Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) capable of transforming mouse lymphoid cells and producing erythroid leukemia after superinfection with murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE). It has also been found to transform cultured human fibroblasts, rat liver epithelial cells, and rat adrenocortical cells.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Arrest of cell locomotion or cell division when two cells come into contact.
Transforming protein coded by myc oncogenes. The v-myc protein has been found in several replication-defective avian retrovirus isolates which induce a broad spectrum of malignancies.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Transforming protein coded by jun oncogenes (GENES, JUN). This is a gag-onc fusion protein of about 65 kDa derived from avian sarcoma virus. v-jun lacks a negative regulatory domain that regulates transcription in c-jun.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Aminoglycoside produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It is used as an anthelmintic against swine infections by large roundworms, nodular worms, and whipworms.
Transforming proteins encoded by the abl oncogenes. Oncogenic transformation of c-abl to v-abl occurs by insertional activation that results in deletions of specific N-terminal amino acids.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A BETARETROVIRUS that causes pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins transcribed from the E1A genome region of ADENOVIRUSES which are involved in positive regulation of transcription of the early genes of host infection.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Transforming proteins coded by myb oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-myb in conjunction with v-ets is seen in the avian E26 leukemia virus.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
ONCOGENE PROTEINS from papillomavirus that deregulate the CELL CYCLE of infected cells and lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. Papillomavirus E7 proteins have been shown to interact with various regulators of the cell cycle including RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and certain cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Viruses that produce tumors.
The process of embryo initiation in culture from vegetative, non-gametic, sporophytic, or somatic plant cells.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.
Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.
A white patch seen on the oral mucosa. It is considered a premalignant condition and is often tobacco-induced. When evidence of Epstein-Barr virus is present, the condition is called hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Cunninghamellaceae, order MUCORALES. Some species cause systemic infections in humans.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member of the INK4 CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITORS. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.

Expression and characterization of the intact N-terminal domain of streptokinase. (1/4900)

Proteolytic studies have enabled two of the three putative domains of the fibrinolytic protein streptokinase to be isolated and characterized (Conejero-Lara F et al., 1996, Protein Sci 5:2583-2591). The N-terminal domain, however, could not be isolated in these experiments because of its susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. To complete the biophysical characterization of the domain structure of streptokinase we have overexpressed, purified, and characterized the N-terminal region of the protein, residues 1-146. The results show this is cooperatively folded with secondary structure content and overall stability closely similar to those of the equivalent region in the intact protein.  (+info)

A novel plasmid recombination mechanism of the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. (2/4900)

We describe a novel mechanism of site-specific recombination in the unicellular marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. The specific recombination sites on the smallest plasmid pAQ1 were localized by studying the properties of pAQ1-derived shuttle-vectors. We found that a palindromic element, the core sequence of which is G(G/A)CGATCGCC, functions as a resolution site for site-specific plasmid recombination. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the element show that the site-specific recombination in the cyanobacterium requires sequence specificity, symmetry in the core sequence and, in part, the spacing between the elements. Interestingly, this element is over-represented not only in pAQ1 and in the genome of the cyanobacterium, but also in the accumulated cyanobacterial sequences from Synechococcus sp. PCC6301, PCC7942, vulcanus and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 within GenBank and EMBL databases. Thus, these findings strongly suggest that the site-specific recombination mechanism based on the palindromic element should be common in these cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene, ech42, in mycoparasitism. (3/4900)

The role of the Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase (Ech42) in mycoparasitism was studied by genetically manipulating the gene that encodes Ech42, ech42. We constructed several transgenic T. harzianum strains carrying multiple copies of ech42 and the corresponding gene disruptants. The level of extracellular endochitinase activity when T. harzianum was grown under inducing conditions increased up to 42-fold in multicopy strains as compared with the wild type, whereas gene disruptants exhibited practically no activity. The densities of chitin labeling of Rhizoctonia solani cell walls, after interactions with gene disruptants were not statistically significantly different than the density of chitin labeling after interactions with the wild type. Finally, no major differences in the efficacies of the strains generated as biocontrol agents against R. solani or Sclerotium rolfsii were observed in greenhouse experiments.  (+info)

A phosphonate-induced gene which promotes Penicillium-mediated bioconversion of cis-propenylphosphonic acid to fosfomycin. (4/4900)

Penicillium decumbens is able to epoxidize cis-propenylphosphonic acid (cPA) to produce the antibiotic fosfomycin [FOM; also referred to as phosphonomycin and (-)-cis-1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid], a bioconversion of considerable commercial significance. We sought to improve the efficiency of the process by overexpression of the genes involved. A conventional approach of isolating the presumed epoxidase and its corresponding gene was not possible since cPA epoxidation could not be achieved with protein extracts. As an alternative approach, proteins induced by cPA were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The observation that a 31-kDa protein (EpoA) was both cPA induced and overaccumulated in a strain which more efficiently converted cPA suggested that it might take part in the bioconversion. EpoA was purified, its amino acid sequence was partially determined, and the corresponding gene was isolated from cosmid and cDNA libraries with oligonucleotide probes. The DNA sequence for this gene (epoA) contained two introns and an open reading frame encoding a peptide of 277 amino acids having some similarity to oxygenases. When the gene was subcloned into P. decumbens, a fourfold increase in epoxidation activity was achieved. epoA-disruption mutants which were obtained by homologous recombination could not convert cPA to FOM. To investigate the regulation of the epoA promoter, the bialaphos resistance gene (bar, encoding phosphinothricin acetyltransferase) was used to replace the epoA-coding region. In P. decumbens, expression of the bar reporter gene was induced by cPA, FOM, and phosphorous acid but not by phosphoric acid.  (+info)

Thaumatin production in Aspergillus awamori by use of expression cassettes with strong fungal promoters and high gene dosage. (5/4900)

Four expression cassettes containing strong fungal promoters, a signal sequence for protein translocation, a KEX protease cleavage site, and a synthetic gene (tha) encoding the sweet protein thaumatin II were used to overexpress this protein in Aspergillus awamori lpr66, a PepA protease-deficient strain. The best expression results were obtained with the gdhA promoter of A. awamori or with the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans. There was good correlation of tha gene dosage, transcript levels, and thaumatin secretion. The thaumatin gene was expressed as a transcript of the expected size in each construction (1.9 or 1.4 kb), and the transcript levels and thaumatin production rate decayed at the end of the growth phase, except in the double transformant TB2b1-44-GD5, in which secretion of thaumatin continued until 96 h. The recombinant thaumatin secreted by a high-production transformant was purified to homogeneity, giving one major component and two minor components. In all cases, cleavage of the fused protein occurred at the KEX recognition sequence. This work provides new expression systems in A. awamori that result in very high levels of thaumatin production.  (+info)

Identification of RNase T as a high-copy suppressor of the UV sensitivity associated with single-strand DNA exonuclease deficiency in Escherichia coli. (6/4900)

There are three known single-strand DNA-specific exonucleases in Escherichia coli: RecJ, exonuclease I (ExoI), and exonuclease VII (ExoVII). E. coli that are deficient in all three exonucleases are abnormally sensitive to UV irradiation, most likely because of their inability to repair lesions that block replication. We have performed an iterative screen to uncover genes capable of ameliorating the UV repair defect of xonA (ExoI-) xseA (ExoVII-) recJ triple mutants. In this screen, exonuclease-deficient cells were transformed with a high-copy E. coli genomic library and then irradiated; plasmids harvested from surviving cells were used to seed subsequent rounds of transformation and selection. After several rounds of selection, multiple plasmids containing the rnt gene, which encodes RNase T, were found. An rnt plasmid increased the UV resistance of a xonA xseA recJ mutant and uvrA and uvrC mutants; however, it did not alter the survival of xseA recJ or recA mutants. RNase T also has amino acid sequence similarity to other 3' DNA exonucleases, including ExoI. These results suggest that RNase T may possess a 3' DNase activity capable of substituting for ExoI in the recombinational repair of UV-induced lesions.  (+info)

Hmo1p, a high mobility group 1/2 homolog, genetically and physically interacts with the yeast FKBP12 prolyl isomerase. (7/4900)

The immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and rapamycin bind to the cellular protein FKBP12, and the resulting FKBP12-drug complexes inhibit signal transduction. FKBP12 is a ubiquitous, highly conserved, abundant enzyme that catalyzes a rate-limiting step in protein folding: peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerization. However, FKBP12 is dispensible for viability in both yeast and mice, and therefore does not play an essential role in protein folding. The functions of FKBP12 may involve interactions with a number of partner proteins, and a few proteins that interact with FKBP12 in the absence of FK506 or rapamycin have been identified, including the ryanodine receptor, aspartokinase, and the type II TGF-beta receptor; however, none of these are conserved from yeast to humans. To identify other targets and functions of FKBP12, we have screened for mutations that are synthetically lethal with an FKBP12 mutation in yeast. We find that mutations in HMO1, which encodes a high mobility group 1/2 homolog, are synthetically lethal with mutations in the yeast FPR1 gene encoding FKBP12. Deltahmo1 and Deltafpr1 mutants share two phenotypes: an increased rate of plasmid loss and slow growth. In addition, Hmo1p and FKBP12 physically interact in FKBP12 affinity chromatography experiments, and two-hybrid experiments suggest that FKBP12 regulates Hmo1p-Hmo1p or Hmo1p-DNA interactions. Because HMG1/2 proteins are conserved from yeast to humans, our findings suggest that FKBP12-HMG1/2 interactions could represent the first conserved function of FKBP12 other than mediating FK506 and rapamycin actions.  (+info)

Localization and properties of a silencing element near the mat3-M mating-type cassette of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (8/4900)

Transcription is repressed in a segment of Schizosaccharomyces pombe chromosome II that encompasses the mat2-P and mat3-M mating-type cassettes. Chromosomal deletion analysis revealed the presence of a repressor element within 500 bp of mat3-M. This element acted in synergy with the trans-acting factors Swi6, Clr1, Clr2, Clr3, and Clr4 and had several properties characteristic of silencers: it did not display promoter specificity, being able to silence not only the M mating-type genes but also the S. pombe ura4 and ade6 genes placed on the centromere-distal side of the mat3-M cassette; it could repress a gene when placed further than 2.6 kb from the promoter and it acted in both orientations, although with different efficiencies, the natural orientation repressing more stringently than the reverse. Following deletion of this element, two semistable states of expression of the mat3-M region were observed and these two states could interconvert. The deletion did not affect gene expression in the vicinity of the mat2-P cassette, 11 kb away from mat3-M. Conversely, deleting 1.5 kb on the centromere-proximal side of the mat2-P cassette, which was previously shown to partially derepress transcription around mat2-P, had no effect on gene expression near mat3-M. A double deletion removing the mat2-P and mat3-M repressor elements had the same effect as the single deletions on their respective cassettes when assayed in cells of the M mating type. These observations allow us to refine a model proposing that redundant pathways silence the mating type region of S. pombe.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Automated Yeast Transformation Protocol to Engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains for Cellulosic Ethanol Production with Open Reading Frames That Express Proteins Binding to Xylose Isomerase Identified Using a Robotic Two-Hybrid Screen. AU - Hughes, Stephen R.. AU - Rich, Joseph O.. AU - Bischoff, Kenneth M.. AU - Hector, Ronald E.. AU - Qureshi, Nasib. AU - Saha, Badal C.. AU - Dien, Bruce S.. AU - Liu, Siqing. AU - Jackson, John S.. AU - Sterner, David E.. AU - Butt, Tauseef R.. AU - LaBaer, Joshua. AU - Cotta, Michael A.. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - Commercialization of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has focused on engineering the glucose-fermenting industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to use pentose sugars. Because S. cerevisiae naturally metabolizes xylulose, one approach involves introducing xylose isomerase (XI), which catalyzes conversion of xylose to xylulose. In this study, an automated two-hybrid interaction protocol was used to find ...
Plant transformation provides a promising methodology of introducing new genes that encode desirable traits to a wide range of crop plants. Success in genetic transformation has been achieved in many of the important crop species, such as soybean, cotton, rice, corn. However, wheat, one of the major crops of the world, has been considered to be difficult to transform via either Agrobacterium or biolistic bombardment (Rakszegi et al., 2001). There have been limited studies on A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cereals, including wheat, because of the overall refractory character of host-pathogen interactions between Agrobacterium and the cereal plants (Gould et al., 1991; Hiei et al., 1994; Cheng et al., 1997). While the genetic transformation of rice using Agrobacterium has become routine, only a few successful studies of Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of wheat have been reported, and these involved a model spring wheat, Triticum aestivum cultivar Bobwhite (Cheng et al., 1997). ...
Transformation efficiency is the efficiency by which cells can take up extracellular DNA and express genes encoded by it. This is based on the competence of the cells. It can be calculated by dividing the number of successful transformants by the amount of DNA used during a transformation procedure. Transformants are cells that have taken up DNA (foreign, artificial or modified) and which can express genes on the introduced DNA. Transformation efficiency should be determined under conditions of cell excess. The number of viable cells in a preparation for a transformation reaction may range from 2×108 to 1011; most common methods of E. coli preparation yield around 1010 viable cells per reaction. The standard plasmids used for determination of transformation efficiency in Escherichia coli are pBR322 or other similarly-sized or smaller vectors, such as the pUC series of vectors. Different vectors however may be used to determine their transformation efficiency. 10-100 pg of DNA may be used for ...
Frozen-EZ Yeast Transformation II Kit from Zymo Research,The transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as other yeasts, has become a routine procedure in many molecular biology laboratories. The ability to transform whole cells at high efficiencies with plasmid and linear DNAs using lithium based buffers and polyethylene glycol has made routine,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Nuclear transformation occurs when the atoms of one element change to become atoms of another element. This is most commonly seen with...
DNA-mediated transformation provides a powerful tool for both genome analysis and gene manipulation. Advances in transformation procedures of filamentous fungi have played a key role in making these...
Various plant species are typically transformed by one of three methods. Arguably, the simplest and most preferable of these methods is transformation using a species of bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefasciens. Agrobacterium naturally transforms its host plants with DNA that causes tumors or galls to grow on the host. It accomplishes this by altering hormone levels in the host plant. The tumorous growth produces ideal tissue for the bacteria to infect. In order to use Agrobacterium for plant biotechnology, researchers replace the tumor-inducing piece of DNA, or plasmid, with DNA that encodes the genes they want to engineer into the host plant. Depending on the host species, this type of transformation can be very simple or can be quite challenging. A general advantage of this transformation strategy is that it typically leads to only one or a few copies of the engineered DNA being introduced to the plant genome, which helps to ensure stable gene expression (i.e. the engineered genes will usually ...
Track 11 : Genetic Transformation. Genetic Transformation is the genetic alteration of cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane. Transformation is one of three processes for horizontal gene transfer, in which exogenous genetic material passes from bacterium to another, the other two being conjugation transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells in direct contact and Transduction injection of foreign DNA by a bacteriophage virus into the host bacterium. And about 80 species of bacteria were known to be capable of transformation, in 2014, about evenly divided between Gram-positive and Gram-negative Transformation may also be used to describe the insertion of new genetic material into non-bacterial cells, including animal and plant cells.. Related Molecular Biology Conferences ,Genetics Conferences, Gene Therapy Conferences, Biotechnology Conferences. 13th European Pathology Congress, Milan, ...
Artificial competence of Synechococcus PCC 6301 cells was induced by lysozyme treatment and the cells were transformed to chloramphenicol resistance with foreign plasmid pBR325 at a frequency of approximately 5 times 10-5 or 5 times 10-4 with the transformant DNA. The transformation frequencies were higher than those reported by other workers for the same strain with cloned DNA employing a physiological transformation system. Analyses of DNA electrophoresis, secondary transformation and dot blotting demonstrated that foreign plasmid had integrated into the recipient chromosome by a single crossover event. The results showed that the artificial transformation system was efficient and reproducible. Conditions that affected transformation, such as, incubation time of cells with DNA, age of the cells, light or dark incubation were also studied ...
Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized Genome: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/329/5987/52.abstract Automated seamless DNA co-transformation cloning with direct expression vectors applying positive or negative insert selection: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6750/10/56 Reports the use of Seamless Enzyme-Free Cloning (or in their words, Co-transformation cloning to produce a large library. The E.coli strain Mach1 yields most colonies, but a few other strains like DH5alpha and Top10 work also. Co-transformation employs chemically competent cells [7] yielding 107 or more colonies per μg plasmid. Per co-transformation 200 ng of vector plus 50-500 ng of insert were mixed and the competent cells added to the DNA mixture which was less than 10% of the cell volume (50 μL cells). ...
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
Hi John! We are currently using a lithium acetate-DMSO method - grow O/N culture in 2 ml - spin down in a 2 ml-Eppi - remove supernatant, add 0.01 ml carrier DNA (= 0.1 mg) and transforming DNA in minimal volume, vortex briefly - add 0.5 ml PEG (40% 3350, 0.05 ml 10xLiOAc, 0.05 ml 10xTE, H2O ad 0.5 ml) - add 0.051 ml DMSO - shake 15 min RT - shock cells for 15 min at 42C - spin down, wash the pellet with TE, resuspend in TE and plate on selective plates Hope this helps Anne ...
Science Behind Cotton Transformation. By Abdul Qayyum Rao, Muhammad Azam Ali, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan, Kamran Shahzad Bajwa, Adnan Iqbal, Tahir Iqbal, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Idrees Ahmad Nasir and Tayyab Husnain. The introduction of foreign genes into plant has made possible to bring out desired traits into crop of our own interest. With the advancement in cell biology, regeneration of plants from single cell and advent of different procedures for gene transformation to the plants have opened new avenues for the efficient and applicable implementation of biotechnology for the modifications of desired crop characteristics. Identifications and isolation of different genes for various traits from different organisms have made possible to get the crop plants with modified characters. Over time improvement has been made in transformation technology depending upon the crop of interest. The efficiency of plant transformation has been increased with advances in plant transformation vectors and ...
Pamela A. Trail, Ph.D., to transition from Chief Scientific Officer to strategic consultant; Daniel Steiner, Ph.D., to assume leadership of research organizatio
Hello researchers, , ,I am study one gene promoter and fused it to GUS in pCAMBIA1391Z, in which ,CaMV35S drives the selectable marker Hyg gene. Among the 10 independent T3 ,lines, which were confirmed by PCR, some show very strong GUS staining, ,some no, and some weak staining. , ,I knew from this paper that vectors containing 35S promoter driving ,selectable marker gene are not good for promoter study. ,The 35S promoter used in a selectable marker gene of a plant transformation ,vector affects the expression of the transgene. Planta. Volume 221, Number ,4 / June, 2005 , ,But I found that quite many published papers used vectors (like ,pCAMBIA1391, pCAMBIA1301, etc) containing 35S promoter driving selectable ,marker. , ,As the staining patterns of my promoter fusion lines are not consistent at ,al, I want to use another vector pBI121 or pCGN1547. Does anyone know where ,to get pCGN1547? ,How do you deal with those lines from 35S containing vector? CAMBIA ,suggests doing co-transformation ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash - Genetic transformation of Blackgram for abiotic stress tolerance. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 3846511846
HMS174(DE3) Competent Cells - Novagen HMS174 strains provide high transformation efficiencies and the recA mutation in a K-12 background. Strain may stabilize certain target genes whose products may cause the loss of the DE3 prophage. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
The transformation efficiency (TE) for the 96-well plate format NEB 5-alpha Competent |em|E.coli|/em| (NEB #C2987P) is as high as the two other formats, NEB #C2987H and NEB #C2987I.
As vaccines roll out across the world and cities and countries begin to lift restrictions and open up, it may seem like the world is ready to move on. However, the healthcare industry in particular will continue to face new challenges and unexpected, long-lasting impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic that will take time and innovation to recover from. In order to bounce back from such an unprecedented event, the medical industry is going to need to find ways to improve efficiency without cutting corners or lowering standards. Digital transformation technology offers a lot of opportunities for just that. By enabling automation of mundane and repetitive tasks, centralizing communication, and making information more readily accessible across vast distances, digital technology is revolutionizing the way business is done, and may hold the key to getting the healthcare industry back on track post-pandemic.. A full-scale digital transformation can be a massive undertaking, so it often helps to break it ...
An image processing method is provided for reducing noise in a sampled image, particularly for reducing noise in an image divided into blocks of sampled image elements that are transformed by a linear procedure, such as the Walsh-Hadamard transform, and improved regarding visible noise by non-linear thresholding of the transform coefficients. By operating the process in a hierarchy of stages, each stage employing a block operating on image signals derived from a preceding stage, and by overlapping the blocks processed in each stage, the processed signal from each image element is the linear combination of many transform coefficients from each stage and from each overlapped block within each stage. Such a large number of contributions making up each processed image element assures that the processed image is generated without a characteristic block-like structure due to block transform processing while the wanted components of the image are rendered with minimal image loss or distortion.
is provided, focused on the role played by the different components of the virulence system. The general assessments for the establishment of efficient transformation protocols are discussed with an emphasis in the application of this methodology to monocotyledonous plants. Based on our own experience, we present the establishment of sugarcane transformation by A. tumefaciens as a model of application of this methodology to an important culture plant species, previously considered recalcitrant and inaccessible for this type of genetic manipulation ...
Fluorescent Protein Transformation Student Background Genetic transformation occurs when a cell takes up (i.e. takes inside) and expresses a new piece of genetic material DNA. Genetic transformation literally
The expression of these genes is regulated by an insertion sequences. This could be due to a random mutation and would not affect the overall effectiveness of the antibiotic. In Salmonella there are two genes which code for two antigenically different flagellar antigens. In the recipient a generalized recombination event can occur which substitutes the donor DNA and recipient DNA (See Figure 2). Others are interested in creating genetically modified cells to further scientific understanding of genetics, or for new fields of medical treatments. Transduction. Transformation - you absorb DNA from around you and transform (could be ⠦ The ability of a phage to mediated transduction is related to the life cycle of the phage. β-lactamase, b) Alteration of target site - e.g. Transduction is the transfer of genetic information from a donor to a recipient by way of a bacteriophage. Conjugation occurs between two living cells, involves cell to cell contact, and requires mobilization of either a ...
This was surprising, as Id expected that the low transformation frequencies of such partially-induced cultures would be because the cells were all only a little bit competent. We see this max-or-nothing pattern in not only in wild-type cells under poorly-inducing conditions, but also in low-competence mutants under fully inducing conditions and in hypercompetent mutants under what are otherwise non-inducing conditions. Ive had this puzzling result hanging around in the back of my brain for about 15 years ...
Since 1976, CGI has helped more than 2,000 government clients in 15 countries improve citizen service and operational efficiency through successful transformation programs.
The B73 inbred line is the source of our community reference genome. However, B73 cannot be transformed, making it difficult to make use genomic data for genetics studies that involve transformation. Our motivation was to identify an inbred line similar to B73 for plant transformation. Both B73 and B104 are derived from the Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic lines. Unlike B73, B104 is readily transformed. The ISU Plant Transformation Facility now offers transformation services for the B104 inbred line. They share about 93% similarity as calculated using TIPSimSelector at MaizeGDB, a tool that assess genetics similarity based on methods described in Romay et al., ...
Edvotek Series 200 Experiments. For 10 Transformations and controls. Time Required: Transformation -- 45 min.; Plating -- 5 min.; Incubation -- overnight; Transformation Efficiency …
Edvotek Series 200 Experiments. For 10 transformations and controls. Time required: Transformation 45 min., Plating 5 min., Incubation overnight, Transformation efficiency 15 min. …
Yesterdays transformed competent cells of the 014C, 020C, 405C, 327C and 304C ligation mixes (using the BioBrick assembly method) yielded only red colonies, indicating the lack of positive colonies. It is interesting to note the presence of numerous red colonies on the digest control plate, whereas the ligation control plate (Digested pSB1C3 + ligase buffer + ligase) yielded but 1 red colony (at similar trasnsformation mix concentrations). Based on the information gathered thus far a few hypotheses were made: Hypothesis I: The ligase buffer inhibits transformation efficiency in some way. Hypothesis II: The ligation time of 20 mins was too short. In order to test hypothesis I, the following mixes will be transformed into commercial competent cells: ...
talk , contribs) (Created page with In prokaryotes, a cell that has been genetically altered through the uptake of foreign DNA. In higher eukaryotes, a cultured cell that has acquired a malignant phenotype.) ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation. AU - Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for achieving genetic transformation of fungi has steadily increased over the last decade, and has proven to be almost universally applicable technique once suitable selection markers have been developed. In recent years the major technical advances has been made within the initial steps of the process, more specifically the efficient construction of plasmids for performing targeted genome modifications. This chapter provides a generic protocol for performing genetic transformation of ascomycetes via A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) and guidelines for optimizing the AMT process with new fungal species. The chapter also includes a highly efficient vector construction system based on Uracil Specific Excisions Reagent (USER) cloning and specific PCR generated building blocks, which can be combined ...
6.Thaw frozen competent cells on ice. Effect of DNA incubation time on NEB Express competent E. coli transformation efficiency: 50 μl of competent cells were transformed with 100 pg of pUC19 control DNA following the provided High Efficiency Transformation Protocol except DNA incubation time varied from 0 to 40 minutes. Heat shock at exactly 42°C for exactly 30 seconds. Return to Protocols End Chemically Competent Cell Production ∅∅∅∅∅ ∅∅∅∅∅ Chemical Transformation modified from NEB transformation protocol. modification of the reported protocols used for preparation of chemical competent cells of Agrobacterium (McCormac et al., 1998) and E. coli (Green and Rogers 2013), and the freeze-thaw method for the genetic transformation of A. tumefaciens (Höfgen and Willmitzer,1988). a. Protocols BH3 Project. version 1.0 Updated:1/21/2013 Store competent cells at -80°C only! Bacterial transformation, as mentioned above, means the uptake of DNA molecules through the cell wall from ...
Uncorrected OCR) Abstract of thesis entitled PRODUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANT-DERIVED VACCINES VIA PLASTID TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Submitted by Lee Yuk Ting for the degree of Master of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong in July 2004 With the advent of genetic engineering in higher plants, the need for very large quantities of therapeutic protein at low cost, and the desire to have heat-stable edible vaccines directed at human and animal diseases, transgenic plant-derived vaccines offer a new strategy for the development of safe, inexpensive vaccines against infectious diseases. The first success of plastid transformation in tobacco in 1990 has opened up the opportunities for genetically modifying plastids in higher plants for high level expression of biopharmaceuticals, such as antibodies and vaccines for oral administration. Since each plant cell contains up to 10,000 copies of identical plastid genome, plastid engineering should result in very high levels of transgene expression. In ...
A series of vectors has been constructed for the purpose of introducing cloned DNAs into plant genomes, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation methods. One of these vectors, pCIT20, is a plasmid that contains a multiple cloning site (MCS), and a marker (Hph) that confers hygromycin resistance to plant cells. The others are all cosmid vectors which allow insertion of up to 46 kb of plant genomic DNA, and which also contain all of the necessary sequences for A. tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. The cosmid vectors either contain a Hph marker (pCIT03), or a kanamycin-resistance marker (pCIT101-104). Three of the cosmid vectors (pCIT30, pCIT101, and pCIT103) carry bacteriophage T7 and SP6 promoters flanking the cloning Bg/II site, for synthesis of end-specific RNAs. The end-specific RNAs may be used as probes when labeled with radioactive or biotinylated nucleotides, for example, in a chromosome-walking experiment. The other two cosmid vectors (pCIT102 and pCIT104) carry ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Co‐transformation of Lec1 CHO cells with N‐acetylgucosaminyltransferase 1 activity and a selectable marker. AU - Ripka, James. AU - Pierce, Michael. AU - Fregien, Nevis. PY - 1990/3. Y1 - 1990/3. N2 - In animal cells, the enzyme α(1,3)-mannoside-β(1,2)-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GlcNAc-TI, EC.2.4.1.101) catalyzes the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to the ASN-linked Man GlcNAc oligosaccharide. The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) mutant cell line Lec1 is deficient in this enzyme activity and, therefore, accumulates mannose-terminating cell surface ASN-linked oligosaccharides. Consequently, Lec1 cells are sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of the mannose-binding lectin Concanavalin A (Con A). Lec1 cells were co-transformed with human DNA form A431 cells and eukaryotic expression plasmids containing the bacterial neo gene by calcium phosphate/DNA-mediated transformation. Co-transformants were selected for resistance to Con A and G-418. DNA from a primary co-transformant ...
The use of traditional breeding for improvement of avocado cultivars is time consuming, hence other methods such as genetic transformation by Agrobacterium is indispensable to adopt. The strain GV3850/pBI121gave best transformation outcome compared to five other binary vectors (AGL1/pCGP904; AGL1/pBI121; GV3850/pCGP904; LBA4404/pCG-P904 and LBA4404/pBI121) under different pH and acetosyringone concentrations. The optimal condition for reliable transformation was by using 200 μM acetosyringone and a pH of 5.2. Transformed embryonic shoots co-cultivated with GV3850/pBI121 were tested using the histochemical x-gluc assay. Further analysis was conducted by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for the reporter gene (GUS).
Plastid transformation technology has been well established and widely utilized in plant transgenic research. In comparison with conventional nuclear gene transformation techniques, plastid engineering offers several potential advantages such as (i) more than 10-100 times greater expression levels than the conventional nuclear transformation system, (ii) a more convenient methodology for transferring multiple genes into plants via gene stacking methods, (iii) elimination of position effects in chloroplasts, which thereby reduces the chances for transgene silencing, (iv) minimal chance for transgene flow by pollen contamination due to maternal inheritance (Verma and Daniell, 2007).. One of the key aspects for the plastid transformation system is to employ a plastidic sequence to exchange exogenous genes into the chloroplast genome via homologous recombination. The usage of genetic markers, which enable the selective enrichment of ptDNA copies, is also a critical component for plastid ...
Bacterial transformation studies have shown that - Biology - Lab 4 (the Bacterial Transformation Lab). Bowtrol Probiotic improve gastrointestinal function & intestinal good bacterial microbial balance.
Researchers at UC Davis have produced a non-dormant alfalfa line highly amenable to transformation, allowing direct improvement of the line. Higher transformation efficiency and a non-dormant life-cycle make this line of alfalfa a valuable tool for research and breeding.
Although the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency was only a fraction of 1%, it was possible to exploit the transposition frequency of a single T0 line to initiate the development of a functional resource for activation tagging in tomato. The practice of using micropropagation to produce many clonal plants from a single tissue culture regenerant proved valuable, as it multiplied T1 seed production by up to 25 times. This strategy also capitalized on the behavior of transposase in Ac/Ds-ATag-Bar_gosGFP by isolating chimeric tissue from the original transformant into separate plantlets, allowing germinal transposition from multiple sites of Ds integration. The selection of a self-fertile, true breeding tomato cultivar allowed crossing to nontransgenic cv M82, thus maximizing T1 seed production. Pollen could be collected from transgenic flowers and distributed to multiple nontransgenic plants, all while still obtaining transgenic self-progeny.. Modifications made to the ...
Citation: Malnoy, M., Boresjza-Wysocka, E., Norelli, J.L., Flaishman, M., Gidoni, D., Aldwinckle, H.S. 2010. Genetic transformation of apple (Malus x domestica) without use of a selectable marker gene. Tree Genetics and Genomes. 6:423-433. Interpretive Summary: Antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes are widely used as selectable markers to facilitate the efficient transformation of crop plants. Due to the negative public connotations associated with the use of selectable markers, a completely marker-free transformation technology would be desirable for the commercialization of genetically transformed plants. With this goal in mind, a technique was developed to genetically transform apple without the use of selectable marker genes. The technique takes advantage of the apples capacity for high efficiency transformation and allows for the generation of marker-free transgenic plants without the need for repeated transformation or sexual crossing. When two different marker-gene free vectors ...
A forward genetics approach was applied in order to investigate the molecular basis of morphological transition in the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici is a dimorphic plant pathogen displaying environmentally regulated morphogenetic transition between yeast-like and hyphal growth. Considering the infection mode of Z. tritici, the switching to hyphal growth is essential for pathogenicity allowing the fungus the host invasion through natural openings like stomata. We exploited a previously developed Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to generate a mutant library by insertional mutagenesis including more than 10,000 random mutants. To identify genes involved in dimorphic switch, a plate-based screening system was established. With this approach eleven dimorphic switch deficient random mutants were recovered, ten of which exhibited a yeast-like mode of growth and one mutant predominantly growing filamentously, producing high amount of mycelium under different
The plasmid vector pGreenII, which is widely used in the production of stable plant transformants, is shown herein to predispose constructs to the acquisition of mutations (Figure 1) despite its earlier revision (Hellens and Mullineaux 2000). This predisposition arises from pGreenII having an adverse effect on the growth of E. coli. It perturbs normal cell division resulting in the production of long filaments (Figure 1), a phenomenon associated with stressed cells (Justice et al. 2008), and causes a dramatic reduction in cell viability following overnight incubation (Table 1). This is far from ideal as the insertion of DNA into plasmids can itself affect the growth of E. coli through increased metabolic burden and the acquisition of activities that perturb cellular functions (Bentley et al. 2009; Rosano and Ceccarelli 2014). In our case, the insertion of a 4605 bp fragment containing the cDNA of the plant DNA methyltransferase 1 (MET1) into pGreenII generated sufficient selective pressure for ...
A method for the integration of linear DNA into the Dictyostelium genome is described. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration, or REMI, involves the transformation of cells with a mixture of plasmid DNA, linearized with a restriction enzyme, along with a restriction enzyme that is capable of genera …
With the help of sepiolite, a unique method for transforming DNA into bacteria, based on the Yoshida effect, has been developed recently. However, we confronted many problems when this newest method was tried. Only a few transformants could be obtained even when 100 ng of plasmid pET15b was used, and a successful result seemed difficult to repeat. To address this problem, we optimized the operating method and could achieve about 15,000 transformants using the same amount of plasmid, which could match the efficiency gained using the calcium chloride transformation method. Meanwhile, the results could also be reproduced well. In the same way, carbon nanotubes were used to attain more than 15,000 transformants in the same situation. Therefore, the transformation method could be extended to other nanomaterials. Meanwhile, compared with the mechanism previously reported, we verified quite a different principle for the mechanism responsible for such a transformation. In sum, this unique transformation can be
uncut plasmid dna vs linearized plasmid gel - posted in Molecular Cloning: Hello, I am going to run a gel comparing my uncut plasmid dna vs linearized plasmid. My insert is 135 bps and my vector is 3Kb. What can I expect to see on my gel, and how many bands can I expect to see. I am assuming the uncut plasmid will have several bands at different sizes and the linearized will have only one, is that right ? I am assuming the total size of my product will now be 3135 bps. Pls advise.
We have established an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure for Arabidopsis thaliana genotype C24 using the chimeric bialaphos resistance gene (bar) coding for phosphinothricin ac
Citation: Malnoy, M., Borejsza-Wysocka, E.E., Abbott, P., Lewis, S., Norelli, J.L., Flaishman, M., Gidoni, D., Aldwinckle, H.S. 2007. Genetic transformation of apple without use of a selectable marker. Acta Horticulturae. 738:319-322. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Selectable marker genes are widely used for the efficient transformation of crop plants. In most cases, selection is based on antibiotic or herbicide resistance. These marker genes are preferred because they tend to be most efficient (e.g. in apple up to 80% transformation). Due mainly to consumer and grower concerns, considerable effort is being put into developing a suite of strategies (site-specific recombination, homologous recombination, transposition and co-transformation) to eliminate the marker gene from the nuclear or chloroplast genome after selection. Current efforts concentrate on systems where the marker genes are eliminated efficiently soon after transformation. These methods, however, are laborious and of ...
Poplar is a model system for the regeneration and genetic transformation of woody plants. increased the regeneration rate. The integration of the desired gene into transgenic poplars was detected using selective medium containing kanamycin, followed by southern blot analysis. The expression of the transgene in the transgenic lines was confirmed by northern blot analysis. have focused on a variety of parameters, including different strains and culture densities, various acetosyringone (AS) concentrations and other factors[1,8,9,10,11]. The expression of high-copy number transgenes in transgenic plants buy 1265229-25-1 may be more or less than only a single copy of transgene, and also, sometimes, this is good for molecular analysis and genetic engineering. Furthermore, Husaini [12] reported that strawberry transgenic plants with a high transgene copy number (four copies or more) have become best for molecular evaluation and genetic executive. Moreover, Bartlett [13] reported an improved technique ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Putative mechanism of natural transformation as deduced from genome data. AU - Yura, Kei. AU - Toh, Hiroyuki. AU - Go, Mitiko. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Genetic transformation is widely utilized in molecular biology as a tool for gene cloning in Escherichia coli and for gene mapping in Bacillus subtilis. Several strains of eubacteria can naturally take up exogenous DNA and integrate the DNA into their own genomes. Molecular details of natural transformation, however, remained to be elucidated. The complete genome of a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, has been sequenced. This bacterium has been used to examine functions of a particular gene. The genome is considered to carry information on natural transformable characteristics of Synechocystis. The first step in genetic transformation is the uptake of exogenous DNA. Proteins with non-specific DNA binding features are required, because specificity in the exogenous DNA has not been demonstrated. Such proteins have modules ...
Nyaboga, E., Njiru, J., Nguu, E., Gruissem, W., Vanderschuren, H. & Tripathi, L. (2013). Unlocking the potential of tropical root crop biotechnology in east Africa by establishing a genetic transformation platform for local farmer-preferred cassava cultivars. Frontiers in Plant Science, 4(526), 1-11 ...
The following protocol is designed for NEB 10-beta Competent E. coli (NEB #C3019 ) which are included in the NEB PCR Cloning Kit (NEB #E1202 ) only
What Does Digital Transformation Look Like to Airbus? What Does A Mobile-First Digital Transformation Strategy Look Like? Published on January 11, 2019 January 11, 2019 â ¢ 29 Likes â ¢ 2 Comments Successful digital transformation depends on speed and the ability to navigate between strategy development, planning, testing and learning with ease and crucially, without too many meetings. Without that â air coverâ from the board and from shareholders who understand the change that youâ re taking the organization through, it is very, very hard to do it successfully. Digital transformation frameworks are what separate successful transformation efforts from the unsuccessful. Shares (Image credit: Shutterstock) The digital transformation journey involves more than just launching an app orâ ¦ A comprehensive digital transformation roadmap is the key to driving change in a coordinated and effective way â whether you are a small company or a multi-national enterprise. No insurance company has ...
Genomic DNA isolation Creative Genomics has extensive experience on genomic DNA isolation. Serve for SNP genotyping and genome sequencing, genomic DNA was extracted from different species including human, plants and microbes. A wide range of starting material can be accepted which contains blood, buccal swaps, FTA paper etc. Plating and plasmid DNA extraction. High quality plasmid DNA is the basis for many molecular biology applications. Creative Genomics offers cost-effective, high-throughput DNA extraction from plasmid, BAC, and fosmid samples. Isolation procedures are performed using commercially available alkaline lysis kits on Apricot personal pipettor. To save researchers time, we can start from the ligation products and perform the following Transformation by Electroporation and plating. Samples will be returned with a detailed yield report ready for downstream applications. Ordering Information:. ...
This study is based on the overexpression of endogenous diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 (NeoDGAT2) in N. oleoabundans to improve triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation for potential biodiesel production. The important prerequisites for NeoDGAT2 overexpression in N. oleoabundans are the availabilities of: (i) the stable nuclear transformation system [25], (ii) the NeoDGAT2 cDNA encoding a functional DGAT protein. NeoDGAT2 fused with His tag at the C-terminus for facilitating Western blot analysis has been shown to reduce the NeoDGAT2 activity [11]. NeoDGAT2 without tag was therefore used in this study, and (iii) the functional promoter that can drive the expression of the NeoDGAT2. Because no data concerning N. oleoabundans endogenous promoter are available, promoters AR and β2-Tub from C. reinhardtii [28, 29] that have been shown to function in N. oleoabundans with similar activity [25] were utilized in this study. Among the transformants, AR-DGAT2-40 showed the highest neutral lipid content ...
Transformation Protocol. BY-2 (NT1) Cell Transformation with Agrobactrium. Day 1: 1. Grow up 1 ml of the Agrobacterium overnight in LB + all selective drugs. This culture may be started from frozen glycerol cultures if necessary. Day 2: 2. NT cells are used 3 days after splitting the NT cell culture. 4 ml of NT cells are required for each transformation with an additional 4 ml for the control culture which receives no bacteria. 3. 1 ul Acetosyringone (20 mM in ethanol) is added per ml of NT cells. Typically treat the whole 50 ml culture at this point and discard any that is left over when Im finished. 4. Using a 10 ml pipette, the NT cells are pipetted in and out about 20 times. This helps to induce small lesions in the cells and increases the efficiency of the transformation. 5. 75 ul of bacteria (dense growth) or 100 ul (moderate growth) are added to a petri dish containing 4 ml of NT cells (from step 4) and mixed thoroughly. REMEMBER TO INCLUDE A CONTROL HAVING NO BACTERIA. 6. Wrap plates ...
Gene transfer to plants was first achieved more than twenty years ago. Since then, plant transformation technology has developed rapidly and in the last few years the benefits of this research have become apparent in the commercial production of engineered plants that are resistant to pests and diseases, plants with enhanced or modified traits and plants that are used as factories to produce valuable molecules. As with any expanding technology, it becomes difficult to find a concise and comprehensive source of information that explains all the underlying principles and brings together disparate techniques ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the preferred method for transformation of a wide range of plant species. Commonly, the genes to be transferred are cloned between the left and right T-DNA borders of so-called binary T-DNA vectors that can replicate both in E. coli and Agrobacterium. Because these vecto …
This protocol is a variant of the Hanahan protocol [1] using CCMB80 buffer for DH10B, TOP10 and MachI strains. It builds on Example 2 of the Bloom05 patent as well. This protocol has been tested on TOP10, MachI and BL21(DE3) cells. See Bacterial Transformation for a more general discussion of other techniques. The Jesse 464 patent describes using this buffer for DH5α cells. The Bloom04 patent describes the use of essentially the same protocol for the Invitrogen Mach 1 cells. This is the chemical transformation protocol used by Tom Knight and the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. ...
The aim of this work was to develop a method to evaluate the kinetics of bainite transformation by theoretical deduction and thermal dilatation curve analysis. A Gleeble-3500 thermomechanical simulator and dilatometer (DIL805A) were employed to study the isothermal transformation in deformed (360 ∘ C , 600 ∘ C , and 860 ∘ C ) and undeformed conditions. The thermal dilatation information during isothermal transformation was recorded, and the dilatation curves were well smoothed. By taking a derivative of the dilation curve with respect to the transformation time, the peak time of transformation rate (PTTR) was obtained, which can serve as the essence of isothermal transformation time. The relative change of length ( Δ L / L ) due to phase transformation was theoretically deduced, and the effect of temperature was taken into consideration. Combing experimental data, the volume fraction of bainite in isothermal transformation was calculated. Making a graph of
This report presents studies on the growth conditions necessary for transformation to prototrophy of 14 auxotrophs of B. licheniformis. The unexpected finding of different growth requirements by each auxotroph for the development of transformable cells is discussed. Under optimum growth conditions for a serine-deficient mutant, transformation frequencies of 0.1% were obtained. A defined medium for tube transformation of competent cells is described. In addition, this report presents evidence for the transformation of three non-encapsulated mutants of B. licheniformis for the ability to synthesize polyglutamic acid (capsular material).
The state of Penang is an example of successful transformation in Asia based on strengthening the rule of law. Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is an important vehicle for the education that can underpin this process by expanding the freedoms that people can enjoy. Using technology can not only cut costs but also enhance the…
Our own rapid and highly successful transformation from a product company to a leading cloud services provider powered by the complete suite of Oracle Cloud services demonstrates that the Oracle Cloud is the only platform available to reimagine your possibilities and leapfrog others.
Hilal Deri, within the scope of its strategy in 2021, took care to balance its profitability level with its market share.. The company considers the development and transformation it deems necessary among its priorities in order to increase the service quality and strengthen its business processes in the rapidly growing sector globally.. The digital transformation studies carried out in coordination with the aim of transitioning to an agile and analytical organizational structure, aims to reach a structure that uses data-based analytics, quickly detects and adapts changes, and develops and implements digital business models by disseminating machine learning under the umbrella of Hilal Deri.. In the upcoming period, it will move forward in line with the goal of strengthening cost management in line with its vision and mission, implementing digital transformation in all possible business processes, creating fan customers and being an efficient and sustainable company for all our employees, ...
Existing methods for cloning and recombination of DNA enable construction of arbitrary sequences. However, the sequential nature of these techniques makes them time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, while the transformation of an existing plasmid into a host strain can be reliable when a selection marker is used, there are many current limitations: the number of different plasmids that can be co-transformed is limited by the choice of markers and compatible origins of replication; plasmids are less stable than chromosomal DNA and are difficult to maintain indefinitely without mutation; and cistronic interactions cannot be designed since each new nucleotide sequence added is on an unconnected DNA molecule. To overcome these limitations, we are designing reconfigurable chromosomes consisting of both fixed and variable regions. While the fixed region is carefully optimized and tuned ahead of time, the variable region can be modified in the field, at the point-of-use, leading to rapid and ...
Existing methods for cloning and recombination of DNA enable construction of arbitrary sequences. However, the sequential nature of these techniques makes them time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, while the transformation of an existing plasmid into a host strain can be reliable when a selection marker is used, there are many current limitations: the number of different plasmids that can be co-transformed is limited by the choice of markers and compatible origins of replication; plasmids are less stable than chromosomal DNA and are difficult to maintain indefinitely without mutation; and cistronic interactions cannot be designed since each new nucleotide sequence added is on an unconnected DNA molecule. To overcome these limitations, we are designing reconfigurable chromosomes consisting of both fixed and variable regions. While the fixed region is carefully optimized and tuned ahead of time, the variable region can be modified in the field, at the point-of-use, leading to rapid and ...
Genetic transformation[edit]. Genetic transformation is the process by which a recipient bacterial cell takes up DNA from a ... an important benefit of genetic transformation to N. meningitidis may be the maintenance of the recombination and repair ... In N. meningitidis, DNA transformation requires the presence of short DNA sequences (9-10 mers residing in coding regions) of ... This is consistent with the more general idea that transformation benefits bacterial pathogens by facilitating repair of DNA ...
Gietz, R. D.; Woods, R. A. (2001-04-01). "Genetic transformation of yeast". BioTechniques. 30 (4): 816-820, 822-826, 828 passim ... "The Effect of Spheroplast Formation on the Transformation Efficiency in Escherichia coli DH5α". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2017-05 ...
"Genetic transformation of HeLa cells by Agrobacterium". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... "Genetic Engineering of Plants" (PDF). Biotechnology. 3. Retrieved 17 July 2016.. *^ Leuzinger K, Dent M, Hurtado J, Stahnke J, ... Genetic Engineering for Nitrogen Fixation. Basic Life Sciences. 9. pp. 159-79. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-0880-5_12. ISBN 978-1- ... Transformation with Agrobacterium can be achieved in multiple ways. Protoplasts or alternatively leaf-discs can be incubated ...
Johnsbor, O.; Eldholm, V.; Håvarstein, L.S. (December 2007). "Natural genetic transformation: prevalence, mechanisms and ... transformation and transduction, even between widely divergent species.[38] This horizontal gene transfer, coupled with a high ... species can transfer DNA between individual cells by a horizontal gene transfer process referred to as natural transformation.[ ... mutation rate and other means of transformation, allows microorganisms to swiftly evolve (via natural selection) to survive in ...
Gene transfer systems that have been extensively studied in bacteria include genetic transformation, conjugation and ... Johnsborg O, Eldholm V, Håvarstein LS (2007). "Natural genetic transformation: prevalence, mechanisms and function". Research ... that the genetic code is a triplet code,[40] and that gene expression is regulated by specific genetic processes.[41] Jacques ... Gene transfer and genetic exchange have been studied in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium volcanii and the ...
... provision of source tissue for genetic transformation; generation of whole plants from single cells called protoplasts; ... "Genetic Regulation of Embryonic Pattern Formation". The Plant Cell. 6: 190-202 - via Google Scholar.. ...
Johnsborg O, Eldholm V, Håvarstein LS (December 2007). "Natural genetic transformation: prevalence, mechanisms and function". ... However, all bacteria can evolve by selection on changes to their genetic material DNA caused by genetic recombination or ... Chen I, Dubnau D (March 2004). "DNA uptake during bacterial transformation". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 2 (3): 241-49. doi: ... First, bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from their environment, in a process called transformation.[120] Many bacteria can ...
Johnsborg O; Eldholm V; Håvarstein LS (December 2007). "Natural genetic transformation: prevalence, mechanisms and function". ... For example, every living cell makes use of nucleic acids as its genetic material, and uses the same twenty amino acids as the ... Chen I; Dubnau D (March 2004). "DNA uptake during bacterial transformation". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2 (3): 241-249. doi:10.1038/ ... Natural bacterial transformation is considered to be a primitive sexual process and occurs in both bacteria and archaea, ...
Genetic transformation techniques have been available since 1987.. *Its complete genome was sequenced and first published in ... History of use in genetic analysis[edit]. Alfred Sturtevant's Drosophila melanogaster genetic linkage map: This was the first ... Genetic markers[edit]. Genetic markers are commonly used in Drosophila research, for example within balancer chromosomes or P- ... Classic genetic mutations[edit]. Drosophila genes are traditionally named after the phenotype they cause when mutated. For ...
Rubin GM, Spradling AC (October 1982). "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 ( ... Use of transposable elements can be split into two categories: as a genetic tool and for genetic engineering. ... Genetic tool[edit]. *Used for analysis of gene expression and protein functioning in signature-tagging mutagenesis. *This ... Genetic engineering[edit]. *Used in insertional mutagenesis *Insertional mutagenesis uses the features of a TE to insert a ...
Rubin GM, Spradling AC (October 1982). "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 ( ... Main article: Transposons as a genetic tool. The first TE was discovered in maize (Zea mays) and is named dissociator (Ds). ... It has been shown that TEs are important in genome function and evolution.[2] In Oxytricha, which has a unique genetic system, ... TEs are mutagens and their movements are often the causes of genetic disease. They can damage the genome of their host cell in ...
Genetic information can vary up to 10% between strains.[15] Transformation[edit]. Natural bacterial transformation involves the ... Transformation is a complex developmental process requiring energy and is dependent on expression of numerous genes. In S. ... S. pneumoniae played a central role in demonstrating that genetic material consists of DNA. In 1928, Frederick Griffith ... On the basis of these findings, they suggested that transformation is an adaptation for repairing oxidative DNA damages. S. ...
Natural genetic transformationEdit. Natural genetic transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another ... Transformation is a complex process dependent on expression of numerous genes. To be capable of transformation a bacterium must ... S. pneumoniae, S. mitis and S. oralis can become competent, and as a result actively acquire homologous DNA for transformation ... "Addiction of Hypertransformable Pneumococcal Isolates to Natural Transformation for In Vivo Fitness and Virulence". Infect. ...
Natural genetic transformation is a sexual process involving DNA transfer from one bacterial cell to another through the ... Although only a few studies have been reported on natural genetic transformation in the Alphaproteobacteria, this process has ... O'Connor M, Wopat A, Hanson RS (1977). "Genetic transformation in Methylobacterium organophilum". J. Gen. Microbiol. 98 (1): ... Demanèche S, Kay E, Gourbière F, Simonet P (2001). "Natural transformation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium ...
Natural genetic transformation is a sexual process involving DNA transfer from one bacterial cell to another through the ... Natural genetic transformation has been reported in at least three Rhizobiales species: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, ... O'Connor M, Wopat A, Hanson RS (1977). "Genetic transformation in Methylobacterium organophilum". J. Gen. Microbiol. 98 (1): ... Other important genera are the human pathogens Bartonella and Brucella, as well as Agrobacterium (useful in genetic engineering ...
Natural genetic transformation in bacteria is a process involving transfer of DNA from one cell to another through the ... Methylobacterium organophilum cells are able to undergo genetic transformation and become competent for DNA uptake near the end ... O'Connor M, Wopat A, Hanson RS (1977). "Genetic transformation in Methylobacterium organophilum". J. Gen. Microbiol. 98 (1): ...
"Bacterial gene transfer by natural genetic transformation in the environment". Microbiological Reviews. 58 (3): 563-602. doi: ... Genetic engineering. Further information: Molecular biology, Nucleic acid methods, and Genetic engineering ... known collectively as the genetic code. The genetic code consists of three-letter 'words' called codons formed from a sequence ... listen);[1] DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic ...
... carrying genetic information through the cell walls and membranes of cells to impart genetic transformation. As previously ... Nanotechnology has played a pivotal role in the field of genetic engineering and plant transformations, making it a desirable ... Overall, nanotechnology provides a novel and competitive approach to genetic transformation of plants. Going forward, future ... All in all, these diffusion based gene transformation methodologies offer a cheaper mode of plant gene transformation with ...
This process is also referred to as viral transformation. Contents. *1 Causes *1.1 Genetic and epigenetic ... Genetic and epigenetic[edit]. There is a diverse classification scheme for the various genomic changes that may contribute to ... Knudson AG (November 2001). "Two genetic hits (more or less) to cancer". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 1 (2): 157-62. doi:10.1038/ ... Often, the multiple genetic changes that result in cancer may take many years to accumulate. During this time, the biological ...
Some genetic material enters the cells and transforms them. This method can be used on plants that are not susceptible to ... This is because transformation has a different meaning in relation to animals, indicating progression to a cancerous state. For ... "Genetic Engineering of Plants" (PDF). Biotechnology. 3. Retrieved 17 July 2016. Leuzinger K, Dent M, Hurtado J, Stahnke J, Lai ... The genes to be introduced into the plant are cloned into a plant transformation vector that contains the T-DNA region of the ...
PCC6803 is capable of natural genetic transformation. For transformation to take place, the recipient bacteria must be in a ... PCC6803 is considered a model organism, yet there exist few synthetic parts that can be used for genetic engineering. As ... All cyanobacteria are lacking the type II system, which has been widely adapted for genetic engineering purposes across many ... PCC6803 can readily take up exogenous DNA, in addition to up taking DNA via electroporation, ultrasonic transformation and ...
The development of micropropagation for the plant is expected after its successful genetic transformation in 1993, this was ... Successful research has been undertaken into micropropagation, by means of genetic transformation, for commercial production to ... Stummer, Belinda E. (1993). "Micropropagation and genetic transformation of 'verticordia grandis'". Thesis (Ph.D.). University ...
Kunik T, Tzfira T, Kapulnik Y, Gafni Y, Dingwall C, Citovsky V (February 2001). "Genetic transformation of HeLa cells by ... Natural genetic transformation in bacteria is a sexual process involving the transfer of DNA from one cell to another through ... The plasmid T-DNA that is transferred to the plant is an ideal vehicle for genetic engineering. This is done by cloning a ... Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, (University of Ghent and Plant Genetic Systems, Belgium) discovered the gene transfer ...
Kaneyoshi, J.; Kobayashi, S. (2000). "Genetic Transformation of Poncirus trifoliata (Trifoliate Orange)". Transgenic Trees. ... Genetic analysis of citrons has shown that they divide into three groups. One cluster consists of wild citrons that originated ... Due to the sterility of many of the genetic hybrids as well as disease- or temperature-sensitivity of some Citrus trees, ... Wang, et al., found that domesticated mandarins fell into two genetic clusters that linked to different branches of the tree of ...
... are capable of natural genetic transformation. Natural genetic transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell ... Orkwiszewski KG, Kaney AR (June 1974). "Genetic transformation of the blue-green bacterium, Anacystis nidulans". Arch Mikrobiol ... For bacterial transformation to take place, the recipient bacteria must be in a state of competence, which may occur in nature ... In chromosomal transformation, homologous transforming DNA can be integrated into the recipient genome by homologous ...
The best-studied "Proteobacteria" with respect to natural genetic transformation are the medically important human pathogens ... Johnsborg O, Eldholm V, Håvarstein LS (2007). "Natural genetic transformation: prevalence, mechanisms and function". Res. ... Natural genetic transformation is a sexual process involving DNA transfer from one bacterial cell to another through the ... Tepidiphilus margaritifer Transformation, a process in which genetic material passes from bacterium to another, has been ...
A transformation protocol has been established and RNAi vectors are available. This makes molecular genetic studies much easier ... "Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) accessions". Journal of Phycology (43 ... 1996). "Molecular and General Genetics Stable nuclear transformation of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum". Molecular and ... "Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) accessions". Journal of Phycology. 43 ...
Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived in sparsely wooded areas and ... shamanistic spiritual transformation processes.[94] ... According to current archaeological and genetic models, there ...
"Philosophical and Ethical Problems of Technicism and Genetic Engineering". Society for Philosophy and Technology. 3.. ... Cohen, Benjamin; Ottinger, Gwen (2011). "Introduction: Environmental Justice and the Transformation of Science and Engineering ... Nikolas Kompridis has also written about the dangers of new technology, such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, synthetic ... "South Asia, the Andamanese, and the Genetic Evidence for an 'Early' Human Dispersal out of Africa" (PDF). American Journal of ...
Ruf, S.; Hermann, M.; Berger, I.; Carrer, H.; Bock, R. (2001). "Stable genetic transformation of tomato plastids and expression ... Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering techniques were developed in the late 1980s that could successfully transfer genetic ... A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. ... Tomato as a model system: I. Genetic and physical mapping of jointless". MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 242 (6). doi:10.1007 ...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ... and lymphocyte transformation tests.[115] ... and show a great deal of genetic diversity. ... this is more common after infection by certain Borrelia strains in people with certain genetic and immunologic characteristics. ...
... genetic factors; immunodeficiencies; loss of habitat; changing beekeeping practices; or a combination of factors.[218][219] ... "Land transformation by humans: A review". GSA Today. 22 (12): 4-10. doi:10.1130/GSAT151A.1. S2CID 120172847 ...
Following the reunification of Vietnam, the Hoa bore the brunt of socialist transformation in the South. The control and ... "Extensive ethnolinguistic diversity in Vietnam reflects multiple sources of genetic diversity". Molecular Biology and ...
It goes far beyond learning mundane tasks through rote imitation; it is central to children's gradual transformation into ... delineating the difference between cultural and genetic acquisition.[43] Strong evidence already exists for mate choice, bird ... this is known as visuomotor transformation.[55] Mirror neuron networks provide a mechanism for visuo-motor and motor-visual ... the cortical mechanisms of visuomotor transformation". Trends in Neurosciences. 18 (7): 314-320. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(95)93921 ...
Wolff, Julius (1893). "Review: Das Gesetz Der Transformation Der Knochen (the Law of the Transformation of Bones)". The British ... aDNA analysis of past populations is used by archaeology to genetically determine the sex of individuals, determine genetic ...
Detailed genetic and physiological studies on these foxes have been done by Trut and colleagues. For example, the "star-shaped ... In 1981 she earned a Doctor of Sciences Ph.D.; her Thesis was titled: "The role of behavior in the transformation of silver ... "A marker set for construction of a genetic map of the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes)". Journal of Heredity. 95: 185-194.. ...
Gene transfer and genetic exchangeEdit. Halobacterium volcanii, an extreme halophilic archaeon, forms cytoplasmic bridges ... This response may be a primitive form of sexual interaction similar to the more well-studied bacterial transformation systems ... Current knowledge on genetic diversity is fragmentary and the total number of archaeal species cannot be estimated with any ... Aside from the similarities in cell structure and function that are discussed below, many genetic trees group the two. ...
Hyrum S. Lewis (2007). Sacralizing the Right: William F. Buckley Jr., Whittaker Chambers, Will Herberg and the Transformation ... three respected scholars provide an in-depth psychological explanation of how a person's genetic makeup predisposes them to be ... Messengers of the Right: Conservative Media and the Transformation of American Politics (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2016). xvi, ... Black, Merle (2004). "The Transformation of the Southern Democratic Party". The Journal of Politics. 66 (4): 1001-1017. doi: ...
Lovejoy, Paul E. Transformations in Slavery. Cambridge University Press, 2000. *^ Nguyen, Elizabeth, "Origins of Black History ... Essentially most of the black population was absorbed into the multi-racial category by intermixing.[161] A 2007 genetic study ... Recent surveys of African Americans using a genetic testing service have found varied ancestries which show different ... "Essentially Yours: The Protection of Human Genetic Information in Australia (ALRC Report 96), Chapter 36 Kinship and Identity: ...
Robinson, M. (2005), "Predatory Bureaucracy: The Extermination of Wolves and the Transformation of the West", University Press ... a few coyote genetic markers have been found in the historical samples of some isolated individual Mexican wolves. Likewise, ... there may have been exceptional genetic exchanges with the Texan coyotes among a few individual gray wolves from historical ... as indicated by its southern range and basal physical and genetic characteristics.[4] ...
The Social Transformation of American Medicine: The Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry (1982) ... The indigenous people lacked genetic resistance to such new infections, and suffered overwhelming mortality when exposed to ... Madness, Malingering, and Malfeasance: The Transformation of Psychiatry and the Law in the Civil War Era. (2003). ... Starr, Paul, The Social Transformation of American Medicine, Basic Books, 1982. ISBN 0-465-07934-2 ...
In 2012, a team of scientists from Johns Hopkins University published the first genetic compression algorithm that does not ... In the wavelet transformation, the probabilities are also passed through the hierarchy. ... Genetics compression algorithms (not to be confused with genetic algorithms) are the latest generation of lossless algorithms ... using both conventional compression algorithms and specific algorithms adapted to genetic data. ...
The dimethylallyl group in 7 then undergoes cyclization with the phenol group to give 8. This transformation is catalysed by a ... Hall JD, Scherer K (1981). "Repair of psoralen-treated DNA by genetic recombination in human cells infected with herpes simplex ... mechanism and genetic control". J. Mol. Biol. 103 (1): 39-59. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(76)90051-6. PMID 785009.. ... effects of mutations influencing genetic recombination and DNA metabolism". J. Bacteriol. 136 (2): 538-47. doi:10.1128/JB.136.2 ...
Wilson M (March 1993). "DSM-III and the transformation of American psychiatry: a history". American Journal of Psychiatry 150 ( ... 4.0 4.1 Joseph, J. (2003). The Gene Illusion: Genetic Research in Psychiatry and Psychology under the Microscope. PCCS Books. ... This may be both the result of stressful events because of the family member and possibly a genetic effect.[18] ...
In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... the publication of Claude Bernard's posthumous essay regarding the nature of the agents implicated in some transformations that ... because it was necessary to act on a large number of generations to change the genetic foundation of a species, nevertheless ...
title = Federalism and: perspectives for the transformation process in Eastern and Central Europe Volume 2 of George C. ... and genetic and biological factors (e.g. [[Thrifty gene hypothesis,thrifty genotype hypothesis]], [[thrifty phenotype]]) ,ref, ...
Inductions of transformation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from pneumococcus type III". The Journal of ... Jacob F; Monod J (June 1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". J Mol Biol. 3 (3): 318-56. doi: ... Reprint: Avery, OT; MacLeod, CM; McCarty, M (1979). "Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of ... Andrews, Christine A. (2010). "Natural Selection, Genetic Drift, and Gene Flow Do Not Act in Isolation in Natural Populations ...
"Procedure for the transformation of vegetable oils for their uses as fuels" (fr. "Procédé de Transformation d'Huiles Végétales ... "Biology and genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L.: A review". Applied Energy. 87 (3): 732-742. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy. ...
"Changes in the immune system of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) during the parr-smolt transformation and after implantation ... he and his graduate student were the first to combine multiple types of characteristics to establish genetic similarity among ...
It takes solace from the HLEG report which admits that, "the transformation of India's health system to become an effective ... This may be attributed to a genetic predisposition to metabolic syndrome and adverse changes in coronary artery vasodilation. ...
Main article: Genetic history of the British Isles. Genetic testing has been used to find evidence of large scale immigration ... 2018), The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe, Nature ... Genetic markers of Bell Beaker migrationEdit. Main article: Genetic history of the British Isles ... This population lacked genetic affinity to the Iberian Bell Beakers, where the Bell Beaker phenomenon originated, but appeared ...
The transformation of the locust to the swarming form is induced by several contacts per minute over a four-hour period.[11] A ... "Do outbreaks affect genetic population structure? A worldwide survey in a pest plagued by microsatellite null alleles". ... Smil, V. (2002). "Worldwide transformation of diets, burdens of meat production and opportunities for novel food proteins". ...
... genetic mutations, genetic drift, etc.. genetics. The study of heredity.. genome. The entire set of genetic material contained ... A process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.. chemistry. A branch of the physical ... A set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.. generation. genetic code. A ... or between groups of species thriving in different parts of the world as a result of genetic mutation. Genetic diversity in a ...
Genetic studies have shown the Igbo to cluster most closely with other Niger-Congo-speaking peoples.[26] The predominant Y- ... Chuku, Gloria (2005). Igbo women and economic transformation in southeastern Nigeria, 1900-1960. Routledge. pp. 43-44. ISBN 978 ... Chuku, Gloria (2005). Igbo Women and Economic Transformation in Southeastern Nigeria, 1900-1960: 1900-1960. Routledge. p. 135. ... Chuku, Gloria (2005). Igbo Women and Economic Transformation in Southeastern Nigeria, 1900-1960: 1900-1960 (illustrated ed.). ...
Johnson, F.X.; Pacini, H.; Smeets, E (2013). Transformations in EU biofuels markets under the Renewable Energy Directive and ... serving as a genetic reserve.. *serving as a source of lumber and as recreational areas. ...
Genetic Transformation of Escherichia coli by R-Factor DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 69 (8): 2110-4. ... "Role of a Deoxyribonuclease in the Genetic Transformation of Diplococcus pneumoniae". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... "Agrobacterium: The Natural Genetic Engineer (100 Years Later)". Retrieved 14 January 2011].,/ref, [[Ti-plasmiid]] integreerub ... "Transforming Plants - Basic Genetic Engineering Techniques". Retrieved 28 January 2010].,/ref, [[Biolistiline,Biolistilise]] ...
This chapter introduces the first major bacterial genetic transfer process to be discovered-genetic transformation. Initially, ... This chapter introduces the first major bacterial genetic transfer process to be discovered-genetic transformation. Initially, ... Genetic Transformation Competent Cell Recipient Cell Pseudomonas Stutzeri Helper Phage These keywords were added by machine and ... Hui, F M., Morrison, D.A. (1991). Genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae: nucleotide sequence analysis shows comA, ...
GBS-based genetic maps of populations P and C comprised 1704 and 1719 markers and encompassed 2041 cM and 1874 cM, respectively ... The genetic heterogeneity of the seedlings which are used as rootstocks for propagation through budgrafting is considered as a ... The genetic heterogeneity of the seedlings which are used as rootstocks for propagation through budgrafting is considered as a ... This research provides genetic information on male and female Chinese bayberry and will act as a reference for breeding ...
Genetic transformation of black walnut (Juglans nigra). In: Michler, C.H.; Pijut, P.M.; Van Sambeek, J.W.; Coggeshall, M.V.; ... were used for the genetic transformation of Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) somatic embryos. In total, explants from 16 ...
In recent years, genetic transformation has demonstrated to be a powerful tool to overcome these limitations. In this chapter, ... Mathews H, Wagoner W, Cohen C, Kellog J, Bestwick R (1995b) Efficient genetic transformation of red raspberry, Rubus ideaus L. ... du Plessis HJ, Brand RJ, Glyn-Woods C, Goedhart MA (1997) Efficient genetic transformation of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa ... Mathews H, Wagoner W, Kellogg J, Bestwick R (1995a) Genetic transformation of strawberry: stable integration of a gene to ...
... Author(s). Tolonen, Andrew Carl ... cont.) Genetic methods such as reporter gene assays and tagged mutagenesis are critical tools for unveiling the function of ... One of the goals of this thesis was to investigate how two Prochlorococcus strains responded on a physiological and genetic ...
Competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been known for three decades to arise in growing cultures ... An unmodified heptadecapeptide pheromone induces competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae. L S ... An unmodified heptadecapeptide pheromone induces competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae ... An unmodified heptadecapeptide pheromone induces competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
Natural Genetic Transformation: a Novel Tool for Efficient Genetic Engineering of the Dairy Bacterium Streptococcus ... Alteration of Soil Rhizosphere Communities following Genetic Transformation of White Spruce Philippe M. LeBlanc, Richard C. ... Improved and Versatile Transformation System Allowing Multiple Genetic Manipulations of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon ... Phleomycin Increases Transformation Efficiency and Promotes Single Integrations in Schizophyllum commune Arend F. van Peer, ...
Natural transformation was used to help define a collection of ionizing radiation-sensitive strains of Deinococcus radiodurans ... Genetic characterization of forty ionizing radiation-sensitive strains of Deinococcus radiodurans: linkage information from ... transformation.. Mattimore V1, Udupa KS, Berne GA, Battista JR.. Author information. 1. Department of Microbiology, Louisiana ...
Several attempts at the genetic improvement of tree species have been made, but in comparison with crop plants the efforts as ... Transgenic Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Genetic Engineering Genetic Transformation Zygotic Embryo These keywords were added by ... Cellular and molecular biology of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plants and its application to genetic transformation ... Stable genetic transformation of Picea mariana (black spruce) via particle bombardment. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant. 32: 91-99 ...
Start-up Spawned by Rutgers Researchers Technology for Genetic Transformation in Plants -- Boosting Yields in Biofuels and ... Rutgers Professor Pal Maliga recently helped launch Plant Transformation Technologies LLC of Dallas based on his patented ... Plastid transformation has potential commercial applications in biopharmaceuticals, biomaterials, industrial products, biofuel ... Plastid engineering, in contrast to nuclear engineering, or conventional genetic modification, offers higher protein yields and ...
Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... These transformed flies had wild-type eye color indicating that the visible genetic defect in the host strain could be fully ...
by Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine; Health, general Cancer Analysis Genetic aspects Carcinoma Cytogenetics DNA ... Progressive genetic alterations of adenoid cystic carcinoma with high-grade transformation. ... S.v. Progressive genetic alterations of adenoid cystic carcinoma with high-grade transformation.." Retrieved Jun 18 2019 from ... APA style: Progressive genetic alterations of adenoid cystic carcinoma with high-grade transformation.. (n.d.) >The Free ...
... Track 11 : Genetic Transformation. Genetic Transformation is the genetic alteration of cell resulting ... a. Natural transformation b. Transformation, as an adaptation for DNA repair. Related Conference of Genetic Transformation ... Transformation is one of three processes for horizontal gene transfer, in which exogenous genetic material passes from ... And about 80 species of bacteria were known to be capable of transformation, in 2014, about evenly divided between Gram- ...
... plasmids containing the organophosphate-degrading gene opd as a dominant selectable marker were tested as transformation ... A new dominant selectable marker for genetic transformation; Hsp70-opd Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 1995 Dec;25(10):1061-5. doi: ... plasmids containing the organophosphate-degrading gene opd as a dominant selectable marker were tested as transformation ...
... ... Genetic transformation of Ginkgo biloba by A. tumefaciens. Physiologia Plantarum, April 2000, vol. 108, no. 4, p. 413-419. [ ... In genus Glycyrrhiza few studies related to tissue culture, genetic transformation and flavonoid production through hairy root ... A. rhizogenes mediated genetic transformation resulting in hairy root formation is enhanced by ultrasonication and ...
The developments in transformation technology have enabled the scientists to incorporate, mutate or substitute gene(s) leading ... Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is widely used for the introduction of foreign gene(s) into dicots (7). There are ... Evaluation of four Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains for the genetic transformation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) ... S1 shows different steps of genetic transformation. Leaf disc explants cultured on RSM3 showed good results compared to other ...
... Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie ... Genetic transformation of Blackgram for abiotic stress tolerance: Blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) is one of the important ... Detailangaben zum Buch - Genetic transformation of Blackgram for abiotic stress tolerance. EAN (ISBN-13): 9783846511848. ISBN ( ... Genetic transformation of Blackgram for abiotic stress tolerance: Biotechnological approach to develop abiotic stress tolerance ...
Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability ... Such technologies, however, require efficient transformation protocols as well as extensive genomic resources and accurate ... Such technologies, however, require efficient transformation protocols as well as extensive genomic resources and accurate ... Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability ...
Two main genetic pathways lead to the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia to Richter syndrome. Blood, 122(15), 2673- ... Two main genetic pathways lead to the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia to Richter syndrome. Ekaterina Chigrinova ... Two main genetic pathways lead to the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia to Richter syndrome ... Two main genetic pathways lead to the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia to Richter syndrome ...
This paper describes the first genetic engineering of the Asian tiger mosquito. This is an essential step towards the ...
... and natural genetic transformation has not yet been employed as a tool for genetic analysis in any of the six species of the S ... Competence for Natural Genetic Transformation in the Streptococcus bovis Group Streptococci S. infantarius and S. macedonicus. ... Natural genetic transformation is common among many species of the genus Streptococcus, but it has never, or rarely, been ... Natural genetic transformation in the rumen bacterium Streptococcus bovis JB1. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 179:485-490. ...
Genetic Transformation in Boehmeria nivea Gaud. (Ramie Fiber). In: Bajaj Y.P.S. (eds) Plant Protoplasts and Genetic Engineering ... Calderon-Urrea A (1988) Transformation of Manihot esculenta (cassava) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and expression of the ... obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Plant Cell Rep 12: 625-628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Defining key genetic and epigenetic alterations in oligodendroglioma cancer stem cells; Studying the step-wise transformation ...
Genetic transformation of Prunus domestica L. using the hpt gene coding for hygromycin resistance as the selectable marker. ... Tian, L., Canli, F.A., Wang, X., Sibbald, S. (2009). Genetic transformation of Prunus domestica L. using the hpt gene coding ... Here we have shown that hygromycin resistance is an effective system for plum genetic transformation. Embryonic axes of mature ... The study demonstrated that hygromycin resistance can be used as an effective selectable marker for plum transformation. The ...
Genetic Relatedness of Lymphoid Malignancies: Transformation of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia as a Model Kenneth A. Foon, MD; ... Genetic Relatedness of Lymphoid Malignancies: Transformation of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia as a Model. Ann Intern Med. 1993; ... Review: Providing genetic-based risk estimates for disease does not affect risk-reducing behaviors in adults Annals of Internal ... Studies concerning the genetic relatedness between chronic lymphocytic leukemia and the more aggressive B-cell cancers that ...
In Vitro Plantlet Regeneration and Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Plant Tissue ... Sarker, R.H. and Biswas, A. (2002) In Vitro Plantlet Regeneration and Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation of Wheat ( ... RETRACTED: Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper with Cry1Ac Gene for Insect Resistance ...
The regulation of competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae depends on a quorum-sensing system, but the ... Regulation of competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae by an auto-induced peptide pheromone and a two- ... The regulation of competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae depends on a quorum-sensing system, but the ...
Hairy Root Genetic Transformation Essential Amino Acid Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase Antibacterial Protein These keywords ... Destéfano-Beltrán L., Nagpala P., Jaeho K., Dodds J.H., Jaynes J.M. (1991) Genetic Transformation of Potato to Enhance ... Genetic Transformation of Potato to Enhance Nutritional Value and Confer Disease Resistance. ... Fraley RT, Rogers SG, Horsch RB, Kishore GM, Beachy R, Tumer N, Fischhoff DA, Delannay X, Klee HJ, Shah DM (1988) Genetic ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of black night shade (Solanum nigrum L.) using root explants. 3rd ... via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was developed. Root explants were transformed by co-cultivation ...
The Warped Linear Mixed Model: finding optimal phenotype transformations yields a substantial increase in signal in genetic ... transformation is challenging because of the need to manually define a set of transformations, and choose one over another, ... One way to mitigate this problem is to apply an appropriate transformation (e.g., log transform) as a preprocessing step of the ... Our approach automatically learns a suitable phenotype transformation from the observed data (both phenotypic and genotypic). ...
  • By contrast, the recalcitrance of Rubus tissues to regenerate in vitro has impeded the development of robust transformation protocols in these species, although a few number of studies have successfully obtained transgenic plants carrying genes of interest. (springer.com)
  • Genetic methods such as reporter gene assays and tagged mutagenesis are critical tools for unveiling the function of these genes. (mit.edu)
  • Genetic engineering provides new tools for mixing genetic information in plants from a vast pool of existing genes as well as genes designed by human intervention, i.e. synthetic gene sequences. (springer.com)
  • Plastid engineering, in contrast to nuclear engineering, or conventional genetic modification, offers higher protein yields and the opportunity to express several genes controlling complex traits. (prweb.com)
  • Natural genetic transformation is common among many species of the genus Streptococcus , but it has never, or rarely, been reported for the Streptococcus pyogenes and S. bovis groups of species, even though many streptococcal competence genes and the competence regulators SigX, ComR, and ComS are well conserved in both groups. (asm.org)
  • In the streptococci, as in several other bacterial genera, competence for natural genetic transformation is not constitutive but depends on a developmental switch to coordinated expression of a complex array of effector genes that enable DNA acquisition and genetic recombination. (asm.org)
  • Calderon-Urrea A (1988) Transformation of Manihot esculenta (cassava) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and expression of the introduced foreign genes in transformed cell lines. (springer.com)
  • Using genetic transformation, we are able to reduce or strengthen the effects of individual genes, thereby revealing their function. (tapi.com)
  • We sought to identify the genetic signatures and key target genes, which underlie the genetic alterations in p53 , Ras , INK4A locus, and telomerase , introduced in a stepwise manner into primary human fibroblasts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of Fragaria was performed in F. vesca, F. chiloensis and F. × ananassa Ventana and EL02.2011 to allow a functional analysis of CAT ( catalase ), P5CS ( Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase ) and FasAIV ( sucrose acid invertase ) genes under drought stress. (ishs.org)
  • Equally important is the development of population transformation systems to drive and maintain disease refractory genes at high frequency in populations. (hud.ac.uk)
  • To achieve multiple genetic manipulations for more advanced functional analyses of genes in vivo, it is necessary to establish multiple host-marker systems or to develop a system in which repeated utilization of one marker gene is possible. (asm.org)
  • Genetic transformation occurs when bacteria take in plasmid DNA and express the genes encoded by the plasmid. (coursehero.com)
  • These plants may thus contain copies of the antibiotic resistance genes used for the propagation of the respective constructs in bacteria, if such has not been prevented by removing the respective genes through restriction enzymes prior to transformation. (bats.ch)
  • Although Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been successfully used to transfer genes to a wide range of plant species, it has received little attention for transformation of forage grasses. (sciencesocieties.org)
  • Therefore, the objective of the present study was to demonstrate Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.). The A. tumefaciens strain AGL 1 carrying the binary vector pDM805, coding for the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase ( bar ) and β-glucuronidase ( gus ) genes, was utilized in these experiments. (sciencesocieties.org)
  • To determine the type and pattern of genomic instability occurring in histological transformation of FCLs and the role of DNA mismatch repair defects in this procedure, we have performed microsatellite analysis, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and mutational analysis of hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes on serial biopsy specimens from patients with FCL transformed to diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL). (elsevier.com)
  • A high level of microsatellite instability was associated with histological transformation of two cases of FCL, but no mutations of the hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes were detected in any of the lymphoma samples. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that histological transformation of FCLs to DLCL is frequently associated with genome wide instability at both nucleic acid and chromosomal levels, although mutations of the hMSH1 and hMLH2 genes are not involved in this process. (elsevier.com)
  • Its characteristics such as a small diploid genome, self-fertility and ancestral contribution of one of the genomes of T . repens , facilitates its use as a model for genetic analysis of plants transformed with legume or novel genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic background and developmental stage influence the function of some disease resistance ( R ) genes. (genetics.org)
  • Host genetic background is a factor that influences the function of R genes. (genetics.org)
  • Through genetic engineering, genes from unrelated organisms carrying traits of interest can be transferred to the target organisms in order to improve both quality of the harvested grain as well a,, yield quantity. (ac.ke)
  • ICPL 87091 achieved a 3% transformation frequency with strain EHA 105 that were confirmed with PCR amplification of the nptII and GUS genes. (ac.ke)
  • Plant transformation provides a promising methodology of introducing new genes that encode desirable traits to a wide range of crop plants. (tamu.edu)
  • Thus, for the current study a cell culture model for malignant transformation was used: Primary human fibroblasts of the BJ strain were sequentially transduced with retroviral vectors encoding the genes for hTERT (cell line BJ-T), simian virus 40 early region (SV40 ER, cell line BJ-TE) and H-Ras V12 (cell line BJ-TER). (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe the development of a new transformation system, using multiple auxotrophic marker genes, for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (elsevier.com)
  • The entry of molecular biology into breeding programs in the 1980s enabled knowledge of genetic determinants of phenotypes and marker-assisted selection (MAS) in which DNA-based molecular markers are used to screen germplasm for individual plants that have desired forms of genes, known as alleles. (nap.edu)
  • The development of genetic transformation techniques is a precondition that enables scientists to target and modify genes efficiently and may reveal the function of target genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The primary objective of this study was to use the callus-based transformation procedures mentioned above with a non-model cultivar of hexaploid spring wheat Saratovskaya-29, widely grown in Kazakhstan, to test the genotype dependence of the previously developed transformation protocols with respect to stable transfer of DNA and regeneration of transgenic plants. (tamu.edu)
  • Another objective of the study described was to compare the transformation efficiencies and inheritance in the transgenic plants produced. (tamu.edu)
  • This chapter introduces the first major bacterial genetic transfer process to be discovered-genetic transformation. (springer.com)
  • To emphasize this difference, in this book the bacterial process is always described as genetic transformation. (springer.com)
  • Transformation is one of three processes for horizontal gene transfer, in which exogenous genetic material passes from bacterium to another, the other two being conjugation transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells in direct contact and Transduction injection of foreign DNA by a bacteriophage virus into the host bacterium . (omicsonline.org)
  • And about 80 species of bacteria were known to be capable of transformation, in 2014, about evenly divided between Gram-positive and Gram-negative Transformation ' may also be used to describe the insertion of new genetic material into non-bacterial cells, including animal and plant cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • Maximum transformation frequency (TF) of tested bacterial strain was 47% obtained in 3 weeks old explants after 25 days of incubation on MS basal semi solid medium. (scielo.cl)
  • This Biotechnology Basics™ kit by Ellyn Daugherty is designed to teach students the basic principles of plasmids, antibiotic resistance, competent cells and bacterial transformation providing an excellent introduction to genetic engineering. (gbiosciences.com)
  • The second, BE-309 "Bacterial Transformation" is a hands-on teaching kit from the BioScience Excellence™ program by G-Biosciences. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Transformation efficiency is a measure of the number of bacterial cells that are able to take up DNA molecules. (coursehero.com)
  • Transformation using electroporation was developed in the late 1980s, increasing the efficiency of in-vitro transformation and increasing the number of bacterial strains that could be transformed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alice Barkan, professor of biology at the University of Oregon's Institute of Molecular Biology, says Maliga's work in plastid transformation has real value for basic research. (prweb.com)
  • This story involves a fungus from the Middle Ages (that was responsible for the outbreak of poisoning epidemics called "St. Antony's fire"), ergots genetic transformation and a group of Molecular Biology experts. (tapi.com)
  • The use of molecular biology techniques to produce pathogen resistant strains of shrimp through genetic transformation technology is considered a highly promising strategy for control of shrimp viral diseases. (technologypublisher.com)
  • The first, Lab 8c "Transformation of E. coli by pAmylase2014" is from Biotechnology: Laboratory Manual by Ellyn Daugherty . (gbiosciences.com)
  • The conventional breeding techniques used for plant improvement have resulted in the release of many commercial cultivars, however, it is now recognised that biotechnology approaches hold the promise of additional genetic gain in this species through the introduction of novel traits [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conceptually, fungal biotechnology is expected to be transformed by the application of genetic transformation technologies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with previous observations, here direct comparison of wild species and cultivars shows that the transformation efficiency in Fragaria can be affected by the type genotype, gene, construct and explant as well as the concentration of A. tumefaciens suspension culture. (ishs.org)
  • Till date, most of the studies on wheat transformation have focussed on few model cultivars and the procedures employed require a constant supply of immature embryos which is difficult to achieve throughout the year unless greenhouse grown plants are utilized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present work was thus initiated to develop an efficient method of transformation for Indian cultivars of bread wheat and durum wheat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calli derived from mature embryos of the cultivars CPAN1676 of T. aestivum and PDW215 of T. durum were chosen for genetic transformation experiments based on their high regeneration potential. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the fact that its yields have doubled over the last three decades (FAOSTAT 2013 ) a constant need exists for new rice cultivars to be developed (Zhang 2007 ) be that through conventional breeding practises or genetic engineering platforms. (springeropen.com)
  • Several attempts at the genetic improvement of tree species have been made, but in comparison with crop plants the efforts as well as the results have been rather limited. (springer.com)
  • Genetic manipulation through recombinant DNA permits us to cross the barriers of incompatibility, not only among species and genera but also among kingdoms. (springer.com)
  • Vegetable crops include a large number of species, characterized by multiple geographical origins, large genetic variability and diverse reproductive features. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that at least these two species of the S. bovis group retain a robust system of natural transformation regulated by a ComRS pheromone circuit and the alternative sigma factor SigX and infer that transformation is even more common among the streptococci than has been recognized. (asm.org)
  • Even among the streptococci, however, the proportion of species exhibiting a capacity for transformation remains uncertain ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • For the S. bovis group of species, the literature provides only a single case of natural genetic transformation, reported for S. bovis strain JB1. (asm.org)
  • Although two groups reported competence in this strain ( 6 , 7 ), no further characterization of S. bovis competence has been reported, and natural genetic transformation has not yet been employed as a tool for genetic analysis in any of the six species of the S. bovis group. (asm.org)
  • Rather, naturally transformable species have been identified by adventitious discovery of laboratory culture conditions that sufficiently mimic, or substitute for, the circumstances of natural development of competence to achieve a detectable level of transformation (for examples, see references 18 - 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Plant species differ in their temporal competence for transformation. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • While previous work was relevant for dicotyledonous species, in this study, the efficacy of Ensifer adhaerens (OV14)-mediated transformation (EMT) was determined on two japonica rice varieties, Curinga and Nipponbare, and the recalcitrant indica variety, IR64. (springeropen.com)
  • Addressing this would require a gene delivery system that is based on a non-pathogenic organism with rates of transformation equivalent to that of AMT for both dicot and monocot species. (springeropen.com)
  • A more recent approach to the use of non- Agrobacterium species for plant transformation was achieved in 2012 when Wendt et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Such characteristics are complicating factors for the genetic analysis of transgene inheritance in white clover and are an issue which is common to many crop species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Success in genetic transformation has been achieved in many of the important crop species, such as soybean, cotton, rice, corn. (tamu.edu)
  • In most woody fruit species, transformation and regeneration are difficult. (usda.gov)
  • These results suggest that PGC-derived cells from cattle, goats, rabbits and rats can be isolated, cultured, and genetically transformed, and provide the basis for analyzing their developmental potential and their possible use for the precise genetic modification of these species. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Second, because of the huge number of fungal species and their complex cell wall structures, different transformation methods are required for different fungal species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, species specific transformation protocols must be optimized for each strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies on transformation of Escherichia coli with plasmids. (springer.com)
  • New P element plasmids containing the organophosphate-degrading gene opd as a dominant selectable marker were tested as transformation vectors in Drosophila melanogaster. (nih.gov)
  • Among the array of genetically engineered plants which have currently been approved, the transformation method of choice has been the use of modified plasmids of Agrobacterium (Figure 2). (bats.ch)
  • By a modified protoplast transformation procedure, SG-1 was transformed (~100 transformants per μg of DNA) with several different plasmids of gram- positive origin. (elsevier.com)
  • Genotype dependency and explant types are important factors affecting transformation efficiency in potato. (srce.hr)
  • F. × ananassa EL02.2011 showed high regeneration and transformation efficiency with stable GFP expression in shoots. (ishs.org)
  • This system made it possible to isolate transformants through a more simple selection procedure as well as to deduce the transformation efficiency, overcoming practical disadvantages of the first system. (asm.org)
  • Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation efficiency was assessed under the influence of sonication, calcium treatment, acetosyringone and macerating enzymes in suitable combinations in Nicotiana tabacum as a model system. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • The efficiency of transformation was highest for the T-452 construct. (hortidaily.com)
  • internode being more suitable explant forbetter transformation efficiency. (com.hr)
  • Disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains with binary vectors carrying transgenes for kanamycin resistance ( npt II ) and β-glucuronidase (GUS, uidA ) were used for the genetic transformation of Eastern black walnut ( Juglans nigra ) somatic embryos. (usda.gov)
  • One of the goals of this thesis was to investigate how two Prochlorococcus strains responded on a physiological and genetic level to changes in ambient nitrogen. (mit.edu)
  • Genetic characterization of forty ionizing radiation-sensitive strains of Deinococcus radiodurans: linkage information from transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Natural transformation was used to help define a collection of ionizing radiation-sensitive strains of Deinococcus radiodurans. (nih.gov)
  • Approximately half of strains examined were transformable, many transforming at high rates comparable to those for the well-characterized streptococcal natural transformation systems. (asm.org)
  • ICPL 86012 recorded a putative transformation frequency of 3% each with strains LBA 4404 and EIIA 105 and 2% with AGLO. (ac.ke)
  • The development of genetic transformation techniques is a breakthrough in our attempt to genetically modify fungal strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the previously established jetPEI/DNA technique for gene delivery into the shrimp zygotes, this putative shrimp promoter forms the essential base for genetic shrimp transformation technology and makes it possible for the development and production of viral-resistant transgenic shrimp strains for world shrimp aquaculture. (technologypublisher.com)
  • A genome-wide expression profiling identified distinct genetic signatures corresponding to the genetic alterations listed above. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The currently used transformation methods do not allow for a precise prediction of the number of copies of the transforming DNA that will be integrated into the plant cell genome. (bats.ch)
  • Structural integrity of the introduced DNA and the precision with which the boundaries of the sequences which will ultimately integrate into the host genome can be predicted is partially dependent on the choice (if there is one) of the transformation system (see below). (bats.ch)
  • By making use of the plasmid-like fragmented chloroplast genome, we have introduced novel genetic material into the dinoflagellate chloroplast genome. (meta.org)
  • Next, it scans the horizon for emerging genetic-engineering technologies, including synthetic biology and genome editing, and speculates about how they might shape the future of crops. (nap.edu)
  • Several yeast genetic databases are accessible online, which facilitates functional genome analyses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Modern transformation and genome editing techniques have shown great success across a broad variety of organisms. (edu.sa)
  • However, no study of successfully applied genome editing has been reported in a dinoflagellate despite the first genetic transformation of Symbiodinium being published about 20 years ago. (edu.sa)
  • Using an array of different available transformation techniques, we attempted to transform Symbiodinium microadriaticum (CCMP2467), a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals, in order to perform CRISPR-Ca9 mediated genome editing. (edu.sa)
  • While the conventional methods have proven remarkably successful in yielding improved genotypes that could be stabilized by back crossing, the techniques of cloning, marker-aided selection, and genetic engineering when integrated with the conventional breeding programs, will dramatically improve genetic gains. (springer.com)
  • 1997). Model genotypes are developed for ease of plant regeneration in tissue culture and both Agrobacterium and biolistic mediated transformation methods require regeneration of plants in tissue culture. (tamu.edu)
  • The average stable transformation frequency (number of bialaphos-resistant events recovered per 100 embryos infected) of the present protocol was 14.5% for Hi II and 5.9 for Syrian genotypes. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report providing evidence of the transformation ability of Syrian genotypes via A. tumefaciens. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • A teratoma with malignant transformation (TMT) is a tumor that develops from germ cells when they grow and divide abnormally, forming a mass . (nih.gov)
  • Approximately 6% of teratomas develop into TMTs by a process called malignant transformation , when some of the cells in the teratoma become cancerous. (nih.gov)
  • Because teratoma with malignant transformation (TMT) is quite rare, there are no established treatment guidelines. (nih.gov)
  • it is best when teratomas with malignant transformation (TMTs) have not spread to other parts of the body ( metastasized ) and when surgery successfully removes all of the tumor cells . (nih.gov)
  • [2] [3] One article states that up to 60% of individuals diagnosed with teratoma with malignant transformation are alive five years after diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • ClinicalTrials.gov lists trials that are related to Teratoma with malignant transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Is someone diagnosed with teratoma with malignant transformation (TMT) considered to have cancer? (nih.gov)
  • I am trying to find out more information about teratomas with malignant transformation, specifically related to prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • El Mesbahi O, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Rebischung C, Theodore C, Vanel D, Fizazi K. Chemotherapy in patients with teratoma with malignant transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Athanasiou A, Vanel D, El Mesbahi O, Theodore C, Fizazi K. Non-germ cell tumours arising in germ cell tumours (teratoma with malignant transformation) in men: CT and MR findings. (nih.gov)
  • The difficulty to dissect a complex phenotype of established malignant cells to several critical transcriptional programs greatly impends our understanding of the malignant transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Deciphering these transformation fingerprints, which are affected by the most common oncogenic mutations, provides considerable insight into regulatory circuits controlling malignant transformation and will hopefully open new avenues for rational therapeutic decisions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • a first step towards malignant transformation? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genetic instability of modified stem cells - a first step towards malignant transformation? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here we studied the interaction of oncogenic drivers in STAT5 and ERK pathways during normal B-cell development and malignant B-cell transformation. (nature.com)
  • The stepwise malignant transformation of human fibroblasts was analyzed on the protein level by differential proteome analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the proteins being significantly regulated during the malignant transformation process well known proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as well as the chaperones mitochondrial heat shock protein 75 kDa (TRAP-1) and heat shock protein HSP90 were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In summary, using a cell culture model for malignant transformation analyzed with 2D-PAGE, proteome and cellular changes can be related to defined steps of tumorigenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been known for three decades to arise in growing cultures at a critical cell density, in response to a secreted protease-sensitive signal. (pnas.org)
  • The regulation of competence for genetic transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae depends on a quorum-sensing system, but the only molecular elements of the system whose specific role have been identified are an extracellular peptide signal and an ABC-transporter required for its export. (nih.gov)
  • Electroporation was used for both channel and blue catfish germ cell genetic transformation. (auburn.edu)
  • Electroporation represents another transformation method. (bats.ch)
  • do not allow for standard transformation methods like electroporation or PEG-mediated transformation, despite serious efforts have been made (Heinzelmann et al. (justia.com)
  • Up to date, there are some general methods of genetic transformation for fungi, including protoplast-mediated transformation, Agrobacterium -mediated transformation, electroporation, biolistic method and shock-wave-mediated transformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we summarize all major methods of genetic transformation for fungi, including the protoplast-mediated transformation method and the Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method, which are common methods used for many years, the electroporation method and the biolistic method, which are not currently popular but are particularly suitable in some specific circumstances, and the emerging shock-wave-mediated transformation technology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Plasmid vectors containing the chloramphenicol resistance gene under the control of the CaMV p35S promoter as well as several putative endogenous promoters were used to test a variety of transformation techniques including biolistics, electroporation, silica whiskers and glass bead agitation. (edu.sa)
  • Alsheikh MK, Suso H-P, Robson M, Battey NH, Wetten A (2002) Appropriate choice of antibiotic and Agrobacterium strain improves transformation of antibiotic-sensitive Fragaria vesca and F. v. semperflorens . (springer.com)
  • These transformed flies had wild-type eye color indicating that the visible genetic defect in the host strain could be fully and permanently corrected by the transferred gene. (sciencemag.org)
  • Pathogenecity of Agrobacterium depends upon transformation ability of strain and age, type, and physiological state of explants. (scielo.cl)
  • It was found that SK7 variety presented a better regeneration performance from the cotyledonary node, and also had the highest transformation frequency with AGL0 strain. (scielo.org.co)
  • In order to meet these expectations, genetic manipulations of the strain and its derivatives have to be carried out, aiming at increasing acarbose yields. (justia.com)
  • However, currently no tools for genetic manipulation exist for this strain, hampering the process of strain improvement. (justia.com)
  • It has antioxidant, anticancerous & antibacterial activity.Genetic transformation of Piper longum can improve its existing properties for the betterment of mankind.Gus gene expression was observed in in vitro grown callus tissue of Piper longum when it was transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens Agrobacterium strain containing plasmid pBECK2000 carrying GUS gene and kanamycin gene is used. (ijsr.net)
  • The combination of this host strain and the new selectable markers can be used for gene disruption using the same preexisting transformation systems. (elsevier.com)
  • pombe host strain will be a useful tool for molecular genetic studies of Sz. (elsevier.com)
  • Natural genetic transformation provides a pathway of horizontal gene transfer in many groups of bacteria, including the streptococci, in which it has been known for over 70 years ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast to several genetic methodologies for mesophilic archaea, halophiles ( 18 , 23 ), and methanogens ( 12 , 23 ), which are comparable to those for bacteria, manipulative strategies for hyperthermophilic archaea are still at an early stage. (asm.org)
  • We originally wanted to investigate the danger of transformation in soil from GM plants to bacteria. (odec.ca)
  • However, due to insufficient lab equipment, and pathogenic bacteria present in the soil, we changed our focus to this topic, which can still be related to the transformation in soil. (odec.ca)
  • The transformation frequency of soil bacteria with genetically modified plant transgenes, and of bacteria in clinical settings, may be reduced by the avoidance of optimal pH conditions. (odec.ca)
  • Related AICEs were used for establishing genetic manipulation tools for other bacteria in the past. (justia.com)
  • Transformation in bacteria was first demonstrated in 1928 by the British bacteriologist Frederick Griffith. (wikipedia.org)
  • They called this uptake and incorporation of DNA by bacteria "transformation" (See Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment) The results of Avery et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Site-specific mutagenesis, homologous recombination, and the use of specific promoters provide a precise means of controlling specific gene expression and its manipulation to achieve optimal genetic improvements. (springer.com)
  • The tools presented here will facilitate targeted genetic manipulation in this group of streptococci. (asm.org)
  • paspali , there have not been any publications describing practical methods for the genetic manipulation of this fungus up till now. (tapi.com)
  • The progress of research on hyperthermophilic archaea had been constantly hampered by the limitation of available tools for genetic manipulation. (asm.org)
  • Le principal avantage de cette technique est que la manipulation de l'expression des gènes et des analyses subséquentes peut être effectuée en peu de temps et avec les petites exigences de l'équipement et de l'espace de croissance des plantes. (jove.com)
  • The results of this study may be very useful in genetic manipulation of plants by Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated gene delivery to higher plants, which are recalcitrant to A. tumefaciens mediated genetic manipulation. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Cancer development can be studied by direct genetic manipulation within experimental models of tumorigenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One approach to study cancer development is direct genetic manipulation of primary cells to generate experimental models of tumorigenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Progressive genetic alterations of adenoid cystic carcinoma with high-grade transformation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Here, we show that these are the minimally required genetic alterations for sarcomagenesis in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most importantly, unique transformation hallmarks, such as differentiation block, aberrant mitotic progression, increased angiogenesis, and invasiveness, were identified and coupled with genetic signatures assigned for the genetic alterations in the p53 , INK4A locus, and H-Ras , respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, colon cancer progression has been divided into distinct histologic stages directly correlated with genetic alterations in key tumor suppressors and oncogenes ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nevertheless, the underlying transcriptional changes, which arise as a consequence of sequential accumulation of genetic alterations and eventually drive the pathologic process, are still elusive. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Yet, associations of those signatures with specific biological processes and genetic alterations acquired in vivo along transformation are not obvious. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Histological transformation and clinical progression of FCLs are frequently associated with secondary genetic alterations at both nucleic acid and chromosomal levels. (elsevier.com)
  • Cancer arises from normal cells through the stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations in normal cells is estimated to be a major cause of cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, accurate prediction of this event is currently hampered by our limited knowledge of the evolutionary pathways leading to transformation, as well as the scarcity of comprehensive, large-scale studies that assess both the genomic landscape of alterations within tumor cells and the composition of the microenvironment. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In the present study, a rapid, reproducible and stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure in potato was developed by a combination of different plant growth regulators. (srce.hr)
  • Stable integration, expression, and inheritance of both transgenes were confirmed by molecular and genetic analyses. (sciencesocieties.org)
  • This indicates that cells continue to divide after transformation and that the transformation is stable. (meta.org)
  • Genomic DNA was isolated from the infected callus and Molecular analysis for Gus gene expression in plant was done by Polymerase chain reaction which shows stable transformation. (ijsr.net)
  • The Warped Linear Mixed Model: finding optimal phenotype transformations yields a substantial increase in signal in genetic analyses. (ashg.org)
  • However, analyses to estimate genetic parameters are often limited to a few traits only. (genetics.org)
  • In addition, availability of corresponding software, specialized toward quantitative genetic analyses fitting the so-called "animal model," has made analyses conceptually straightforward, even for scenarios with complex pedigrees, many fixed effects, additional random effects, or arbitrary patterns of missing observations. (genetics.org)
  • Easily detect succesful transformation with supplied antibiotic screening and visualization of the plasmid under UV light. (gbiosciences.com)
  • Optimization of transformation frequency will allow laboratories to more efficiently replicate plasmid DNA. (odec.ca)
  • Two years later in 1972, Stanley Norman Cohen, Annie Chang and Leslie Hsu showed that CaCl 2 treatment is also effective for transformation of plasmid DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rutgers Professor Pal Maliga recently helped launch Plant Transformation Technologies LLC of Dallas based on his patented approaches to genetically transforming plastids, a key component of plants, to increase their value as food, fuels and product ingredients. (prweb.com)
  • Leveraging his novel techniques for genetically transforming plastids, a key component of plants, Maliga recently helped launch Plant Transformation Technologies LLC of Dallas ( http://www.planttt.com ). (prweb.com)
  • No data were available (nda) on the transformation system used for 2 of the 28 genetically distinct products. (bats.ch)
  • NB and B 5 both media composition showed 20% of transformation frequency after 28 and 38 days respectively. (scielo.cl)
  • But various physical and chemical methods are found to enhance transformation frequency. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Manual wounding resulted in 21% transformation frequency. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Where as sonication resulted in 2.2 fold increase, followed by sonication with CaCl 2 treatment resulted in 2.5 fold increase and sonication with acetosyringone treatment resulted in 4.1 fold increase in transformation frequency. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • However, sonication with macerating enzyme treatment resulted in 1.5 to 5.25-fold decrease in transformation frequency. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • Micro wounding through sonication followed by acetosyringone treatment enhanced transformation frequency substantially. (ejbiotechnology.info)
  • The Effect of Extracellular pH on Genetic Transformation Frequency in Escherichia coli. (odec.ca)
  • How does extracellular pH affect the genetic transformation frequency of calcium treated Escherichia coli ? (odec.ca)
  • The effect of extracellular pH on the frequency of genetic transformation in calcium-treated Escherichia coli was investigated, focusing on whether pH affects transformation frequency through altering components of the proton motive force, membrane potential and pH gradient. (odec.ca)
  • In the first and second experiments, transformation frequency peaked at pH 6.88-7.14, while in the third experiment transformation frequency peaked at pH 7.85-8.18. (odec.ca)
  • The impact on transformation frequency of very acidic extracellular pH levels, and of pH variation at specific stages of competence development, continue to be investigated. (odec.ca)
  • The transformation frequency obtained was 8.56% with T. aestivum and 10% with T. durum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (springer.com)
  • PCR, northern blotting, and small interfering RNAs (siRNA) analysis were performed to validate the success of Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. (hortidaily.com)
  • Therefore, the boundaries of the transferred DNA will be predicted with less precision using these methods than with Agrobacterium -mediated transformation methods. (bats.ch)
  • While Agrobacterium -mediated transformation (AMT) remains the most widely used technique for gene transfer in plants, interest exists for the use of non- Agrobacterium gene delivery systems due to freedom-to-operate issues that remain with AMT across several jurisdictions. (springeropen.com)
  • While Agrobacterium mediated transformation (AMT) is widely adopted as the system of choice for engineering novel crop varieties freedom-to-operate issues remain (Chi-Ham et al. (springeropen.com)
  • 1997). While the genetic transformation of rice using Agrobacterium has become routine, only a few successful studies of Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of wheat have been reported, and these involved a model spring wheat, Triticum aestivum cultivar Bobwhite (Cheng et al. (tamu.edu)
  • The low success rate in wheat transformation experiments thus necessiates the use of a large number of explants throughout the year which is difficult to achieve with immature embryos as the target tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mature embryos which show a regeneration response comparable to that of immature embryos [ 17 , 23 - 25 ] were thus chosen as the starting explants for transformation studies during the present investigation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis. (springer.com)
  • Revised genetic linkage map of Bacillus subtilis. (springer.com)
  • Evolution of natural transformation: testing the DNA repair hypothesis in Bacillus subtilis and Haemophilus influenzae. (springer.com)
  • SUMMARY: Phenethyl alcohol (PEA) has been found to obstruct genetic transformation in Bacillus subtilis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Genetic recombination in Bacillus subtilis 168: effect of recN, recF, recH and addAB mutations on DNA repair and recombination. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Genetic analysis of the marine manganese-oxidizing Bacillus sp. (elsevier.com)
  • Conventional methods of genetic improvement involve a recombination of pre-existing gene pools within a limited range of sexually compatible taxa. (springer.com)
  • A model of recombination during genetic transformation is discussed in which the two ends of the single-stranded donor DNA present in the cytoplasm frequently integrate separately and often with a time difference. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • One main goal of the present work is the definition of an efficient protocol for the genetic transformation and regeneration of transgenic Eucalyptus trees. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The feasibility of strawberry to regenerate in vitro has allowed the development of efficient transformation protocols for both cultivated and the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca . (springer.com)
  • Such technologies, however, require efficient transformation protocols as well as extensive genomic resources and accurate knowledge before they can be efficiently exploited in practical breeding programs. (frontiersin.org)
  • This article reviews basic protocols and principles of these transformation methods, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First, although many articles of fungal transformation have been published each team established their own protocols without sufficient details. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is due to a narrow genetic base, limited natural variation available and several natural stresses to which the crop is subjected. (eurobuch.com)
  • Even more spectacular is the impact of plant transformation on crop improvement. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • This important crop has limited genetic variability within its centers of origin and cultivated lines which make it hard for improvement against disease and pests through conventional breeding. (ac.ke)
  • To provide a context for genetic engineering in overall crop improvement, the chapter first provides a description of plant-breeding methods and of genomics approaches that enable rapid advances in basic knowledge related to crop genetics and plant breeding. (nap.edu)
  • The committee concludes that advances in genetic engineering and -omics technologies have great potential to enhance crop improvement in the 21st century, especially when coupled with advanced conventional-breeding methods. (nap.edu)
  • However, European plum (Prunus domestica) has been shown to be amenable to genetic improvement technologies from classical hybridization, to genetic engineering, to rapid cycle crop breeding ('FasTrack' breeding). (usda.gov)
  • Only those methods used in the transformation of approved agricultural crops will be briefly described below. (bats.ch)
  • Other transformation methods are based on physical and chemical principles. (bats.ch)
  • In order to further increase production efficacy, targeted genetic engineering methods have to be applied, which requires a functional transformation system for Actinoplanes sp. (justia.com)
  • To further study this phenomenon, methods of genetic analysis were developed for SG-1. (elsevier.com)
  • Chen JE, Cui G, Aranda Lastra M (2017) The Genetic Intractability Of Symbiodinium microadriaticum To Standard Algal Transformation Methods. (edu.sa)
  • s experiments were at first skeptically received by the scientific community and it was not until the development of genetic markers and the discovery of other methods of genetic transfer (conjugation in 1947 and transduction in 1953) by Joshua Lederberg that Avery's experiments were accepted. (wikipedia.org)
  • We demonstrate an underdominant population transformation system in Drosophila melanogaster that has the property of being both spatially self-limiting and reversible to the original genetic state. (hud.ac.uk)
  • In this study, ICEAP 00040 germinated poorly and did not produce sufficient leaf explants for transformation while regenerated shoots of ICEAP 00554 did not develop beyond shoot elongation. (ac.ke)
  • The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic transformation by the biolistic approach. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sarker, R.H. and Biswas, A. (2002) In Vitro Plantlet Regeneration and Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Plant Tissue Culture, 12, 155-165. (scirp.org)
  • 2001). There have been limited studies on A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cereals, including wheat, because of the overall refractory character of host-pathogen interactions between Agrobacterium and the cereal plants (Gould et al. (tamu.edu)
  • This knowledge leads to the realization that neoplastic transformation involves aberrant signal transduction pathways intimately linked with the deregulated gene expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Martin Warren, professor and head of biochemistry at the University of Kent, is working with Maliga on using plastid transformation to help develop plants that produce vitamin B12, which does not occur in nature. (prweb.com)
  • Unlike previous reports of soybean transformation using this technique, all plants were fertile. (deepdyve.com)
  • Curinga and Nipponbare plants transformed with E. adhaerens (OV14) and A. tumefaciens (LBA4404 and EHA105) were regenerated achieving transformation efficiencies of 16 % and 26-32 % for Curinga and 7 and 4 % for Nipponbare respectively. (springeropen.com)
  • Transformation of androgenic-derived Festulolium plants (Lolium perenne L. × Festuca pratensis Huds. (sciencesocieties.org)
  • (f) GUS activity in a trifoliate leaf excised from stably transformed plants approximately eight weeks after transformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • that is, plants were selected solely on the basis of features such as yield, without knowledge of the genetic composition of the plants. (nap.edu)
  • However, a routine and efficient transformation protocol of Syrian maize (Zea mays) using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens standard binary vector system for year round production of fertile transgenic maize plants was achieved. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Natural genetic transformation of Pseudomonas stutzeri in a nonsterile soil. (springer.com)
  • ADP1, a versatile and naturally transformation competent bacterium. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • For transformation to take place, the recipient bacterium must be in a state of competence, which might occur in nature as a time-limited response to environmental conditions such as starvation and cell density, and may also be induced in a laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In transformation, the genetic material passes through the intervening medium, and uptake is completely dependent on the recipient bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic transformation of Blackgram for abiotic stress tolerance: Blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) is one of the important crops grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Indian subcontinent. (eurobuch.com)
  • The purpose of the present chapter is to consider the "prospects," that is, how genetic engineering might be used in the future in agricultural crops. (nap.edu)
  • The process is distinct from another biologic phenomenon also denoted transformation, the conversion of normal mammalian cells into tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • Genetic modification, most importantly genetic transformation (the introduction of DNA into the fungal cells) is a critical tool to study the biochemical and physiological processes of a microorganism. (tapi.com)
  • The genetic elements required to transform some primary human cells to a tumorigenic state were described in several recent studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The difficulties stem largely from different genetic backgrounds of patients, variable and uncharacterized mutations, and undefined contributions to a resulting expression pattern of several cell types, such as inflammatory, endothelial, and stroma cells in addition to the bona fide tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As VIP1 is not an abundant protein, representing one of the limiting factors for transformation, Agrobacterium may have evolved to produce and export to the host cells its own virulence protein that at least partially complements the cellular VIP1 function necessary for the T‐DNA nuclear import and subsequent expression within the infected cell. (deepdyve.com)
  • Treatment of competent cells which have irreversibly incorporated DNA with 0.3 % PEA causes a reduction in the rate of transformation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Genetic requirement for Ras in the transformation of fibroblasts and hematopoietic cells by the Bcr-Abl oncogene. (rupress.org)
  • To determine the functional importance of Ras in transformation by Abl oncogenes, we used a genetic approach to measure the effect of impaired Ras activity on the ability of Bcr-Abl or v-Abl to transform cells. (rupress.org)
  • For example, primary human cells cannot be transformed with most combinations of oncogenes that readily induce transformation of primary rodent cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Achievements in maize genetic transformation are discussed with regard to which cells, tissues and organs may be the targets for alien gene transfer. (cytgen.com)
  • For genetic transformation, cells were electroporated with a construct containing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Transformation of animal and plant cells was also investigated with the first transgenic mouse being created by injecting a gene for a rat growth hormone into a mouse embryo in 1982. (wikipedia.org)
  • in vitro plantlet regeneration and genetic transformation of sponge gourd (luffa cylindrica l. (academicjournals.org)
  • In S. infantarius , nanomolar amounts of the synthetic pheromone LTAWWGL induced robust but transient competence in high-density cultures, but mutation of the ComRS locus abolished transformation. (asm.org)
  • The phyA gene was transformed into maize (Zea mays) inbred line, UMI29 using particle bombardment mediated transformation. (poetrycontests.biz)
  • It is anticipated that this study will assist further enhancement of maize transformation technology leading to develop an updated protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated generation of maize. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Fujita, Y, Giga-Hama, Y & Takegawa, K 2005, ' Development of a genetic transformation system using new selectable markers for fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ', Yeast , vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 193-202. (elsevier.com)
  • F. vesca presented reasonable callusing, shoot regeneration and transformation using kanamycin (25 mg/L) selection. (ishs.org)
  • shoot regeneration and transformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Main achievements, limitations, and future prospects of genetic transformation in both genera are discussed. (springer.com)
  • Yet, it is becoming increasingly clear that the reprogramming process, including retroviral transduction with potent oncogenes like c-Myc and long-term cultivation, may induce genetic instability. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Can histologic transformation of follicular lymphoma be predicted and prevented? (bloodjournal.org)
  • Birch RG (1997) Plant transformation: problem and strategies for practical application. (springer.com)
  • Also, plant transformation had influence on fruit and forest improvement and the development of desirable traits for ornamental plant breeders. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • Finally, in the last section the paramount contribution that plant transformation has made on secondary metabolism is reviewed. (openaccessbooks.com)
  • Genetic Transformation is the genetic alteration of cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane . (omicsonline.org)
  • Of note, unlike conventional ACC, 1 case of ACC-HGT has recently been shown to respond favorably to a docetaxel-cisplatinradiotherapy regimen, raising the possibility that recognition of high-grade transformation (HGT) may eventually have therapeutic implications. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Finally, "-omics" (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and epigenomics) approaches are reviewed to evaluate their potential to assess intended and unintended effects of genetic engineering and conventional plant breeding. (nap.edu)
  • Mutations that are not aligned with this central oncogenic driver activate divergent pathways and subvert transformation. (nature.com)
  • Thus, persistence of divergent signalling pathways represents a powerful barrier to transformation, while convergence on one principal driver defines a central event in leukaemia initiation. (nature.com)
  • Barceló M, El Mansouri I, Mercado JA, Quesada MA, Pliego-Alfaro F (1998) Regeneration and transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens of the strawberry cultivar Chandler. (springer.com)
  • An efficient variety-independent method for producing transgenic Black night shade (Solanum nigrum L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was developed. (omicsonline.org)
  • The objective of this study was to optimize a transformation protocol previously reported by Sharma and co-workers from ICRISAT in India using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to engineer pigeonpea lines adapted to Eastern Africa using cotyledonary leaf explants. (ac.ke)
  • The optimal pH for E. coli transformation is concluded to be about pH 7.4, supporting Norgard et al s optimal pH range of 7.25-7.75. (odec.ca)
  • Histochemical assay of nodal explants with callus showed deep blue spots, which confirmed the successful transformation of gus gene using particle gun. (academicjournals.org)