A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.
Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A family of proteins that are involved in the translocation of signals from TGF-BETA RECEPTORS; BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS; and other surface receptors to the CELL NUCLEUS. They were originally identified as a class of proteins that are related to the mothers against decapentaplegic protein, Drosophila and sma proteins from CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
An inhibitory smad protein that associates with TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA RECEPTORS and BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It negatively regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS by inhibiting PHOSPHORYLATION of RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A signal transducing adaptor protein and tumor suppressor protein. It forms a complex with activated RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS. The complex then translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A family of secreted multidomain proteins that were originally identified by their association with the latent form of TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS. They interact with a variety of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and may play a role in the regulation of TGB-beta bioavailability.
Receptors for ACTIVINS are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES, thus also named activin receptor-like kinases (ALK's). Activin receptors also bind TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. As those transmembrane receptors of the TGF-beta superfamily (RECEPTORS, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA), ALK's consist of two different but related protein kinases, Type I and Type II. Activins initiate cellular signal transduction by first binding to the type II receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II ) which then recruit and phosphorylate the type I receptors (ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I ) with subsequent activation of the type I kinase activity.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to both PDGF-A chains and PDGF-B chains. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A family of smad proteins that undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS in response to TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA; ACTIVIN; or BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. It regulates BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN signaling and plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
An inhibitory Smad protein that negatively regulates the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS from BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS. Smad6 inhibits PHOSPHORYLATION of SMAD2 PROTEIN and SMAD3 PROTEIN.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A non-DNA binding transcription factor that is a subunit of core binding factor. It forms heterodimeric complexes with CORE BINDING FACTOR ALPHA SUBUNITS, and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a variety of GENES involved primarily in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELL CYCLE progression.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A family of BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN-related proteins that are primarily involved in regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (1/13538)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (2/13538)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (3/13538)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (4/13538)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Smad3-Smad4 and AP-1 complexes synergize in transcriptional activation of the c-Jun promoter by transforming growth factor beta. (5/13538)

Transcriptional regulation by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a complex process which is likely to involve cross talk between different DNA responsive elements and transcription factors to achieve maximal promoter activation and specificity. Here, we describe a concurrent requirement for two discrete responsive elements in the regulation of the c-Jun promoter, one a binding site for a Smad3-Smad4 complex and the other an AP-1 binding site. The two elements are located 120 bp apart in the proximal c-Jun promoter, and each was able to independently bind its corresponding transcription factor complex. The effects of independently mutating each of these elements were nonadditive; disruption of either sequence resulted in complete or severe reductions in TGF-beta responsiveness. This simultaneous requirement for two distinct and independent DNA binding elements suggests that Smad and AP-1 complexes function synergistically to mediate TGF-beta-induced transcriptional activation of the c-Jun promoter.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase can be involved in transforming growth factor beta superfamily signal transduction in Drosophila wing morphogenesis. (6/13538)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) has been extensively studied as a stress-responsive kinase, but its role in development remains unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has two p38 genes, D-p38a and D-p38b. To elucidate the developmental function of the Drosophila p38's, we used various genetic and pharmacological manipulations to interfere with their functions: expression of a dominant-negative form of D-p38b, expression of antisense D-p38b RNA, reduction of the D-p38 gene dosage, and treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Expression of a dominant-negative D-p38b in the wing imaginal disc caused a decapentaplegic (dpp)-like phenotype and enhanced the phenotype of a dpp mutant. Dpp is a secretory ligand belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily which triggers various morphogenetic processes through interaction with the receptor Thick veins (Tkv). Inhibition of D-p38b function also caused the suppression of the wing phenotype induced by constitutively active Tkv (TkvCA). Mosaic analysis revealed that D-p38b regulates the Tkv-dependent transcription of the optomotor-blind (omb) gene in non-Dpp-producing cells, indicating that the site of D-p38b action is downstream of Tkv. Furthermore, forced expression of TkvCA induced an increase in the phosphorylated active form(s) of D-p38(s). These results demonstrate that p38, in addition to its role as a transducer of emergency stress signaling, may function to modulate Dpp signaling.  (+info)

Isolation of zebrafish gdf7 and comparative genetic mapping of genes belonging to the growth/differentiation factor 5, 6, 7 subgroup of the TGF-beta superfamily. (7/13538)

The Growth/differentiation factor (Gdf) 5, 6, 7 genes form a closely related subgroup belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. In zebrafish, there are three genes that belong to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup that have been named radar, dynamo, and contact. The genes radar and dynamo both encode proteins most similar to mouse GDF6. The orthologous identity of these genes on the basis of amino acid similarities has not been clear. We have identified gdf7, a fourth zebrafish gene belonging to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup. To assign correct orthologies and to investigate the evolutionary relationships of the human, mouse, and zebrafish Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup, we have compared genetic map positions of the zebrafish and mammalian genes. We have mapped zebrafish gdf7 to linkage group (LG) 17, contact to LG9, GDF6 to human chromosome (Hsa) 8 and GDF7 to Hsa2p. The radar and dynamo genes have been localized previously to LG16 and LG19, respectively. A comparison of syntenies shared among human, mouse, and zebrafish genomes indicates that gdf7 is the ortholog of mammalian GDF7/Gdf7. LG16 shares syntenic relationships with mouse chromosome (Mmu) 4, including Gdf6. Portions of LG16 and LG19 appear to be duplicate chromosomes, thus suggesting that radar and dynamo are both orthologs of Gdf6. Finally, the mapping data is consistent with contact being the zebrafish ortholog of mammalian GDF5/Gdf5.  (+info)

Transformation of intestinal epithelial cells by chronic TGF-beta1 treatment results in downregulation of the type II TGF-beta receptor and induction of cyclooxygenase-2. (8/13538)

The precise role of TGF-beta in colorectal carcinogenesis is not clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic alterations caused by chronic exposure to TGF-beta in non-transformed intestinal epithelial (RIE-1) cells. Growth of RIE-1 cells was inhibited by >75% following TGF-beta1 treatment for 7 days, after which the cells resumed a normal growth despite the presence of TGF-beta1. These 'TGF-beta-resistant' cells (RIE-Tr) were continuously exposed to TGF-beta for >50 days. Unlike the parental RIE cells, RIE-Tr cells lost contact inhibition, formed foci in culture, grew in soft agarose. RIE-Tr cells demonstrated TGF-beta-dependent invasive potential in an in vitro assay and were resistant to Matrigel and Na-butyrate-induced apoptosis. The RIE-Tr cells were also tumorigenic in nude mice. The transformed phenotype of RIE-Tr cells was associated with a 95% decrease in the level of the type II TGF-beta receptor (TbetaRII) protein, a 40-fold increase in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and 5.9-fold increase in the production of prostacyclin. Most RIE-Tr subclones that expressed low levels of TbetaRII and high levels of COX-2 were tumorigenic. Those subclones that express abundant TbetaRII and low levels of COX-2 were not tumorigenic in nude mice. A selective COX-2 inhibitor inhibited RIE-Tr cell growth in culture and tumor growth in nude mice. The reduced expression of TbetaRII, increased expression of COX-2, and the ability to form colonies in Matrigel were all reversible upon withdrawal of exogenous TGF-beta1 for the RIE-Tr cells.  (+info)

Melanocytic neoplasia is characterized by the aberrant overproduction of multiple cytokines in vitro. However, it is largely unknown how cytokine expression relates to melanoma progression in vivo. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional cytokine commonly produced by cultured …
Definition of transforming growth factor [beta] in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is transforming growth factor [beta]? Meaning of transforming growth factor [beta] as a finance term. What does transforming growth factor [beta] mean in finance?
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent growth regulatory protein secreted by virtually all cells in a latent form. A major mechanism of regulating TGF-beta activity occurs through factors that control the processing of the latent to t
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) proteins regulate cell function, and have key roles in development and carcinogenesis. The intracellular effectors of TGF-beta signalling, the Smad proteins, are activated by receptors and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate transcription. Alt …
Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a secreted polypeptide that signals via receptor serine/threonine kinases and intracellular Smad effectors. TGF-beta inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in various cell types, and accumulation of loss-of-function mutations in the TGF-beta receptor or Smad genes classify the pathway as a tumor suppressor in humans. In addition, various oncogenic pathways directly inactivate the TGF-beta receptor-Smad pathway, thus favoring tumor growth. On the other hand, all human tumors overproduce TGF-beta whose autocrine and paracrine actions promote tumor cell invasiveness and metastasis. Accordingly, TGF-beta induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a differentiation switch that is required for transitory invasiveness of carcinoma cells. Tumor-derived TGF-beta acting on stromal fibroblasts remodels the tumor matrix and induces expression of mitogenic signals towards the carcinoma cells, and upon acting on endothelial cells and pericytes, TGF-beta ...
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines. TGF-β1 precursor contains a pro-region (latency associated peptide or LAP), and C-terminal region that becomes active TGF-β1 upon activation. Both LAP and TGF- β1 exist as homodimers in circulation, but the disulfide-linked homodimers of LAP and TGF-β1 remain non-covalently associated, forming the small latent TGFβ1 complex. The large latent TGF- β1 Complex contains a third component, the latent TGF-β binding protein (LTBP), which is linked to LAP by a single disulfide bond. LTBP does not confer latency, but is required for efficient secretion of the complex to extracellular sites. Free active TGF-β1 can be released by many factors, including enzymes and low or high pH. It has diverse biological functions in multiple cellular processes, with its intracellular signaling pathways being associated with regulation of proliferation and differentiation to various cell ...
Experimental evidence suggests that transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 is a fibrogenic cytokine. The histopathological changes of chronic renal allograft nephropathy are dominated by fibrotic changes and TGF-beta may have an important aetiological role. This study investigated the relationship between intragraft TGF-beta gene expression and extracellular matrix protein deposition in human renal allografts ...
A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor ...
Human TGF-beta1 ELISA Kit from Proteintech (96 tests) . Quantitate Human TGF-beta1 in Serum, Plasma, Cell culture supernatant, Urine. Cat.No. KE00002.
|p|Noggin inhibits TGF-beta signal transduction by binding to TGF-beta family ligands and preventing them from binding to their corresponding receptors. Noggin plays a key role in neural induction by inhibiting BMP4, along with other TGF-beta signaling inhibitors such as chordin and follistatin. Mouse knockout experiments have demonstrated that noggin also plays a crucial role in bone development, joint formation, and neural tube fusion. |br/|The secreted polypeptide noggin, encoded by the NOG gene, binds and inactivates members of the transforming TGF-beta superfamily signaling proteins, such as BMP4. By diffusing through extracellular matrices more efficiently than members of the TGF-beta superfamily, noggin may have a principal role in creating morphogenic gradients.|/p|
Endothelial cells plated on two-dimensional (2-D) substrata proliferate until they form a tightly apposed confluent monolayer of quiescent cells that display a typical cobblestone morphology. When added to proliferating cultures TGF beta-1 (transforming growth factor beta-1) inhibited cell growth and caused marked morphological changes, with the cells becoming enlarged and ragged. These effects were dose-dependent and reversible. TGF beta-1 also reduced the cloning efficiency and colony size of these cells, indicating that TGF beta-1 is cytotoxic and cytostatic for endothelial cells. By contrast, TGF beta-1 added to quiescent cobblestone cultures did not affect cell morphology or cell numbers. In the presence of 20% serum, the level of total protein synthesis per cell was significantly increased by TGF beta-1 in a dose-dependent manner when the cells were cultured on a 2-D substratum, regardless of whether the cells were proliferating or cobblestone quiescent. The level of plasminogen ...
Isoform-specific antibodies to TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 proteins were generated and have been used to examine the expression of these factors in the developing mouse embryo from 12.5-18.5 d post coitum (d.p.c.). These studies demonstrate the initial characterization of both TGF beta 2 and beta 3 in mammalian embryogenesis and are compared with TGF beta 1. Expression of one or all three TGF beta proteins was observed in many tissues, e.g., cartilage, bone, teeth, muscle, heart, blood vessels, lung, kidney, gut, liver, eye, ear, skin, and nervous tissue. Furthermore, all three TGF beta proteins demonstrated discrete cell-specific patterns of expression at various stages of development and the wide variety of tissues expressing TGF beta proteins represent all three primary embryonic germ layers. For example, specific localization of TGF beta 1 was observed in the lens fibers of the eye (ectoderm), TGF beta 2 in the cortex of the adrenal gland (mesoderm), and TGF beta 3 in the cochlear ...
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family comprising a large group of extracellular growth factors controls the development of the organism. TGF-beta family members consists of a large number of structurally related polypeptide growth factors, each capable of regulating a fascinating array of cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, adhesion, and death. TGF-beta and related factors play a prominent role in the development, homeostasis and repair of virtually all tissues in organisms. ...
The 1D11.16.8 monoclonal antibody reacts with mouse, human, rat, monkey, hamster, canine and bovine TGF-β (transforming growth factor beta) isoforms 1, 2 and 3. TGF-β is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates the proliferation of epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, neurons, lymphoid cells including T lymphocytes and NK cells, and other hematopoietic cell types. TGF-β also regulates the activities of activated macrophages and the development of regulatory T cells. Additionally, TGF-β plays roles in immune function, tissue remodeling and wound repair. TGF-β exists as five highly similar isoforms (TGF-β 1-5) with homologies of 70-80%. TGF-β1 is synthesized by the enzymatic cleavage of a long precursor TGF-β1 polypeptide encoded by the |em|TGFB1|/em| gene which yields the mature protein and the Latency Associated Peptide (LAP). The LAP and mature TGF-β1 non-covalently associate during secretion. TGF-β is ubiquitously expressed by many cell types including macrophages and platelets
Buy TGFBI elisa kit, Hamster Transforming Growth Factor Beta Induced ELISA Kit-EAW52130.1 (MBS011366) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The role of transforming growth factor beta isoforms in tendon-to-bone healing. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
RUNX3 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by reinstating transforming growth factor beta responsiveness in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells.
Artur » Lista över publikationer » ENHANCED JUN GENE-EXPRESSION IS AN EARLY GENOMIC RESPONSE TO TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA STIMULATION ...
In the present study, concentrations of TGF-β1 in plasma were decreased in 87% of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on admission, increased with motor function up to control concentrations during the next 15 days at the time of early recovery, and correlated well with the disability score. TNF-α concentrations were raised in 60% of patients on admission, and did not significantly decrease from day 1 to day 15 of the hospital stay. Other cytokines were either randomly increased (IL-2, IL-6), or undetectable in the circulation (IL-1, IL-4, IL-7, IL-10).. Treatments could not account for the down regulation of TGF-β1 seen on admission of patients. During treatment, both patients undergoing PE and patients receiving IVIg had decreased plasma concentrations of TGF-β1. PE was associated with lower concentrations of TGF-β1 in plasma than IVIg at day 7. This could have resulted from some removal of TGF-β1 (PE), or addition of TGF-β1 (IVIg) at the time of treatment.. Direct down regulation of ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , GenWay \ Recombinant Human TGF-beta RII-FcA Chimera \ 10-006-220078 for more molecular products just contact us
Although transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is known to be a potent growth inhibitor of breast cancer cells (BCCs), the signaling mechanisms mediating TGF-β responses have not been defined. We have demonstrated previously that TGF-β can activate Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 in untransformed epithelial cells (K. M. Mulder and S. L. Morris, J. Biol. Chem., 267: 5029-5031, 1992; M. T. Hartsough and K. M. Mulder, J. Biol. Chem., 270: 7117-7124, 1995). We have also shown that TGF-β signaling is altered in epithelial cells when Ras activation is blocked (Hartsough et al., J. Biol. Chem., 271: 22368-22375). Here we demonstrate the ability of the TGF-β3 isoform to activate the signaling component ERK2 in TGF-β-sensitive BCCs but not in TGF-β-resistant cells. The ERK2 isoform was activated by 6-fold within 10 min of TGF-β3 addition to the TGF-β-sensitive BCC line Hs578T. Moreover, the IC50 for inhibition of DNA synthesis by TGF-β3 in this cell line correlated with ...
TGFBR1 are transmembrane tyrosine kinases or associated with cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase TGF-βs » specificity with type II receptors activating type I receptors, has the pre-helix extension and its role in binding are present on the plasma membrane (cytoplasmic domain) both as monomers and homo- and hetero-oligomers chromosome 9q22.33. 6 : [§§; †, ‡]. Activin receptor-like…
rat Madh4 protein: DPC4 - Deleted in Pancreatic Carcinoma 4; inactivation may lead to pancreatic cancer; Smad family of gene products are involved in TGF-beta signal transduction pathway; RefSeq NM_019275
View mouse Tgfb1i1 Chr7:128246812-128255699 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
TGF beta     Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a protein that comes in three isoforms called TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3; it was also the
TGF-β and its related factors regulate a broad range of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and adhesion. These factors are also very important in the pathogenesis of cancer and many other diseases. Although much has been known about the TGF-β signaling pathway since the discovery of Smads 15 years ago, remarkable progress has been made in revealing details of different regulatory mechanisms that afford a full range of control of the biological functions of these factors in the TGF-β family. Specific physiological and pathological roles of TGF-β/Smad in different cellular context also start to emerge. This collection of review articles provides a broad, albeit not all-inclusive, overview of the latest breakthroughs and developments in TGF-β signaling and biology. Dr Ying Zhang. ...
Роль TGF-β1/SMAD-сигнального каскада в регуляции экспрессии циклооксигеназы-2 в клетках молочной железы человека
人TGF beta 1 ELISA试剂盒ELISA试剂盒datasheet (ab100647).Abcam抗体、ELISA、激动剂拮抗剂、表观遗传试剂、蛋白多肽,使用效果保证,中国70%以上现货。
Zwijsen A., Goumans M.J., Lawson K.A., Van Rooijen M.A., Mummery C.L.. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) regulates the cell cycle and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition of many cells in vitro. We have analysed chimaeric mouse embryos generated from embryonic stem cells with abnormal receptor expression to study the effect of TGFbeta on these processes in vivo and the consequences for normal development. The binding receptor for TGFbeta, TbetaRII, is first detected in the embryo proper around day 8.5 in the heart. Ectopic expression of TbetaRII from the blastocyst stage onward resulted in an embryonic lethal around 9.5 dpc. Analysis of earlier stages revealed that the primitive streak of TbetaRII chimaeras failed to elongate. Furthermore, although cells passed through the streak and initially formed mesoderm, they tended to accumulate within the streak. These defects temporally and spatially paralleled the expression of the TGFbeta type I receptor, which is first expressed in the node ...
Signaling by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family members is mediated by Smad proteins that regulate gene transcription through functional cooperativity and association with other DNA-binding proteins. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 is a transcriptional complex that plays a key role in oxygen-regulated gene expression. We demonstrate that hypoxia and TGF-beta cooperate in the induction of the promoter activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is a major stimulus in the promotion of angiogenesis. This cooperation has been mapped on the human VEGF promoter within a region at -1006 to -954 that contains functional DNA-binding sequences for HIF-1 and Smads. Optimal HIF-1alpha-dependent induction of the VEGF promoter was obtained in the presence of Smad3, suggesting an interaction between these proteins. Consistent with this, co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that HIF-1alpha physically associates with Smad3. These results demonstrate that both TGF-beta and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of TGF-beta1 and nitric oxide in the bystander response of irradiated glioma cells.. AU - Shao, C.. AU - Folkard, M.. AU - Prise, Kevin. PY - 2008/1/17. Y1 - 2008/1/17. N2 - The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) increases the probability of cellular response and therefore has important implications for cancer risk assessment following low-dose irradiation and for the likelihood of secondary cancers after radiotherapy. However, our knowledge of bystander signaling factors, especially those having long half-lives, is still limited. The present study found that, when a fraction of cells within a glioblastoma population were individually irradiated with helium ions from a particle microbeam, the yield of micronuclei (MN) in the nontargeted cells was increased, but these bystander MN were eliminated by treating the cells with either aminoguanidine (an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase) or anti-transforming growth factor beta1 (anti-TGF-beta1), indicating ...
TGF-β1, human recombinant protein (E. Coli) , Transforming growth factor beta-1, TGF-beta-1, CED, DPD1, TGFB, TGF-b 1, LAP, TGFB1. validated in (PBV11402r-10), Abgent
The role of transforming growth factors type beta (TGF-beta) was investigated during murine embryogenesis. There are three known mammalian TGF-beta genes. The developmental pattern of expression of TGF-beta RNA has previously been elucidated by in situ hybridisation and the localisation of TGF-beta1 protein by immunohistochemistry. Based on this data it has been suggested that TGF-beta1 acts in both a paracrine and autocrine role during development. The expression of both TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 RNA has been observed in murine embryos by Northern analysis. In order to understand the role of these two genes, individually, and in relation with each other, the developmental regulation of all three genes was investigated by in situ hybridisation using mouse specific probes on serial mouse embryo sections from 6.5 days p.c. to 16.5 days p.c.. A comparison was made of the data concerning the temporal and spatial expression patterns of TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 RNA, and the role of each gene ...
Transforming growth factor-beta receptor III (TGF-beta RIII) is one of three receptors for the secreted growth factor TGF-beta. Unlike type I and type II TGF-beta receptors, TGF-beta RIII does not participate directly in the propagation of intracellular signaling in response to TGF-beta binding.
To better define the role of Ids in melanomagenesis, we hypothesized expressing Id2, Id3 or Id4 along with Smad7 would revert 1205Lu/S7 cells back to the tumorigenic state. Subcutaneous injection of TGF-β-dependent 1205Lu cells co-expressing Id2, Id3, or Id4, with Smad7 bypassed the tumorigenic block mediated by Smad7, generating TGF-β-independent tumors and re-upregulated metastasis-related genes. Surprisingly, 1205Lu/S7 cells expressing Id4, but not Id2 or Id3, activated robust melanin production in amelanotic 1205Lu cells, confirmed by Fontana-Masson stain, de-novo expression of MART-1 and tyrosinase proteins. Mechanistic investigation revealed M-MITF phosphorylation and MART-1 promoter activation in 1205Lu and WM852 melanoma cells, suggesting broader implications for Id4 in melanoma. In human tumors melanin corresponded with Id4 localization. Additionally, pigment-laden CD163+ mouse histiocytes, with areas of extensive necrosis were found throughout S7/Id4 tumors only. Current ...
Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGF beta receptor type II (Tf3R11) and type I (TpRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Srnad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smadzi. We report here that T beta RI interacts with the SH3 domains of the adaptor protein CIN85 in response to TGF beta stimulation in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Small interfering RNA mediated knockdown of CIN85 resulted in accumulation of T beta RI in intracellular compartments and diminished TGF beta-stimulated Sniad2 phosphorylation. Overexpression of CIN85 instead increased the amount of T beta RI at the cell surface. This effect was inhibited by a dominant-negative mutant of Rab11, suggesting that CIN85 promoted recycling of TGF beta receptors. CIN85 enhanced TGF beta-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation, transcriptional responses, and cell migration. CIN85 expression correlated with the degree of malignancy of prostate ...
Clone CH6-17E5.1 reacts with the N-terminal latency-associated peptide (LAP) of the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) dimer. TGF-β1 belongs to a family of homologous, disulfide-linked, homodimeric proteins. These highly pleiotropic cytokines inhibit proliferation of most cells, but can promote the growth of mesenchymal cells and enhance extracellular matrix formation. The pivotal function of TGF-β1 in the immune system is to mediate immunosuppression and maintain tolerance by regulating lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation, and survival. TGF-β1 is produced by many cell types, but is reported to be most abundant in mammalian platelets and bone. It is secreted predominantly as an inactive latent complex. After proteolytical processing of the TGF-β1 precursor, the resulting N-terminal latency-associated peptide (LAP) remains non-covalently associated with the TGF-β1 dimer. Mature and biologically active TGF-β1 can be released from the complex by action of proteases and/or conformational
The secreted polypeptide transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) exerts its multiple activities through type I and II cell surface receptors. In epithelial cells, activation of the TGF-beta signal transduction pathways leads to inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase in extracellular matrix production. TGF-beta is widely expressed during development and its biological activity has been implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, e.g., in branching morphogenesis of the lung, kidney, and mammary gland, and in inductive events between mammary epithelium and stroma. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-beta on mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro. TGF-beta reversibly induced an alteration in the differentiation of normal mammary epithelial NMuMG cells from epithelial to fibroblastic phenotype. The change in cell morphology correlated with (a) decreased expression of the epithelial markers E-cadherin, ZO-1, and desmoplakin I and II; (b) increased expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased transforming growth factor beta1 in autism. T2 - A potential link between immune dysregulation and impairment in clinical behavioral outcomes. AU - Ashwood, Paul. AU - Enstrom, Amanda. AU - Krakowiak, Paula. AU - Hertz-Picciotto, Irva. AU - Hansen, Robin L. AU - Croen, Lisa A.. AU - Ozonoff, Sally J. AU - Pessah, Isaac N. AU - Van de Water, Judith A. PY - 2008/11/15. Y1 - 2008/11/15. N2 - Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairment in social interactions, communication deficits, and restricted repetitive interests and behaviors. There is evidence of both immune dysregulation and autoimmune phenomena in autism. We examined the regulatory cytokine transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) because of its role in controlling immune responses. Plasma levels of active TGFβ1 were evaluated in 75 children with ASD compared with 68 controls. Children with ASD had significantly lower plasma TGFβ1 levels compared with typically developing controls (p = ...
Previous studies have indicated that the cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) has immunosuppressive properties and can inhibit the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and Interleukin 1 (IL 1) by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In this study, we have examined the effects of TGF beta 1 on the production of Interleukin 6 (IL 6) by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Treatment with only TGF beta 1 leads to the induction of IL 6, and this was both dose- and time-dependent. The effect of TGF beta 1 was evident at the level of IL 6 mRNA, suggesting TGF beta 1-induced de novo synthesis of IL 6. Induction of IL 6 by TGF beta 1 was specific, as other cytokines made by mononuclear cells (TNF and IL 1) were not induced by TGF beta 1. Furthermore, when a panel of stimuli were compared for their ability to induce IL 1, TNF and IL 6 in the presence or absence of TGF beta 1, IL 6 levels were augmented in the presence of TGF beta 1, while the induction of IL 1 and TNF was
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages. Activated TGF-β complexes with other factors to form a serine/threonine kinase complex that binds to TGF-β receptors, which is composed of both type 1 and type 2 receptor subunits. After the binding of TGF-β, the type 2 receptor kinase phosphorylates and activates the type 1 receptor kinase that activates a signaling cascade. This leads to the activation of different downstream substrates and regulatory proteins, inducing transcription of different target genes that function in differentiation, chemotaxis, proliferation, and activation of many immune cells. TGF-β is secreted by many cell types, including macrophages, in a latent form in which it is complexed with two other polypeptides, latent ...
Serine protease with a variety of targets, including extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin. HTRA1-generated fibronectin fragments further induce synovial cells to up-regulate MMP1 and MMP3 production. May also degrade proteoglycans, such as aggrecan, decorin and fibromodulin. Through cleavage of proteoglycans, may release soluble FGF-glycosaminoglycan complexes that promote the range and intensity of FGF signals in the extracellular space. Regulates the availability of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) by cleaving IGF-binding proteins. Inhibits signaling mediated by TGF-beta family members. This activity requires the integrity of the catalytic site, although it is unclear whether TGF-beta proteins are themselves degraded. By acting on TGF-beta signaling, may regulate many physiological processes, including retinal angiogenesis and neuronal survival and maturation during development. Intracellularly, degrades TSC2, leading to the activation of TSC2 downstream targets ...
SCA124Hu, CLIA Kit for Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGFb1), TGF-B1; CED; DPD1; LAP; Camurati-Engelmann Disease; Latency-associated peptide | Products for research use only!
A series of site-specific insertion and deletion mutants was prepared in the pro domain of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) encoded by simian TGF beta 1 cDNA. These mutants were transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and the ability of each to be properly processed, folded correctly, and secreted was determined by immunoblot analysis of cells and culture supernatants. Insertions in regions corresponding to amino acid residues 50, 154, and 170 blocked secretion; culture supernatants from COS-1 cells showed no immunologically reactive proteins, whereas intact cells contained high levels of the mutant polypeptides. Insertions in the middle portion of the pro domain at residues 81, 85, and 144 affected disulfide maturation of the mature TGF beta 1. An insertion at residue 110, on the other hand, appeared to destabilize the mature TGF beta 1 polypeptide, resulting in degraded growth factor. Relatively small (10 amino acids) to large (125 amino acids) deletion mutations in the pro domain ...
TGF-beta is a secreted cytokine, which plays an important role in cell development, differentiation, and homeostasis in both physiologic and pathologic conditions, such as tumorigenesis, abnormal wound healing and skin cancer. TGF-beta transmit signal from the extracellular environment to intracellular signaling networks via its cell surface receptor complex, the TGF-beta type II/ I receptor (TbetaRII/TbetaRI) heterodimer. TGF-beta ligand binds to TbetaRII, which in turn recruits and activates TbetaRI, resulting in activation of downstream signaling complex, receptor Smads (R-Smads) and common Smad4. TGF-beta stimulation is also known to activate R-Smad-independent signaling pathways, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. However, two long-standing questions remained: 1) why TGF-beta activates ERK depends on the cell context and 2) whether or not TbetaRII is able to mediate the TGF-beta signaling without the participation of TbetaRI. In the chapter two, it is shown ...
Transforming growth factor beta 1 or TGF-β1 is a polypeptide member of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of cytokines. It is a secreted protein that performs many cellular functions, including the control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis. In humans, TGF-β1 is encoded by the TGFB1 gene. TGF-β is a multifunctional set of peptides that controls proliferation, differentiation, and other functions in many cell types. TGF-β acts synergistically with TGFA in inducing transformation. It also acts as a negative autocrine growth factor. Dysregulation of TGF-β activation and signaling may result in apoptosis. Many cells synthesize TGF-β and almost all of them have specific receptors for this peptide. TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 all function through the same receptor signaling systems. TGF-β1 was first identified in human platelets as a protein with a molecular mass of 25 kilodaltons with a potential role in wound healing. It was later ...
Cytokines of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, including TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), bind to specific serine/threonine kinase receptors and transmit intracellular signals through Smad proteins. Upon ligand stimulation, Smads move into the nucleus and function as components of transcription complexes. TGF-beta and BMP signaling is regulated positively and negatively through various mechanisms. Positive regulation amplifies signals to a level sufficient for biological activity. Negative regulation occurs at the extracellular, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear levels. TGF-beta and BMP signaling is often regulated through negative feedback mechanisms, which limit the magnitude of signals and terminate signaling. Negative regulation is also important for formation of gradients of morphogens, which is crucial in developmental processes. In addition, other signaling pathways regulate TGF-beta and BMP signaling through cross-talk. Nearly 20 BMP ...
The transforming growth factor‐β (TGF‐β) superfamily constitutes a large family of secreted signaling molecules which are known to have important roles in regulating a wide variety of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion and migration (Roberts and Sporn, 1990; Kingsley, 1994). All known receptors of this superfamily signal through a heteromeric complex of type I and type II transmembrane receptor serine/threonine kinases which act in series (Derynck and Feng, 1997; Massague, 1998). Despite extensive knowledge about the receptor activation mechanisms, which involve recruitment and activation of the type I receptor kinase by the ligand‐activated type II receptor kinase, the downstream signaling pathways from the activated type I receptor are not yet clearly defined. Recently, a set of novel mammalian proteins, termed SMADs, has been identified based on their high homology to the Drosophila Mad and the Caenorhabditis elegans Sma proteins, which were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transforming growth factor-beta protection of cancer cells against tumor necrosis factor cytotoxicity is counteracted by hyaluronidase (review).. AU - Chang, N. S.. PY - 1998/12. Y1 - 1998/12. N2 - Numerous cancer cells, when exposed to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), become resistant to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytotoxicity. Pretreatment of L929 fibroblasts, for example, with TGF-beta isoforms (beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3) for at least 0.5-1 h results in resistance to TNF killing. TGF-beta 1 mediates the following sequential events in L929 cells: i) rapid induction of protein tyrosine-phosphorylation (, 30 min), ii) stimulation of protective protein synthesis and acquisition of TNF resistance (approximately 0.5-1 h), and iii) suppression of I kappa B-alpha expression (1-2 h). Two protective proteins induced by TGF-beta 1 are a 46 kDa extracellular matrix TNF-resistance triggering (TRT) protein and a putative transmembrane anti-apoptotic adhesion protein TIF2 ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Tumor cells that are resistant to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF? can still secrete TGF?, which enhances tumorigenesis via the paracrine effects of TGF? in the tumor microenvironment. It is advantageous to block this secreted TGF? in late-stage tumors that have lost the TGF? growth inhibitory signals. We have identified the signaling pathways mediating TGF?1 production in untransformed epithelial cells (UECs) and in human colon cancer cells (HCCCs). One of the differences involves a switching of the AP-1 transcription factors (TFs) bound to the relevant region of the TGF?1 promoter. Here we will explore the mechanisms underlying this TF switching, including the role played by altered compartmentalization of signaling complexes. In addition, we have identified the novel TGF? signaling intermediate km23, which is also a light chain of the motor protein dynein (DLC). The dynein motor complex can transport membrane vesicles (ie, endosomal compartments) ...
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) has a strong impact on liver development and physiopathology, exercised through its pleiotropic effects on growth, differentiation, survival, and migration. When exposed to TGF-beta, the mhAT3F cells, immortalized, highly differentiated hepatocytes, maintained their epithelial morphology and underwent dramatic alterations of adhesion, leading to partial or complete detachment from a culture plate, followed by readhesion and spreading. These alterations of adhesive behavior were caused by sequential changes in expression of the alpha5beta1 integrin and of its ligand, the fibronectin. The altered specificity of anchorage to the extracellular matrix gave rise to changes in cells collective motility: cohorts adhering to fibronectin maintained a persistent, directional motility, with ezrin-rich pathfinder cells protruding from the tips of the cohorts. The absence of adhesion to fibronectin prevented the appearance of polarized pathfinders and lead to ...
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) has a strong impact on liver development and physiopathology, exercised through its pleiotropic effects on growth, differentiation, survival, and migration. When exposed to TGF-beta, the mhAT3F cells, immortalized, highly differentiated hepatocytes, maintained their epithelial morphology and underwent dramatic alterations of adhesion, leading to partial or complete detachment from a culture plate, followed by readhesion and spreading. These alterations of adhesive behavior were caused by sequential changes in expression of the alpha5beta1 integrin and of its ligand, the fibronectin. The altered specificity of anchorage to the extracellular matrix gave rise to changes in cells collective motility: cohorts adhering to fibronectin maintained a persistent, directional motility, with ezrin-rich pathfinder cells protruding from the tips of the cohorts. The absence of adhesion to fibronectin prevented the appearance of polarized pathfinders and lead to ...
Koeck, E.S., Iordanskaia, T., Sevilla, S., Ferrante, S.C., Hubal, M.J. et al. (2014). Adipocyte exosomes induce transforming growth factor beta pathway dysregulation in hepatocytes: A novel paradigm for obesity-related liver disease. Journal of Surgical Research, 192(2), 268-275.. ...
Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rabbit Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGFb1) in samples from serum, platelet-poor plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids ...
The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. In spite of the wide range of cellular processes that the TGFβ signaling pathway regulates, the process is relatively simple. TGFβ superfamily ligands bind to a type II receptor, which recruits and phosphorylates a type I receptor. The type I receptor then phosphorylates receptor-regulated SMADs (R-SMADs) which can now bind the coSMAD SMAD4. R-SMAD/coSMAD complexes accumulate in the nucleus where they act as transcription factors and participate in the regulation of target gene expression ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Latent TGF-beta bp4 products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Latent TGF-beta bp4 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Follicle-restricted compartmentalization of transforming growth factor beta superfamily ligands in the feline ovary.. Biol Reprod. 2004 Mar;70(3):846-59. Authors: Bristol SK, Woodruff TK ...
The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) belongs to a family of homologous, disulfide-linked, homodimeric proteins. These highly pleiotropic cytokines inhibit proliferation of most cells, but can promote the growth of mesenchymal cells and enhance extracellular matrix formation. The pivotal function of TGF-β1 in the immune system is to mediate immunosuppression and maintain tolerance by regulating lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation, and survival. - Österreich
Scientists have long known that a small protein Dr. Saikumar was studying, Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-B), behaves in a paradoxical way. When a cell begins undergoing the transformation into a cancerous state, TGF-B can stop that growth and protects us from developing cancer. But if that cell escapes the TGF-B surveillance, then it will advance into a full-blown cancer cell and TGF-B can help it thrive and spread faster.. Turning off this treasonous action of TGF-B alone may indeed be advantageous, the pathologist said.. Although TGF-B has received intense scrutiny in the 30 years since its discovery, little is understood as to just how it turns from a tumor suppressor into a tumor promoter. Researchers found that if they suppress TGF-B activity to starve a cancerous tumor, a new tumor is likely to start growing, since the proteins helpful function in preventing new cancerous development is also switched off.. But Dr. Saikumar found a clue in an obscure protein called TMEPAI, and ...
|p|SD-208 Description:|br /|EC50: SD-208 inhibits the growth inhibition of TGF-β–sensitive CCL64 cells at an EC50 of 0.1 μmol/L .|br /|The cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β has become a major target for the experimental treatm
Complete information for TGFB3 gene (Protein Coding), Transforming Growth Factor Beta 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
111713 - Comparación de la concentración de factores de crecimiento transformante beta I, mediante 2 métodos de obtención de sangre en perros clínicamente sanos - Comparison of the concentration of transforming growth factors beta I by 2 methods of | Veterinaria.org . La primera comunidad veterinaria de habla hispana con presencia en Espa a y Am rica del Sur.
|p|Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling facilitates tumor growth and metastasis in advanced cancer. Use of inhibitors of TGF-β signaling may thus be a novel strategy for the treatment of patients with such cancer. A-77-01 is a close anal
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a significant role in tumour progression and metastasis, most likely through induction of immunosuppression in the
MDCK cells constitutively secrete endogenous TGF-β1 but only activate it under subconfluent conditions. (A) Latent TGF-β1 is activated only in subconfluent ce
Laboratory of molecular bases of embryogenesis: Brain development, regulation of gene expression, transgenic organisms, homeobox genes, regulators of TGF-beta signaling, small GTPases, Zyxin
transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • transforming growth factor beta binding. • type ... type III transforming growth factor beta receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • type I transforming growth factor beta ... TGFB3, ARVD, ARVD1, RNHF, TGF-beta3, Transforming growth factor, beta 3, LDS5, transforming growth factor beta 3. ... TGFB3 transforming growth factor, beta 3".. *^ Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P (May 2004). "Transforming growth factor-beta- ...
Main article: Transforming growth factor beta. During mandible development, most of it is formed through intramembranous ... Main article: Beta-catenin. β-catenin of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway plays a role in cell fate determination, as it is ... The transcription factor Sox9 can be found in multiple sites in the body (pancreas, central nervous system, intestines) and it ... These factors also have a role in hypertrophic chondrocyte maturation.[3] [5] ...
Assoian, R. K.; Komoriya, A.; Meyers, C. A.; Miller, D. M.; Sporn, M. B. (1983-06-10). "Transforming growth factor-beta in ... "Role of Ras Signaling in the Induction of Snail by Transforming Growth Factor-β". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (1): 245 ... When platelets are recruited to a site in the blood vessel they can release a variety of growth factors (PDGF,[51] VEGF,[52] ... Kepner, N.; Lipton, A. (February 1981). "A mitogenic factor for transformed fibroblasts from human platelets". Cancer Research ...
cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus. • skeletal system development. • kidney development. • embryonic ... 1apj: NMR STUDY OF THE TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE DOMAIN (TB MODULE/8-CYS DOMAIN), NMR, 21 STRUCTURES ... "The role of transforming growth factor-beta in Marfan syndrome". Cardiology Journal. 20 (3): 227-34. doi:10.5603/CJ.2013.0066. ... "Circulating transforming growth factor-beta in Marfan syndrome". Circulation. 120 (6): 526-32. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA. ...
... epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Decorin has been shown to either ... "Transforming growth factor-beta and p-21: multiple molecular targets of decorin-mediated suppression of neoplastic growth". ... Lysiak JJ, Hunt J, Pringle GA, Lala PK (April 1995). "Localization of transforming growth factor beta and its natural inhibitor ... Takeuchi Y, Kodama Y, Matsumoto T (December 1994). "Bone matrix decorin binds transforming growth factor-beta and enhances its ...
Transforming growth factor beta regulator 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TBRG1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Entrez Gene: TBRG1 transforming growth factor beta regulator 1". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method ... "Modulation of gene expression in the preimplantation mouse embryo by TGF-alpha and TGF-beta". Mol Reprod Dev. 41 (2): 133-9. ...
... and transforming growth factor-beta (e.g., TGFB1; MIM 190180) families, can repress the induction of these neurons. CRIM1 may ... interact with growth factors implicated in motor neuron differentiation and survival. Loss of Crim1 function as demonstrated by ... Dorsally expressed factors, such as members of the bone morphogenic protein (e.g., BMP4; MIM 112262) ...
"Entrez Gene: TBRG4 transforming growth factor beta regulator 4". Simarro M, Gimenez-Cassina A, Kedersha N, Lazaro JB, Adelmant ... Transforming growth factor beta regulator 4 (TBRG4), also known as cell cycle progression restoration protein 2 (CPR2) and FAST ... downregulation of its expression may contribute to reducing tumor growth by arresting cell cycle progression. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
1995). "Beta IG-H3, a novel secretory protein inducible by transforming growth factor-beta, is present in normal skin and ... 1994). "beta ig-h3: a transforming growth factor-beta-responsive gene encoding a secreted protein that inhibits cell attachment ... Transforming growth factor, beta-induced, 68kDa, also known as TGFBI (initially called BIGH3, BIG-H3), is a protein which in ... "Entrez Gene: TGFBI transforming growth factor, beta-induced, 68kDa". Munier FL, Korvatska E, Djemaï A, Le Paslier D, Zografos L ...
... belongs to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily. GDF2 contains an N-terminal TGF-beta-like pro-peptide ( ... and a C-terminal transforming growth factor beta superfamily domain (325-428). GDF2 (BMP9) is secreted as a pro-complex ... 9 regulate the interaction of insulin-like growth factor-I with growth plate chondrocytes". International Journal of Molecular ... Growth differentiation factor 2 (GDF2) also known as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded ...
... transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its product prostaglandin E2, and many others. ... "Role of transforming growth factor beta in testicular immunosuppression". Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 24 (2): 1213-137 ... effects of activin and transforming growth factor beta on lymphocyte subsets in vitro". Biology of Reproduction. 58 (4): 943- ... and impaired growth and development of the embryo. Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the ...
Chou YT, Yang YC (Jul 2006). "Post-transcriptional control of Cited2 by transforming growth factor beta. Regulation via Smads ... "CITED2 is expressed in human adrenocortical cells and regulated by basic fibroblast growth factor". The Journal of ... functions as a co-activator for transcription factor AP-2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (10): 8559-65. doi:10.1074 ... functions as a co-activator for transcription factor AP-2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (10): 8559-65. doi:10.1074 ...
Transforming growth factor beta family proteins bind to these receptors. There are four bone morphogenetic protein receptors: ...
Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTBP3 gene. GRCh38: ... Oklü R, Hesketh R (2001). "The latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein (LTBP) family". Biochem. J. 352 Pt 3 (Pt ... "Entrez Gene: LTBP3 latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 3". Saharinen J, Hyytiäinen M, Taipale J, Keski-Oja J ... 1998). "Analysis of the expression pattern of the latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein isoforms in normal and ...
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays an important role in MFS. Fibrillin-1 directly binds a latent form of TGF-β, ... Entrez Gene (2007). "TGFBR2 transforming growth factor, beta receptor II" (Entrez gene entry). NCBI. Archived from the original ... but also serves as a reservoir for growth factors. Elastic fibers are found throughout the body, but are particularly abundant ... Beta blockers are used to reduce the stress exerted on the aorta and to decrease aortic dilation. If the dilation of the aorta ...
"Regulation of TG-interacting factor by transforming growth factor-beta". Biochem. J. 371 (Pt 2): 257-63. doi:10.1042/BJ20030095 ... Lo RS, Wotton D, Massagué J (2001). "Epidermal growth factor signaling via Ras controls the Smad transcriptional co-repressor ... Cell Growth Differ. 12 (9): 457-63. PMID 11571228. Sharma M, Sun Z (2002). "5'TG3' interacting factor interacts with Sin3A and ... Lam DS, Lee WS, Leung YF, Tam PO, Fan DS, Fan BJ, Pang CP (2003). "TGFbeta-induced factor: a candidate gene for high myopia". ...
"DACH1 inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling through binding Smad4". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (51): 51673-51684. doi: ... "DACH1 inhibits transforming growth factor-beta signaling through binding Smad4". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (51 ... "Cell fate determination factor DACH1 inhibits c-Jun-induced contact-independent growth". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 18 (3 ... "DACH1 is a cell fate determination factor that inhibits cyclin D1 and breast tumor growth". Mol. Cell. Biol. 26 (19): 7116-7129 ...
Extracellular matrix-associated transforming growth factor-beta: role in cancer cell growth and invasion. Adv. Cancer Res. ... Latent-transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTBP2 gene. The protein ... 1996). "Transforming growth factors-beta s: a multifunctional cytokine family. Implication in the regulation of adrenocortical ... 1997). "Latent transforming growth factor-beta: structural features and mechanisms of activation". Kidney Int. 51 (5): 1376-82 ...
"Transforming growth factor-beta induces secretion of activated ADAMTS-2. A procollagen III N-proteinase". J. Biol. Chem. 278 ( ... 2004). "Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation". ...
1991). "Identification of transforming growth factor beta family members present in bone-inductive protein purified from bovine ... BMPs are part of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) superfamily. BMPs were originally identified by an ability of ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce the growth of bone and cartilage. BMP6 is able to induce all ... Sauermann U, Meyermann R, Schluesener HJ (Jan 1993). "Cloning of a novel TGF-beta related cytokine, the vgr, from rat brain: ...
These include Transforming growth factor beta, Interleukin 35, and Interleukin 10. It also appears that regulatory T cells can ... thus being able to induce apoptosis of other T cells which need IL-2 as main growth factor. Recirculating T reg cells in thymus ... Vitamin A and TGF-beta promote T cell differentiation into regulatory T cells opposed to Th17 cells, even in the presence of IL ... The retinoic acid and TGF-beta produced by dendritic cells within this area signal for production of regulatory T cells. ...
This gene encodes a protein - transducer mediating transforming growth factor beta. Some researchers believe that the SMAD4 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Myhre SA, Ruvalcaba RHA, Graham CB (1981) A new growth deficiency syndrome. Clin Genet ... The clinical presentation is variable but includes[citation needed] developmental and growth delay athletic muscular built ...
McPherron AC, Lee SJ (1993). "GDF-3 and GDF-9: two new members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily containing a ... GDF3 belongs to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It has high similarity to other TGF-β superfamily ... Growth differentiation factor-3 (GDF3), also known as Vg-related gene 2 (Vgr-2) is protein that in humans is encoded by the ... 2008). "Growth/differentiation factor 3 signals through ALK7 and regulates accumulation of adipose tissue and diet-induced ...
Zhu S, Wang W, Clarke DC, Liu X (2007). "Activation of Mps1 promotes transforming growth factor-beta-independent Smad signaling ... 2002). "Isolating human transcription factor targets by coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation and CpG island microarray ...
It belongs to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Like many other members of this superfamily it is ... Zhou X, Sasaki H, Lowe L, Hogan BL, Kuehn MR (February 1993). "Nodal is a novel TGF-beta-like gene expressed in the mouse node ... Fei T, Chen YG (Apr 2010). "Regulation of embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation by TGF-beta family signaling". ... Fei T, Chen YG (Apr 2010). "Regulation of embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation by TGF-beta family signaling". ...
"Signal transduction by members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 7 (4): 327-339 ... Massague J, Weis-Garcia F (1996). "Serine/threonine kinase receptors: mediators of transforming growth factor beta family ... Wrana JL, Attisano L, Wieser R, Ventura F, Massague J (1994). "Mechanism of activation of the TGF-beta receptor". Nature. 370 ( ...
Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) ... "Transforming growth factor-beta receptor-associated protein 1 is a Smad4 chaperone". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (22): 19495-502. doi: ... interacts with the transforming growth factor-beta family of receptor serine-threonine kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (22): 19332 ... "Identification of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors for growth/differentiation factor-5". J. Biol. Chem. 271 ...
DPT also has an important role in activating transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). TGF-β1 has an important role in wound ... Okamoto O, Fujiwara S, Abe M, Sato Y (February 1999). "Dermatopontin interacts with transforming growth factor beta and ... Both DPT and re-epithelialization depend on the migration of the epidermal keratinocytes and the many different growth factors ... is decreased in hypertrophic scar and systemic sclerosis skin fibroblasts and is regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1 ...
"Axin facilitates Smad3 activation in the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (15): 5132-41 ... interacts with beta-catenin, GSK-3beta and APC and reduces the beta-catenin level". Genes Cells. 3 (6): 395-403. doi:10.1046/j. ... interacts with beta-catenin, GSK-3beta and APC and reduces the beta-catenin level". Genes Cells. 3 (6): 395-403. doi:10.1046/j. ... beta-catenin and GSK3 beta". Curr. Biol. 8 (10): 573-81. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(98)70226-X. PMID 9601641. S2CID 2863360. ...
Cell-intrinsic transforming growth factor-beta signaling mediates virus-specific CD8+ T cell deletion and viral persistence in ... 其他几类不表达FOXP3基因的T细胞具有免疫抑制作用,例如Tr1细胞和Th3细胞。Tr1与IL
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cell migration. • positive regulation of ... FSHB, HH24, follicle stimulating hormone beta subunit, Follitropin subunit beta. معرفات خارجية. MGI: MGI:95582 HomoloGene: 430 ... hFSH-beta-(81-95)] modulate the in vivo effects of hFSH-beta-(81-95) on the mouse estrous cycle". Regul. Pept. 81 (1-3): 67-71 ... وحيدة بيتا للفولليتروبين (بالإنجليزية: Follitropin subunit beta) ويُدعى اختصارًا FSHB، ويُسمى أيضًا وحيدة بيتا للهرمون المنبه ...
negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • negative regulation of tooth ...
Indeed, Rho-dependent response is stimulated by the action of growth factors on Rac protein.[8] ... Next, the transforming activities of the rhabdomyosarcoma and fibrosarcoma cell lines were measured after being digested with ... Hall, Alan; Knowles, Jeremy (23 December 1976). "Directed selective pressure on a beta-lactamase to analyse molecular changes ... The inhibition of endogenous Rac function by mutants N17rac and V12rac1 prevented growth factor-induced membrane ruffling. In ...
positive regulation of transforming growth factor beta production. • cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of arginase ... negative regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity. • positive regulation of CREB transcription factor activity. • ... autoimmunity and tumor growth (англ.) // Arch. Immunol. Ther. Exp. (Warsz.) : journal. - 2002. - Vol. 49, no. 4. - P. 303-309 ...
2008) Identification of transforming growth factor beta1-driven genetic programs of acute lung fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol ... beta}2-Agonist Decreases Chlorine Induced Airway Hyper-Reactivity in Mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 45:88-94. Kang HR, Cho SJ ... 2008) Identification of transforming growth factor beta1-driven genetic programs of acute lung fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol ... 2007) Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 stimulates pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation via a Bax-dependent, bid-activated ...
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). *Murodermin. *Nepidermin. *Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) ... Studies suggest that neurotrophic factors have a protective role against amyloid beta toxicity.[85] ... BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor. ... BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ...
Rapamycin potentiates transforming growth factor beta-induced growth arrest in nontransformed, oncogene-transformed, and human ... Yu P, Huang B, Shen M, Lau C, Chan E, Michel J, Xiong Y, Payan DG, Luo Y. p15(PAF), a novel PCNA associated factor with ... Negative regulation of cell growth and differentiation by TSG101 through association with p21(Cip1/WAF1). „Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Interaction of CR6 (GADD45gamma ) with proliferating cell nuclear antigen impedes negative growth control. „J. Biol. Chem.". ...
... can be solved using z-transforms. The z-transforms are a class of integral transforms that lead to more convenient algebraic ... For instance, if the characteristic polynomial can be factored as (x−r)3, with the same root r occurring three times, then the ... displaystyle \lambda _{1}\cdot \lambda _{2}=\alpha ^{2}+\beta ^{2}=-B,}. one may simplify the solution given above as ... The logistic map is used either directly to model population growth, or as a starting point for more detailed models of ...
Friedman JB، Brunschwig EB، Platzer P، Wilson K، Markowitz SD (August 2004). "C8orf4 is a transforming growth factor B induced ... enhances the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway by relieving antagonistic activity of Chibby". Cancer Research. 66 (2): 723-8. PMID ... Yang ZQ، Moffa AB، Haddad R، Streicher KL، Ethier SP (September 2007). "Transforming properties of TC-1 in human breast cancer ... correlates with Wnt/beta-catenin target genes and aggressive biological behavior in gastric cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. ...
... two members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (22): 13198-205. PMID 2376592. ... Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (December 2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins". Growth Factors 22 (4): 233-41. PMID 15621726. doi: ... On učestvuje u hedgehog putu, TGF beta signalnom putu, i interakciji citokina sa citokinskim receptorom. On takođe učestvuje u ...
"Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(H)17 lineage". Nature 441 (7090): 231-4. PMID 16648837. doi: ... proinflamatorni citokin (IL-1, TNF-alfa) • Th1 (INF-gama i TNF-beta) • Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13) • Th17 (IL-17,IL-22 ... Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 14 (2): 155-74. PMID 12651226. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(03)00002-9. ...
Mutations in TGFBI which encodes transforming growth factor beta induced cause several forms of corneal dystrophies including ... They are not caused by outside factors, such as injury or diet. ...
Beta-binomial distribution, for the number of "positive occurrences" (e.g. successes, yes votes, etc.) given a fixed number of ... sales growth, traffic flow, etc.); almost all measurements are made with some intrinsic error; in physics many processes are ... These random variates X are then transformed via some algorithm to create a new random variate having the required probability ... Beta distribution, for a single probability (real number between 0 and 1); conjugate to the Bernoulli distribution and binomial ...
"Role of alpha beta receptor heterodimer formation in beta platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor activation by PDGF-AB" ... "Serum factor requirements of normal and simian virus 40-transformed 3T3 mouse fibroplasts". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 68 (3): ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one among numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division. In ... "Vascular endothelial growth factor B, a novel growth factor for endothelial cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (6): 2567- ...
IL-6 and transforming growth factor-alpha levels are elevated in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid in juvenile parkinsonism and ... and by amyloid-beta senile plaques amyloid-beta senile plaques. Several genetic factors have been identified as contributing to ... a brain-derived neurotrophic factor that function in nerve growth and maintenance within the brain.[86][20]. *Vorinostat (SAHA) ... a neurotrophic factor important for long-term memory.[66] Expression of CREB, an activity-dependent transcription factor ...
School with a lighter teaching workload and more research opportunities including her research on transforming growth factor- α ... amyloid beta) causes degeneration of brain cells (neurons), work done in conjunction with a postdoctoral fellow in her ... featured her work on insulin-related growth factors. The segment ran as part of a six-part PBS series on women in science, ... and epidermal growth factor during fetal and neonatal development published in 1992 and 1993. There, she continued to establish ...
As IGF2 promotes development of fetal pancreatic beta cells, it is believed to be related to some forms of diabetes mellitus. ... Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF). *Murodermin. *Nepidermin. *Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) ... A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults."[5] ... A major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults. ...
The PI3k/Akt signaling cascade works with the transforming growth factor beta/SMAD signaling cascade to ensure prostate cancer ... Recent studies demonstrated the involvement of growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and neurotensin in the 5- ... Risk factors. A complete understanding of the causes of prostate cancer remains elusive.[17] The primary risk factors are ... Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include: older age, a family history of the disease, and race.[3] About 99% ...
Platelet-derived growth factor. *Transforming growth factor beta superfamily. *Vascular endothelial growth factor ... Additional growth factors: Adrenomedullin. *Colony-stimulating factors (see here instead). *Connective tissue growth factor ( ... Growth factors. *Epidermal growth factor. *Fibroblast growth factor. *Nerve growth factor. * ... Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ...
"Hepatocyte Growth Factor Mediates Enhanced Wound Healing Responses and Resistance to Transforming Growth Factor-β₁-Driven ... It is secreted as a single inactive polypeptide and is cleaved by serine proteases into a 69-kDa alpha-chain and 34-kDa beta- ... Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is ... Nakamura T (1992). "Structure and function of hepatocyte growth factor". Progress in Growth Factor Research. 3 (1): 67-85. doi: ...
"Rapamycin potentiates transforming growth factor beta-induced growth arrest in nontransformed, oncogene-transformed, and human ... negative regulation of cell growth. • cell cycle arrest. • response to organonitrogen compound. • animal organ regeneration. • ... Tokumoto M, Tsuruya K, Fukuda K, Kanai H, Kuroki S, Hirakata H, Iida M (2003). "Parathyroid cell growth in patients with ... p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in ...
"Mouse models of transforming growth factor beta impact in breast development and cancer". Endocr. Relat. Cancer. 12 (4): 749-60 ... tumor necrosis factor β (TNF-β), transforming growth factor α (TGF-α),[67] transforming growth factor β (TGF-β),[68] heregulin, ... "Expression of the transforming growth factor-alpha/epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in normal human breast epithelial ... epidermal growth factor (EGF), IGF-1, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), which in turn have specific roles in breast growth ...
... transforming growth factors alpha,[26] beta 1 and beta 2,[27][28] fibroblast growth factors,[29] epidermal growth factor,[30] ... granulocyte-macrophage-stimulating growth factor,[31] platelet-derived growth factor,[31] vascular endothelial growth factor,[ ... "Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in human milk". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 94 (1): 220-4. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.1993. ... Colostrum also contains a number of growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factors I (IGF-1),[24] and II,[25] ...
Total factor productivity[edit]. The exogenous rate of TFP (total factor productivity) growth in the Solow-Swan model is the ... beta }}{n+g+\delta }}\right)^{\frac {1}{1-\alpha -\beta }}}. h. ∗. =. (. s. K. α. s. H. 1. −. α. n. +. g. +. δ. ). 1. 1. −. α. ... Transforming macroeconomic dynamics into a model of long-run growth". The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought. ... displaystyle {\dot {k}}=s_{K}k^{\alpha }h^{\beta }-(n+g+\delta )k}. h. ˙. =. s. H. k. α. h. β. −. (. n. +. g. +. δ. ). h. {\ ...
... vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). These ... Reishi mushrooms (via inhibition of VEGF and TGF-beta)[17]. *Trametes versicolor mushrooms (Polysaccharide-K).[18][19][20] ... Feb 2007). "Vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy in renal cell carcinoma: current status and future directions ... "Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor", Madame Curie Bioscience Database, Landes Bioscience, retrieved January 25, 2012. ...
Kvanta A. Expression and secretion of transforming growth factor-beta in transformed and nontransformed retinal pigment ... transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)[22], insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)[23], ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)[24], ... Transforming growth factorbeta induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in THE RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM IN ... vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)[26], 등 각자 다양한 역할을 수행한다. . 면역조절 작용[편집]. 앞에서 말했듯이, 망막 안쪽 부분은 신체 내부의 면역 반응으로부터 분리되었으며, ...
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway. • cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus. • ... vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • growth hormone receptor signaling pathway. • 血管発生. • ... epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • 自己リン酸化. • nuclear migration. • negative regulation of autophagy. • ... "FAK integrates growth-factor and integrin signals to promote cell migration". Nature Cell Biology 2 (5): 249-56. (May 2000). ...
There are three main factors affecting photosynthesis[clarification needed] and several corollary factors. The three main are:[ ... The geological record indicates that this transforming event took place early in Earth's history, at least 2450-2320 million ... Plant growth and habit. *Secondary growth. *Woody plants. *Herbaceous plants. *Habit *Vines *Lianas ... Second, Blackman's experiments illustrate the concept of limiting factors. Another limiting factor is the wavelength of light. ...
Burt DW, Law AS (1994). "Evolution of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily". Prog. Growth Factor Res. 5 (1): 99-118 ... Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)[6] is a multifunctional peptide that controls proliferation, differentiation and ... The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of structurally related cell regulatory proteins that ... Burt DW (April 1992). "Evolutionary grouping of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ...
Transforming growth factor beta. Definition. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a cytokine that is secreted by various ... Many beneficial effects of exercise are mediated by factors secreted from the exercising muscle, so-called myokines. Here, the ... Studying the uterine lymphocyte pool is difficult due to its dynamic nature induced by various pregnancy-related factors. Here ... Multiple signalling pathways lie downstream of the receptor, including the SMAD transcription factors and cell-cycle proteins. ...
... : Tumor promoting effects of transforming growth factor-β The transforming ... Transforming growth factor-β and breast cancer: Transforming growth factor-β/SMAD signaling defects and cancer Transforming ... Transforming growth factor-β and breast cancer: Cell cycle arrest by transforming growth factor-β and its disruption in cancer ... Transforming growth factor-β and breast cancer: Mammary gland development Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a pluripotent ...
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent regulatory cytokine with diverse effects on hemopoietic cells. The ... Transforming growth factor-beta regulation of immune responses.. Li MO1, Wan YY, Sanjabi S, Robertson AK, Flavell RA. ... In addition, TGF-beta controls the initiation and resolution of inflammatory responses through the regulation of chemotaxis, ... Collectively, TGF-beta inhibits the development of immunopathology to self or nonharmful antigens without compromising immune ...
AN UNUSUAL FEATURE REVEALED BY THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE AT 2.2 ANGSTROMS RESOLUTION OF HUMAN TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-BETA2. ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-BETA2: AN UNUSUAL FOLD FOR THE SUPERFAMILY. ... bound to human TGF-beta type II receptor ectodomain residues 15-130. ... Structures: Transforming growth factor beta-2 proprotein (P61812) Accession. P61812 (TGFB2_HUMAN) ...
Effect of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) on the glomerular filtration barrier. The glomerular filtration barrier ... Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine strongly associated with the fibrogenic response. It has a ... B) A rat glomerulus 7 days after exposure in vivo to an adenovirus expressing active transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) ... Transforming growth factor-beta and the glomerular filtration barrier.. Ghayur A1, Margetts PJ. ...
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily ... Rifkin DB (March 2005). "Latent transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) binding proteins: orchestrators of TGF-beta ... "Interactions between growth factors and integrins: latent forms of transforming growth factor-beta are ligands for the integrin ... Left-Right Determination Factor 2; LEFTYA; Left-Right Determination Factor A; Transforming Growth Factor Beta-4; Protein Lefty- ...
TGFB3 transforming growth factor, beta 3". Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P (May 2004). "Transforming growth factor-beta-related ... "Transforming growth factor-beta, transforming growth factor-beta receptor II, and p27Kip1 expression in nontumorous and ... "Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) binding to the extracellular domain of the type II TGF-beta receptor: receptor ... "Transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 mRNA expression in human cornea". Current Eye Research. 14 (3): 235-41. ...
Peptides as solubilizing excipients for transforming growth factor beta proteins. US 20040102378 A1 ... Peptides as solubilizing excipients for transforming growth factor beta proteins. ... maintaining or increasing the solubility of proteins that belong to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily. ... Growth Factor Res. 1(4):267. Recombinant human BMP-2 can be expressed as a fragment of the full length BMP-2 consisting of ...
The potential role of transforming growth factor-beta in in vivo resistance was examined by administration of transforming ... growth factor-beta-neutralizing antibodies to animals bearing the EMT-6/Parent tumor or the antitumor alkylating resistance ... role of transforming growth factor-beta in in vivo resistance was examined by administration of transforming growth factor-beta ... Transforming growth factor-beta in in vivo resistance Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1996;37(6):601-9. doi: 10.1007/s002800050435 ...
... Nat Commun. 2019 Dec 19;10(1):5690. doi ... Here, we report that, in the absence of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) signaling in thymocytes, negative selection is ...
Transforming Growth Factor type Beta 1 (TGF-β1) is one such soluble factor that also regulates skeletal muscle function, and it ... Central Role of Transforming Growth Factor Type Beta 1 in Skeletal Muscle Dysfunctions (IMAGE) view more ... Central role of transforming growth factor type beta 1 in skeletal muscle dysfunctions This article by Dr. Claudio Cabello- ... Central role of transforming growth factor type beta 1 in skeletal muscle dysfunctions. Bentham Science Publishers ...
... aspects of growth and development in a cell‐type‐specific manner ... Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is the prototype for a family of multifunctional secreted peptides that control many ... 1985) Type beta transforming growth factor is a growth stimulator and a growth inhibitor. In: Feramisco J, Ozanne B and Stiles ... Growth Factors 29: 140-152. Horiguchi M, Ota M and Rifkin DB (2012) Matrix control of transforming growth factorbeta function ...
The transforming growth factor beta s (TGF-beta s) are a group of multifunctional growth factors which inhibit cell cycle ... Transforming growth factor beta induces the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 through a p53-independent mechanism. M B ... Transforming growth factor beta induces the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 through a p53-independent mechanism ... Transforming growth factor beta induces the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 through a p53-independent mechanism ...
Targeted disruption of the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) gene in mice results in the development of a massive ... Autoimmune manifestations in the transforming growth factor-beta 1 knockout mouse. L Yaswen, AB Kulkarni, T Fredrickson, B ... Autoimmune manifestations in the transforming growth factor-beta 1 knockout mouse. L Yaswen, AB Kulkarni, T Fredrickson, B ... Autoimmune manifestations in the transforming growth factor-beta 1 knockout mouse. L Yaswen, AB Kulkarni, T Fredrickson, B ...
Type beta transforming growth factor (TGF-beta), a factor produced by many cell types, is a potent inhibitor of hepatocyte DNA ... Type beta transforming growth factor reversibly inhibits the early proliferative response to partial hepatectomy in the rat. W ... Type beta transforming growth factor reversibly inhibits the early proliferative response to partial hepatectomy in the rat ... Type beta transforming growth factor reversibly inhibits the early proliferative response to partial hepatectomy in the rat ...
In Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Protocols, Philip H. Howe and a group of well-versed experimentalists present the first ... Concise and highly practical, Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Protocols provides todays molecular and cell biologists-both ... these readily reproducible techniques range from the growth inhibition assay for TGFß to methodologies for monitoring its ...
Intraocular fluid (i.o.f.) levels of TGF-beta 2 are quite high. Altho ... TGF-beta 2) is a pluripotent cytokine which has been suggested to play a number of roles in ocular physiologic and pathologic ... platelet-derived growth factor-ab, a.... 12868066 - Transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha cooperate ... BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) is a pluripotent cytokine which has been suggested to play a number ...
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and beta 3 (TGF-beta 3) mRNA levels were elevated in the ras + myc-induced ... Expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms (beta 2 and beta 3) in the mouse uterus: analysis of the ... Transforming growth factors-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 stimulate fibroblast procollagen production in vitro but are ... Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor production by folliculostellate pituitary cells. ...
Growth stimulation and differential regulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1), TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 ... Growth stimulation and differential regulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1), TGF beta 2, and TGF beta 3 ... Immunohistochemical localization of transforming growth factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta during early human ... Transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2 and -beta 3 mRNA expression in human cornea. Nishida, K., Sotozono, C., Adachi, W., ...
Circulating Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) in Individuals With Marfan Syndrome. The safety and scientific validity of ... Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) is a protein that controls proliferation, cellular differentiation, and other functions ... Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) is a protein that controls proliferation, cellular differentiation, and other functions ... Circulating Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) in Individuals With. Study Start Date :. April 2011. ...
Prognostic Value of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. The safety and scientific validity of ... Prognostic Value of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus. ... Correlation of cerebrospinal fluid levels of transforming growth factor beta-1 with functional improvements after insertion of ... Transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) is a signaling molecule involved in three fundamental activities; suppression of cell ...
J:15692 Shibanuma M, et al., Cloning from a mouse osteoblastic cell line of a set of transforming-growth-factor-beta 1- ... TGFB1I1, transforming growth factor beta 1 induced transcript 1. Orthology source: HomoloGene, HGNC ... PR:000016286 transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 protein. (term hierarchy) ...
A major mechanism of regulating TGF-beta activity occurs through factors that control the processing of the latent to t ... TGF-beta) is a potent growth regulatory protein secreted by virtually all cells in a latent form. ... Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent growth regulatory protein secreted by virtually all cells in a latent ... 0/Transforming Growth Factor beta; 9005-49-6/Heparin From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ...
Hepatic transforming growth factor beta gives rise to tumor-initiating cells and promotes liver cancer development†‡. Authors. ... Herein we report the concurrent increase of liver progenitor cells (LPCs) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in ... Jens U. Marquardt, The Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β in Human Hepatocarcinogenesis: Mechanistic and Therapeutic ... Transforming growth factor-β-induced plasticity causes a migratory stemness phenotype in hepatocellular carcinoma, Cancer ...
... which is the regulatory chain of TGF-beta, and regulates integrin-dependent activation of TGF-beta. ... that controls TGF-beta activation by maintaining it in a latent state during storage in extracellular space. Associates ... Key regulator of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3) ... Key regulator of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3) that controls TGF-beta activation by maintaining it ...
Global Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Industry Latest Report on Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Market Global Analysis & ... 2.5.1 Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Market Concentration Rate. 2.5.2 Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Market Share of Top ... Global Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Industry. Latest Report on Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Market Global Analysis & ... 5.3 Global Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Price by Type (2012-2017). 5.4 Global Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Production ...
Transforming growth factor-beta induced protein IG-H3. A. 146. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: TGFBI, BIGH3. ... Solution structure of the FAS1 domain of human transforming growth factor-beta induced protein IG-H3. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1X3B/pdb ... Solution structure of the FAS1 domain of human transforming growth factor-beta induced protein IG-H3. Yoneyama, M., Tomizawa, T ...
Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) is a cytokine involved in the development of both acute and late cutaneous radiation ... Promoter sequences involved in transforming growth factor beta 1 gene induction in HaCaT keratinocytes after gamma irradiation ...
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) regulates the cell cycle and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition of many cells in ... Ectopic expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor disrupts mesoderm organisation during mouse ... We present evidence that classical TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition was probably the cause of insufficient mesoderm being ...
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of structurally related cell regulatory proteins that was named after its first member, TGF-β1 , originally described in 1983. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to a large family of cytokines called the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily , which includes the TGF-β family , Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), inhibins and activins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes three different mammalian isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 3, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3) and many other signaling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the molecules that influence the decision of progenitor cells to become adipocytes are members of transforming growth factor-beta superfamily and particularly bone morphogenetic proteins. (nih.gov)
  • TbetaRIII is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily signaling pathways, which have essential roles in mediating cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and migration in most human tissues. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • TbetaRIII can also undergo ectodomain shedding to generate soluble TbetaRIII (sTbetaRIII), which binds and sequesters TGF-beta superfamily members to inhibit their signaling. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily includes several groups of multifunctional proteins that form two major branches, namely the TGF-β/activin/nodal branch and the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/growth differentiation factor (GDF) branch. (onmedica.com)
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β ) superfamily requires a particular attention. (hindawi.com)
  • Transforming Growth Factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) is a member of a superfamily of homologous, disulfide-linked, homodimeric proteins that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of normal and transformed cells. (sbhsciences.com)
  • In conclusion, YY1 represses Smad transcriptional activities in a gene-specific manner and thus regulates cell differentiation induced by TGF-beta superfamily pathways. (diva-portal.org)
  • The encoded receptor is a membrane proteoglycan that often functions as a co-receptor with other TGF-beta receptor superfamily members. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Importantly, other ovarian expressed TGF-beta superfamily members (GDF-9 and activin, 10 ng/ml) stimulated granulosa cell CTGF mRNA in a similar fashion to TGF-beta1 (10 ng/ml), and this was also inhibited by FSH (10 ng/ml). (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • The TGF-beta ligand initiates signaling by binding to and joining type I and II receptors of serine/threonine kinases. (nih.gov)
  • This review discusses the TGF-beta ligands and receptors, its positive and negative regulators in signaling, as well as its important roles with respect to tumor suppression and progression. (nih.gov)
  • Activated TGF-β complexes with other factors to form a serine/threonine kinase complex that binds to TGF-β receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • B lymphocytes were shown to have high-affinity receptors for TGF-beta that were increased fivefold to sixfold after in vitro activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • This cell line was found to lack high-affinity TGF-beta receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, B lymphocytes synthesize and secrete TGF-beta and express receptors for TGF-beta. (jimmunol.org)
  • Targeting Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptors in Pulmonary Hypertension. (onmedica.com)
  • During the last few years, tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular aspects of intracellular signaling downstream of the TGF-beta receptors. (inserm.fr)
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and its receptors are expressed in the kidney. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β] is such an example, being a growth stimulator in fibroblastic cells with TGF-β receptors, but a negative regulator in epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results show for the first time that TGF-beta2, its receptors TGF-beta R1 and TGF-beta R2, and activator thrombospondin-1 are concordantly suppressed early in breast carcinogenesis by histone modifications and indicate that the TGF-beta signaling pathway is a novel target for gene activation by epigenetic therapy. (garvan.org.au)
  • Earlier studies showed that both cell lines contain glucocorticoid receptors, but only OPM-2 cells are growth inhibited by dexamethasone (Dex). (aacrjournals.org)
  • TGF-beta-1 is a peptide of 112 amino acid residues derived by proteolytic cleavage from the C-terminal of a precursor protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TGFB3 gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • TGF-β is secreted by many cell types, including macrophages, in a latent form in which it is complexed with two other polypeptides, latent TGF-beta binding protein (LTBP) and latency-associated peptide (LAP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we review the role(s) of transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein signalling pathway in adipocyte differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report that in glomeruli of rats made diabetic there is a slow, progressive increase in the expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) mRNA and TGF-beta protein. (pnas.org)
  • Glomeruli from humans with diabetic nephropathy also showed a striking increase in immunoreactive TGF-beta protein and deposition of the special form of fibronectin, whereas glomeruli from normal subjects or from individuals with other glomerular diseases (where extracellular matrix accumulation is not a feature) were negative or barely positive. (pnas.org)
  • Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) is a protein that controls proliferation, cellular differentiation, and other functions in most cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent growth regulatory protein secreted by virtually all cells in a latent form. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have shown previously that thrombospondin 1 (TSP1), a platelet alpha-granule and extracellular matrix protein, activates latent TGF-beta via a protease- and cell-independent mechanism and have localized the TGF-beta binding/activation region to the type 1 repeats of platelet TSP1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A protein called transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) might be an effective biomarker for pleural mesothelioma. (survivingmesothelioma.com)
  • Transforming growth factor beta is an important immunomodulatory protein for human B lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • By carrying out its functions, the protein plays a role in the cellular response to growth factor stimulus and is thus an important embryonic development protein. (cags.org.ae)
  • The data presented here do not support the involvement of a unique TGF beta binding protein(s) in latent recombinant TGF beta 1. (rupress.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein secreted by peritoneal cells increases the metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One of the proteins differentially expressed in the coculture secretome was identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry as the extracellular matrix protein transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp, also known as βig-H3). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels of TGF-[sz]1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) were measured. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Because TGF-beta(1) is considered the main inducer of the myofibroblast phenotype and cytoskeletal changes accompany this differentiation, the main objective of this investigation was to study how TGF-beta(1) alters protein expression of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. (lu.se)
  • To assess for the first time the possible contribution of latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta binding protein 2 (LTBP2), an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that associates with fibrillin-1-containing microfibrils, to the etiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome. (molvis.org)
  • Smad proteins transduce transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals that regulate cell growth and differentiation. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have identified YY1, a transcription factor that positively or negatively regulates transcription of many genes, as a novel Smad-interacting protein. (diva-portal.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) is usually ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues and cell lines. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The effect of TGF-beta on cell surface binding was maximal after 2 h of exposure to TFG-beta and did not require epidermal growth factor or protein synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Novel non-synonymous mutation in the transforming growth factor beta binding protein-like (TB) domain of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene in a Han Chinese family with Marfan syndrome (MFS). (nel.edu)
  • A novel non-synonymous mutation in the transforming growth factor beta binding protein-like (TB) domain of the FBN1 gene was found. (nel.edu)
  • Qin I, Yan U, Simpson O, Gu A, Wang A, Chen I, Novel non-synonymous mutation in the transforming growth factor beta binding protein-like (TB) domain of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene in a Han Chinese family with Marfan syndrome (MFS). (nel.edu)
  • Competition between Ski and CREB-binding protein for binding to Smad proteins in transforming growth factor-beta signaling. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Our working model suggests that Smad protein activity is delicately balanced by Ski and CBP in the TGF-beta pathway. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Effect of Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF Beta) and Vitamin D3 Metabolites on Protein Kinase C Mediated Signal Transduction in Rat Costochondral Chondrocyte Cultures. (dtic.mil)
  • Confluent, fourth passage cultures of growth zone and resting zone chondrocytes were treated with vitamin D3 metabolites for up to 24 hours, lysed, and the cell extracts assayed for protein kinase C (PKC) specific activity using a specific peptide substrate. (dtic.mil)
  • In addition, we have found that the major heparan sulphate proteoglycan of the cell layer (protein core approximately 350 kDa) was increased by TGF-beta treatment, whereas all the other smaller heparan sulphate proteoglycans with protein cores from 250 kDa to 30 kDa appeared unaffected. (lu.se)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta 1 stimulated cell surface CD44-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan synthesis in mouse melanoma cells, specifically through an upregulation of chondroitin sulfate production, while the expression of CD44-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein was not affected. (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, transforming growth factor-beta 1-mediated enhancement of cell polarity, migration and invasive behavior on type I collagen gels was markedly inhibited in the presence of beta-D-xyloside, an agent that blocks chondroitin sulfate addition to the core protein. (biologists.org)
  • TGFBR2 is a transmembrane protein that has a protein kinase domain, forms a heterodimeric complex with another receptor protein, and binds TGF-beta. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Targeted disruption of the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) gene in mice results in the development of a massive multifocal inflammatory disease in many tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Mice with a targeted mutation in the TGF beta 1 gene were examined to determine the cause of prenatal lethality, which occurs in 50% of homozygous TGF beta 1 null (TGF beta 1−/−) conceptions. (biologists.org)
  • The phenotypes are consistent with the observation of abundant TGF beta 1 gene expression in both endothelial and haematopoietic precursors. (biologists.org)
  • 1993 ) Gene knockouts of c-src, transforming growth factor-beta 1 and tenascin suggest superfluous, non-functional expression of proteins. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we investigated whether lack of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) type II receptor (RII) expression and loss of TGF-beta signaling played a role in radiation resistance of pancreatic cancer cells MIA PaCa-2 that possess a mutated p53 gene. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Thus, restoration of TGF-beta signaling sensitized these cells to ionizing radiation, although these cells possess a mutated p53 gene. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • sup][6],[7] Hypoxia activates signaling through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1a, which is a transcriptional complex with a crucial role in oxygen-regulated gene expression and it is upregulated by growth factors, cytokines, oncogenes, and hormones under hypoxic conditions. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • YY1 represses the induction of immediate-early genes to TGF-beta and BMP, such as the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene (PAI-1) and the inhibitor of differentiation/inhibitor of DNA binding 1 gene (Id-1). (diva-portal.org)
  • Introduction TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophies are autosomal dominating disorders caused by mutations in transforming growth factor-beta-induced (gene that results in an arginine-to-histidine substitution (R124H) [1]. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Signaling by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family members is mediated by Smad proteins that regulate gene transcription through functional cooperativity and association with other DNA-binding proteins. (csic.es)
  • The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 is a transcriptional complex that plays a key role in oxygen-regulated gene expression. (csic.es)
  • These results demonstrate that both TGF-beta and hypoxia signaling pathways can synergize in the regulation of VEGF gene expression at the transcriptional level. (csic.es)
  • Transforming growth factor beta 1-responsive element: closely associated binding sites for USF and CCAAT-binding transcription factor-nuclear factor I in the type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene. (asm.org)
  • Transforming growth factors beta 1 and 2 transcriptionally regulate human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 early gene expression in HPV-immortalized human genital epithelial cells. (asm.org)
  • Although TGF-beta treatment increased the expression of p15, TGF-beta-induced gene, this effect was counteracted by expression of LMP-1. (researchmap.jp)
  • Overexpression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA is associated with up-regulation of glomerular tenascin and laminin gene expression in nonobese diabetic mice. (asnjournals.org)
  • Synergistic activation of the osteocalcin gene promoter by TGF-beta and vitamin D was observed in transient transfection experiments. (garvan.org.au)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) [6] is a multifunctional peptide that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • They each have an N-terminal signal peptide of 20-30 amino acids that they require for secretion from a cell, a pro-region called latency associated peptide (LAP - Alias: Pro-TGF beta 1, LAP/TGF beta 1), and a 112-114 amino acid C-terminal region that becomes the mature TGF-β molecule following its release from the pro-region by proteolytic cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta-3 proprotein: Precursor of the Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta-3) chains, which constitute the regulatory and active subunit of TGF-beta-3, respectively. (uniprot.org)
  • Latency-associated peptide: Required to maintain the Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta-3) chain in a latent state during storage in extracellular matrix (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • 28912269 ). Interaction with integrins results in distortion of the Latency-associated peptide chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-3 (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • 28912269 ). Activation into mature form follows different steps: following cleavage of the proprotein in the Golgi apparatus, Latency-associated peptide (LAP) and Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta-3) chains remain non-covalently linked rendering TGF-beta-3 inactive during storage in extracellular matrix (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • This peptide bound to 125I-active TGF-beta and inhibited interactions of TSP1 with latent TGF-beta. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. (curehunter.com)
  • The amino-terminal region of the TGF beta 1 precursor is secreted and can be detected in the conditioned medium by immunoblotting using peptide antibodies specific for amino-terminal peptides. (rupress.org)
  • R-glutaminyl-peptide: amine gamma-glutamyltransferase, EC 2.3.2.13) was found in the conversion of latent transforming growth factor-beta (LTGF-beta) to active TGF-beta by bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). (rupress.org)
  • Antibodies to peptide determinants in transforming growth factor .beta. (patents.com)
  • an increase in expression of TGF-β often correlates with the malignancy of many cancers and a defect in the cellular growth inhibition response to TGF-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review, researchers present different types of mechanisms and cellular targets which are involved with the effects of TGF-Beta 1 muscles, such as pothological the processes like fibrosis, atrophy and inhibition of regeneration. (eurekalert.org)
  • Described in great detail to ensure robust and successful results, these readily reproducible techniques range from the growth inhibition assay for TGFß to methodologies for monitoring its interactions with the mediating proteins. (springer.com)
  • The degree of inhibition of B cell proliferation observed in in vitro cultures was found to be dependent not only on the concentration of TGF-beta added but also on the concentration of the growth stimulatory substance (IL 2) present. (jimmunol.org)
  • By increasing the IL 2 concentrations in culture, the inhibition of proliferation induced by TGF-beta could be partially overcome. (jimmunol.org)
  • In contrast, the inhibition of Ig secretion induced by TGF-beta could not be overcome by a higher concentration of stimulatory factor, demonstrating that the suppression of B cell differentiation by TGF-beta is not due solely to its effects on proliferation. (jimmunol.org)
  • This inhibition was blocked by the neutralizing anti-TGF-beta 2G7 antibody but not by a nonspecific IgG2. (jci.org)
  • In contrast, overexpression or knockdown of YY1 does not affect growth inhibition induced by TGF-beta or BMP. (diva-portal.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) causes growth stimulation and transformation in fibroblasts , but growth inhibition/apoptosis in other cell types . (mun.ca)
  • The repressive effect was mapped to the NF-kappaB activation domains in the cytoplasmic carboxyl terminus of LMP-I. Furthermore, LMP-I-mediated inhibition of TGF-beta-responsive promoter was markedly restored after inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. (researchmap.jp)
  • It was also possible to block partially the growth inhibition of Dex in OPM-2 cells by the addition of anti-TGF-beta 1 antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a cytokine that is secreted by various cell types, including macrophages, and functions in cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis and cellular homeostasis by binding to its receptor, the TGFβ type II receptor. (nature.com)
  • Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β 1 is a pluripotent cytokine that profoundly inhibits epithelial proliferation, induces apoptosis, and influences morphogenesis by mediating extracellular matrix deposition and re. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent regulatory cytokine with diverse effects on hemopoietic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine strongly associated with the fibrogenic response. (nih.gov)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is an ubiquitous cytokine that affects various biological processes, such as regulation of cell proliferation, immune responses, growth, differentiation, angiogenesis, and apoptosis of various cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Our results describe autoimmune activity that ensues when the TGF-beta 1 cytokine is absent. (bloodjournal.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) is a pluripotent cytokine which has been suggested to play a number of roles in ocular physiologic and pathologic states. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) is a cytokine involved in the development of both acute and late cutaneous radiation syndromes. (irsn.fr)
  • BACKGROUND--Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is an immunomodulatory cytokine regulating the proliferation and differentiation of various cell types. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS--The bronchial epithelial compartment appears to be the main location of TGF-beta in the normal human lung, suggesting that this cytokine has a pivotal role in the immunological properties of the bronchial mucosa. (bmj.com)
  • To examine the relationship between cytokine levels of transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the plasma of esophageal carcinoma patients and radiation-induced pneumonitis (RP). (dovepress.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a prototype of multifunctional cytokine, is a key regulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly and remodeling. (inserm.fr)
  • OBJECTIVE To delineate the possible implication of the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • TGF-beta did not effect proliferation or influence cytokine secretion, but it also partially blocked apoptosis. (rupress.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is the first serum cytokine that changes in malaria-naïve volunteers after CHMI. (eur.nl)
  • The factors in the diabetic milieu responsible for extracellular matrix accumulation are not understood. (pnas.org)
  • A key action of TGF-beta is induction of extracellular matrix production, and specific matrix proteins known to be induced by TGF-beta were increased in diabetic rat glomeruli. (pnas.org)
  • The 70-kilodalton amino-terminal fragment of fibronectin, which blocks incorporation of fibronectin into extracellular matrix, blocked anchorage-independent growth of NRK-49F cells in the presence of epidermal growth factor. (asm.org)
  • Such an early increase in cell surface binding of exogenous fibronectin may be a mechanism whereby TGF-beta can modify extracellular matrix characteristics rapidly after tissue injury or during embryonic morphogenesis. (asm.org)
  • The expression of several genes coding for growth factors and extracellular matrix was examined in microdissected glomeruli, by the use of reverse transcription-competitive polymerase chain reaction, in diabetic NOD mice (mean duration of diabetes, 28.5 +/- 7 days) and age-matched nondiabetic NOD mice with normal glucose tolerance. (asnjournals.org)
  • CTGF is a heparin-binding multi-domain growth factor, stimulated by TGF- beta, and implicated as a paracrine regulator of mitosis, angiogenesis, cellular taxis and remodelling of the extracellular matrix in diverse epithelial cell layers. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • A major mechanism of regulating TGF-beta activity occurs through factors that control the processing of the latent to the biologically active form of the molecule. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We now report that recombinant human TSP1, but not recombinant mouse TSP2, activates latent TGF-beta. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, a hexapeptide GGWSHW, based on a sequence present in the type 1 repeats of both TSP1 and TSP2, inhibited the activation of latent TGF-beta by TSP1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • TSP2 also inhibited activation of latent TGF-beta by TSP1, presumably by competitively binding to TGF-beta through the WSHW sequence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These studies show that activation of latent TGF-beta is mediated by two sequences present in the type 1 repeats of TSP1, a sequence (GGWSHW) that binds active TGF-beta and potentially orients the TSP molecule and a second sequence (RFK) that activates latent TGF-beta. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mechanism of activation of latent recombinant transforming growth factor beta 1 by plasmin. (rupress.org)
  • Medium conditioned by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the simian pre-pro-TGF beta 1 cDNA contains high levels of latent TGF beta 1. (rupress.org)
  • Chemical cross-linking of CHO-conditioned medium using bis-(sulfosuccinimidyl)-suberate (BS3) followed by immunoblot analyses indicates that latent recombinant TGF beta 1 contains both the cleaved amino-terminal glycopeptide and mature TGF beta 1 polypeptide in a noncovalent association and that this association confers latency. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, activation of latent TGF beta 1 may occur by proteolytic nicking within the amino-terminal glycopeptide thereby causing a disruption of tertiary structure and noncovalent bonds, which results in the release of active, mature TGF beta 1. (rupress.org)
  • Acid activation of latent TGF beta, in comparison, appears to be due to dissociation of the amino-terminal glycopeptide from the mature polypeptide. (rupress.org)
  • Requirement for transglutaminase in the activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta in bovine endothelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • TGF Beta 1, TGF Beta 2 and TGF Beta 3 are each synthesized as precursor proteins that are very similar in that each is cleaved to yield a 112 amino acid polypeptide that remains associated with the latent portion of the molecule. (neuromics.com)
  • We selected most pathways TGFBR3 participated on our site, such as TGF Beta Signaling Pathway, TGF-beta Receptor Signaling Pathway, TGF-beta receptor signaling, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is the prototype for a family of multifunctional secreted peptides that control many aspects of growth and development in a cell‐type‐specific manner. (els.net)
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is the prototype for a conserved family of multifunctional secreted peptides. (els.net)
  • The transforming growth factor beta s (TGF-beta s) are a group of multifunctional growth factors which inhibit cell cycle progression in many cell types. (pnas.org)
  • Unactivated tonsillar B cells had detectable amounts of TGF-beta mRNA on Northern blot analysis, and B cell activation with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan (SAC) resulted in a twofold to threefold increase in TGF-beta mRNA. (jimmunol.org)
  • TGF-beta 1 mRNA increased threefold already on day 3 and remained elevated until day 10. (jci.org)
  • After the increase of TGF-beta 1 mRNA the messages for biglycan and collagen III steadily increased to reach a maximum 10 d after bleomycin instillation. (jci.org)
  • 1994 ) Coordinate regulation of steel factor, its receptor (Kit), and cytoadhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and ELAM-1) mRNA expression in human vascular endothelial cells. (biologists.org)
  • To quantitatively assess the superoxide dismutase 1 ( SOD1 ), transforming growth factor, beta 1 ( TGF-β1 ), and dual-specificity phosphatase 1 ( DUSP1 ) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels as the main intracellular reactive oxygen species neutralizers, wound healing mediators, and immunomodulators (respectively) in keratoconic (KCN) and non-KCN corneas. (molvis.org)
  • These findings provide evidence that increased glomerular transforming growth factor-beta 1, but not PDGF-B, mRNA is associated with the up-regulation of tenascin and laminin expression after advanced glycosylation endproduct accumulation, early after the onset of diabetes. (asnjournals.org)
  • In this study, the regulation of the levels of TGF beta mRNA levels in human endometrial stromal cells in culture was evaluated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In OPM-1 (Dex insensitive), TGF-beta mRNA was not expressed, whereas it was induced by Dex in OPM-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • TGF-beta, GDF-9 and activin up-regulate CTGF mRNA in vitro , suggesting a paracrine/autocrine involvement of these growth/differentiation factors in regulating CTGF in the ovary. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Multiple signalling pathways lie downstream of the receptor, including the SMAD transcription factors and cell-cycle proteins. (nature.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenetic proteins exert their biological functions mainly through their downstream molecules, the Smads. (nih.gov)
  • TbetaRIII interacts with the scaffolding proteins beta-arrestin2, via phosphorylation of amino acid site Thr841 in the cytoplasmic domain, and with GIPC via the PDZ domain. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Specifically, TGF-beta isoforms have the ability to induce the expression of ECM proteins in mesenchymal cells, and to stimulate the production of protease inhibitors that prevent enzymatic breakdown of the ECM. (inserm.fr)
  • In particular, Smad proteins, TGF-beta receptor kinase substrates that translocate into the cell nucleus to act as transcription factors, have been studied extensively. (inserm.fr)
  • These proteins have not previously been shown to be regulated by TGF-beta(1), and the functional role of these proteins is to participate in the depolymerization and stabilization of the microfilaments. (lu.se)
  • These results show that TGF-beta(1) induces not only alpha-SMA but a whole set of actin-associated proteins that may contribute to the increased contractile properties of the myofibroblast. (lu.se)
  • Interestingly, LMP-I inhibited TGF-beta-responsive promoters activity despite lack of direct interaction of LMP-I and Smad proteins, intracellular signaling molecules in the TGF-beta signal transduction pathway. (researchmap.jp)
  • The family of Smad proteins mediates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling in cell growth and differentiation. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Members of the Smad family of proteins function as effectors of TGF-beta signaling pathways whereas the vitamin D receptor (VDR) confers vitamin D signaling. (garvan.org.au)
  • Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a tumor suppressor, the function of which is compromised in many types of human cancer, including breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transforming growth factor (TGF)-βs are plausible candidate tumor suppressors in the breast. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Preculture of human peripheral blood monocytes for 24 hours with low concentrations of LPS induced hyporesponsiveness to high-dose LPS rechallenge with respect to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and interleukin (IL) 10 but not IL-1RA production. (rupress.org)
  • Implications for a possible role of tumor cell/host TGF-beta interactions in human breast cancer progression. (jci.org)
  • TGF-beta effects on angiogenesis, stroma formation, and immune function suggest its possible involvement in tumor progression. (jci.org)
  • Intraperitoneal injections of 2G7 starting 1 d after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells suppressed intraabdominal tumor and lung metastases, whereas the nonneutralizing anti-TGF-beta 12H5 IgG2a had no effect. (jci.org)
  • These data support a possible role for tumor cell TGF-beta in the progression of mammary carcinomas by suppressing host immune surveillance. (jci.org)
  • Suppression of T cell proliferation by tumor-induced granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells producing transforming growth factor-beta and nitric oxide. (jimmunol.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) inhibits the proliferation of tumors in early stages of cancers, whereas it promotes tumor growth and metastasis in later stages of cancers. (ovid.com)
  • Our findings suggest that in pancreatic carcinoma, TGF-β1 expression is related to tumor growth and metastasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differential activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a potential contributor to this receptor heterogeneity because TGF-β contributes to both angiogenesis and CRC tumor progression. (ovid.com)
  • Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are up-regulated in injured and osteoarthritic knee joints. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results corroborate and extend previous in vitro studies concerning the effect of TGF-beta 1 on the metabolism of small proteoglycans and show that these macromolecules are regulated differently also in vivo. (jci.org)
  • The regulatory activity of TGF-beta is modulated by the cell differentiation state and by the presence of inflammatory cytokines and costimulatory molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Amongst many cytokines and growth factors, the TGF- β family is considered a group playing one of numerous key roles in control of physiological phenomena concerning maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the bone tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • This process is a cascade of local and systemic phenomena spread over time, involving whole cell lineages and various cytokines and growth factors. (hindawi.com)
  • Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth factors' involvement have shown that TGF- β has a leading role in the fracture healing process. (hindawi.com)
  • Amongst cytokines identified and described so far, a group of growth factors (GF) can also be distinguished, whose effects in certain situations can also be viewed in a context of a "growth factor network" [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We determined the effects of specific Ag and the cytokines interleukin (IL) 2 and transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 on T helper cell type 2 (Th2) effector apoptosis versus expansion. (rupress.org)
  • Since Th2 effectors are specialized to help B cells develop into antibody-secreting plasma cells, these results suggest that the availability of Ag and of the cytokines IL-2 and TGF-beta is a key factor influencing the fate of Th2 effector cells and thus the size and duration of the primary antibody response. (rupress.org)
  • The serum of TGF- beta 1 knockout mice contained elevated titers of antibodies to nuclear antigens (ssDNA, dsDNA, Sm, and RNP) as well as reactivity against the 16/6 idiotype (16/6 Id). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Additionally, neutralizing anti-IL-10 and anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibodies prevented induction of LPS tolerance. (rupress.org)
  • Anti-transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta antibodies inhibit breast cancer cell tumorigenicity and increase mouse spleen natural killer cell activity. (jci.org)
  • The increase in sensitivity to radiation was reversed by neutralizing antibodies to TGF-beta, indicating that these changes were dependent on TGF-beta signaling. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Within five minutes after the instillation, mice received into the tail vein 100 microliters non-immune rabbit IgG, TGF-beta 2 antibody, or a combination of TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 1 antibodies at various dose regimens. (bmj.com)
  • the neutralisation of TGF-beta by systemic treatment with its antibodies offers a new mode of pharmacological intervention which may be useful in treating lung fibrosis. (bmj.com)
  • TGF-beta antibodies: a novel treatment for pulmonary fibrosis? (bmj.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to transforming growth factor-.beta. (patents.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) are prepared from hybrid cell lines by immunizing with TGF-B2. (patents.com)
  • Antibodies to the N-terminal portion of cartilage-inducing factor A and transforming growth factor.beta. (patents.com)
  • Expression of transforming growth factor beta is elevated in human and experimental diabetic nephropathy. (pnas.org)
  • TGFβ regulates the expression of key transcription factors, Snail and Slug, which mediate changes in cell shape. (els.net)
  • Altered expression of small proteoglycans, collagen, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 in developing bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. (jci.org)
  • The expression of three small proteoglycans (biglycan, decorin, and fibromodulin), collagen III and TGF-beta 1 was studied by RNA-transfer blot analysis. (jci.org)
  • Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 Involved in the Pathogenesis of Endometriosis through Regulating Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor under Hypoxia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Elevated TGF-beta expression in affected organs, and subsequent deregulation of TGF-beta functions, correlates with the abnormal connective tissue deposition observed during the onset of fibrotic diseases. (inserm.fr)
  • Furthermore, both TGase inhibitors and a neutralizing antibody to TGase potentiated the effect of retinol in enhancing plasminogen activator (PA) levels in cultures of BAECs by suppressing the TGF-beta-mediated enhancement of PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression. (rupress.org)
  • These results indicate that type II TGase is a component required for cell surface, plasmin-mediated LTGF-beta activation process and that increased expression of TGase accompanies retinoid-induced activation of LTGF-beta. (rupress.org)
  • Ectopic expression of YY1 inhibits, while knockdown of endogenous YY1 enhances, TGF-beta- and BMP-induced cell differentiation. (diva-portal.org)
  • To clarify the mechanisms of resistance to TGF-beta by LMP-I, we examined the effect of expression of LMP-I on the activity of TGF-beta-responsive promoters. (researchmap.jp)
  • 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (vitamin D) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulate diverse biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation through modulation of the expression of target genes. (garvan.org.au)
  • To evaluate possible involvement of a paracrine/autocrine inhibitory growth factor in myeloma cell growth, we studied the expression and actions of two forms of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2) on two closely related myeloma cell lines, OPM-1 and OPM-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MMP9 and uPA are key proteases in this process, but it is still not clear the regulation of its expression by Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β), a known negative regulator of trophoblast invasion. (scielo.org.co)
  • The Inhibitory Effects of Transforming Growth Factor {beta}1 on Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation Are Mediated through Regulation of Aberrant Nuclear Factor-{{kappa}}B/Rel Expression -- Sovak et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies of in vivo ovarian CTGF expression in FSH-beta knockout mice by Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated high levels of CTGF expression in the granulosa cells of preantral follicles blocked from further development owing to the absence of FSH. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Accordingly, YY1 does not interfere with the regulation of immediate-early genes involved in the TGF-beta growth-inhibitory response, the cell cycle inhibitors p15 and p21, and the proto-oncogene c-myc. (diva-portal.org)
  • Candidate genes included transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1). (fnr.lu)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that TGF-beta can induce p21 through a p53-independent pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Transplantation of TGF- beta 1 knockout hematopoietic cells into normal irradiated recipients resulted in a similar profile of autoantibody production as well as in the induction of inflammatory lesions. (bloodjournal.org)
  • This is attributed to the ability of TGF-beta to stimulate infiltration of inflammatory cells and promote synthesis of connective tissue, leading to collagen deposition. (bmj.com)
  • Motykova E, Zlatohlavek L, Prusikova M, Lanska V, Ceska R, Vasickova L, Vrablik M. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children. (nel.edu)
  • We previously demonstrated the critical role of blood-brain barrier dysfunction, serum albumin, and the activation of inflammatory transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) signaling in PTE. (cureepilepsy.org)
  • Transforming Growth Factor type Beta 1 (TGF-β1) is one such soluble factor that also regulates skeletal muscle function, and it one of the most studied factors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our results suggest that Ski negatively regulates TGF-beta signaling by replacing CBP in R-Smad complexes. (thebiogrid.org)
  • It is Imown that vitamin D3 metabolites and transforming growth factor % (TOF-J3) regulate proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes isolated from the growth zone or resting zone of rat costochondral cartilage. (dtic.mil)
  • It has been reported that TGF-β influence different cell functions, including growth, proliferation and differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study we utilized canine lens and rabbit ciliary pigmented epithelial cell cultures to quantitate the in vitro secretion of TGF-beta 2. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The addition of picogram quantities of TGF-beta to B cell cultures suppressed factor-dependent, interleukin 2 (IL 2) B cell proliferation and markedly suppressed factor-dependent (IL 2 or B cell differentiation factor) B cell Ig secretion. (jimmunol.org)
  • The addition of exogenous TGF-beta to cultures of stimulated B cells inhibits subsequent proliferation and Ig secretion. (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that IL-4 is a differentiation factor for TGF-beta-secreting Th3 cells and oral IL-4 has a synergistic effect on low-dose oral tolerance that is associated with increased TGF-beta secretion. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Transforming growth factor betas (TGF Betas) mediate many cell-cell interactions that occur during embryonic development. (neuromics.com)
  • Actions and interactions of glucocorticoids and transforming growth factor beta on two related human myeloma cell lines -- Johnson et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They play fundamental roles in the regulation of basic biological processes such as growth, development , tissue homeostasis and regulation of the immune system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta regulation of immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • The pivotal function of TGF-beta in the immune system is to maintain tolerance via the regulation of lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation, and survival. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of transforming growth factor-beta activation by discrete sequences of thrombospondin 1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • by human T lymphocytes and its potential role of the regulation of T cell growth" J. Exp. (patents.com)
  • We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which TGF-beta and vitamin D signaling pathways interact in the regulation of the human osteocalcin promoter. (garvan.org.au)
  • Concise and highly practical, Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Protocols provides today's molecular and cell biologists-both expert and novice-with time-tested methods for the identification and analysis of the signal transduction pathways by which TGFß induces and modulates physiological behavior. (springer.com)
  • Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-β) induces a fibrotic response to tissue injury and contributes to pathological cardiac remodeling during the weeks following myocardial infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) induces alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and collagen synthesis in fibroblast both in vivo and in vitro and plays a significant role in tissue repair and the development of fibrosis. (lu.se)
  • The data indicate that the primary effect of loss of TGF beta 1 function in vivo is not increased haematopoietic or endothelial cell proliferation, which might have been expected by deletion of a negative growth regulator, but defective haematopoiesis and endothelial differentiation. (biologists.org)
  • The cell-associated, plasmin-mediated activation of LTGF-beta to TGF-beta induced either by treatment of BAECs with retinoids or by cocultures of BAECs and bovine smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) was blocked by seven different inhibitors of TGase as well as a neutralizing antibody to bovine endothelial cell type II TGase. (rupress.org)
  • Podocytes express vascular growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietins (ANGPT). (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrate that hypoxia and TGF-beta cooperate in the induction of the promoter activity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is a major stimulus in the promotion of angiogenesis. (csic.es)
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling is a target for antiangiogenic cancer therapy. (ovid.com)
  • The transforming growth factor (TGF)-βs are potent growth inhibitors of normal epithelial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transforming growth factor beta in normal human lung: preferential location in bronchial epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • Bronchial epithelial cells contained the largest amounts of TGF-beta. (bmj.com)
  • Macrophages and smooth muscle cells also contained TGF-beta, although less than epithelial cells. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, we examined whether TGF beta and tranilast affect the proliferation of cultured human lens epithelial cells and their production of collagen in vitro. (arvojournals.org)
  • Human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) grown under standard cell culture conditions enter a growth phase referred to as selection, but a subpopulation is able to escape from arrest and continue to proliferate. (garvan.org.au)
  • Progesterone-dependent release of transforming growth factor-beta1 from epithelial cells enhances the endometrial decidualization by turning on the Smad signalling in stromal cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results show that intratumoral ER-MP12+ cells having homology to GM-progenitor cells suppress T cell function by producing TGF-beta and NO. IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha treatment stimulates their differentiation and shift from production of TGF-beta and NO to production of TNF-alpha. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, it was TGF-beta and NO that mediated the suppression of T cell proliferation by ER-MP12+ cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Growth factors do not only stimulate cell proliferation, but they may also act as growth inhibitors, depending on the cell type and the stimulatory pathway that is involved. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) increases meniscal cell proliferation and accumulation, and enhances integrative meniscal repair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The TGF-beta-induced cell cycle arrest has been partially attributed to the regulatory effects of TGF-beta on both the levels and the activities of the G1 cyclins and their kinase partners. (pnas.org)
  • This study presents data that support a role for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in this regulatory process. (jimmunol.org)
  • These regulatory T cells produce transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) with various amounts of IL-4 and IL-10 and these TGF-beta-secreting T cells have been termed Th3 cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Potential alterations of this pathway may be a mechanism by which some cancers elude the normal growth regulatory system imposed by TGF-β . (mun.ca)
  • Growth-regulatory factors for normal, premalignant, and malignant human cells in vitro" Adv. Cancer Res. (patents.com)
  • Understanding the basic mechanisms through which TGFβ mediates cell growth, shape, migration and differentiation should lead to therapeutic interventions for a number of common diseases. (els.net)
  • Supernatants conditioned by unactivated B cells had small amounts of TGF-beta, SAC activation of the B cells resulted in a sixfold to sevenfold increase in the amount of TGF-beta present in the supernatants. (jimmunol.org)
  • Spleen cells from protected mice produced increased amounts of TGF-beta and reduced IFN-gamma upon stimulation with MBP in vitro. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β ) family forms a group of three isoforms, TGF- β 1, TGF- β 2, and TGF- β 3, with their structure formed by interrelated dimeric polypeptide chains. (hindawi.com)
  • 1990 ) Distinct transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor subsets as determinants of cellular responsiveness to three TGF-beta isoforms. (biologists.org)
  • Although the sources of ocular TGF-beta are not completely defined, the retinal pigment epithelium, the epithelium of the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork cells all secrete it. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The growth and differentiation of B cells to immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting cells is regulated by a variety of soluble factors. (jimmunol.org)
  • TGF-beta has been detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal human lung, but the nature and distribution of cells containing TGF-beta in this organ remain unknown. (bmj.com)
  • No TGF-beta was detected in other cell populations, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and pneumocytes. (bmj.com)
  • A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. (curehunter.com)
  • 1989 ) Effect of transforming growth factor-1 on proliferation and induction of hemoglobin accumulation in K-562 cells. (biologists.org)
  • 1989 ) Immunodetection and quantitation of two forms of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF1 and TGF 2) secreted by cells in culture. (biologists.org)
  • Among the factors produced by ER-MP12+ cells were TGF-beta, nitric oxide (NO), IL-10, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). (jimmunol.org)
  • T cells in lymphoid organs drained by mucosal sites secrete IL-4 as a primary T cell growth factor. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the role of IL-4 on oral tolerance and in the generation of TGF-beta secreting cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We then investigated the role of IL-4 in the generation of TGF-beta-secreting cells using MBP Ac1-11 TCR transgenic animals. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • We found that IL-4, but not IL-2 or IFN-gamma, generated TGF-beta-secreting T cells from naive splenic T cells and that these cells provided help for IgA production. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • As the factors promoting this process are poorly understood, we investigated the ovarian cancer-peritoneal interaction by means of in vitro coculture experiments with ovarian cancer (OVCAR-5 and SKOV-3) and peritoneal (LP-9) cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Overexpression of Bcl-x(L) or treatment with antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted against Bax significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2/RII but not in MIA PaCa-2/Vector cells, suggesting that Bax induction is necessary for radiation-induced TGF-beta signaling-mediated apoptosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Control experiments indicated that TGase inhibitors and/or a neutralizing antibody to TGase did not interfere with the direct action of TGF-beta, the release of LTGF-beta from cells, or the activation of LTGF-beta by plasmin or by transient acidification. (rupress.org)
  • Exposure of cells to TGF-beta for greater than 6 h caused a two- to threefold increase in the accumulation of cellular fibronectin in culture medium as detected by a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (asm.org)
  • Previous studies showed that LMP-I is responsible for mediating resistance to the anti- proliferative effects of TGF-beta that characterizes EBV-transformed cells. (researchmap.jp)
  • The u-PA activity in T-MG1 cells was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by B-TGF and EGF after 24 hours of exposure to these growth factors. (eurekamag.com)
  • To investigate whether TGF-beta also influences the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain-synthesizing machinery, we also characterized GAGs derived from proteoglycans synthesized by TGF-beta-treated cells. (lu.se)
  • By the use of p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside (an initiator of GAG synthesis) it could be demonstrated that chain synthesis was also enhanced in TGF-beta-treated cells (approximately twofold). (lu.se)
  • We report that transforming growth factor-beta 1 stimulates the migratory and invasive behavior of mouse melanoma cells on type I collagen. (biologists.org)
  • Modulation of the levels of transforming growth factor beta messenger ribonucleic acids in human endometrial stromal cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We speculate that transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is involved in the predecidualization of human endometrial stromal cells (the progenitors of the decidual cells) during the late secretory phase of nonfertile, ovulatory cycles and in the completion of decidualization during fertile cycles after blastocyst implantation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These data suggest that the glucocorticoid effect(s) on myeloma cells may be mediated at least in part through modulation of internal and/or external levels of TGF-beta 1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After treatment with retinoids, BAECs expressed increased levels of TGase coordinate with the generation of TGF-beta, whereas BSMCs and bovine embryonic skin fibroblasts, which did not activate LTGF-beta after treatment with retinoids, did not. (rupress.org)
  • Human embryonic skin fibroblasts were pretreated with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) for 6 h and then labeled with [35S]sulphate and [3H]leucine for 24 h. (lu.se)
  • Overexpression of the transcriptional coactivator CBP and p300 abrogated the inhibitory effect of LMP-I on the TGF-beta-responsive promoter. (researchmap.jp)
  • We demonstrate that TGF-beta also causes a rapid transcriptional induction of p21, suggesting that p21 can respond to both intracellular and extracellular signals for cell cycle arrest. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast to DNA damage, however, induction of p21 by TGF-beta is not dependent on wild-type p53. (pnas.org)
  • IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 showed additive effects in replacing LPS for induction of LPS hyporesponsiveness in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • You will be recent for all books that do under your Assessment download induction of bone formation in primates the transforming and browser. (danijohnson.com)
  • En download induction of bone que le service a request use mundo y de lo que no se team equipment. (danijohnson.com)
  • The Productive Writer ' changes your download induction of bone formation to improving the creators, users and growth that can enjoy you be organizations into members in your download armado. (danijohnson.com)
  • Treatment of TGF-beta(1) led to specific spot pattern changes that were identified by mass spectrometry and represent specific induction of several members of the contractile apparatus such as calgizzarin, cofilin, and profilin. (lu.se)
  • The cell cycle is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) that integrate mitogenic and growth inhibitor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TGF-beta may function as an autocrine growth inhibitor that limits B lymphocyte proliferation and ultimate differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Morphological transformation by TGF-beta was attenuated by an Akt inhibitor in fibroblasts . (mun.ca)
  • transforming growth factor is a potent inhibitor of murine megakaryocytopoiesis in vitro" Blood (1987) 69:1737-1741. (patents.com)
  • In different pathophysiological situations such as development, immunomodulation, fibrosis and cell response, TGF-β interacts with other factors including angiotensin II, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, connective tissue growth factor, integrins, and thymosin β4. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In addition, disruption of RII function by dominant negative mutant of RII inhibited the radiation-induced TGF-beta signaling and apoptosis in primary cultures of mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Together, these observations imply that RII is an important component of radiation-induced TGF-beta signaling, and loss of function of RII may enhance resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Control of CD4 effector fate: transforming growth factor beta 1 and interleukin 2 synergize to prevent apoptosis and promote effector expansion. (rupress.org)
  • Together, IL-2 and TGF-beta synergized to almost completely block apoptosis, resulting in prolonged effector expansion and leading to the accumulation of a large pool of specific effectors. (rupress.org)
  • Transforming growth factor-beta and the glomerular filtration barrier. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) on the glomerular filtration barrier. (nih.gov)
  • For example, in the case of TGF-beta1, 2, or 3, TbetaRIII presents ligand to the TGF-beta type II receptor ( TbetaRII ). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Once bound to ligand, TbetaRII then recruits and transphosphorylates the TGF-beta type I receptor ( TbetaRI ), activating its kinase function and leading to the phosphorylation of Smad2/3. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • This report studies the global Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 market status and forecast, categorizes the global Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 market size (value & volume) by key players, type, application, and region. (reportsnreports.com)
  • After harvesting in 96-well microplates in various concentrations of TGF beta for a week, we measured cell number using WST-8 KIT (DOJIN CHEMICAL) and the production of collagen type I and IV using cell-captured enzyme immunoassay (CC-EIA). (arvojournals.org)
  • In the presence of optimal concentration of TGF beta, we measured the number of LEC and the amount of produced collagen type I and IV as described above. (arvojournals.org)
  • In conjunction with Smads , this pathway could account for the cell type specific growth responses to TGF-β . (mun.ca)
  • Type .beta. (patents.com)
  • This locus encodes the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta type III receptor. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The success of clinical repairs depends on a number of factors including age, time to surgery, and the type and location of the meniscal tear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results demonstrate that a single extracellular antiproliferative signal, TGF-beta, can act through multiple signaling pathways to elicit a growth arrest response. (pnas.org)
  • Deletion of SBE1, which is proximal to the VDRE, but not the distal SBE3 in this promoter reporter abolished TGF-beta responsiveness and eliminated synergistic co-activation with vitamin D. Thus the molecular mechanism, whereby Smad3 and VDR mediate cross-talk between the TGF-beta and vitamin D signaling pathways, requires both a VDRE and a SBE located in close proximity to the target promoter. (garvan.org.au)
  • The involved transcription factors and signaling pathways were analyzed in silico, using Proscan, Enrich, PCViz and Wiki Pathway. (scielo.org.co)
  • In silico analysis evidenced different transcription factors for each protease, some belonging to TGF-β signaling pathway, and crosstalk with MAPK and Wnt/β -catenin pathways. (scielo.org.co)
  • Transcript levels for collagen I, collagen III, and transforming growth factor-beta were assessed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (cdc.gov)
  • Effect of antibody to transforming growth factor beta on bleomycin induced accumulation of lung collagen in mice. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS--Administration of 250 micrograms of TGF-beta 2 antibody after instillation of bleomycin followed by 100 micrograms on day 5 and 100 micrograms on day 9 significantly reduced the bleomycin induced increases in the accumulation of lung collagen from 445.8 (42.3) micrograms/lung to 336.7 (56.6) micrograms/lung at 14 days. (bmj.com)
  • Similarly, the combined treatment with 250 micrograms TGF-beta 2 antibody and 250 micrograms TGF-beta 1 antibody after bleomycin instillation followed by 100 micrograms of each antibody on day 5 also caused a significant reduction in bleomycin induced increases in lung collagen accumulation and myeloperoxidase activity at 14 days. (bmj.com)
  • The transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) is said to promote synthesis of collagen. (arvojournals.org)
  • In our current studies, the role of cell surface CD44-chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in collagen-mediated mouse melanoma cell migration and invasive behavior is further evaluated using transforming growth factor-beta 1. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, oral administration of IL-4 (1 microg per feeding) also enhanced the suppression of EAE by oral MBP and this protective effect was reversed by administration of anti-TGF-beta antibody in vivo. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Peptides based on these sites have potential therapeutic applications for modulation of TGF-beta activation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 5) Smads act as transcription factors and can either bind to DNA directly or bind in combination with a large array of diverse transcriptional regulators. (els.net)
  • 28912269 ). TGF-beta-3 is released from LAP by integrins: integrin-binding results in distortion of the LAP chain and subsequent release of the active TGF-beta-3 (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • TGF beta (TGFβ) and Nitric Oxide (NO) are active biomarkers known to regulate phases of wound healing and have been implicated in pathogenesis of fibrotic disease. (omicsonline.org)
  • In addition, TGF-beta and p53 act through distinct elements in the p21 promoter. (pnas.org)

No images available that match "transforming growth factor beta"