Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Skin DiseasesSkin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Acellular Dermis: Remaining tissue from normal DERMIS tissue after the cells are removed.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Wavelet Analysis: Signal and data processing method that uses decomposition of wavelets to approximate, estimate, or compress signals with finite time and frequency domains. It represents a signal or data in terms of a fast decaying wavelet series from the original prototype wavelet, called the mother wavelet. This mathematical algorithm has been adopted widely in biomedical disciplines for data and signal processing in noise removal and audio/image compression (e.g., EEG and MRI).Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Skin UlcerSkin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Dermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Cyclotrons: Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Skin Diseases, Bacterial: Skin diseases caused by bacteria.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Cicatrix, Hypertrophic: An elevated scar, resembling a KELOID, but which does not spread into surrounding tissues. It is formed by enlargement and overgrowth of cicatricial tissue and regresses spontaneously.Keloid: A sharply elevated, irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging scar resulting from formation of excessive amounts of collagen in the dermis during connective tissue repair. It is differentiated from a hypertrophic scar (CICATRIX, HYPERTROPHIC) in that the former does not spread to surrounding tissues.Rats, Hairless: Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Blister: Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Hyperpigmentation: Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sea Cucumbers: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mice, Inbred C57BLDermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Elastic Tissue: Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Skin Cream: A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Skin Physiological Processes: Biological activities and functions of the SKIN.Occlusive Dressings: Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Scleroderma, Localized: A term used to describe a variety of localized asymmetrical SKIN thickening that is similar to those of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA but without the disease features in the multiple internal organs and BLOOD VESSELS. Lesions may be characterized as patches or plaques (morphea), bands (linear), or nodules.Melanosis: Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Facial DermatosesSkin Diseases, Papulosquamous: A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Somites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Pigmentation DisordersMice, Inbred BALB CDermatology: A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Granulation Tissue: A vascular connective tissue formed on the surface of a healing wound, ulcer, or inflamed tissue. It consists of new capillaries and an infiltrate containing lymphoid cells, macrophages, and plasma cells.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Nevus, Pigmented: A nevus containing melanin. The term is usually restricted to nevocytic nevi (round or oval collections of melanin-containing nevus cells occurring at the dermoepidermal junction of the skin or in the dermis proper) or moles, but may be applied to other pigmented nevi.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Facial NeoplasmsArtificial Organs: Devices intended to replace non-functioning organs. They may be temporary or permanent. Since they are intended always to function as the natural organs they are replacing, they should be differentiated from PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS and specific types of prostheses which, though also replacements for body parts, are frequently cosmetic (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) as well as functional (ARTIFICIAL LIMBS).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mycosis Fungoides: A chronic, malignant T-cell lymphoma of the skin. In the late stages, the LYMPH NODES and viscera are affected.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Keratolytic Agents: Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Microfibrils: Components of the extracellular matrix consisting primarily of fibrillin. They are essential for the integrity of elastic fibers.Holothuria: A genus of large SEA CUCUMBERS in the family Holothuriidae possessing thick body walls, a warty body surface, and microscopic ossicles.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Keratoacanthoma: A benign, non-neoplastic, usually self-limiting epithelial lesion closely resembling squamous cell carcinoma clinically and histopathologically. It occurs in solitary, multiple, and eruptive forms. The solitary and multiple forms occur on sunlight exposed areas and are identical histologically; they affect primarily white males. The eruptive form usually involves both sexes and appears as a generalized papular eruption.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Leg Dermatoses: A nonspecific term used to denote any cutaneous lesion or group of lesions, or eruptions of any type on the leg. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.PUVA Therapy: Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nevus: A circumscribed stable malformation of the skin and occasionally of the oral mucosa, which is not due to external causes and therefore presumed to be of hereditary origin.Epidermolysis Bullosa: Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: acquired, simple, junctional, and dystrophic. Each of the latter three has several varieties.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus: A chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting the female genitalia (VULVAR LICHEN SCLEROSUS) and BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS in males. It is also called white spot disease and Csillag's disease.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Dermabrasion: The mechanical planing of the SKIN with sand paper, emery paper, or wire brushes, to promote reepithelialization and smoothing of skin disfigured by ACNE scars or dermal NEVI.Pemphigoid, Bullous: A chronic and relatively benign subepidermal blistering disease usually of the elderly and without histopathologic acantholysis.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Mucinoses: Mucoid states characterized by the elevated deposition and accumulation of mucin (mucopolysaccharides) in dermal tissue. The fibroblasts are responsible for the production of acid mucopolysaccharides (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) in the ground substance of the connective tissue system. When fibroblasts produce abnormally large quantities of mucopolysaccharides as hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, or heparin, they accumulate in large amounts in the dermis.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Scleroderma, Diffuse: A rapid onset form of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA with progressive widespread SKIN thickening over the arms, the legs and the trunk, resulting in stiffness and disability.Sunscreening Agents: Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Lupus Erythematosus, Cutaneous: A form of lupus erythematosus in which the skin may be the only organ involved or in which skin involvement precedes the spread into other body systems. It has been classified into three forms - acute (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC with skin lesions), subacute, and chronic (= LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, DISCOID).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Versicans: HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Eye Evisceration: The surgical removal of the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact. It should be differentiated from ORBIT EVISCERATION which removes the entire contents of the orbit, including eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.Foot Dermatoses: Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.Scleredema Adultorum: A diffuse, non-pitting induration of the skin of unknown etiology that occurs most commonly in association with diabetes mellitus, predominantly in females. It typically begins on the face or head and spreads to other areas of the body, sometimes involving noncutaneous tissues. Often it is preceded by any of various infections, notably staphylococcal infections. The condition resolves spontaneously, usually within two years of onset. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Lichen Planus: An inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be either generalized or localized. It is characterized by distinctive purplish, flat-topped papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces. The lesions may be discrete or coalesce to form plaques. Histologically, there is a "saw-tooth" pattern of epidermal hyperplasia and vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis along with an intense upper dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of T-cells. Etiology is unknown.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Dermatitis, Phototoxic: A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cosmetic Techniques: Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Asepsis: The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.
Plexiform neurofibromas can grow from nerves in the skin or from more internal nerve bundles, and can be very large. Internal ... Plexiform neurofibroma are more difficult to treat and can transform into malignant tumors. Dermal neurofibroma do not become ... Deep nodular neurofibromas: Involving tissues and organs underneath the dermis, but otherwise resembling cutaneous and ... Dermal neurofibromas (sometimes referred to as cutaneous neurofibromas) originate in nerves in the skin. Three kinds are ...
Acta Derm Venereol. 95 (5): 516-524. doi:10.2340/00015555-2035. PMID 25520039. Maurice M Khosh, MD, FACS. "Skin Grafts, Full- ... Tumor cells transform into keratinized squamous cells and form round nodules with concentric, laminated layers, called "cell ... Larger defects may require repair with a skin graft, local skin flap, pedicled skin flap, or a microvascular free flap. Skin ... Skin grafting is patching of a defect with skin that is removed from another site in the body. The skin graft is sutured to the ...
In the next stage, the skin lesions transform into obvious vesicles and papules that are likely to occur in groups. Healing of ... In terms of pathology, the first signs of the condition may be observed within the dermis. The changes that can take place at ... This can result in areas of the skin turning darker or lighter than the color of the skin on the rest of the body. Because of ... The fact that eTG has been found in precipitates of skin-bound IgA from skin affected by this condition has been used to ...
This stress in the blood circulation is transformed to a skin ulcer, commonly known as bedsores or decubitus ulcers. Ulcers ... Ulcers can result in complete loss of the epidermis and often portions of the dermis and even subcutaneous fat. Ulcers are most ... Skin ulcers appear as open craters, often round, with layers of skin that have eroded. The skin around the ulcer may be red, ... An ulcer that appears on the skin is often visible as an inflamed tissue with an area of reddened skin. A skin ulcer is often ...
The human skin (integument) is composed of at least two major layers of tissue: the epidermis and dermis. (The hypodermis or ... and are then transformed into energy. The hypodermis participates, passively at least, in thermoregulation since fat is a heat ... The majority of the skin on the body is keratinized. The only skin on the body that is non-keratinized is the lining of skin on ... The dermis is the middle layer of skin, composed of dense irregular connective tissue and areolar connective tissue such as a ...
... dermis (skin), and muscle. The intermediate mesoderm gives rise to the urogenital tract and consists of cells that migrate from ... Neurulation refers to this folding process whereby the neural plate is transformed into the neural tube, and this takes place ... The upper layer of ectoderm will give rise to the outermost layer of skin, central and peripheral nervous systems, eyes, inner ... After ovulation, the endometrial lining becomes transformed into a secretory lining in preparation of accepting the embryo. It ...
Some larva cannot readily enter the dermis and remain trapped in the skin, causing skin irritation and cutaneous larva migrans ... This first juvenile stage 1 is known as 'rhabditiform'. The rhabditiform larvae grow and molt in the soil, transforming into a ... This larval form is able to penetrate human skin, travel through the blood vessels and heart, and reach the lungs. Once there, ... Locations for outdoor activities should be considered if there will be skin-to-soil contact. Infection and transmission of ...
The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis. ... Epidermal development is a product of several growth factors, two of which are: Transforming growth factor Alpha (TGFα) is an ... The ability of the skin to hold water is primarily due to the stratum corneum and is critical for maintaining healthy skin. ... In white and Asian skin the melanosomes are packed in "aggregates", but in black skin they are larger and distributed more ...
Specific terms which overlap with granulocytic sarcoma include: Leukemia cutis, describing infiltration of the dermis (skin) by ... who develop a chloroma are often treated as if they have transformed to acute leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia James, William D ... The most common areas of involvement are the skin (also known as leukemia cutis) and the gums. Skin involvement typically ... 2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Karlin L, Itti E, Pautas C, ...
This controversy also depends on the exact CIS in question (i.e. cervical, skin, breast). Some authors do not classify them as ... Colon polyps often contain areas of CIS that will almost always transform into colon cancer if left untreated. High-grade ... that has failed to penetrate into the deeper dermis. For this reason, CIS will usually not form a tumor. Rather, the lesion is ... Bowen's disease of the skin is removed by excision. Other forms require major surgery, the best known being intraductal ...
The skin should have the texture of chamois, as it has fine hairs. Whiskers may be present, either whole or broken, or may be ... Two hairless female kittens born in 1975 and 1976, Epidermis and Dermis, became an important part of the Sphynx breeding ... to determine the autosomal recessive nature of the Sphynx gene for hairlessness while also being successful in transforming ... Their skin is the color that their fur would be, and all the usual cat markings (solid, point, van, tabby, tortie, etc.) may be ...
These skin lesions then transform into large blisters. The affected skin can then become necrotic or sag from the body and peel ... The Nikolsky sign - a separation of the papillary dermis from the basal layer upon gentle lateral pressure - and the Asboe- ... Diagnosis is based on a skin biopsy and involvement of more than 30% of the skin. It is called SJS when less than 10% of the ... Initial skin findings include red-purple, dusky, flat spots known as macules that start on the trunk and spread out from there ...
Skin scars occur when the dermis (the deep, thick layer of skin) is damaged. Most skin scars are flat and leave a trace of the ... Myofibroblasts have plasticity and in mice can be transformed into fat cells, instead of scar tissue, via the regeneration of ... eventually causing the deep rolling scar to level off with the rest of the skin area. Once the skin has leveled, treatments ... Scars result from the biological process of wound repair in the skin, as well as in other organs and tissues of the body. Thus ...
... epithelium Microscopy of the skin sample obtained from the biopsy is used to detect the presence of cleavage within the dermis ... Lesions of varying morphology may present simultaneously and transform from one type to another as the disease progresses. PNP ... Initially, samples are obtained via skin biopsy for routine microscopy and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) testing. The skin ... epidermal acantholysis (breaking apart of the skin), dyskeratotic keratinocytes and vacuolar changes in the layers of the skin ...
... as they can usually expel ammonia directly by diffusion through the skin. Sweat glands in the skin secrete a fluid waste called ... The duct is the part of the sweat gland that connects dermis cells to the epidermis. It is composed by two layers of cells and ... For example, the liver transforms ammonia (which is poisonous) into urea in fish, amphibians and mammals, and into uric acid in ... the skin excretes sweat through sweat glands throughout the body. The sweat, helped by salt, evaporates and helps to keep the ...
An incision is usually made just under the base of the nose and a section of skin is removed. When the gap is closed it has the ... The longest lasting and least risky results appear to arise from use of acellular dermis products. The chins of males tend to ... then began working out what surgical techniques and materials he already used that he could apply in order to transform a male ...
Skin corrosion from a substance must penetrate through the epidermis into the dermis within four hours of application and must ... In addition, it is possible that a single cell transformed into a cancer cell is all it takes to develop the full effect (the " ... Skin corrosion and irritation are determined though a skin patch test analysis. This examines the severity of the damage done; ... Skin irritation shows damage less severe than corrosion if: the damage occurs within 72 hours of application; or for three ...
The dermis lies below the epidermis, and these two layers are collectively known as the skin. Dermal skin is primarily a ... One possible line of thought considers Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) as an active player. Most MMP genes have TGF-β ... Briefly, the effect of diabetes on the main structures of the foot-ankle complex can be summarised as: effects on skin: skin - ... In normal skin chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is mainly found in the basement membrane but in healing wounds they are up ...
Dirt, skin oils (sebum), and ear wax accumulates in the ears, and needs to be cleaned out[17] on a weekly basis, usually before ... Dermis and Epidermis (1975) barn cats from the Pearson family of Wadena, Minnesota[6] ... to determine the autosomal recessive nature of the Sphynx gene for hairlessness while also being successful in transforming ... Their skin is the color that their fur would be, and all the usual cat markings (solid, point, van, tabby, tortie, etc.) may be ...
As the larva grows it transforms into the doliolaria, with a barrel-shaped body and three to five separate rings of cilia. The ... In the sea cucumber the ossicles are only found in the dermis, making them a very supple organism. For most echinoderms, their ... In recent years, the sea cucumber industry in Alaska has increased due to increased export of the skins and muscles to China. ... They are marine animals with a leathery skin and an elongated body containing a single, branched gonad. Sea cucumbers are found ...
... has mucocutaneous end-organs extending from the distal margin to the point where hairy skin starts. The thin dermis and minimal ... or transformed to uncomfortable tenderness by excessive thinness on the other. Some consider the armpits to be an erogenous ... The skin of the arms, and specifically the softer skin of the inner arms and across the creased mid-arm bend covering the ... Prudence Glynn (1982). Skin to skin: eroticism in dress. Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 0195203917. Touch Me There!: A ...
The permeability of the skin varies depending on what part of the body the skin is on, as well as how smooth the skin is. The ... The inner portion of the integument consists of the connective tissue that makes up the dermis layers. This includes the ... The two substances discussed can be transformed, by microorganisms, into compounds which are much more toxic. They are ... The skin of T. carnifex is a highly permeable structure, because it is the source of osmoregulation. Due to their skins' ...
In undamaged skin, the epidermis (surface layer) and dermis (deeper layer) form a protective barrier against the external ... Transforming growth factor-α TGF-α *Activated macrophages. *T-lymphocytes. *Keratinocytes. *Hepatocyte and epithelial cell ... Wound Healing, Skin. Emedicine.com. Accessed December 27, 2006. *^ Lansdown AB, Sampson B, Rowe A (February 2001). " ... "Biomaterials for Treating Skin Loss. Elsevier. pp. 25-57. Orgill DP, Blanco C (editors). ISBN 978-1-84569-554-5.. .mw-parser- ...
... a cancer of pigmented skin cells, or melanocytes) and seminoma (a cancer of male reproductive cells).[32] Skin tags, vocal ... Promotion is the clonal expansion (repeated division) of this transformed cell into a visible tumor that is usually benign. ... Normal Epidermis and Dermis with Intradermal Nevus 10x-cropped. Specialty. Pathology. Although benign tumors will not ... Luba MC, Bangs SA, Mohler AM, Stulberg DL (February 2003). "Common benign skin tumors". Am Fam Physician. 67 (4): 729-38. PMID ...
Granuloma and staining of the skin from the natural dye inside the sea urchin can also occur. Breathing problems may indicate a ... Initially a simple ball of cells, the blastula soon transforms into a cone-shaped echinopluteus larva. In most species, this ... composed of fused plates of calcium carbonate covered by a thin dermis and epidermis. The test is rigid, and divides into five ... They inflict a painful wound when they penetrate human skin, but are not themselves dangerous if fully removed promptly; if ...
... are unique among amphibians in having mineralized dermal scales embedded in the dermis between the furrows in the skin. The ... Salamanders are at their most vulnerable at metamorphosis as swimming speeds are reduced and transforming tails are ... Their skins were exposed to harmful ultraviolet rays that had previously been absorbed by the water. The skin changed to become ... Their skin contains little keratin and lacks scales, apart from a few fish-like scales in certain caecilians. The skin contains ...
... findings of this study showed that although the papillary and reticular dermis could be clearly distinguished in normal skin, ... The superficial dermis of keloid was characterized by active fibroblasts and lymphocytes; the middle dermis contained dense ... The superficial dermis of keloid was characterized by active fibroblasts and lymphocytes; the middle dermis contained dense ... The aim of this study was to investigate the histology of the keloid dermis at different depths. This study included 19 keloid ...
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Internal malignancies also commonly metastasize to the skin. The dermis and subcutis are the most common locations, but the ... When transformed, fibroblasts form fibrosarcomas and endothelial cells form angiosarcomas, Kaposi sarcoma, and other vascular ... There is an inverse correlation between melanoma risk and skin color that goes from lightest skin to darkest skin. Dark-skinned ... Function of the Skin. The skin has a wide variety of functions. First, the skin is an important barrier preventing extensive ...
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... the art of carving decorative scars into the skin, is an ancient practice on the continent of Africa that is now fading from ... is a permanent body modification that transforms the texture and appearance of the surface of the skin (dermis). Although ... Abrasion Scarification. Abrasion scarification is achieved by using friction to remove the dermis layers of skin to create ... In the practice of scarification the dermis and epidermis of the skin are cut, burned (see Branding), scratched, removed, or ...
J Invest Derm 107:676-683, 1996.. Lin RY, Adzick NS: The role of the fetal fibroblast and transforming growth factor beta in a ... Sullivan KM, Lorenz HP, Adzick NS: A model of human fetal skin repair is deficient in transforming growth factor beta. J ... and MOX-1 are differentially expressed in the dermis and epidermis in fetal and adult skin. Differentiation 62:33-41, 1997. ... transforming growth factor beta amplifies its own expression and induces scar formation in a model of human fetal skin repair. ...
Complete skin care system specially formulated for normal to dry skin to help transform the appearance of aging skin. see more ... Complete skin care system specially formulated for normal to dry skin to help transform the appearance of aging skin. ... Obagi Nu-Derm System for Normal to Dry Skin BY OBAGI *. Is This Your Brand?. ... Start your review of Obagi Nu-Derm System for Normal to Dry Skin!. How would you rate this product? ...
Acta Derm Venereol. 2007;87(3):246-54.. Facial acne and fine lines: transforming patient outcomes with plasma skin regeneration ... A survey of skin disease and skin-related issues in Arab Americans.. El-Essawi D, Musial JL, Hammad A, Lim HW.. J Am Acad ... Skin capacitance imaging of acne lesions.. Xhauflaire-Uhoda E, Piérard GE.. Skin Res Technol. 2007 Feb;13(1):9-12. ... Skin Therapy Lett. 2007 Sep;12(7):1-3. Review.. Comment on guidelines of care for acne vulgaris management.. Treloar V.. J Am ...
Topically adding sodium hyaluronate transforms the dermis layer of your skin into a super-sponge for your face. By helping to ... Most people believe that only dry skin needs hydration, and dehydrated skin is dry skin, not true. you can have oily skin and ... Dry skin also leads to wrinkly, flappy skin. Wrinkles come about from the loss of three important components in the skin: ... dehydrated skin is the leading cause for most skin problems. if your skin isnt properly hydrated, it causes inflammation, acne ...
... expression is decreased in hypertrophic scar and systemic sclerosis skin fibroblasts and is regulated by transforming growth ... Q07507-DERM_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Dermatopontin. Protein Accession:. Q07507. Secondary Accessions: *A8K981 ... Selected Interacting proteins: Q07507-DERM_HUMAN ENSP00000356791 for DPT Gene via UniProtKB STRING IID ... Q07507-DERM_HUMAN Tissue specificity: Expressed in fibroblasts, heart, skeletal muscle, brain and pancreas. Expressed at an ...
... and treatment of skin malignancies. The journal encourages the submission of original research articles, review articles, and ... Journal of Skin Cancer is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes clinical and translational research on the ... an NM of 2.06 mm Breslow thickness characterized by fully transformed melanocytes forming a solid proliferation into the dermis ... Furthermore, skin lesions can be "histologically" examined over time and followed up. Evaluation of skin tumors is routinely ...
  • This study included 19 keloid tissue samples that were collected from 19 patients and 19 normal skin samples, which were harvested from subjects without keloids or hypertrophic scar. (frontiersin.org)
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