoma. (jpatholtm.org)
  • Expression of c-fos, p53, Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Hippocampus Following Transient Forebrain Ischemia in Mongolian Gerbil. (jpatholtm.org)
  • Over-expression or constitutive activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can promote tumor processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kobayashi T, Okada H, Inoue T et al (2006) Tubular expression of connective tissue growth factor correlates with interstitial fibrosis in type 2 diabetic nephropathy. (springer.com)
  • The effect of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor beta-1 on HLA-DR expression in colonic epithelial cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We also demonstrated that transforming growth factor- 1 is not only overexpressed in metaplastic tissues but also reduces E-cadherin expression in keratinocytes in vitro by inducing the promoter activity of Slug and Snail transcription factors. (uliege.be)
  • These data suggest that transforming growth factor- 1 indirectly reduces antigenpresenting cell density in EpM by affecting E-cadherin expression, which might explain the increased susceptibility of abnormal tissue differentiation to the development of cancer by the establishment of local immunodeficiency responsible for EpM tumorigenesis. (uliege.be)
  • c-Src and hydrogen peroxide mediate transforming growth factor-beta1-induced smooth muscle cell-gene expression in 10T1/2 cells. (qxmd.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta1-induced expression of smooth muscle marker genes involves activation of PKN and p38 MAPK. (qxmd.com)
  • Expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 limits renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. (vchri.ca)
  • Our research focuses on identifying factors controlling gene expression in kidney disorders, and translating experimental findings into innovative methods for diagnosis and treatment. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes inhibit estrogen receptor expression in vivo and in vitro through transforming growth factor beta1. (cdc.gov)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), VEGF Receptor 1(Flt-1), collagen type Iα1 and Iα2 mRNA expression levels were observed in the HSC-Li cells by RT-PCR. (medsci.org)
  • Immunofluorescence staining showed that the HSC-Li cells were positive for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β), vimentin, and SV40LT protein expression. (medsci.org)
  • 2003). The TIAF1 expression is regulated by TGF-[beta]1 (transforming growth factor-beta 1) which is a pleiotropic cytokine with demonstrable effects on a wide variety of cellular targets (Bonewald, 1999) and its principal role is as an immune regulator (Shull et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Studies on human skin fibroblasts by Choi et al have demonstrated that narrowband UVB reduces type I collagen synthesis by down-regulating TGF-beta1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels and promoting the release of MMP-1. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, some recent reports have described the expression of growth factors, or other usually soluble mediators, found in association with the exosome membrane. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present results show that cinaciguat treatment improves histopathological lesions, improves cardiac performance, improves impaired cardiac relaxation, reduces oxidative stress, ameliorates intracellular enzyme release, and decreases cyclooxygenase 2, transforming growth factor-β, and β-actin mRNA expression in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • These results suggest that the inflammatory cascade in severe malaria is characterized by suppression of the protective effects of TGF-beta1 and IL-12, and that overproduction of TNF-alpha may promote deleterious effects, such as severe anemia. (duke.edu)
  • EMSA and supershift analysis revealed that the transcription factors activator protein 4 (AP-4) and AP-1 specifically bound to the -720/-696 part of this sequence under IL-1beta treatment. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta-1 mutations in Camurati-Engelmann disease lead to increased signaling by altering either activation or secretion of the mutant protein. (uniprot.org)
  • To determine how CMV infection transactivates the TGF-beta1 promoter, we examined the effects of the cotransfected IE2 regulatory protein of human CMV on 5'-deleted TGF-beta1 promoter-CAT reporter genes in transient DNA transfection assays. (asm.org)
  • We conclude from these observations that IE2 may regulate transcription of the TGF-beta1 gene as well as other potential cellular targets by virtue of its ability to interact with the Egr-1 DNA-binding protein. (asm.org)
  • In case of superfluous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from ionizing radiation, infectious agents, toxins, ischemia, and other pathological factors, the FR process becomes a cascade of events that leads to lipid-lipid and protein-lipid disorders, uncoupling the oxidative phosphorylation and tissue respiration, and in consequence results in a severe imbalance of cellular metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • Krüppel-like factor 15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF15 gene in the Krüppel-like factor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TGFβ-1 protein triggers chemical signals that regulate various cell activities inside the cell, including the growth and division (proliferation) of cells, the maturation of cells to carry out specific functions (differentiation), cell movement (motility), and controlled cell death (apoptosis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The TGFβ-1 protein is found throughout the body but is particularly abundant in tissues that make up the skeleton, where it helps regulate the formation and growth of bone and cartilage, a tough, flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Janssens K, ten Dijke P, Ralston SH, Bergmann C, Van Hul W. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 mutations in Camurati-Engelmann disease lead to increased signaling by altering either activation or secretion of the mutant protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Han JH, Choi SJ, Kurihara N. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha is an osteoclastogenic factor in MM that is independent of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand. (springer.com)
  • LTBP1 (Latent Transforming Growth Factor Beta Binding Protein 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Neuronal damage was decreased with i.c.v. injection of TNFalpha antibody and in TNFp55R-/-p75R-/- mice that showed higher constitutive mRNA levels for interleukin (IL-1alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein 1-alpha (MIP-1alpha), TNFalpha, transforming growth factor beta1, Fas, and TNFRSF6-assoicated via death domain (FADD). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Higher concentrations of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1), and TGFβ2 were associated with stage B compared with stage A. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), Tissue Inhibitors of MMP 1, QRS score, and Brain Natriuretic Protein rose progressively with increasing CC severity. (ajtmh.org)
  • The product of this gene targets latent complexes of transforming growth factor beta to the extracellular matrix, where the late. (genecards.org)
  • The product of this gene targets latent complexes of transforming growth factor beta to the extracellular matrix, where the latent cytokine is subsequently activated by several different mechanisms. (genecards.org)
  • Adiponectin Is Involved in Connective Tissue Growth Factor-Induced Proliferation, Migration and Overproduction of the Extracellular Matrix in Keloid Fibroblasts. (medscape.com)
  • Collectively, such data suggest a possible physiologic role for exosomes as a novel means of disseminating growth factors and other mediators within the extracellular milieu. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Association of a polymorphism of the transforming growth factor-beta1 gene with genetic susceptibility to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Japanese w. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that the T/C polymorphism of the TGF-beta1 gene is one of the genetic determinants of bone mass and that the T allele is an independent risk factor for the genetic susceptibility to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Japanese women. (nih.gov)
  • Transforming growth factor beta1 gene polymorphism in patients with systemic sclerosis. (jrheum.org)
  • Genetic factors may account for some variation in the progression of fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). (nih.gov)
  • TGF-beta1 controls tissue homeostasis in embryonic and normal adult tissues and contributes to the development of fibrosis, cancer, autoimmune and vascular diseases when being mis-regulated. (epfl.ch)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has extensive biological functions in different cell types, and is a critical mediator in the course of renal fibrosis [ 1 , 2 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Citrate attenuates tubulointerstitial fibrosis in 5/6 nephrectomized rats by decreasing transforming growth factor-beta1. (bvsalud.org)
  • At the eighth week, the 5/6tap group had progressively decreased GFR and had higher fibrosis score, increased alpha-SMA positive cells , and renal tissue TGF- beta1 when compared with the sham groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • As such, in 5/6 nephrectomized rats , citrate therapy for eight weeks could decrease tubulointerstitial fibrosis mainly by reducing the heightened renal TGF-beta1 levels and additionally by attenuating the increased myofibroblast activity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Excess Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (TGF-beta1) activity may result in the abnormal fibrosis characteristic of Systemic Sclerosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An antibody against TGF-beta1 may modify pathologic processes characterized by inappropriate fibrosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is suspected to contribute to pulmonary fibrosis through modulation of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-ß1). (cdc.gov)
  • Following CNT exposure transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), a pro-fibrogenic mediator, was induced both in vivo and in vitro models and was correlated with in vivo fibrosis and in vitro collagen induction. (cdc.gov)
  • Rutakingirwa M, Ziegler JL, Newton R, Freers J. Poverty and eosinophilia are risk factors for endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) in Uganda. (medscape.com)
  • Human Elongator complex is involved in cell cycle and suppresses cell growth in 293T human embryonic. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results: TGF-beta1 significantly stimulated α-SMA, collagen I and fibronectin production in peritoneal fibroblasts. (medscimonit.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simvastatin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production in nasal polyp- derived fibroblasts (NPDFs) and to verify the mechanism of the effect of simvastatin in TGF-beta-1-induced myofibroblast differentiation in NPDFs. (elsevier.com)
  • BAY 41-2272 had no effects on blood pressure, but decreased AC-induced collagen accumulation in the left ventricle (LV), inhibiting the number of myofibroblasts and gene expressions of transforming growth factor-beta1 and type 1 collagen. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Role of transforming growth factor-ß1 pathway in carbon nanotube stimulated collagen production in human lung cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Among those differentially expressed genes we identified up-regulation of the TIAF1 (TGF-[beta]1-induced anti-apoptotic factor 1) gene transcripts in Meishan pigs compared with Large White pigs. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is secreted as a latent precursor, consisting of a homodimer of the latency-associated peptide and the mature peptide. (uniprot.org)
  • Two main models are proposed how integrins contribute to latent TGF-beta1 activation: (1) In a protease-dependent mechanism, integrins alphavbeta8 and alphavbeta3 are suggested to simultaneously bind the latent TGF-beta1 complex and proteinases. (epfl.ch)
  • 2) Integrins alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, alphavbeta6, and alphavbeta8 appear to change the conformation of the latent TGF-beta1 complex by transmitting cell traction forces. (epfl.ch)
  • Understanding that different integrins use different mechanisms to activate latent TGF-beta1 opens new possibilities to develop cell-specific therapeutic strategies for TGF-beta1-induced pathologies. (epfl.ch)
  • To examine the relationship between cytokine levels of transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the plasma of esophageal carcinoma patients and radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). (dovepress.com)
  • We here review the more recently discovered role of integrins in activating the pleiotrophic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1). (epfl.ch)
  • Experimental evidence suggests that transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 is a fibrogenic cytokine. (le.ac.uk)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ) is a pleiotropic cytokine with a double role in cancer through its capacity to inhibit early stages of tumors while enhancing tumor progression at late stages of tumor progression. (wordpress.com)
  • We have recently reported that chronic ITP patients in remission had elevated plasma levels of the Th3 cytokine transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), possibly as a part of a bystander immune suppression. (chalmers.se)
  • In summary, this study demonstrated that chronic ITP patients with active disease had reduced PBMC production of the Th3 cytokine TGF-beta1. (chalmers.se)
  • Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory property, which has been considered as an essential risk factor in the inflammatory process of Ischemic Stroke (IS), by involving in the pathophysiological progression of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and lipid metabolisms. (ac.ir)
  • We examined the regulatory cytokine transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) because of its role in controlling immune responses. (elsevier.com)
  • Reduced interleukin-12 and transforming growth factor-beta1 in severe childhood malaria: relationship of cytokine balance with disease severity. (duke.edu)
  • Epidermal growth factor and its receptor, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor beta-1, and interleukin-1 alpha messenger RNA production in human corneal endothelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • One recent study has demonstrated that intranasal fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) or heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) increase neurogenesis in the normal adult mouse brain [ 7 ], but the effect of intranasal neurotrophic factors on neurogenesis in animals after stroke has not been investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation and remodeling in asthmatic airways. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nuclear factor I-C links platelet-derived growth factor and transforming growth factor beta1 signaling to skin wound healing progression. (unil.ch)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the impact of HGF on markers of adhesion formation induced by TGF-beta1 in human peritoneal fibroblasts. (medscimonit.com)
  • Material/Methods: Fibroblasts were collected from normal peritoneum and were cultured with 5 ng/ml of TGF-beta1 along with increasing doses of HGF (10-40 ng/ml). (medscimonit.com)
  • Increases in transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA and biological activity in the early phase of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in fibroblasts are paralleled by increased TGF-beta1-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene activity. (asm.org)
  • TIAF1 plays a critical role in blocking TNF (tumor necrosis factor) cytotoxicity in mouse fibroblasts (Chang et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • TGF-β remains among the key factors responsible for the development of a myofibroblastic phenotype from a variety of precursor cells, including fibroblasts ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • May play a role in the processes of cell growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation and senescence. (uniprot.org)
  • It has been reported that TGF-β influence different cell functions, including growth, proliferation and differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene encodes a coactivator of the androgen receptor, a transcription factor which is activated by androgen and has a key role in male sexual differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor necrosis factor receptor family member RANK mediates osteoclast differentiation and activation induced by osteopro-tegerin ligand. (springer.com)
  • 2016. Tumour necrosis factor-stimulated gene (TSG)-6-mediated interactions with the inter-alpha-inhibitor heavy chain 5 facilitate TGF beta1-dependent fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation. . (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Levels of activated metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), as well as early stage differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase, were altered with the addition of zinc. (mdpi.com)
  • Culture with TNF-alpha or TGF-beta1 caused a remarkable increase in alpha-smooth muscle actin in wild-type cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Renal function, renal histopathology, renal alpha- Smooth muscle actin (SMA), and renal transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 were determined immediately and at the 8th week after operation. (bvsalud.org)
  • BACKGROUND: In vitro experimental studies have reported that transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) stimulates the production of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) in porcine valves. (jpatholtm.org)
  • Ma X, Chen C, Xiong H, Li Y. Transforming growth factorβ1 L10P variant plays an active role on the breast cancer susceptibility in Caucasian: evidence from 10,392 cases and 11,697 controls. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. (curehunter.com)
  • It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. (curehunter.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is both abundant in bone and an important regulator of bone metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • A luciferase reporter assay specific for TGF-beta-induced transcriptional response with wild type and mutant TGF-beta1 constructs showed a positive effect of all mutations on TGF-beta1 activity. (uniprot.org)
  • Most human breast cancers are reported to be refractory to transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) mediated growth regulation while producing large amounts of TGFβ1 (reviewed in Cancer Metastasis Rev 20 (1-2):133, 2001). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Involvement of transforming growth factor-beta in regulation of calcium transients in diabetic vascular smooth muscle cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta-1 proprotein: Precursor of the Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) chains, which constitute the regulatory and active subunit of TGF-beta-1, respectively. (sdsc.edu)
  • Transforming growth factor beta-1: Interacts with TGF-beta receptors ( TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 ), leading to signal transduction (By similarity). (sdsc.edu)
  • BACKGROUND Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an essential role in the regulation of normal physiologic processes of cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Fluid shear stress induces endothelial transforming growth factor beta-1 transcription and production. (duke.edu)
  • His basic science research interests include modulation of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta in scarless flexor tendon wound healing and tissue engineered flexor tendon grafts for hand reconstruction. (stanford.edu)
  • Also, in a non-canonical signal pathway, HYAL-2 serves as a receptor for transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) to signal with downstream tumor suppressors WWOX and SMAD4 to control gene transcription. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2000). Khera and Chang (2003) reported that TIAF1 participates in TGF-[beta]-mediated growth regulation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and transforming growth factor beta binding . (genecards.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta and substrate stiffness regulate portal fibroblast activation in culture. (medscape.com)
  • These results show that blocking TGFβ1 signaling renders most epithelial cancer cells more sensitive to radiation therapy regardless of their sensitivity to TGFβ1 mediated growth regulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Role of upstream stimulatory factors in regulation of renal transforming growth factor-beta1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Guha M, Xu ZG, Tung D et al (2007) Specific down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor attenuates progression of nephropathy in mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of the dephosphorylation of cortactin by sodium vanadate blocked TGF-beta1-induced EMT. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Non-malignant MCF10A, breast cancer cell line Hs578T and lung carcinoma A549 were found to be responsive to TGFβ1 mediated growth inhibition while MCF7, MDAMB231 and T47D breast cancer cell lines were refractory. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We prove that the Hippo signaling pathway is involved in the TGF-β1-induced inhibition of the growth of HCC cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • This activation promotes various actions such as vasodilation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, and growth inhibition. (ahajournals.org)
  • High glucose-induced transforming growth factor beta1 production is mediated by the hexosamine pathway in porcine glomerular mesangial cells. (jci.org)
  • Therefore, we suggested that the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (the key enzyme of which is glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase [GFAT]) contributes to the high glucose-induced TGF-beta1 production. (jci.org)
  • a decreased amount of TGF-beta1 is secreted, but the increased luciferase activity shows that the intracellular accumulation of (aberrant) TGF-beta1 can initiate an enhanced transcriptional response, suggesting the existence of an alternative signaling pathway. (uniprot.org)
  • Growth factors do not only stimulate cell proliferation, but they may also act as growth inhibitors, depending on the cell type and the stimulatory pathway that is involved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in transforming growth factor-beta1-induced phenotypic modulation of 10T1/2 cells to smooth muscle cells. (qxmd.com)
  • Cortactin is involved in transforming growth factor-beta1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in AML-12 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Additionally, knockdown of cortactin further promoted TGF-beta1-induced EMT in AML-12 cells, as determined by EMT markers and cell morphological changes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, migration assay showed that cortactin knockdown promoted the migration of AML-12 cells, and also enhanced TGF-beta1-induced migration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The regulatory role of regucalcin on cell responses for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) was investigated using the cloned normal rat kidney proximal tubular epithelial NRK52E cells overexpressing regucalcin. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • After culture, cells were further cultured for 24-72 h in medium without BS containing either vehicle, TNF-alpha (0.1 or 1.0 ng/ml of medium), or TGF-beta1 (1.0 or 5.0 ng/ml). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Culture with TNF-alpha or TGF-beta1 caused a significant decrease in the number of wild-type cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Agarose gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low-molecular-weight deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments of adherent wild-type cells cultured with TNF-alpha (1.0 ng/ml) or TGF-beta1 (5.0 ng/ml). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TNF-alpha- or TGF-beta1-induced cell death was significantly prevented in culture with caspase-3 inhibitor (10(-8) M). Nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in wild-type cells was significantly increased by addition of calcium chloride (10 microM) and calmodulin (5 microg/ml) into the enzyme reaction mixture. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Culture with TGF-beta1 did not cause a significant increase in NO synthase activity in wild-type cells and transfectants. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This study demonstrates that overexpression of regucalcin has suppressive effects on cell responses which are mediated through intracellular signaling pathways of TNF-alpha or TGF-beta1 in kidney NRK52E cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β] is such an example, being a growth stimulator in fibroblastic cells with TGF-β receptors, but a negative regulator in epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously identified an E-box to be implicated in high-glucose-induced transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) gene stimulation in murine mesangial cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent studies suggested that autophagy is a protective mechanism that helps renal intrinsic cells to survive in response to various stressors, defends kidneys against elements of nephrotoxicity, pro-fibrotic factors and inflammatory response injuries under pathological condition and plays a renoprotective role in acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Reduced transforming growth factor-beta1 production by mononuclear cells from patients with active chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. (chalmers.se)
  • To evaluate the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF- 1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). (ijo.cn)
  • Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-ß1) and lovastatin on differentiating human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) toward nucleus pulposus (NP)-like phenotype. (elsevier.com)
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells characterized by growth in the bone marrow (BM) environment and the development of lytic lesions in the skeleton. (springer.com)
  • Delta like-1 (Dlk1)/preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1)/fetal antigen-1 (FA1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. (wiley.com)
  • We have also shown that, in addition to its proposed role in removing cells before they undergo lysis, in vitro ingestion of apoptotic cells actively suppressed production of proinflammatory growth factors, cytokines, chemokines (e.g. (jci.org)
  • The HSC-Li cells produced both HGF and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) in a time-dependent manner. (medsci.org)
  • Myofibroblasts are also relevant in solid cancers in which an altered stroma, rich in myofibroblastic cells, can support tumor growth, vascularization, and metastasis ( 16-18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation of renal renin-angiotensin system in upstream stimulatory factor 2 transgenic mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • He has been studying the impact of kidney donor-derived factors on renal allograft rejection, and the molecular pathways of kidney injury and regeneration in experimental models. (vchri.ca)
  • Our data indicate that the mutations in the signal peptide and latency-associated peptide facilitate TGF-beta1 signaling, thus causing Camurati-Engelmann disease. (uniprot.org)
  • These effects of TNF-alpha or TGF-beta1 were not significantly enhanced in transfectants. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • IL-12 and TGF-beta1 were significantly lower, whereas tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-10 were significantly higher in children with severe malaria. (duke.edu)
  • The ratios of TGF-beta1/IL-12 and IL-10/IL-12 were significantly higher in the severe, compared with the mild, malaria group. (duke.edu)
  • In contrast, ratios of TGF-beta1/TNF-alpha and IL-10/TNF-alpha were significantly lower in the severe malaria group. (duke.edu)
  • Interleukin (IL)-12 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 regulate the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in animal models of malaria. (duke.edu)
  • While Smad7 is induced by TGF-β, it is also induced by other stimuli, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. (wikipedia.org)
  • Targeted disruption of the mouse colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene results in osteopetrosis, mononuclear phagocyte deficiency, increased primitive progenitor cell frequencies, and reproductive defects. (springer.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta1 stimulates degranulation and oxidant release by adherent human neutrophils. (cngb.org)
  • In the present study, we evaluated the role of upstream stimulatory factors (USFs) in mediating glucose-induced stimulation of TGF-beta1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • and (2) effect of AngII on TGF-beta1 synthesis by chronic blockade of AT1 receptors began at the time of surgery by losartan in rats with MI. (nih.gov)
  • Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) is regarded as the important factor in many fibrotic kidney diseases. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Its former designation KKLF stands for kidney-enriched Krüppel-like factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Van Nieuwenhoven FA, Jensen LJ, Flyvbjerg A et al (2005) Imbalance of growth factor signalling in diabetic kidney disease: is connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) the perfect intervention point? (springer.com)
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and supershift analysis were used to characterize the transcription factors binding to these sequences. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Reference : Transforming growth factor-beta1-mediated Slug and Snail transcription factor up-regu. (uliege.be)
  • Smooth muscle cell-specific transcription is regulated by nuclear localization of the myocardin-related transcription factors. (qxmd.com)
  • However, the interaction of intracellular signaling evoked by each of these growth factors is not well understood. (qxmd.com)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor can substitute for macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the support of osteoclastic bone resorption. (springer.com)
  • Therefore the aim of the study was to measure the concentration of selected markers of endothelial dysfunction: von Willebrand factor (vWf), soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) and soluble VE-cadherin (sVE-cadherin) in CVI women who constitute the most numerous group of patients suffering from venous disease. (bireme.br)
  • Tumor necrosis factor p55 and p75 receptors are involved in chemical-induced apoptosis of dentate granule neurons. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Localized tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) elevation has diverse effects in brain injury often attributed to signaling via TNFp55 or TNFp75 receptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Transforming growth factor beta1 impairs neuropathic pain through pleiotropic effect. (mcgill.ca)
  • In this study, we investigate the effect of the LLL12-13ins, Y81H, R218C, H222D, and C225R mutations on the functioning of TGF-beta1 in vitro. (uniprot.org)
  • TGF-beta2 was detected in CSF and showed similar trends, but the CSF concentration of TGF-beta1 was more than 20 times higher. (nih.gov)
  • Intraventricular recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was followed by a rise in CSF TGF-beta1 (p = 0.0007). (nih.gov)
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, transforming growth factor-beta1, and BMI are closely associated in human adipose tissue during morbid obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Freshly collected visceral adipose tissue did not exhibit a higher content of PAI-1 or TGF-beta1 than did SC tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These results describe, in severe obesity, a proportional increase in tissue PAI-1 and TGF-beta1 in visceral and SC tissues. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • TGFβ-1 is also involved in the formation of blood vessels, development of muscle tissue and body fat, wound healing, inflammatory processes in the immune system, and prevention of tumor growth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for TGF-beta1 and alpha-SMA. (jpatholtm.org)
  • en] Epithelial metaplasia (EpM) is an acquired tissue abnormality resulting from the transformation of epithelium into another tissue with a different structure and function. (uliege.be)
  • Because transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 is a potent inducer of PAI-1 synthesis and has been shown to influence adipocyte metabolism, this work was extended to TGF-beta1 quantification. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The exact causes of the disease are unknown, but environmental factors and genetic predisposition are involved. (scielo.br)
  • In human, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) is considered central in the pathogenesis. (ac.be)
  • Effect of 13-cis-retinoic acid and alpha-interferon on transforming growth factor beta1 in patients with rising prostate-specific antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that 13-cis-retinoic acid (CRA) and alpha-interferon (IFN-alpha) have antitumor activity in patients with early recurrence of prostate cancer measured by rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after local therapy, and that this activity is associated with the increase of plasma transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1). (aacrjournals.org)

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