An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A group of iron-binding proteins that tightly bind two ferrate ions along with two carbonate ions. They are found in the bodily fluids of vertebrates where they act as transport and storage molecules for iron.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.
A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN A.
The protein components of a number of complexes, such as enzymes (APOENZYMES), ferritin (APOFERRITINS), or lipoproteins (APOLIPOPROTEINS).
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A subtype of bacterial transferrin-binding protein found in bacteria. It forms a cell surface receptor complex with TRANSFERRIN-BINDING PROTEIN B.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
A complex of proteins that forms a receptor for TRANSFERRIN in BACTERIA. Many pathogenic bacteria utilize the transferrin-binding complex to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

The effect of chelating agents on iron mobilization in Chang cell cultures. (1/3281)

The investigation of chelating agents with potential therapeutic value in patients with transfusional iron overload has been facilitated by the use of Chang cell cultures. These cells have been incubated with [59Fe]transferrin for 22 hr, following which most of the intracellular radioiron is found in the cytosol, distributed between a ferritin and a nonferritin form. Iron release from the cells depends on transferrin saturation in the medium, but when transferrin is 100% saturated, which normally does not allow iron release, desferrioxamine, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, rhodotorulic acid, cholythydroxamic acid, and tropolone all promote the mobilization of ferritin iron and its release from cells. They are effective to an approximately equal degree. The incubation of [59Fe]transferrin with tropolone in vitro at a molar ratio of 1:500 results in the transfer of most of the labeled iron to the chelator, reflecting the exceptionally high binding constant of this compound. How far these phenomena relate to therapeutic potentially remains to be seen.  (+info)

Studies of the binding of different iron donors to human serum transferrin and isolation of iron-binding fragments from the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein. (2/3281)

1. Trypsin digestion of human serum transferrin partially saturated with iron(III)-nitrilotriacetate at pH 5.5 or pH 8.5 produces a carbohydrate-containing iron-binding fragment of mol.wt. 43000. 2. When iron(III) citrate, FeCl3, iron (III) ascorabate and (NH4)2SO4,FeSO4 are used as iron donors to saturate the protein partially, at pH8.5, proteolytic digestion yields a fragment of mol.wt. 36000 that lacks carbohydrate. 3. The two fragments differ in their antigenic structures, amino acid compositions and peptide 'maps'. 4. The fragment with mol.wt. 36000 was assigned to the N-terminal region of the protein and the other to the C-terminal region. 5. The distribution of iron in human serum transferrin partially saturated with various iron donors was examined by electrophoresis in urea/polyacrylamide gels and the two possible monoferric forms were unequivocally identified. 6. The site designated A on human serum transferrin [Harris (1977) Biochemistry 16, 560--564] was assigned to the C-terminal region of the protein and the B site to the N-terminal region. 7. The distribution of iron on transferrin in human plasma was determined.  (+info)

The staphylococcal transferrin-binding protein is a cell wall glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. (3/3281)

Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis possess a 42-kDa cell wall transferrin-binding protein (Tpn) which is involved in the acquisition of transferrin-bound iron. To characterize this protein further, cell wall fractions were subjected to two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis blotted, and the N-terminus of Tpn was sequenced. Comparison of the first 20 amino acid residues of Tpn with the protein databases revealed a high degree of homology to the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Analysis of staphylococcal cell wall fractions for GAPDH activity confirmed the presence of a functional enzyme which, like Tpn, is regulated by the availability of iron in the growth medium. To determine whether Tpn is responsible for this GAPDH activity, it was affinity purified with NAD+ agarose. Both S. epidermidis and S. aureus Tpn catalyzed the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-diphosphoglycerate. In contrast, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, which lacks a Tpn, has no cell wall-associated GAPDH activity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the affinity-purified Tpn revealed that it was present in the cell wall as a tetramer, consistent with the structures of all known cytoplasmic GAPDHs. Furthermore, the affinity-purified Tpn retained its ability to bind human transferrin both in its native tetrameric and SDS-denatured monomeric forms. Apart from interacting with human transferrin, Tpn, in common with the group A streptococcal cell wall GAPDH, binds human plasmin. Tpn-bound plasmin is enzymatically active and therefore may contribute to the ability of staphylococci to penetrate tissues during infections. These studies demonstrate that the staphylococcal transferrin receptor protein, Tpn, is a multifunctional cell wall GAPDH.  (+info)

Chemical and immunochemical measurement of total iron-binding capacity compared. (4/3281)

Radiometric, colorimetric, and two immunochemical methods for measuring total iron-binding capacity are compared. We evaluated the procedures on the basis of precision, applicability to a pediatric population, and accuracy as assessed by analytical recovery of purified transferrin. The immunoephelometric assay for transferrin provides significant advantages over the other methods examined.  (+info)

Effects of spinal cord injury on spermatogenesis and the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for Sertoli cell proteins in rat Sertoli cell-enriched testes. (5/3281)

The study was an examination of the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on spermatogenesis and Sertoli cell functions in adult rats with Sertoli cell-enriched (SCE) testes. The effects of SCI on the seminiferous epithelium were characterized by abnormalities in the remaining spermatogenic cells during the first month after SCI. Three days after SCI, serum testosterone levels were 80% lower, while serum FSH and LH levels were 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of sham control SCE rats. At this time, the levels of mRNA for androgen receptor (AR), FSH receptor (FSH-R), and androgen-binding protein (ABP) were normal whereas those for transferrin (Trf) had decreased by 40%. Thereafter, serum testosterone levels increased, but they remained lower than those of the sham control rats 28 days after SCI; and serum FSH and LH levels returned to normal. The levels of mRNA for AR, ABP, and Trf exhibited a biphasic increase 7 days after SCI and remained elevated 28 days after SCI. FSH-R mRNA levels were also elevated 90 days after SCI. Unexpectedly, active spermatogenesis, including qualitatively complete spermatogenesis, persisted in > 40% of the tubules 90 days after SCI. These results suggest that the stem cells and/or undifferentiated spermatogonia in SCE testes are less susceptible to the deleterious effects of SCI than the normal testes and that they were able to proliferate and differentiate after SCI. The presence of elevated levels of mRNA for Sertoli cell FSH-R and AR, as well as of that for the Sertoli cell proteins, in the SCE testes during the chronic stage of SCI suggests a modification of Sertoli cell physiology. Such changes in Sertoli cell functions may provide a beneficial environment for the proliferation of the stem cells and differentiation of postmeiotic cells, thus resulting in the persistence of spermatogenesis in these testes.  (+info)

Coronary heart disease and iron status: meta-analyses of prospective studies. (6/3281)

BACKGROUND: Studies of iron status and coronary heart disease (CHD) have yielded conflicting results. In a systematic review ("meta-analysis"), we quantitatively assessed epidemiological associations reported in prospective studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Studies were identified by computer-assisted searches of the published literature, scanning of relevant reference lists, hand searching of relevant journals, and discussions with relevant authors. The following was abstracted: size and type of cohort, mean age, mean duration of follow-up, assay methods, degree of adjustment for confounders, and relationship of CHD risk to the baseline assay results. Twelve studies were identified, involving a total of 7800 CHD cases, with several reporting on >1 marker of iron status. For serum ferritin, with 570 CHD cases in 5 studies, comparison of individuals with baseline values >/=200 versus <200 microg/L yielded a combined risk ratio of 1.0 (95% CI, 0.8 to 1.3). For transferrin saturation, with 6194 CHD cases in 5 studies, comparison of individuals in the top third with those in the bottom third of the baseline measurements yielded a combined risk ratio of 0.9 (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.1). Comparisons of individuals in top and bottom thirds of baseline measurements also yielded nonsignificant risk ratios in combined analyses of studies involving total iron-binding capacity (combined risk ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.5), serum iron (0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.0), and total dietary iron (0.8; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.1). CONCLUSIONS: Published prospective studies do not provide good evidence to support the existence of strong epidemiological associations between iron status and CHD.  (+info)

The iron transport protein NRAMP2 is an integral membrane glycoprotein that colocalizes with transferrin in recycling endosomes. (7/3281)

The natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) gene family is composed of two members in mammals, Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed primarily in macrophages and mutations at this locus cause susceptibility to infectious diseases. Nramp2 has a much broader range of tissue expression and mutations at Nramp2 result in iron deficiency, indicating a role for Nramp2 in iron metabolism. To get further insight into the function and mechanism of action of Nramp proteins, we have generated isoform specific anti-Nramp1 and anti-Nramp2 antisera. Immunoblotting experiments indicate that Nramp2 is present in a number of cell types, including hemopoietic precursors, and is coexpressed with Nramp1 in primary macrophages and macrophage cell lines. Nramp2 is expressed as a 90-100-kD integral membrane protein extensively modified by glycosylation (>40% of molecular mass). Subcellular localization studies by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy indicate distinct and nonoverlapping localization for Nramp1 and Nramp2. Nramp1 is expressed in the lysosomal compartment, whereas Nramp2 is not detectable in the lysosomes but is expressed primarily in recycling endosomes and also, to a lower extent, at the plasma membrane, colocalizing with transferrin. These findings suggest that Nramp2 plays a key role in the metabolism of transferrin-bound iron by transporting free Fe2+ across the endosomal membrane and into the cytoplasm.  (+info)

Acute haemodynamic and proteinuric effects of prednisolone in patients with a nephrotic syndrome. (8/3281)

BACKGROUND: Administration of prednisolone causes an abrupt rise in proteinuria in patients with a nephrotic syndrome. METHODS: To clarify the mechanisms responsible for this increase in proteinuria we have performed a placebo controlled study in 26 patients with a nephrotic syndrome. Systemic and renal haemodynamics and urinary protein excretion were measured after prednisolone and after placebo. RESULTS: After i.v. administration of 125-150 mg prednisolone total proteinuria increased from 6.66+/-4.42 to 9.37+/-6.07 mg/min (P<0.001). By analysing the excretion of proteins with different charge and weight (albumin, transferrin, IgG, IgG4 and beta2-microglobulin) it became apparent that the increase of proteinuria was the result of a change in size selectivity rather than a change in glomerular charge selectivity or tubular protein reabsorption. Glomerular filtration rate rose from 83+/-34 ml to 95+/-43 ml/min (P<0.001) after 5 h, whereas effective renal plasma flow and endogenous creatinine clearance remained unchanged. As a result filtration fraction was increased, compatible with an increased glomerular pressure, which probably contributes to the size selectivity changes. Since corticosteroids affect both the renin-angiotensin system and renal prostaglandins, we have evaluated the effects of prednisolone on proteinuria after pretreatment with 3 months of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril or after 2 weeks of the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin. Neither drug had any effect on prednisolone-induced increases of proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS: Prednisolone increases proteinuria by changing the size selective barrier of the glomerular capillary. Neither the renin-angiotensin axis nor prostaglandins seem to be involved in these effects of prednisolone on proteinuria.  (+info)

Allen JP, Litten RZ, Anton RF, Cross GM: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin as a measure of immoderate drinking: Remaining issues. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 18,799-812 (1994). Anton RF, Moak DH: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and -glutamyltransferase as markers of heavy alcohol consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 18/3,747-754 (1994). Anton R, Bean P: Two methods for measuring carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in inpatient alcoholics and healthy controls compared. Clin Chem 40/3,364-368 (1994). Arndt T, Gressner AM, Kropf J: Labordiagnostik und Kontrolle des Alkoholabusus. Med Welt 45,247-257 (1994). Behrens U, Worner TM, Braly LF et al: Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin, a Marker for Chronic Alcohol Consumption in Different Ethnic Populations. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 12,427-432 (1988). Behrens UJ, Worner TM, Lieber CS: Changes in Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin levels after alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 12,539-542 (1988). Bell H, Tallaksen C, Sjahem T, Weberg R et al: Serum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of gestational age, size for dates, and prenatal steroids on cord transferrin levels in newborn infants. AU - Chockalingam, Uma. AU - Murphy, Edrie. AU - Ophoven, Janice C.. AU - Georgieff, Michael K.. PY - 1987/3. Y1 - 1987/3. N2 - Serum transferrin levels assess protein status in older children and adults. To generate standards for its use in newborn infants, we measured umbilical cord serum transferrin levels in 161 appropriate (AGA), 25 large (LGA) and 16 small (SGA) for gestational age infants between 25 and 43 weeks gestation. We also assessed the effects of intrauterine growth, exposure to prenatal steroids, and presence of pulmonary maturity on neonatal transferrin levels. Cord transferrin levels in AGA infants were significantly correlated with increasing gestational age (r = 0.60; p , 0.001). Infants born before 37 weeks gestation had significantly lower transferrin levels, when compared with those born at term (p , 0.001). LGA infants had significantly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Posttranscriptional Regulation of Chimeric Human Transferrin Genes by Iron. AU - Cox, Laura A.. AU - Adrian, Gwendolyn S.. PY - 1993/5/1. Y1 - 1993/5/1. N2 - Transferrin, the transferrin receptor, and ferritin are integral to the bodys management of iron, an element required for life but highly toxic when present in excess. The transferrin receptor and ferritin are regulated posttranscriptionally by iron: the transferrin receptor by mRNA stability and ferritin by mRNA translation. Results described here indicate that transferrin, like ferritin, is regulated by iron at the level of translation. Chimeric genes introduced into the mouse genome were composed of the human transferrin 5′ regulatory region fused to the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter gene. Iron administration to transgenic mice resulted in a significant decrease of transferrin-directed CAT enzyme activity and CAT protein in liver, but no significant decrease in human transferrin-CAT mRNA levels. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Value of determining carbohydrate-deficient transferrin isoforms in the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease. AU - Stadheim, Linda M.. AU - OBrien, John F.. AU - Lindor, Keith D.. AU - Gores, Gregory J.. AU - McGill, Douglas B.. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - Objective: To determine whether isoform separation of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is of value in the diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and is specific to ALD when compared with other liver diseases. Patients and Methods: During 1995 and 1996, 47 patients with ALD were evaluated with CDT at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. The diagnosis of ALD was based on biochemical and histological analyses and on a history of drinking that exceeded 5 years with an average alcohol intake of more than 60 g/d. Disease controls included nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n=26) and other liver disease (n=22). Normal controls (n=21) were healthy individuals without liver disease. Transferrin isoforms were ...
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a laboratory test used to help detect heavy ethanol consumption. Transferrin is a serum protein that carries iron through the bloodstream to the bone marrow, where red blood cells are manufactured, as well as to the liver and spleen. Structurally, transferrin is a polypeptide with two N-linked polysaccharide chains. These polysaccharide chains are branched with sialic acid residues. Sialic acid is a monosaccharide carbohydrate. Various forms of transferrin exist, with differing levels of sialylation. The most common form is tetrasialotransferrin, with four sialic acid chains. In persons who consume significant quantities of alcohol (usually more than 4 or 5 alcoholic beverages a day for two weeks or more), the proportion of transferrin with zero, one, or two sialic acid chains is increased. These are referred to as carbohydrate-deficient transferrins. These carbohydrate-deficient transferrins can be measured in the bloodstream, and are an important ...
1. According to the Fletcher-Huehns hypothesis there exists a functional difference between the two iron-binding sites of transferrin.. 2. The aim of the study presented was to evaluate this hypothesis in a homogeneous system, with human bone marrow cells and pure human monoferric transferrins A and B.. 3. For this reason normal human bone marrow cells were incubated with human monoferric transferrin. The monoferric transferrins A and B were obtained by selective labelling at different pH of apotransferrin followed by preparative isoelectric focusing in granulated gels. The uptake of iron by the cell suspensions from monoferric transferrins A and B was equal.. 4. In a heterogeneous but more active system for the removal of iron from human transferrin in vitro the two human monoferric transferrins did not show any significant functional differences.. 5. No support for the Fletcher-Huehns hypothesis could be obtained. ...
An increased plasma transferrin level is often seen in patients suffering from iron deficiency anemia, during pregnancy, and with the use of oral contraceptives, reflecting an increase in transferrin protein expression. When plasma transferrin levels rise, there is a reciprocal decrease in percent transferrin iron saturation, and a corresponding increase in total iron binding capacity in iron deficient states[10] A decreased plasma transferrin can occur in iron overload diseases and protein malnutrition. An absence of transferrin results from a rare genetic disorder known as atransferrinemia, a condition characterized by anemia and hemosiderosis in the heart and liver that leads to heart failure and many other complications. Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[5] ...
The paper describes a study of 58 consecutive male soldiers under 30 years old admitted to an alcohol treatment unit in London, and 51 age- and gender-matched controls to compare the efficacy of isoelectric focusing, a non-quantitative measure of carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT), with other markers of alcohol misuse. The Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test and the CAGE questions were all more sensitive in detecting alcohol misusers than the laboratory markers measured. At standard cut-off levels, the laboratory markers yielded low sensitivities even in those subjects who admitted to drinking over 80 g alcohol daily for at least 3 weeks immediately prior to the study. CDT was the most sensitive (31%), followed by mean cell volume (14%) and gamma glutamyl transferase (11%). The questionnaires and laboratory markers had good specificities.. ...
An increased plasma transferrin level is often seen in patients suffering from iron deficiency anemia, during pregnancy, and with the use of oral contraceptives, reflecting an increase in transferrin protein expression. When plasma transferrin levels rise, there is a reciprocal decrease in percent transferrin iron saturation, and a corresponding increase in total iron binding capacity in iron deficient states[14] A decreased plasma transferrin can occur in iron overload diseases and protein malnutrition. An absence of transferrin results from a rare genetic disorder known as atransferrinemia, a condition characterized by anemia and hemosiderosis in the heart and liver that leads to heart failure and many other complications. Transferrin and its receptor have been shown to diminish tumour cells when the receptor is used to attract antibodies.[9] ...
Uvod. Poslednjih godina transferin s nedostatkom ugljenih hidrata (engl. carbohydrate-deficient transferrin - CDT) jedan je od markera zloupotrebe alkohola koji je pokazao najbolje rezultate u sudskoj medicini. Cilj rada. Cilj studije je bio da se odredi korelacija između aktuelne metodologije dijagnoze zloupotrebe alkohola na postmortalnom materijalu (makroskopski i mikroskopski nalaz) i određivanja CDT korišćenjem metode isoelektrofokusiranja (engl. isoelectric focusing - IEF) u poliakrilamidnom gelu (engl. polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis - PAGE). Utvrđivano je da li interval između vremena smrti i uzimanja uzoraka za CDT analizu utiče na nalaz CDT. Metode rada. Za analizu CDT korišćena je metoda IEF-PAGE. Za studiju su analizirani serumi 49 muškaraca i 11 žena prosečne starosti od 46,85±18,53 godina (raspon 14-87 godina). Kontrolnu grupu činilo je pet pacijenata koji su umrli nakon bolničkog lečenja koje je trajalo duže od 15 dana i pet pacijenata kod kojih je u ...
The single-banding components of bovine transferrin from animals homozygous for the four transferrin variants found in the U.K. were isolated. Sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showed that the bands of a single variant have molecular weights of 77500 and 73300 respectively. The different bands of a single variant and single bands of different variants show no evidence of size heterogeneity or of low-molecular-weight peptides being split off after reduction in 6m-guanidine hydrochloride. The two slower bands of a single variant, which both contain 2 molecules of sialic acid/molecule of protein, have the same molecular weight and amino acid composition, and give identical peptide maps, although differences in composition and peptide maps occur between the different variants. The results support the concept that bovine transferrin is essentially a single polypeptide chain, but they do not explain differences in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transferrin concentrations in serum and lower respiratory tract fluid of mechanically ventilated patients with COPD or ARDS. AU - Stites, S. W.. AU - Nelson, M. E.. AU - Wesselius, L. J.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Transferrin serves as the primary iron transport protein in serum, but it also is present in the lower respiratory tract where it has antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Prior studies indicate that patients with respiratory failure (RF) due to ARDS have increased concentrations of transferrin in the lower respiratory tract, which is attributed to increased lung vascular permeability. It is unclear whether mechanical ventilation contributes to increased lung transferrin content in patients with ANDS, although mechanical ventilation may increase lung microvascular permeability. To assess whether mechanical ventilation in patients with RF due to causes other than ARDS is also associated with increased respiratory tract concentrations of transferrin, we ...
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Abstract. The relationship between plasma iron, transferrin saturation, and plasma iron turnover was studied in 53 normal subjects whose transferrin saturation
CDT blood testing can be used to screen for alcohol abuse (heavy alcohol consumption). The protein transferrin carries iron to parts of the body, heavy consumption of alcohol can increase transferrin. High CDT levels can reduce if alcohol consumption is lowered and will generally return to normal after time. This priva
Transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) is a homolog of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1), the receptor responsible for the uptake of iron-loaded transferrin (holo-Tf) into cells.The half-life of the chimera increased 2.7-fold in cells exposed to Human Holo Transferrin holo-Tf like the endogenous TfR2 in HepG2 cells. Like TfR2 and unlike TfR1, the levels of the chimera did not respond to intracellular iron content. These results suggest that although holo-Tf binding to the ectodomain is necessary, the cytoplasmic domain of TfR2 is largely responsible for its stabilization by holo-Tf ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Terminal galactose residues on transferrin are increased in mid-life adults compared to young adults. AU - Dunston, Christopher R.. AU - Choudhury, Khujesta. AU - Griffiths, Helen R.. N1 - © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - Humans undergo biological ageing at different rates. This associates with functional decline in a number of physiological systems and increasing incidence of age-related pathologies. The discovery of robust biomarkers of ageing could be used to identify early divergence from a path of healthy ageing towards age-related disease. In the present study, we undertook proteomic analysis of plasma from healthy young men (mean age = 21.4 ± 1.5 years) and healthy mid-life men (mean age = 57.0 ±1.6 years). We identified twelve spots including transferrin, complement C3b and transthyretin that differed in abundance between the age groups. Transferrin spots showed an acidic pI shift in older males. Sandwich ELISAs were ...
The effect of iron on the exocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells was studied by first allowing the cells to endocytose apotransferrin or diferric transferrin. Subsequent release of the apotransferrin was very rapid with a t 1/2 of 3.01 min, compared with 5.5 min for diferric transferrin. Release of apotransferrin was slowed by the weak base methylamine, t 1/2 8.0 min, but the effect of this agent was substantially greater when iron-transferrin was used, t 1/2 18.65 min, suggesting that methylamine affects both iron removal and receptor recycling. Release of iron-transferrin could be accelerated to a rate comparable with that of apotransferrin by addition of the permeant iron-chelator desferrioxamine. The difference in the rates of release of different forms of the protein could be explained by the re-endocytosis of the iron-rich protein, a process detected by the accelerated release of transferrin when the cells were washed in medium at pH 5.5 containing an iron-chelator or treated with a ...
Apo Transferrin vs Human transferrin - posted in Cell Biology Products: Greetings, What is the difference between apo-transferrin and human transferrin? I got their definition of apo-transferrin is free from iron binding while transferrin based on Sigma product is already half-saturated with iron. Once saturated with iron, i.e forming holo-transferrin it will bring iron into cell by receptor binding of the cell. I am confused why Sigma need to have two different products which in th...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), which requires iron for survival, acquires this element by synthesizing iron-binding molecules known as siderophores and by recruiting a host iron-transport protein, transferrin, to the phagosome. The siderophores extract iron from transferrin and transport it into the bacterium. Here we describe an additional mechanism for iron acquisition, consisting of an M.tb protein that drives transport of human holo-transferrin into M.tb cells. The pathogenic strain M.tb H37Rv expresses several proteins that can bind human holo-transferrin. One of these proteins is the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, Rv1436), which is present on the surface of M.tb and its relative Mycobacterium smegmatis. Overexpression of GAPDH results in increased transferrin binding to M.tb cells and iron uptake. Human transferrin is internalized across the mycobacterial cell wall in a GAPDH-dependent manner within infected macrophages ...
Transferrin is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of approximately 80 kd. Its single polypeptide chain is formed into two lobes and it is able to bind two ferric (Fe III) ions per protein molecule. Horse serum transferrin, like the transferrins of most vertebrate species, exhibits extensive genetic polymorphism. Transferrin is one of several protein systems used for blood-typing horses. During routine blood typing a new band (designated*) was found. This variant originated from a thoroughbred stallion which was of considerable value as a sire and so it was of interest to characterize this new transferrin variant. Thoroughbred horses carry genes for only six of the fourteen known transferrin isoforms; D, Fl, F2, H2, 0 and R. The aim of this project was to characterize, by classical amino acid sequence analysis, the transferrin variant and the parental variants D and Fl, from one of which must have arisen. All three variant forms (D, Fl and*) were purified. Tryptic digests of the variants were ...
The complexation of Cm(iii) with human serum transferrin was investigated in a pH range from 3.5 to 11.0 using time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). At pH [greater-than-or-equal] 7.4 Cm(iii) is incorporated at the Fe(iii) binding site of transferrin whereas at lower pH a partially bound Cm(iii) transferrin species is formed. At physiological temperature (310 K) at pH 7.4{,} about 70% of the partially bound and 30% of the incorporated Cm(iii) transferrin species are present in solution. The Cm(iii) results obtained by TRLFS are in very good agreement with Am(iii) EXAFS results{,} confirming the incorporation of Am(iii) at the Fe(iii) binding site at pH 8.5 ...
Hi Ashley, I am not an expert on transferrin, but I hope I can answer your question to your satisfaction. Ferric iron (Fe3+) is found under conditions of neutral or alkaline pH, while ferrous iron (Fe2+) is found under acidic pH. This in itself would suggest that transferrin would mostly only come into contact with ferric iron in the body. Anyway, transferrin binds to a number of different metals, but its highest affinity is for ferric iron. It does not bind at all to ferrous iron. This would explain the colour change / absorbance when mixed with Fe3+, but no change when transferrin is mixed with Fe2+. In terms of the bicarbonate versus carbonate question, I can see the problem, because a lot of people are lazy and do not distinguish between the two. I looked up a research article that definitively said that transferrin binds to bicarbonate (aka hydrogen carbonate) but not carbonate. Hope this helps! - Karin ...
Serum iron concentration connotes the Fe (III) bound to serum transferrin and does not include the iron contained in serum as free hemoglobin. Because normally only about one third of the iron binding sites of transferrin are occupied by Fe (III), serum transferrin has considerable reserve iron binding capacity.. ...
UNC-51 overexpression can inhibit the transferrin endocytosis in the transfected COS-7 cells. We think that this inhibition of transferrin endocytosis should be caused by UNC-51-dependent...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Guinea pig and human red cell hemolysates release iron from transferrin. AU - Pollack, Simeon. AU - Weaver, J.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Despite a binding constant of 1022 L/mol-1, iron is released from transferrin in the reticulocyte. The mechanism of this release is unclear. It has been suggested that iron is released from transferrin in endocytic vesicles that have been acidified. But the carboxy-terminal iron in transferrin is acid stable at the pH apparently achieved in the endocytic vesicle, and is, nevertheless, released. We found that red cell hemolysates, at neutral pH, will release iron from transferrin. With molecular sieve chromatography, the activity is seen to consist of high and low molecular weight components. The activity of both components is susceptible to destruction by phosphatases. The releasing activity of hemolysates can account for about 25% of the iron uptake of a reticulocyte at pH 7; at pH 5.5 (the purported pH of the endocytic vesicle), the ...
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TY - GEN. T1 - Effect of Transferrin on Uptake of Citrate and Ferric Citrate by Cultured Rat Hepatocytes. AU - Graham, R.M.. AU - Morgan, Evan. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. M3 - Conference paper. VL - n/a. SP - 307. BT - International Symposium Iron in Biology and Medicines. A2 - Available, Not. PB - Not Available. CY - France. T2 - Effect of Transferrin on uptake of citrate and Ferric Citrate by Cultured Rat Hepatocytes. Y2 - 1 January 1996. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transferrin and the transferrin receptor for the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain and cancer cells. AU - Dufès, Christine. AU - Al Robaian, Majed. AU - Somani, Sukrut. PY - 2013/5/7. Y1 - 2013/5/7. N2 - The potential use of many promising novel drugs is limited by their inability to specifically reach their site of action after intravenous administration, without secondary effects on healthy tissues. In order to remediate this problem, the protein transferrin (Tf) has been extensively studied as a targeting molecule for the transport of drug and gene delivery systems to the brain and cancer cells. A wide range of delivery approaches have been developed to target the Tf receptor and they have already improved the specific delivery of Tf-bearing therapeutic agents to their site of action. This review provides a summary of the numerous delivery strategies used to target the Tf receptor and focuses on recent therapeutic advances.. AB - The potential use of many ...
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a prevalent genetic disorder that results in the daily excess absorption of dietary iron. If untreated this disease leads to systemic organ failure and death. HH is caused by mutations to the gene coding for a protein called HFE, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein with a demonstrated role in regulating cellular iron homeostasis. HFE binds to the cell-surface receptor transferrin receptor (TfR), a dimeric type II transmembrane glycoprotein responsible for iron uptake into most mammalian cell types. TfR binds iron-loaded transferrin (Fe-Tf) from the blood and transports it to acidic recycling endosomes where iron is released from Fe-Tf in a TfR-facilitated process. Iron-free transferrin (apo-Tf) remains bound to TfR and is recycled to the cell surface, where apo-Tf rapidly dissociates from TfR upon exposure to the basic pH of blood. HFE and Fe-Tf can bind simultaneously to TfR to form a ternary complex, but HFE binding to TfR lowers the apparent affinity of the ...
We sought to examine the relationship between elevated transferrin saturation (TS) and measures of health status (telomere length and patient-reported health-related quality of life) to assess whether elevated TS is associated with negative patient outcomes beyond increased risk for morbidity and mortality, using a cross-sectional analysis of the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study supplemented with assays for leukocyte telomere length in adults ≥25 years old (n = 669). Among individuals with elevated TS (≥45 % for women and ≥50 % for men), who also had a usual source of care, only 5.2 % reported ever being told by a doctor that they had an elevated iron condition. In a fully adjusted general linear regression model controlling for demographic characteristics as well as health conditions associated with iron overload, elevated TS versus non-elevated TS was associated with worse general health status (60.4 vs. 63.8, P , 0.05), mental health status (76.5 vs. 82.2, P , 0.0001) ...
Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC): Measures all of the proteins in the blood that are available to bind with iron, including transferrin. Since transferrin is the primary iron-binding protein, the TIBC test is a good indirect measurement of transferrin. The body produces transferrin in relationship to the need for iron. When iron stores are low, transferrin levels increase and vice versa. In healthy people, about one-third of the binding sites on transferrin are used to transport iron ...
Background and Methods The involvement of iron in the risk for, and complications of, type 2 diabetes has generated substantial interest over the past 15 years, initially sparked by an association with raised serum ferritin, and the observation that people with iron overload diseases frequently develop diabetes. Considerable advances have since been made in understanding the effect glucose has on molecules, cells, and tissues; and the role that oxidative stress plays in the development of the pathologies of long-term diabetes. Poorly liganded iron is potentially both a contributor to, and consequence of, these complications. In vitro experiments with glucose-incubated transferrin by earlier workers have demonstrated loss of function with increasing glycation, leading to the suggestion that the failure of this key iron-binding protein may contribute to diabetic pathology, via the presence of redox active non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI). In vitro glycated transferrin is examined here by ...
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you. Results are given in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The normal range for transferrin is 170 to 370 mg/dl. If you have a higher amount, you may have iron-deficiency anemia. If you have a lower level, you may have another problem, such as liver disease and hemolytic anemia. Transferrin may also be measured using a value called total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). Results are given in micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL). Normal values are 300 to 360 mcg/dL. A higher level means that you may have iron-deficiency anemia. Another measurement, called transferrin saturation, checks how many places on your transferrin that can hold iron are actually doing so. Normal values are 20% to 50%. In severe cases of iron-deficiency and anemia, this number may fall below 10%. Many ...
The transferrin receptor is a type II transmembrane protein. It is a homo-dimer consisting of two identical monomers joined by two disulfide bindings at cystein residues 89 and 92 in the extracellular domain just outside the cell membrane (Jing and Trowbridge 1987). The monomer is a glycoprotein with molecular mass 90 kDa consisting of 780 amino residues. The protein have three domains: one 61-residue amino-terminal cytoplasmic region, a 28-residue transmembrane region and a 671-residue extracellular carboxyl-terminus (McClelland et al 1984, Schneider et al 1984). Each ectodomain can bind one molecule of transferrin and thus the transferrin receptor can bind two molecules of transferrin carrying in total four Fe3+. The ectodomain consists of three regions, each contributing to and critical for the transferrin binding (Lawrence et al 1999). The structure of the ectodomain has striking similarities to the membranebound carboxy peptidase II (Lawrence et al 1999), suggesting that they have evolved ...
Busch, B., 1969: Studies on serum transferrin types of German Black Pied cattle (DDR). 3. Relationships between serum transferrin types and milk performance traits
As a screening test for iron deficiency or chronic total-body iron overload (such as hemochromatosis), an overnight fasting sample is best. If checking for acute iron poisoning, a diagnostic baseline sample taken at any time prior to treatment is optimal. Screening programs to detect iron overload much more frequently identify cases of iron deficiency (low iron)...a situation which demands diagnostic work up without any undue delay (there may be a serious & manageable reason)! An iron profile screen for serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC...STS serum transferrin saturation) gives a result that reflects the percentage iron saturation of the iron-binding sites on the transferrin protein (iron carrier protein). A percentage saturation ,55% is cause to look further for iron overload. This is a much more specific screening test than serum ferritin (many other causes of elevated ferritin especially are a non-fasting sample & also other liver disease, inflammation, recent multiple ...
transferrin - MedHelps transferrin Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for transferrin. Find transferrin information, treatments for transferrin and transferrin symptoms.
BACKGROUND: The effect of time and temperature on beta-2 transferrin stability in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is not well established. After collecting nasal CSF for testing, beta-2 transferrin has been found to be stable and detectable for 1 week, whether being refrigerated or stored at room temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine if beta-2 transferrin remained detectable longer than 1 week and whether refrigeration improved its detectability. METHODS: In patients undergoing therapeutic CSF diversion, 2-mL CSF samples were collected from 18 patients. The samples were divided and stored either at room temperature, or at 4°C, and tested for beta-2 transferrin at 7 and 14 days. CSF was collected from external ventricular drains (EVDs) (n = 15), lumbar drains (n = 2), and subdural drains (n = 1). RESULTS: Of the 18 CSF samples originally testing positive for beta-2 transferrin, none turned negative at 7 or 14 days, in both the refrigerated and room temperature groups (95% confidence interval
A Paris-based research report suggests that transferrin, the iron-binding serum protein, could be useful to help to treat patients with retinal detachment (RD). Human studies indicate that ocular fluids from patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) shows that iron increases with detachment duration and correlates with poor visual recovery. While there is clear progress made in surgical techniques for RRD treatment, at present RRD patients have poor vision-related quality of life therefore there is a critical therapeutic challenge. A strategy for a treatment could involve a supplementation of transferrin activity to neutralize iron toxicity and may restore iron homeostasis in animal models.. Research in model disease studies show that iron (FeSO4) induces photoreceptor cell death in retinal explants and that transferrin protects activity against iron-induced toxicity. Following research, transferrin (using a transgenic model expressing human transferrin) can rescue the detached ...
|strong|Sheep anti Human transferrin antibody|/strong| recognizes human transferrin, also known as beta-1 metal-binding globulin siderophilin or serotransferrin. Transferrin is 647 amino acid ~7…
Product is the lyophilized powder of human transferrin and buffer salts. ransferrin is a glycoprotein with homologous N-terminal and C-terminal iron-binding domains. The N-terminal and C-terminal domains of this protein are globular moieties of about 330 amino acids. Each of these domains is divided into two sub-domains, with the iron- and anion-binding sites found within the intersubdomain cleft. The binding cleft opens with iron release and closes with iron binding. Transferrin binds iron with an association constant of approximately 1022 M-1. Ferric iron couples to transferrin only in the presence of an anion (usually carbonate) that serves as a bridging ligand between metal and protein, excluding water from the two coordination sites. Without the anion cofactor, iron binding to transferrin is negligible. In the presence of anions, ferric transferrin is resistant to all but the most potent chelators. The remaining four coordination sites are provided by the transferrin protein - a histidine ...
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Study finds extreme levels of Transferrin Saturation Ratio reflecting blood iron levels linked to increased risk of death. A new study led by researchers at the Graduate Entry Medical School (GEMS), University of Limerick (UL) has found that people with low levels and very high levels of a commonly measured laboratory test, the transferrin saturation ratio are at an increased risk of death. The test is a measure of the amount of available iron in the bloodstream with low levels generally reflecting a state of iron deficiency and high levels suggesting a relative excess.. The study found that subjects with extremely low transferrin saturation levels (less that 17.5%) were at a 45% higher risk of death. On the other hand, the risk of death was also significantly higher for subjects with very high levels of transferrin saturation above 31.3 %.. According to primary author, Professor Austin Stack, Foundation Chair of Medicine at University of Limerick Graduate Entry Medical School, and Consultant ...
Abstract. Objective. To evaluate whether levels of iron status markers (haemoglobin, serum transferrin saturation, serum ferritin) in pregnant women, measured in the beginning of the second trimester, could be used to predict levels later in pregnancy, pre partum and post partum.. Design. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study.. Setting. The Birth Clinic at the Department of Obstetrics, Herning Hospital, Herning, Denmark.. Subjects. One hundred and twenty healthy pregnant women between 14 and 18 weeks of gestation.. Interventions. Sixty-three women were allocated to treatment with tablets containing 66 mg ferrous iron (as fumarate) daily, and 57 women to treatment with placebo.. Main outcome measures. Haemoglobin, serum transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin were measured every 4th week during gestation, prior to delivery, and 1 and 8 weeks post partum.. Results. Correlation matrices during pregnancy and post partum were calculated for each iron status marker separately ...
Transferrin (Tf) is a multifunctional, iron binding protein found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Although transferrin has been suggested to play a role in innate immunity, its immunological function during infection has not been characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized Bombyx mori transferrin (BmTf). The promoter region of BmTf has numerous putative NF-κB binding sites, suggesting its possible function in innate immunity. Analysis of BmTf gene expression shows that it is highly inducible in response to a wide variety of pathogens including bacteria, fungus, and viruses. Recombinant BmTf protein produced in a baculovirus system exhibits iron binding capacity and antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Taken together, our results indicate that BmTf is an inducible immune effector molecule that may play an important role in pathogen clearance of insect innate immunity. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Transferrin is a glycosylated plasma and transport protein for iron with a molecular weight of 79.6 kDa that can bind two iron (FeIII) ions. It mediates iron transport in plasma between the gastrointestinal tract, iron storage organs as the liver and iron-consuming organs as the hemopoietic tissue. The synthesis of transferrin occurs primarily in the liver and in smaller quantities in the brain. Plasma levels are dependent on iron requirement and availability of iron in the body. (1) Elevated concentrations can indicate iron deficiency, while low concentrations can occur due to inflammation, malignancy, malnutrition, or chronic liver disease. At normal levels, the determination of the transferrin saturation can be used to screen for hemochromatosis. (1) By September 06, nearly 27 million cases and 900.000 deaths due to COVID-19 were reported to the WHO. (2) Although the disease is diagnosed almost equally in men and women, severe cases occur more often in men, with higher rates of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of membrane-bound transferrin-like protein p97 on the cell surface of chondrocytes. AU - Kawamoto, Takeshi. AU - Pan, Haiou. AU - Yan, Weiqun. AU - Ishida, Hideyuki. AU - Usui, Emiko. AU - Oda, Ryo. AU - Nakamasu, Kazuko. AU - Noshiro, Mitsuhide. AU - Kawashima-Ohya, Yoshie. AU - Fujii, Masashi. AU - Shintani, Hideaki. AU - Okada, Yasunori. AU - Kato, Yukio. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1998/9/15. Y1 - 1998/9/15. N2 - A concanavalin-A-binding protein of 76 kDa was purified from the plasma membrane fraction of rabbit chondrocyte cultures. Amino acid sequencing of the N-terminal region and of tryptic peptides of the protein, in addition to sequencing of its cDNA revealed that this protein is highly similar to the tumour-associated antigen p97. Hence, it was concluded that this protein is the rabbit form of p97. Western blotting, Northern blotting and reverse- transcription PCR analyses indicated that rabbit p97 is expressed at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transferrin receptor overexpression enhances transferrin responsiveness and the metastatic growth of a rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell line. AU - Cavanaugh, Philip G.. AU - Jia, Li Bin. AU - Zou, Yi Yu. AU - Nicolson, Garth L.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - We previously found that breast cancer cell transferrin receptor expression and proliferative response to transferrin often correlated with metastatic capability. To further explore this, we transfected mammary tumor cells with a cDNA coding for the transferrin receptor and examined the effects of its overexpression on various cellular properties. A human transferrin receptor expression plasmid was made by excising the cDNA for the receptor from pcDTR1 and ligating it into the multiple cloning site of pcDNA1Neo. The resulting construct was transfected into the poorly metastatic rat MTLn2 line that expresses low endogenous levels of rat transferrin receptor, and transfection-induced receptor expression was ascertained using ...
Iron deficiency anemia is considered to be one of a major global health problem affecting more than a million of the population other than any condition. Recombinant human transferrin consists of a polypeptide chain of amino acids. The recombinant human transferrin is a non-glycosylated produced in the plant. The recombinant human transferrin purified by exclusive chromatographic methods. In cell culture applications, the recombinant human transferrin is an alternative method to blood-derived transferrin. Iron is essential for life and important for processes like DNA synthesis, electron transfer, and oxygen transport. Deficiency or excess iron in the body can affect the above-mentioned processes and may impact the recombinant human transferrin market. Imbalance in the iron level can cause iron disorder such as hemochromatosis, aceruloplasminemia, atransferrinemia, Hemosiderosis.. Interesting.? Apply For A Sample Report @ https://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/samples/30701. According to the ...
Definition of soluble transferrin receptor in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is soluble transferrin receptor? Meaning of soluble transferrin receptor as a legal term. What does soluble transferrin receptor mean in law?
PCR-based subtractive hybridization was used to isolate genes preferentially expressed in a termite (Mastotermes darwiniensis) following exposure to an entomopathogenic fungus. The subtraction procedure yielded a cDNA clone encoding a putative transferrin that, when sequenced to its ends, is the largest (728 amino acids) for any insect transferrin characterized to date. Cysteines and residues comprising putative iron-binding sites are conserved in both N- and C-terminal lobes, suggesting structural and functional similarity to diferric vertebrate transferrins. A quantitative PCR assay confirmed a significant increase in transferrin expression following infection, suggesting its up-regulation is part of the innate immune response. However, codon-based tests for selection among known insect transferrins revealed only a small proportion of codon-sites positively selected. Thus, unlike certain vertebrate transferrin lineages, no widespread evidence for pathogen-mediated positive selection was ...
In the present study we examined the capacity of interleukin-1 (IL-1) α, β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) to induce transferrin secretion by Sertoli cells under in vitro conditions. Primary Sertoli cell (SC) cultures from immature mice secreted constitutively transferrin. Stimulation of these cultures with IL-1α, IL-1β significantly increas\d their capacity to secrete transferrin. Addition of IL-1ra to unstimulated SC cultures did not affect their capacity to secrete transferrin. Stimulation of SC cultures with a combination of both IL-1α and FSH or IL-1β and FSH showed additive effect between IL-1 and FSH in their capacity to induce transferrin secretion by these cells. However, stimulation of Sertoli cells with a combination of both IL-1ra and FSH did not affect their capacity to secrete transferrin compared with FSH-stimulated cultures. Our results may suggest the involvement of testicular paracrine/autocrine factors (IL-1) and ...
Usefulness of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and trypsin activity in the diagnosis of acute alcoholic pancreatitis. Academic Article 2001 ...
Epirubicin (EPI) is one of the most widely used anticarcinogens; however, serious side effects, including cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure, limit its long-term administration. To overcome this problem, the HAIYPRH peptide ligand was used with EPI in the synthesis of a HAIYPRH-EPI conjugate. The anticancer activity and cellular uptake of the conjugate were measured and evaluated. The results of the present study indicated that the cytotoxicity of HAIYPRH-EPI was correlated with the expression of the cell surface transferrin receptor (TfR). The conjugate exerted high cytotoxicity and proapoptotic function when in an LN229 glioma cell line, which overexpresses surface TfR. It was hypothesized that transferrin (Tf) can promote cytotoxicity. Conversely, the conjugate exhibited very low cytotoxicity and proapoptotic function in a U87 glioma cell line, in which surface TfR expression was undetectable. In addition, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry methods were used to evaluate ...
Hepatic transferrin receptors were studied in normal male rats at 1 to 59 wk after weaning, using immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques. The number of transferrin receptors measured and the intensity of the staining in situ decreased rapidly during the first 10 wk of life and more slowly thereafter. Immunohistochemistry further demonstrated changes in the topographical and (sub)cellular localization of the transferrin receptor. In the young rat livers, staining was almost exclusively present on hepatocytes in acinar zone 2 + 3 in a honeycomb to sinusoidal pattern. With aging, a panacinar heterogeneous and mainly sinusoidal staining of hepatocytes was more frequent. Kupffer cell positivity was more obvious as compared with the young rat livers. The observed changes in transferrin receptor expression may partly be explained by age-dependent alterations in DNA synthesis and proliferative potential of the liver cells. A series of rats were iron loaded with carbonyl iron up to 39 wk and ...
Iron is a trace element that is needed in the body to produce red blood cells. It is either carried or bound to a protein that our liver makes, called transferrin. The levels of transferrin are always measured along your iron levels.. Many people consume enough iron through a healthy diet that includes red meat, beans, dark leafy greens, and iron-fortified grains. Some people do not take in enough iron or do not absorb it properly, while others - including pregnant women - have higher iron needs. Because the iron level can fluctuate from day to day (or even within the same day), iron tests are often ordered with ferritin and total iron-binding capacity (and indirect measurement of Transferrin). The total iron-binding capacity measures the iron that is available to bind to proteins in the blood. This helps assess the iron available to aid in the transport of oxygen in the body.. This test is made of two indicators, serum Iron and Binding Capacity. It measures the amount of iron available to bind ...
An Iron and TIBC Blood Test (Total Iron-Binding Capacity) is used to diagnose iron overload or iron deficiency. Order a Total Iron Binding Capacity Blood Test today.
Human transferrin receptor, molecular model. This molecule is found on the surface of a cell. It binds transferrins, iron-binding glycoproteins found in the blood plasma, and transports them into the cell. - Stock Image F009/6016
Serum iron quantification is useful in confirming the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anemia or hemochromatosis. The measurement of total iron binding in the same specimen may facilitate the clinicians ability to distinguish between low serum iron levels caused by iron deficiency from those related to inflammatory neoplastic disorders. The assay for iron measures the amount of iron which is bound to transferrin. The total iron binding capacity (TIBC) measures the amount of iron that would appear in blood if all the transferrin were saturated with iron. It is an indirect measurement of transferrin concentrations but expressed as an iron measurement. To obtain the percent saturation, the serum iron is divided by the TIBC which gives the actual amount of saturated transferrin. The percent saturation is low in iron deficiency and high in iron storage diseases ...
Expression-ready Rat Transferrin Receptor/TFRC cDNA ORF clone (RG80098-ACG) with enhanced promotor in expression vector (pCMV3-C-GFPSpark®) is confirmed by full-length sequence and validated in expression capability for gene expression studies or other applications. Quote for bulk production.
Transferrin is a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 79.6 kDa. It is the main protein of iron transport (III). It is synthesised mostly in the liver, but also in the choroid plexus of the brain. The transferrin plasma concentration is regulated by the availability of iron in the body: during iron deficiency, the transferrin plasma concentration increases, and returns to normal when the deficiency is treated. A large transferrin plasma concentration may be caused by microcytic hypochromic anaemia (the assay of transferrin may then be used for treatment monitoring), during iron deficiency, but also during pregnancy or even during oestrogen treatment.. A decrease of transferrin can be measured in the case of the acute inflammatory phase, chronic hepatitis or even malnutrition. A nephrotic syndrome can also decrease the transferrin concentration in plasma. ...
The aim of this study was to investigate serum iron parameters, and copper and iron deficiency anemia in ewes infected with gastro- intestinal parasites. This study was conducted with 60 pregnant Akkaraman ewes. In the statistical analyses, values obtained from both parasite infected and uninfected ewes were compared. Significant decreases were observed in PCV (P < 0.05), Hb (P < 0.05), RBC (P < 0.05), total protein (P < 0.05), albumin (P < 0.05), globulin (P < 0.05), and MCHC (P < 0.01), and a significant increase was seen in the WBC value (P < 0.05) in the parasite infected group. Furthermore, the parasite infected group had lower serum Fe (P < 0.001), TS % (P < 0.001), and serum Cu (P < 0.01) levels, and had higher UIBC values (P < 0.05) compared to the values obtain from the uninfected group. Therefore, in addition to antiparasite drug treatment in parasite infected pregnant ewes, iron preparations should also be administered in order to treat iron deficiency. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multivalent metal-induced iron acquisition from transferrin and lactoferrin by myeloid cells. AU - Olakanmi, Oyebode. AU - Rasmussen, George T.. AU - Lewis, Troy S.. AU - Stokes, John B.. AU - Kemp, John D.. AU - Britigan, Bradley E.. PY - 2002/8/15. Y1 - 2002/8/15. N2 - We previously described a unique, high-capacity, ATP-independent mechanism through which myeloid cells acquire Fe from low-m.w. chelates. The rate of this Fe acquisition is markedly increased by cellular exposure to multivalent metal cations. Because most Fe in vivo is bound to transferrin or lactoferrin, we examined whether this mechanism also contributes to myeloid cell acquisition of Fe from transferrin and/or lactoferrin. Using HL-60 cells as a model system, we show cellular acquisition of 59Fe from both lactoferrin and transferrin that was unaffected by conditions that depleted the cells of ATP or disrupted their cytoskeleton. Fe acquisition was dramatically increased by cell exposure to various metals ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multivalent metal-induced iron acquisition from transferrin and lactoferrin by myeloid cells. AU - Olakanmi, Oyebode. AU - Rasmussen, George T.. AU - Lewis, Troy S.. AU - Stokes, John B.. AU - Kemp, John D.. AU - Britigan, Bradley E.. PY - 2002/8/15. Y1 - 2002/8/15. N2 - We previously described a unique, high-capacity, ATP-independent mechanism through which myeloid cells acquire Fe from low-m.w. chelates. The rate of this Fe acquisition is markedly increased by cellular exposure to multivalent metal cations. Because most Fe in vivo is bound to transferrin or lactoferrin, we examined whether this mechanism also contributes to myeloid cell acquisition of Fe from transferrin and/or lactoferrin. Using HL-60 cells as a model system, we show cellular acquisition of 59Fe from both lactoferrin and transferrin that was unaffected by conditions that depleted the cells of ATP or disrupted their cytoskeleton. Fe acquisition was dramatically increased by cell exposure to various metals ...
Gold nanoparticles functionalized with (rat) Transferrin protein. Target cancer cells that overexpress transferrin receptor Can be labeled with an optional fluorescent dye tag Core diameter: 4 nm - 200 nm Absorbance peak: 520 - 850 nm 5 kDa PEG spacer, 2 kDa PEG backfill Shelf life: > 4 months (4°C stor
CD71 (Transferrin Receptor) Mouse anti-Human, APC, Clone: OKT9 (OKT-9), eBioscience™ 100 Tests; APC CD71 (Transferrin Receptor) Mouse anti-Human, APC, Clone:...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The critical glycosylation site of human transferrin receptor contains a high-mannose oligosaccharide. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
References for Abcams Human Transferrin Receptor peptide (ab101219). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Product Name: Mouse mAb anti- human transferrin Receptor (CD71), Clone CY-TFRCollection: AntibodySub Category: Monoclonal AntibodyImmunogen: Purified human
Gold nanoparticles functionalized with (mouse) Transferrin protein. Target cancer cells that overexpress transferrin receptor Can be labeled with an optional fluorescent dye tag Core diameter: 4 nm - 200 nm Absorbance peak: 520 - 850 nm 5 kDa PEG spacer, 2 kDa PEG backfill Shelf life: > 4 months (4°C st
J. J. Franks, J. B. Kruskal, R. E. Kirsch, A. P. G. Beechey, D. F. Morrell, G. G. Harrison; Halothane Decreases Albumin and Transferrin Synthesis: Studies in the Isolated, Perfused Rat Liver and in the Intact Rat. Anesthesiology 1988;68(4):529-533. Download citation file:. ...
Background: High iron levels can increase the formation of noxious oxygen radicals, which are thought to contribute to cerebrovascular disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine if iron status and HFE genotypes constitute risk factors for stroke. Methods: First-ever stroke cases (231 ischemic and 42 hemorrhagic) and matched double referents from the population-based Northern Sweden cohorts were studied in a nested case-referent setting. Results: For total iron binding capacity, an increased risk of ischemic stroke was seen in the highest quartile (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.14-2.83; p for trend 0.012). The highest quartile of transferrin iron saturation showed a decreased risk of ischemic stroke in men (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.22-0.87; p for trend 0.028), but not in women. There was an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke in the second (OR 4.07; 95% CI 1.09-15.20) and third quartile (OR 4.22; 95% CI 1.08-16.42) of ferritin. Neither quartiles of plasma iron concentrations nor the HFE C282Y and ...
Mouse Transferrin Receptor/TFRC lentiviral cDNA ORF clone in lentiviral vector (pLV-C-GFPSpark®) (MG50741-ACGLN) is expression-ready with premium transfection efficiency and high biosafety. The cDNA clone is confirmed by full-length sequence and validated in expression capability for gene expression studies or other applications. Quote for bulk production.
Iron acquisition by developing erythroid cells is necessary to produce hemoglobin, which allows red blood cells to deliver oxygen to body tissues in exchange for carbon dioxide. The processes of iron uptake and intracellular transport are precisely regulated to protect cells from the toxic effects of free iron (Hentze et al., 2004). In vertebrates, the major pathway by which all cells obtain iron occurs through the interaction of transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) with its ligand transferrin (Tf) (Aisen, 2004; Andrews, 2000). Tfr1 is a type II membrane protein that facilitates iron uptake by binding to the iron carrier Tf, a plasma glycoprotein that shuttles iron absorbed from the diet. When bound, the Tf/Tfr1 complex is internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Acidification of the endosome compartment by proton pumps causes the release of iron from Tf. Iron is subsequently delivered to the cell cytoplasm through the action of the transmembrane protein divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), which ...
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Plant cells possess much of the molecular machinery necessary for receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME), but this process still awaits detailed characterization. In order to identify a reliable and well-characterized marker to investigate RME in plant cells, we have expressed the human transferrin rec …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Visualizing head and neck tumors in vivo using near-infrared fluorescent transferrin conjugate. AU - Shan, Liang. AU - Hao, Yubin. AU - Wang, Songping. AU - Korotcov, Alexandru. AU - Zhang, Renshu. AU - Wang, Tongxin. AU - Califano, Joseph. AU - Gu, Xinbin. AU - Sridhar, Rajagopalan. AU - Bhujwalla, Zaver M.. AU - Wang, Paul C.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/1. Y1 - 2008/1. N2 - Transferrin receptor (TfR) is overexpressed in human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). This study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of imaging HNSCC by targeting TfR using near-infrared fluorescent transferrin conjugate (TfNIR). Western blot analysis of four HNSCC cell lines revealed overexpression of TfR in all four lines compared with that in normal keratinocytes (OKFL). Immunocytochemistry further confirmed the expression of TfR and endocytosis of TfNIR in JHU-013 culture cells. Following intravenous administration of TfNIR ...
Transferrin - 5nm Gold Conjugate (0.5ml) (Transferrin Gold Conjugates). Transferrin conjugated 5nm gold nanoparticles (0.5ml, OD3)
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Hemochromatosis is caused by mutations in HFE, a protein that competes with transferrin (TF) for binding to transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1). We developed mutant mouse strains to gain insight into the role of the Hfe/Tfr1 complex in regulating iron homeostasis. We introduced mutations into a ubiquitous …
Author(s): Green, Frank; OHare, Thomas; Blackwell, Aaron; Enns, Caroline A | Abstract: A yeast two-hybrid screen identified a specific interaction between the cytoplasmic domain of transferrin receptor (TfR) and GABARAP, a 14 kDa protein that binds to the gamma2 subunit of neuronal GABA(A) receptors. The specificity of the TfR-GABARAP interaction was demonstrated by in vitro binding assays with purified proteins and by co-immunoprecipitation of GABARAP with endogenous TfR from HeLa cell lysates. Replacement of the YTRF internalization motif with ATRA within the cytoplasmic domain of TfR reduced interaction with GABARAP in the yeast two-hybrid screen and in vitro binding assays. The intracellular location of GABARAP using chimeric GABARAP-GFP showed that the majority of GABARAP was located in perinuclear vesicles. Our results show that GABARAP plays a more general role outside the confines of neuronal cells and GABA(A) receptors.
The present invention pertains to a method for delivering a neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent across the blood brain barrier to the brain of a host. The method comprises administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody-neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent conjugate wherein the antibody is reactive with a transferrin receptor. Other aspects of this invention include a delivery system comprising an antibody reactive with a transferrin receptor linked to a neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent and methods for treating hosts afflicted with a disease associated with a neurological disorder.
Methods of inhibiting bacterial adhesion to medical implants and reducing device-associated infection are effectuated by administering an effective amount of apo-transferrin to an individual with such an implant. Preferably the apo-transferrin is administered by controlled release at or near the implant.
We seek to understand the structural basis for negatively cooperative3 ligand binding by transferrin receptor (TfR). TfR is a membrane-bound homodimer that bind...
Abnormal Serum Transferrin Pattern Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Normocytic Normochromic Anemia. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Ferristatin II (NSC8679) is a polysulphonated dye. Ferristatin II promotes degradation of transferrin receptor-1 in vitro and in vivo. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Fig. Change in serum iron concentration depending on age Fig. The change in serum iron concentration, depending on transferrin, does not occur in the elderly, which is due to a decrease in the synthesis of transferrin in the liver. The most common cause of iron deficiency anemia in the elderly - loss of iron due to microcirculation of the gastrointestinal tract, additional iron deficiency, impaired absorption( eg, with functional pancreatic insufficiency), persistent small bleeding from the oral cavity due to problems with dentures, nephrogenic hematuria. The blood loss resulting in iron deficiency is characterized by a small amount of lost blood, duration and often leak unnoticed. The average concentration of vitamin B12 in the serum in the elderly is clearly reduced. The concentration of folic acid decreases between 60 and 90 years, but after 90 years it increases and approaches the indicators of young people. A significant decrease in the concentration of vitamin B12 or folic acid often leads ...
Question - Having symptoms of hypothyroidism. Done tests for Vit D, Testosterone and soluble transferrin receptor. What can be done?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Testosterone, Ask a General & Family Physician
Very little chromium (,2%) in the form of inorganic compounds is absorbed but may be higher with certain organic formulations (14). Once absorbed, chromium is distributed to various tissues of the body, but appears to be most concentrated in the kidney, muscle, and liver (16). The principal carrier protein for chromium is transferrin, which also plays a critical role in the movement of chromium from blood to LMWCr. It has been suggested that migration of transferrin receptors to the plasma membranes of insulin-insensitive cells after insulin stimulation is the initial step in this process. Transferrin containing the plasma-bound chromium is postulated to bind to the transferrin receptors and is internalized by endocytosis (Figs. 1 and 2). The pH of the internalized vesicle is reduced by ATP-driven proton pumps, chromium is released from transferrin, and the resulting free chromium is postulated to be sequestered by LMWCr (15,17). With this step, chromium is transferred from transferrin to LMWCr, ...
We determined the efficacy of HB21(Fv)PE40, a single-chain immunotoxin made by fusing the variable regions of a monoclonal antibody directed at the human transferrin receptor (TfR) with a truncated mutant of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE), against metastatic human colon carcinoma KM12L4 cells growing in the liver or subcutis of nude mice. Organ-specific modulation of TfR expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry using anti-human CD71 antibody. KM12L4 cells expressed human TfR and were lysed in vitro by HB21(Fv)PE40 but not LMB-7 (a control immunotoxin specific for a Lewis Y-related carbohydrate antigen). KM12L4 cells growing in the liver expressed higher levels of TfR than cells growing s.c. Systemic administration of HB21(Fv)PE40 eliminated KM12L4 liver metastasis, whereas administration of LMB-7 did not. Treatment of mice with HB21(Fv)PE40 only delayed the growth of s.c. tumors. KM12L4 cells recovered from liver metastases, expressed higher levels of TfR, and were more ...
For PCR and biochemical analysis, retinas were gently separated from freshly enucleated eyes under a dissecting microscope and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue samples were stored at −80°C until further use. Total RNA was extracted from pairs of frozen retinas using reagent (TRIzol; Sigma) according to the manufacturers instructions and then were treated with DNAse (Turbo DNA-free; Ambion, Austin, TX). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed using a first-strand synthesis kit (Reverse-iT; ABgene, Epsom, UK). Anchored oligo dT primers were used to prepare cDNA from 1 μg RNA. Quantitative PCR was performed to measure mRNA levels of genes involved in iron metabolism and of antioxidant enzymes. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) served as the endogenous control. Two sets of reactions were performed. In the first set, all reactions were carried out in duplicate at a total volume of 15 μL. Wells contained 40 ng cDNA template, 0.75 μL TaqMan Gene ...
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Transferrin Receptor (TFR) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
Transferrin is a serum transport protein that transports iron to the reticuloendothelial system for utilization and ... "OMIM Entry - * 190000 - TRANSFERRIN; TF". omim.org. Retrieved 20 February 2017. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Marks, ... Transferrin "Atransferrinemia , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program". rarediseases.info.nih. ... TF level Physical exam Genetic test There are two forms of this condition that causes an absence of transferrin in the affected ...
Blood transferrin test. Gold criteria is liver biopsy. Treatment is by phlebotomy, erythrocytapheresis or chelation therapy ...
Iron in the bloodstream is then bound by transferrin, which carries the iron to target cells. Iron is stored in cells and blood ... Blood tests may show high levels of ferritin and low, normal, or high levels of transferrin saturation, depending on the form ... The accumulation of iron in tissues due to impaired iron export can lead to increasing transferrin iron saturation and liver ... Thus, this form of the disease leads to elevated transferrin saturation levels. Systemic iron overload results, and liver iron ...
... transferrin, transferrin saturation and ferritin Physical exam Genetic test Other than for hemochromatosis or atransferrinemia ... "OMIM Entry - * 190000 - TRANSFERRIN; TF". omim.org. Retrieved 20 February 2017. Nemeth E, Ganz T (2006). "Regulation of iron ... Transferrin is a serum transport protein that transports iron to the reticuloendothelial system for utilization and ... P. Brissot, et al., Non-transferrin bound iron: A key role in iron overload and iron toxicity , Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2011), ...
O'Cearbhaill, Roisin M.; Kavanagh, Eoin C. (March 2018). "Beta-2 Transferrin and IR". Journal of Vascular and Interventional ... should be collected and tested for the protein Beta-2 transferrin which would be highly accurate in identifying CS fluid and ...
possibly involving the transferrin receptor. IGFBP-3 enters the cell nucleus by a mechanism that is incompletely understood, ... Storch S, Kübler B, Höning S, Ackmann M, Zapf J, Blum W, Braulke T (2001). "Transferrin binds insulin-like growth factors and ... Weinzimer SA, Gibson TB, Collett-Solberg PF, Khare A, Liu B, Cohen P (2001). "Transferrin is an insulin-like growth factor- ... The serum proteins transferrin, fibronectin, and plasminogen are also known to bind IGFBP-3. In the cell and tissue environment ...
And more transferrin receptors make it easier for the cell to bring in more iron from transferrin-iron complexes circulating ... The transferrin receptor mRNA is rapidly degraded without the IRE-BP attached to it. The cell stops producing transferrin ... Since iron is tightly bound to transferrin, cells throughout the body have receptors for transferrin-iron complexes on their ... On its own, the IRE-BP binds to the IREs of ferritin and transferrin receptor mRNA. But, when iron binds to the IRE-BP, the IRE ...
He researched and published studies on transferrin in the blood such as intact transferrin receptors in human plasma, human ... deferric transferrin's interaction with reticulocytes, the uptake and release of iron in human transferrin, rat transferrin and ... and Intact Transferrin Receptors in Human Plasma and Their Relation to Erythropoisis in blood (1990). Transferrin, a blood ... The significance of transferrin for intestinal iron absorption HA Huebers, E Huebers, E Csiba, W Rummel, and CA Finch Blood, ...
Implications for non-transferrin-bound iron speciation". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1794 (10): 1449-58. doi:10.1016/j. ...
1986). "The p97 antigen is mapped to the q24-qter region of chromosome 3; the same region as the transferrin receptor". Am. J. ... This gene resides in the same region of chromosome 3 as members of the transferrin superfamily. Alternative splicing results in ... The protein shares sequence similarity and iron-binding properties with members of the transferrin superfamily. The importance ... Food MR, Sekyere EO, Richardson DR (2002). "The soluble form of the membrane-bound transferrin homologue, melanotransferrin, ...
... the ability for transferrin to bind iron is exceeded and non-transferrin bound iron accumulated. This unbound iron is toxic due ... During normal iron homeostasis the circulating iron is bound to transferrin. But with iron overload (such as with frequent ... These tests include complete blood count; hemoglobin electrophoresis; serum transferrin, ferritin, total iron-binding capacity ...
Singh, Indera P.; Walter, H.; Strodtmann, H.; Hilling, M.; Bhasin, M. K.; Veerraju, P. (1981). "Transferrin Subtypes in Six ... Singh, Indera P.; Walter, H.; Stach, Martina; Bhasin, M. K. (August 1983). "Transferrin Subtypes in Four Northwest Indian ...
Transferrins can bind aluminium. The composition of the human body expressed in terms of chemicals: Water Proteins - including ...
Also present are three protein isoforms of transferrin; transferrin binds serum iron (Fe3+), which makes the environment less ... Adaptation for a defense against microbial pathogens and recruitment of body transferrin" (PDF). Journal of Proteome Research. ...
"Transferrin binding and transferrin-mediated cellular uptake of the ruthenium coordination compound KP1019, studied by means of ... Especially transferrin and albumin are good binding partners. The overall method of action for KP1019 needs to be supported ... Tumor cells have a high requirement of iron, which results in a large concentration of transferrin. Ru(III) complexes bind to ... As rapidly dividing cells have an increased demand for iron, the levels of transferrin receptors found on these cancerous cells ...
Green F, O'Hare T, Blackwell A, Enns CA (May 2002). "Association of human transferrin receptor with GABARAP" (PDF). FEBS ...
Schmidt JA, Marshall J, Hayman MJ (December 1985). "Identification and characterization of the chicken transferrin receptor". ... total iron-binding capacity and transferrin saturation. Anemia may be due to a complication of treatment from azathioprine, ...
Once the serum ferritin and transferrin saturation are within the normal range, treatments may be scheduled every two to three ... labtestsonline.org TIBC & UIBC, Transferrin Last reviewed on October 28, 2009. Ferritin by: Mark Levin, MD, Hematologist and ... Transferrin saturation is a more specific test.[citation needed] DNA/screening: the current standard of practice in diagnosis ...
Transferrin does not belong to either of these classes. The ability of sea mussels to maintain their grip on rocks in the ocean ... Transferrin contains Fe3+ in the middle of a distorted octahedron, bonded to one nitrogen, three oxygens and a chelating ... At the bone marrow, transferrin is reduced from Fe3+ and Fe2+ and stored as ferritin to be incorporated into hemoglobin. The ... A major component of this regulation is the protein transferrin, which binds iron ions absorbed from the duodenum and carries ...
When its iron is needed by the cell, it is brought into the cytosol by a transferrin receptor. Transferrin can bind two Fe(III ... Transferrin is found in human plasma, and it is used to traffic and import non-heme iron. It travels freely in the ... Transferrin has a molecular weight of about 80 kDa. It is a glycoprotein, meaning that it has sugars attached to its amino acid ... Lactoferrin is a member of the transferrin family and is the predominant protein found in mammal exocrine secretions, such as ...
Transferrin and beta-lipoprotein (LDL) comprises the beta-1. Increased beta-1 protein due to the increased level of free ... transferrin is typical of iron deficiency anemia, pregnancy, and oestrogen therapy. Increased beta-1 protein due to LDL ...
Vincent, John (2012). "The binding and transport of alternative metals by transferrin". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... the roles of transferrin and chromodulin". J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 6 (5-6): 608-17. doi:10.1007/s007750100238. PMID 11472024. ...
Transferrin is present in the serum at approximately 30 μM, and contains two iron-binding sites, each with an extremely high ... Ferritin is a much larger protein than transferrin and is capable of binding several thousand iron atoms in a nontoxic form. ... In mammalian hosts, iron is tightly bound to proteins such as hemoglobin, transferrin, lactoferrin and ferritin. The strict ... Most siderophores are unable to remove iron from transferrin. Mammals also produce lactoferrin, which is similar to serum ...
One arm had a low-affinity anti-transferrin receptor binding site that induces transcytosis. A high-affinity binding site would ... Monoclonal antibody Trojan horses that target the BBB insulin or transferrin receptor have been in drug development for over 10 ... ArmaGen has developed genetically engineered antibodies against both the insulin and transferrin receptors, and has fused to ... Examples of macromolecules transported include IgA, transferrin, and insulin. While transcytosis is most commonly observed in ...
Tamarin, Robert H.; Krebs, Charles J. (1973). "Selection at the transferrin locus in cropped vole populations1". Heredity. 30 ( ...
The iron appears to be present as a hydrolysis product such as FeO(OH). Iron is transported by transferrin whose binding site ... Schümann K, Schäfer SG, Forth W (1986). "Iron absorption and biliary excretion of transferrin in rats". Research in ... therefore assisting in its transport in the blood plasma in association with transferrin, which can carry iron only in the Fe( ...
Transferrin, on the other hand, has a pI of 5.9, so it cannot be easily separated by this method. A difference in pI of at ... Transferrin can instead be removed by size exclusion chromatography. This method is one of the more reliable chromatography ... Cell culture sample contaminants consist primarily of media components such as growth factors, hormones and transferrins. In ...
... the receptor cannot bind to a protein called transferrin. When transferrin receptor 1 is bound to transferrin, iron enters ... it is likely that the HFE protein regulates iron levels in liver cells by preventing transferrin from binding to transferrin ... The transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) gene is responsible for encoding a single-pass type II membrane protein. This protein ... When the HFE protein is not bound to transferrin receptor 1, it binds to a group of other proteins that includes hepcidin. The ...
"Comparison of the interactions of transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor 2 with transferrin and the hereditary ... The HFE protein interacts with the transferrin receptor TFRC. Its primary mode of action is the regulation of the iron storage ... There are several components, in sequence: a signal peptide (initial part of the protein), an extracellular transferrin ... functions to regulate circulating iron uptake by regulating the interaction of the transferrin receptor with transferrin. The ...
Theoretically, a decrease in transferrin could additionally be decreased by an upregulation of transferrin receptors, but the ... Chua E, Clague JE, Sharma AK, Horan MA, Lombard M (October 1999). "Serum transferrin receptor assay in iron deficiency anaemia ... Examples include albumin, transferrin, transthyretin, retinol-binding protein, antithrombin, transcortin. The decrease of such ... transferrin, and transthyretin: a practical, simple and clinically relevant approach in a large cohort". J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 13 ...
The level of transferrin decreases in inflammation.[13] Role in disease[edit]. An increased plasma transferrin level is often ... transferrin receptor binding. Cellular component. • recycling endosome. • vesicle. • HFE-transferrin receptor complex. • late ... Low transferrin likely indicates malnutrition. Interactions[edit]. Transferrin has been shown to interact with insulin-like ... Transferrin also has a transferrin iron-bound receptor; it is a disulfide-linked homodimer.[9] In humans, each monomer consists ...
Transferrin saturation is also called transferrin saturation index (TSI) or transferrin saturation percentage (TS%) Normal ... A low transferrin saturation is a common indicator of iron deficiency anemia whereas a high transferrin saturation may indicate ... Transferrin saturation (TS), measured as a percentage, is a medical laboratory value. It is the value of serum iron divided by ... For instance, a value of 15% means that 15% of iron-binding sites of transferrin are being occupied by iron. The three results ...
Transferrin receptor 1 Transferrin receptor 2 Soluble transferrin receptor GAPDH Qian ZM, Li H, Sun H, Ho K (December 2002). " ... Earlier two transferrin receptors in humans, transferrin receptor 1 and transferrin receptor 2 had been characterized and until ... "Comparison of the interactions of transferrin receptor and transferrin receptor 2 with transferrin and the hereditary ... Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a carrier protein for transferrin. It is needed for the import of iron into the cell and is ...
Mehlhorn H. (2015) Transferrin. In: Mehlhorn H. (eds) Encyclopedia of Parasitology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. * .RIS Papers ...
Putnam, F. W., Transferrin, in The Plasma Proteins, Vol. I, F. W. Putnam, Ed., Academic Press, New York (1975), pp. 265-316. ... Brown, E. B., Transferrin: Physiology and function in iron transport, Ciba Found. Symp. 51: 125-143 (1976).Google Scholar ... Giblett, E. R., Transferrin, in Physiological Pharmacology, W. S. Root and N. I. Berlin, Eds., Academic Press, New York (1974). ... Giblett, E. R., Transferrin, in Physiological Pharmacology, Vol. I, W. S. Root, and N. I. Berlin, Eds., Academic Press, New ...
Treatments and Tools for transferrin. Find transferrin information, treatments for transferrin and transferrin symptoms. ... transferrin - MedHelps transferrin Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Hi, I have very low iron my lab test shows 30 in a range of 40-160 and Transferrin Sat. % 7... ...
... along with those of transferrin and HFE, opened research on molecular mapping of the transferrin-HFE- transferrin receptor ... now known as transferrin receptor 1, is required for iron delivery from transferrin to cells. (A recently described second ... competes with transferrin for binding to receptor, thereby impeding the uptake of iron from transferrin. Mutation of HFE ... Transferrin receptor 1.. Aisen P1.. Author information. 1. Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Albert Einstein College of ...
... Date: Tue Mar 7 19:10:54 2006. Posted By: Karin Crowhurst, Post-doc/Fellow, Biochemistry. Area ... Anyway, transferrin binds to a number of different metals, but its highest affinity is for ferric iron. It does not bind at all ... I am not an expert on transferrin, but I hope I can answer your question to your satisfaction. Ferric iron (Fe3+) is found ... This would explain the colour change / absorbance when mixed with Fe3+, but no change when transferrin is mixed with Fe2+. In ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory ... Transferrin, Beta-2. 9. Transferrin (Liquid). 10. Transferrin. 11. Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin for Alcohol Use. ...
TransferrinBacterial Transferrin Receptor ComplexTransferrin-Binding Protein ATransferrin-Binding Protein B ... TransferrinBacterial Transferrin Receptor ComplexTransferrin-Binding Protein ATransferrin-Binding Protein B ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryAmino Acids, Peptides, and ProteinsProteinsCarrier ProteinsTransferrin-Binding ... Receptors, Transferrin. Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind ...
Term: transferrin. ID: PIRSF002549 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse PIRSF members to download ...
Asymmetric binding of transferrin receptor to parvovirus capsids. Susan Hafenstein, Laura M. Palermo, Victor A. Kostyuchenko, ... Asymmetric binding of transferrin receptor to parvovirus capsids. Susan Hafenstein, Laura M. Palermo, Victor A. Kostyuchenko, ... Asymmetric binding of transferrin receptor to parvovirus capsids. Susan Hafenstein, Laura M. Palermo, Victor A. Kostyuchenko, ... The amounts of cell-associated virus and transferrin were determined by using a FACScalibur flow cytometer (Becton-Dickinson, ...
The transferrin receptor (TfR) assists iron uptake into vertebrate cells through a cycle of endo- and exocytosis of the iron ... Transferrin receptor-like, dimerisation domain (IPR007365). Short name: TFR-like_dimer_dom ... This entry represents the dimerisation domain found in the transferrin receptor, as well as in a number of other proteins ... Crystal structure of the ectodomain of human transferrin receptor.. Science 286 779-82 1999 ...
Definition of gamma-carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes ... gamma-carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. Definition: a calculated laboratory value, the sum of carbohydrate-deficient ... transferrin and gamma-glutamyltransferase that is useful in assessing long-term ethanol exposure. ...
LBXTFR - Transferrin Receptor (mg/L). Variable Name: LBXTFR. SAS Label: Transferrin Receptor (mg/L). English Text: Transferrin ... Transferrin Receptor (TFR_E) Data File: TFR_E.xpt First Published: September 2009. Last Revised: NA ... The method for measurement of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is immuno-turbidimetry using Roche kits on the Hitachi 912 ...
LBXTFR - Transferrin receptor (mg/L). Variable Name: LBXTFR SAS Label: Transferrin receptor (mg/L). English Text: Transferrin ... Transferrin Receptor (TFR_F) Data File: TFR_F.xpt First Published: February 2012. Last Revised: NA ... For the transferrin receptor analysis, in 2007-2008 the Roche Hitachi 912 immunoturbidimetric assay was used and in 2009-2010 ... The method principle for measurement of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is immuno-turbidimetry using Roche kits on the ...
Your liver makes transferrin. When your bodys stores of iron run low, your liver produces more transferrin in order to get ... Another measurement, called transferrin saturation, checks how many places on your transferrin that can hold iron are actually ... Transferrin. Does this test have other names?. Total iron-binding capacity, TIBC, transferrin saturation ... Transferrin may also be measured using a value called total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). Results are given in micrograms per ...
Other aspects of this invention include a delivery system comprising an antibody reactive with a transferrin receptor linked to ... amount of an antibody-neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent conjugate wherein the antibody is reactive with a transferrin ... The term transferrin receptor is intended to encompass the entire receptor or portions thereof. Portions of the transferrin ... In-Vivo Binding of OX-26 Murine Monoclonal Antibody to Rat Transferrin Receptor. Dose Range. The anti-rat transferrin receptor ...
Transferrin saturation. Transferrin saturation (percentage) was determined as iron levels (in micromoles per liter) divided by ... Elevated Transferrin Saturation and Risk of Diabetes. Christina Ellervik, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen, Henrik Ullits Andersen, Anne ... Elevated Transferrin Saturation and Risk of Diabetes. Christina Ellervik, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen, Henrik Ullits Andersen, Anne ... Transferrin saturation ,50% was chosen as suggestive of increased transferrin saturation, in accordance with accepted clinical ...
Transferrin Saturation. Transferrin saturation corresponds to the ratio of serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). ... evidence for a regulation in response to the serum transferrin saturation and to non-transferrin-bound iron. Blood. 2003 Jul 1 ... The screening threshold for hemochromatosis is a fasting transferrin saturation of 45-50%. If transferrin saturation is greater ... High transferrin saturation is the earliest evidence of hemochromatosis; a value greater than 60% in men and 50% in women is ...
ID:1,Note:Reference Interval has been last updated on 22 Apr 2013. ,Date:2013-04-29T10:45:00.000Z,Deleted:false,IsNew:true ...
Rabbit polyclonal Transferrin Receptor antibody. Validated in WB, IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse, Human. Cited in 86 ... Anti-Transferrin Receptor antibody (ab84036) at 1 µg/ml + Mouse spleen tissue lysate at 10 µg. Secondary. Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG ... All lanes : Anti-Transferrin Receptor antibody (ab84036) at 1 µg/ml. Lane 1 : HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cell line) whole ... Transferrin receptor is necessary for development of erythrocytes and the nervous system (By similarity). A second ligand, the ...
Abcams Transferrin ELISA Kit (ab108902) suitable for Cell culture supernatant, Saliva, Milk in human. Reliably quantify 1 ng/ ... Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, ... Get results in 90 minutes with Human Transferrin ELISA Kit (ab187391) from our SimpleStep ELISA® range. ... Serum transferrin may also have a further role in stimulating cell proliferation. ...
... and transferrin tests are used, when TIBC, UIBC, and transferrin tests are requested, and what the results of these tests might ... High TIBC or transferrin, or low transferrin saturation, usually indicates iron deficiency. A low TIBC or transferrin, or high ... Transferrin is a protein that attaches iron molecules and transports iron in the blood plasma. Transferrin is largely made in ... Because transferrin is made in the liver, TIBC and transferrin will also be low with liver disease. ...
The Transferrin test directly measures the level in your blood. Transferrin may also be measured indirectly with the Total Iron ... The Transferrin test, along with other Iron tests may be used to better assess your bodys ability to transport Iron in your ... The Transferrin , TIBC or UIBC test is commonly ordered with other Iron tests to assess the amount of Iron circulating in your ... The Transferrin , TIBC or UIBC test is commonly ordered with other Iron tests to assess the amount of Iron circulating in your ...
The intracellular fate of human transferrin (HTf) in macrophages infected by Leishmania was investigated. Binding of HTf-gold ... Subverted transferrin trafficking in Leishmania-infected macrophages Parasitol Res. 1998 Oct;84(10):811-22. doi: 10.1007/ ... The intracellular fate of human transferrin (HTf) in macrophages infected by Leishmania was investigated. Binding of HTf-gold ...
The level of transferrin decreases in inflammation.[9] Role in disease. An increased plasma transferrin level is often seen in ... Transferrin also has a transferrin iron-bound receptor; it is a disulfide-linked homodimer.[5] In humans, each monomer consists ... When a transferrin protein loaded with iron encounters a transferrin receptor on the surface of a cell, e.g., erythroid ... Low transferrin likely indicates malnutrition. Interactions. Transferrin has been shown to interact with insulin-like growth ...
Rates of transferrin recycling were assessed as described previously (16) in cultures of TRVb cells, a mutant line of Chinese ... Role of rabBP in Transferrin Recycling.. It has been shown previously (15, 16), and, for comparative purposes, is illustrated ... Identification of a putative effector protein for rab11 that participates in transferrin recycling. Jianbo Zeng, Mindong Ren, ... Inhibition of transferrin recycling by truncated rab11BP(1-504) and its relief by the nonprenylated rab11ΔC. ...
Serum transferrin receptor levels in beta-thalassemia trait. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... "Serum Transferrin Receptor Levels in Beta-thalassemia Trait." Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, vol. 50, no. 6, 2004, pp. 369-71. ... Serum transferrin receptor levels in beta-thalassemia trait.. J Trop Pediatr. 2004 Dec; 50(6):369-71.JT ... Serum Transferrin Receptor Levels in Beta-thalassemia Trait. J Trop Pediatr. 2004;50(6):369-71. PubMed PMID: 15537726. ...
This test measures the amount of the protein transferrin in your blood. Levels of tranferrin tell your healthcare provider ... Your liver makes transferrin. When your bodys stores of iron run low, your liver produces more transferrin in order to get ... Another measurement, called transferrin saturation, checks how many places on your transferrin that can hold iron are actually ... Transferrin. Does this test have other names?. Total iron-binding capacity, TIBC, transferrin saturation ...
  • Two main transferrin receptors found in humans denoted as transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A method for delivering a therapeutically effective amount of nerve growth factor across the blood brain barrier of a mammal comprising administering antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate to the mammal under conditions whereby said conjugate binds to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells and nerve growth factor is transported across the blood brain barrier of the mammal in a pharmaceutically active form and in a therapeutically effective amount. (google.com)
  • 8. A method for treating a neurological disorder in a mammal comprising administering of a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate to the mammal under conditions whereby said conjugate binds to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells and nerve growth factor is transported across the blood brain barrier in a pharmaceutically active form which thereby alleviates the neurological disorder. (google.com)
  • 11. A method for supporting the growth of cholinerigc neurons in the brain of a mammal comprising administering of an effective amount of an antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate to the mammal under conditions whereby said conjugate binds to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells and nerve growth factor is transported across the blood brain barrier in a physiologically active form which thereby supports the growth of cholinergic neurons. (google.com)
  • 14. An antibody-nerve growth factor conjugate wherein said conjugate is bindable to transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells. (google.com)
  • Rab11, in particular, has been shown to play a key role in plasma membrane receptor recycling, because expression of a form of this protein that cannot be activated by GTP binding inhibited transport of endocytosed transferrin receptors from sorting endosomes to a pericentriolar recycling compartment, from where receptors normally are returned to the cell surface ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Increased levels of transferrin receptors (TfR) and soluble TfR (sTfR) are reliable indicators of iron deficiency anemia and conditions with enhanced erythropoietic activity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A fraction of the transferrin receptors are cleaved inside the endocytotic vesicle and finally shed into the blood as truncated transferrin receptor monomers complexed with apotransferrin. (ifcc.org)
  • The serum concentrations of these so called serum transferrin receptors (sTfR) correlate with erythropoietic activity and tissue iron demands. (ifcc.org)
  • Two different receptors for transferrin are known: transferrin receptor 1 and the newly discovered transferrin receptor 2. (ifcc.org)
  • The serum concentration of sTfR is directly proportional to the concentration of the membrane bound transferrin receptors. (randox.com)
  • Transferrin-Vivo™ 750 is a near infrared (NIR) targeted fluorescent imaging agent, where recombinant transferrin is conjugated to VivoTag dye, designed to bind to transferrin receptors (TfRs) expressed in cancer cells.Because of rapid cell division and stringent demand for iron (for heme synthesis), many cancer cell types overexpress TfRs. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Hepatic levels of transferrin receptors 1 and 2 and ZRT/IRT-like protein 14, which may also participate in iron uptake, were unaffected in Dmt1 liv/liv mice. (wiley.com)
  • The method comprises administering to the host a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody-neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent conjugate wherein the antibody is reactive with a transferrin receptor. (google.com)
  • Other aspects of this invention include a delivery system comprising an antibody reactive with a transferrin receptor linked to a neuropharmaceutical or diagnostic agent and methods for treating hosts afflicted with a disease associated with a neurological disorder. (google.com)
  • 2. A method of claim 1 wherein the antibody portion of said conjugate comprises a monoclonal antibody which binds to transferrin receptor on brain capillary endothelial cells. (google.com)
  • Biological activity verified by comparison against native human transferrin in the antibody production of hybridoma cells in serum-free supplemented media. (peprotech.com)
  • This application note provides a general protocol and performance study of an assay for human transferrin using a commercially available anti-human transferrin antibody. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Transferrin Monoclonal Antibody (2A2) from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # MA1-20108, RRID AB_561803. (thermofisher.com)
  • WB analysis of various samples using GTX32933 Transferrin antibody. (genetex.com)
  • Transferrin antibody [N3C3] detects Transferrin protein at cytoplasm in human esophageal carcinoma by immunohistochemical analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Transferrin antibody [N3C3] (GTX101035) diluted at 1:500. (genetex.com)
  • Mouse tissue extract (50 μg) was separated by 7.5% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Transferrin antibody [N3C3] (GTX101035) diluted at 1:1000. (genetex.com)
  • There are currently no reviews for Transferrin antibody [N3C3] (GTX101035) . (genetex.com)
  • This antibody specifically immunoprecipitated the intact transferrin receptor as well as a 21-kDa peptide from trypsin-treated HeLa cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • a goat antibody prepared to the purified human transferrin receptor also precipitated the 21-kDa peptide from trypsinized cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We designed a frequency-enhanced transferrin receptor antibody-labelled microfluidic chip (FETAL-Chip) for efficient enrichment and identification of circulating fetal cells, i.e. , circulating nucleated red blood cells (cNRBCs) from maternal blood. (rsc.org)
  • Another measurement, called transferrin saturation, checks how many places on your transferrin that can hold iron are actually doing so. (rochester.edu)
  • Usually, about one third of the transferrin measured is being used to transport iron, and this is called transferrin saturation. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • When a transferrin protein loaded with iron encounters a transferrin receptor on the surface of a cell , e.g., erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a vesicle by receptor-mediated endocytosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • An increased plasma transferrin level is often seen in patients suffering from iron deficiency anemia , during pregnancy, and with the use of oral contraceptives, reflecting an increase in transferrin protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • When plasma transferrin levels rise, there is a reciprocal decrease in percent transferrin iron saturation, and a corresponding increase in total iron binding capacity in iron deficient states [14] A decreased plasma transferrin can occur in iron overload diseases and protein malnutrition. (wikipedia.org)
  • HFE, the protein incriminated in the pathogenesis of hereditary hemochromatosis, a disorder of progressive and toxic iron overload, competes with transferrin for binding to receptor, thereby impeding the uptake of iron from transferrin. (nih.gov)
  • It is the value of serum iron divided by the total iron-binding capacity of the available transferrin, the main protein that binds iron in the blood, this value tells a clinician how much serum iron is bound. (wikipedia.org)
  • This entry represents the dimerisation domain found in the transferrin receptor, as well as in a number of other proteins including glutamate carboxypeptidase II and N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase like protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The transferrin receptor (TfR) assists iron uptake into vertebrate cells through a cycle of endo- and exocytosis of the iron transport protein transferrin (Tf). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This test measures the amount of the protein transferrin in your blood. (rochester.edu)
  • TIBC correlates with the amount of the protein transferrin in your blood, available to bind iron. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Transferrin is a protein that attaches iron molecules and transports iron in the blood plasma . (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Furthermore, although overexpression of rab11BP did not affect transferrin recycling, overexpression of a truncated form of the protein, rab11BP(1-504), that includes the rab11-binding site but lacks the WD40 domains inhibited recycling as strongly as does a dominant negative rab11 mutant protein that does not bind GTP. (pnas.org)
  • ESAG 6 and 7 products of Trypanosoma brucei form a transferrin binding protein complex. (nature.com)
  • During the purification of these biopharmaceuticals, human transferrin may co-purify with the product protein as a contaminant. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The transferrin receptor is a type II transmembrane protein. (ifcc.org)
  • A comprehensive screening of empirical and bioinformatic data showed that allele A shows allele-specific expression, the non-conservative amino acid substitution is within the helix portion of the protein and predicted to alter the secondary structure (but not in the transferrin or HFE binding sites), and the SNP alters a splicing site. (ashg.org)
  • 28 pg was used for identification of ID and FID in anemic patients, the values of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and the sTfR-F index (sTfR/ log ferritin) (4) performed significantly better in patients without APR [based on a C-reactive protein (CRP) cutoff of 5 mg/L]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • β-2 transferrin is a protein found in CSF, but not in nasal secretions or adjacent tissue. (arupconsult.com)
  • Transferrin is the primary iron-binding protein that shuttles ingested iron from the food you eat throughout your body via your bloodstream. (lifeextension.com)
  • Transferrin is the main protein in the blood that binds to iron and transports it throughout the body. (lifeextension.com)
  • Transferrin may not be elevated in iron-deficient states in which there is severe protein malnutrition. (lifeextension.com)
  • The Salimetrics Salivary Blood Contamination Enzyme Immunoassay quantitatively measures transferrin, a large protein (mol wt of 76,000) present in abundance in blood that is normally present in only trace amounts in saliva. (salimetrics.com)
  • The difference in the rates of release of different forms of the protein could be explained by the re-endocytosis of the iron-rich protein, a process detected by the accelerated release of transferrin when the cells were washed in medium at pH 5.5 containing an iron-chelator or treated with a protease-containing medium to digest transferrin accessible at the cell surface. (biochemj.org)
  • Human Transferrin is a plasma protein for iron ion delivery. (leebio.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Transferrin. (genetex.com)
  • These Five Slides About examine the structure and function of the iron binding and transport protein transferrin. (ionicviper.org)
  • These slides can be used at any point that the protein transferrin is discussed. (ionicviper.org)
  • Production of transferrin by human cell lines in a defined protein-free system : detection by ELISA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Two synergistic anions, p-nitrophenyl phosphate ester (NPP) and SO(4)(2-), were found to form new stable assemblies with Fe(3+) and a bacterial transferrin, FbpA (FbpA=ferric binding protein). (rti.org)
  • Assessment of urinary protein 1 and transferrin as early markers of cadmium nephrotoxicity. (bmj.com)
  • Transferrin and protein 1, a sex linked alpha 2-microprotein, were assayed in urine from 58 workers exposed to cadmium (Cd) in a non-ferrous smelter and from 58 age matched referents. (bmj.com)
  • Among the genes showing increased expression was the iron transport protein transferrin. (arvojournals.org)
  • Initial results suggest that at the protein level transferrin expression is increased in the glaucomatous eyes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Increased mRNA and protein levels of transferrin and ceruloplasmin are present in human and experimental monkey glaucoma. (arvojournals.org)
  • Interestingly, T. brucei has a surface protein that functions as a transferrin receptor (TbTfR), and expression levels of this protein is also modulated by iron availability. (findaphd.com)
  • 1995) Transferrin-binding protein complex is the receptor for transferrin uptake in Trypanosoma brucei, J Cell Biol 131, 1173-1182. (findaphd.com)
  • Human Transferrin is a 679 amino acid protein (80 kDa) composed of alpha helices and beta sheets that form two distinct domains that each contain an iron binding site. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The transferrin protein has been implicated in several disease states including iron deficiency anemia (high serum transferrin levels) and liver toxicity. (perkinelmer.com)
  • The method for measurement of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is immuno-turbidimetry using Roche kits on the Hitachi 912 clinical analyzer. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels were measured with enzyme immune assay in 37 cases with betaTT, in 26 patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), in 17 patients with the coexistence of betaTT with IDA, and in 21 healthy controls. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is a truncated form (shorten) 0f the transferrin receptor, formed as a result of proteolysis (the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids). (randox.com)
  • Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) is used as a means of detecting erythropoietin (EPO) misuse by athletes and as a diagnostic test for anemias resulting from a number of conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, pregcy, irritable bowel syndrome and in HIV patients. (fishersci.com)
  • Increased erythropoietic activity causes TfR synthesis to be upregulated and thereby increase the soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) level. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) measurements (5-14) have enabled efficient detection of early iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), the treatment of which is essential, especially during phases of psychomotor development, rapid growth, and pregnancy (15-18). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The initial focus of the agreement will serve to expand Beckman Coulter's leadership position in Anemia testing to include Erythropoietin, a principal cytokine factor regulating red blood cell production, and Soluble Transferrin Receptor (STFR), which is considered the best indicator of iron deficiency. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The introduction of new laboratory tests, especially soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), has enabled the identification of storage iron depletion, iron-deficient erythropoiesis, iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and functional ID as readily distinguishable clinical conditions (1-5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) has been introduced as a promising new diagnostic tool for differentiating between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease (ACD) (1-3). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Because the soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentration is not influenced by acute-phase reactions, it remains within reference values in patients with anemia of chronic disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association of soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and ferritin levels with the MetS components, insulin resistance and glycosylated Hb (HbA1C). (cambridge.org)
  • Diagnostic Automation, Inc. sTfR-Soluble Transferrin Soluble Receptor ELISA kit is used for quantitative determination of sTfR concentration in human serum or plasma by a microplate enzyme immunoassay. (rapidtest.com)
  • Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentration is a sensitive index of iron deficiency when used in conjunction with ferritin measurements in adults. (ajtmh.org)
  • Ferritin and/or soluble transferrin receptor may be needed for workup of anemia. (uiowa.edu)
  • Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo ," BioMed Research International , vol. 2013, Article ID 172479, 8 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Soluble transferrin receptor is a marker of iron status. (randox.com)
  • In iron deficiency anaemia, soluble transferrin receptor levels are significantly increased, however, remain normal in acute phase conditions including: chronic diseases and inflammation. (randox.com)
  • As such, soluble transferrin receptor measurements are useful in the differential diagnosis of anaemia: anaemia of chronic disease (ACD) or iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). (randox.com)
  • In IDA, increased soluble transferrin receptor levels have been observed in haemolytic anaemia, sickle cell anaemia, B12 deficiency and functional iron deficiency in pregnancy. (randox.com)
  • In ACD, soluble transferrin receptor levels do not correlate with iron status. (randox.com)
  • Reduced soluble transferrin receptor concentrations in acute malaria in Vanuatu. (ajtmh.org)
  • Transferrin may also be measured using a value called total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). (rochester.edu)
  • Transferrin saturation corresponds to the ratio of serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC). (medscape.com)
  • While the two tests (TIBC and transferrin) are different, they measure essentially the same thing and most laboratories only measure one or the other. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • TIBC or transferrin are typically used along with iron and ferritin to evaluate people suspected of having too much or too little iron stored within their body. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • This results in a low transferrin saturation, but an increased TIBC. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • In iron overload, such as in haemochromatosis , iron and transferrin saturation will be high and TIBC will be low or normal. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Because transferrin is made in the liver, TIBC and transferrin will also be low with liver disease . (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • TIBC (or transferrin) measurements may be requested when it appears that you have too much or too little iron in your system. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • If your doctor suspects you may have too much iron, or if you have a family history of haemochromatosis , iron and TIBC (or transferrin or UIBC) may be used to see if further testing is needed. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Transferrin may also be measured indirectly with the Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) test. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • The Transferrin , TIBC or UIBC test is commonly ordered with other Iron tests to assess the amount of Iron circulating in your body, the capacity of your blood to transport the Iron as well as the amount of Iron stored in your body. (healthtestingcenters.com)
  • This panel was modified January 24, 2017 by inclusion of total iron binding capacity (TIBC) in addition to iron (transferrin) % saturation. (uiowa.edu)
  • TIBC is a calculated parameter derived from the transferrin plasma concentration. (uiowa.edu)
  • This study presents a composite picture of haemoglobin (Hb), serum level of iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percent iron saturation of transferrin in women during different trimesters of pregnancy and postpartum period. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • SI, TIBC and percent iron saturation of transferrin are more sensitive indices of iron status and provide us an opportunity to replenish iron stores of an iron deficient pregnant mother at an earlier date thus preventing anaemia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Each 80kDA transferrin molecule can carry two iron ions in the ferric form. (peprotech.com)
  • Each ectodomain can bind one molecule of transferrin and thus the transferrin receptor can bind two molecules of transferrin carrying in total four Fe3+. (ifcc.org)
  • It appears that in cells incubated under control conditions, re-endocytosis of transferrin, which is incompletely depleted of iron, occurs and that a transferrin molecule may make two passes through the cell before all the iron is removed. (biochemj.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that the small molecule iron transport inhibitor ferristatin (NSC30611) acts by down-regulating transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1) via receptor degradation. (harvard.edu)
  • Some invertebrates have proteins that act like transferrin found in the hemolymph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. (abcam.com)
  • Once iron-carrying transferrin proteins are inside endosomes, the acidic environment favors dissociation of iron from the transferrin-receptor complex. (thermofisher.com)
  • Transferrin-Binding Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. (harvard.edu)
  • Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Transferrin-Binding Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Transferrin-Binding Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Transferrin-Binding Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Iron retinal homeostasis is regulated by proteins involved in iron import (transferrin [Tf], transferrin receptor), storage (ferritin) and export (ceruloplasmin, ferroportin, hephaestin), thus preventing deleterious consequences of either iron overload or deficiency. (molvis.org)
  • Transferrin (TF) is related to other iron binding proteins including lactoferrin. (leebio.com)
  • In mammalian cells this regulation is achieved by iron regulatory proteins (IRP) binding iron responsive elements (IRE) to control expression levels of major components of the iron acquisition pathway, such as the transferrin receptor (TfR). (findaphd.com)
  • Studies also reveal that a transferrin saturation (serum iron concentration ÷ total iron binding capacity) over 60 percent in men and over 50 percent in women identified the presence of an abnormality in iron metabolism (Hereditary hemochromatosis, heterozygotes and homozygotes) with approximately 95 percent accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consider screening with a serum transferrin saturation and a serum ferritin concentration in patients aged 40-60 years, especially those with small-joint arthropathy in the hands and/or calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease (CPPD). (medscape.com)
  • We investigated the iron concentration and the protective role of human transferrin (hTf) in rd10 mice, a model of retinal degeneration. (molvis.org)
  • 2. The pattern of transferrin binding was found to depend on the transferrin concentration in the incubation medium. (portlandpress.com)
  • a calculated laboratory value, the sum of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyltransferase that is useful in assessing long-term ethanol exposure. (drugs.com)
  • Patients with prolonged alcohol consumption can show increased concentrations of a carbohydrate-deficient transferrin isoform. (arupconsult.com)
  • carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is a topic covered in the Taber's Medical Dictionary . (tabers.com)
  • Taber's Online , www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/729454/all/carbohydrate_deficient_transferrin. (tabers.com)
  • For the transferrin receptor analysis, in 2007-2008 the Roche Hitachi 912 immunoturbidimetric assay was used and in 2009-2010 the Roche Hitachi Mod P immunoturbidimetric method was used. (cdc.gov)
  • Abcam's Tranferrin Human in vitro ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) kit is designed for the quantitative measurement of Transferrin in urine, milk saliva, CSF and cell culture supernatants. (abcam.com)
  • By using a combination of semiquantitative light microscopy, video microscopy, and a biochemical assay, we show that this pathway is used by the endogenous ligand transferrin (Tf) and its receptor. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since this represents a hazard in the clinical use of the product, it may be necessary to assay for the presence of human transferrin in the final product. (moleculardevices.com)
  • This assay can also be used to monitor the clearance of human transferrin throughout the purification process. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Note: The Assay Buffer Concentrate included in the ILA kit is not used at any time in the contaminant human transferrin assay. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Although the BSA used in the preparation of the buffer is of a high grade, it may contain contaminant transferrin that can affect the assay. (moleculardevices.com)
  • An assay buffer without BSA is used in the human transferrin assay. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Plasma iron and transferrin are directly determined by assay. (uiowa.edu)
  • Higher levels of transferrin measured in saliva by this assay indicate the presence of blood contamination and serve as a warning to investigators that samples should be excluded from subsequent quantitative assays for salivary analytes and statistical analyses. (salimetrics.com)
  • The LANCE ® Ultra Human Transferrin Detection Kit is designed for detection and quantitation of human transferrin in cell culture media using a homogeneous TR-FRET (no-wash steps, no separation steps) assay. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Anyway, transferrin binds to a number of different metals, but its highest affinity is for ferric iron. (madsci.org)
  • I looked up a research article that definitively said that transferrin binds to bicarbonate (aka hydrogen carbonate) but not carbonate. (madsci.org)
  • Transferrin is a monomeric serum glycoprotein (~80,000 daltons) that binds to a specific receptor on the surface of vertebrate cells and delivers up to two Fe 3+ atoms via receptor-mediated endocytosis-our labeled LDL complexes are useful tools for studying this phenomenon. (thermofisher.com)
  • It binds transferrins, iron-binding glycoproteins found in the blood plasma, and transports them into the cell. (sciencephoto.com)
  • When human transferrin loaded with iron encounters a transferrin receptor on the surface of a cell, it binds to it and is consequently transported into the cell in a vesicle. (leebio.com)
  • Human Transferrin is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron, where few bacteria are able to survive. (leebio.com)
  • Transferrin glycoproteins bind iron tightly, but reversibly. (wikipedia.org)
  • It enables ligand bonding to the transferrin, as each monomer can bind to one or two atoms of iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrins are glycoproteins found in vertebrates which bind to and consequently mediate the transport of Iron (Fe) through blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released. (nih.gov)
  • Cryoelectron microscopy and biochemical analyses show that transferrin receptor, the cellular receptor for canine parvovirus, can bind to only one or a few of the 60 icosahedrally equivalent sites on the virion, indicating that either canine parvovirus has inherent asymmetry or binding of receptor induces asymmetry. (pnas.org)
  • Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus bind to transferrin receptor (TfR) with specific interactions, allowing the viruses to use TfR for cell attachment and infection ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, we find that a single receptor can bind transferrin from a broad range of mammals, indicating that receptor variation is unlikely to be necessary for promiscuity of host infection. (nature.com)
  • Mutations at the N-linked positions confers inability to bind to transferrin (Rutledge and Enns 1996, Williams and Enns 1991). (ifcc.org)
  • Transferrin is a 77kDa plasma glycoprotein with the capacity to bind ferric ions and as such is a source of bio-available iron. (fishersci.ca)
  • Human transferrin is encoded by the TF gene and produced as a 76 kDa glycoprotein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human transferrin is an 80,000 Dalton glycoprotein found in human serum that facilitates transport of iron between cells. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Transferrins (Tf) are an approximately 80kDa blood plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver. (thermofisher.com)
  • Human Transferrin is a glycoprotein with homologous N-terminal and C-terminal iron binding domains. (leebio.com)
  • Holo" and "mixed" forms of human transferrin from Boehringer Mannheim were tested, as well as the "apo" and "holo" forms from Pentex ® Miles, Inc., Kankakee, IL 60901, USA, tel: 815-937-8270. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Moreover, we present evidence that rab11BP, together with rab11, participates in the regulation of transferrin receptor recycling. (pnas.org)
  • Two different levels of regulation of transferrin receptor mRNA have been previously reported. (epfl.ch)
  • Fast B, Kremps K, Boshart M, & Steverding D (1999) Iron-dependent regulation of transferrin receptor expression in Trypanosoma brucei. (findaphd.com)
  • This explains why ferritin levels remain relative low in Hereditary hemochromatosis, while transferrin saturation is high. (wikipedia.org)
  • The American College of Physicians found insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of transferrin saturation and serum ferritin levels to help identify the early stages of hereditary hemochromatosis. (medscape.com)
  • [ 71 ] These abnormalities comprise an increased ferritin level, which is sometimes accompanied with elevated transferrin saturation. (medscape.com)
  • Transferrin saturation is not reliable when there are high ferritin concentrations greater than 1,200 ug/L. (uiowa.edu)
  • What are the benefits of serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin screening in the workup of fibromyalgia? (medscape.com)
  • Serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin screening can be useful for detecting the unusual cases of hemochromatosis in which patients present with diffuse arthralgias and myalgias. (medscape.com)
  • The activity is equivalent to human serum holo transferrin. (peprotech.com)
  • The iron-poor form, apo-transferrin, combines with the Fe 2+ ion to become holo-transferrin, the iron-saturated form. (moleculardevices.com)
  • Once saturated with iron, i.e forming holo-transferrin it will bring iron into cell by receptor binding of the cell. (protocol-online.org)
  • Lee Biosolutions is the leading supplier of Human Holo Transferrin from human serum, used for cell culture, medical research and manufacturing of clinical diagnostic assays for iron deficiencies and disorders of the immune system. (leebio.com)
  • [12] The main role of transferrin is to deliver iron from absorption centers in the duodenum and white blood cell macrophages to all tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intracellular fate of human transferrin (HTf) in macrophages infected by Leishmania was investigated. (nih.gov)
  • Transferrin has also been shown to function as a factor in the growth stimulation of many cell types, such as granulocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells. (fishersci.ca)
  • Transferrin synthesis by macrophages:Up-regulation by-interferon and effect on lymphocyte proliferation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When not bound to iron, transferrin is known as "apotransferrin" (see also apoprotein ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of iron on the exocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells was studied by first allowing the cells to endocytose apotransferrin or diferric transferrin. (biochemj.org)
  • Subsequent release of the apotransferrin was very rapid with a t 1/2 of 3.01 min, compared with 5.5 min for diferric transferrin. (biochemj.org)
  • Release of apotransferrin was slowed by the weak base methylamine, t 1/2 8.0 min, but the effect of this agent was substantially greater when iron-transferrin was used, t 1/2 18.65 min, suggesting that methylamine affects both iron removal and receptor recycling. (biochemj.org)
  • Release of iron-transferrin could be accelerated to a rate comparable with that of apotransferrin by addition of the permeant iron-chelator desferrioxamine. (biochemj.org)
  • CD71, the transferrin receptor, exists as a homodimer on the cell surface and is essential for cellular growth. (fishersci.com)
  • Measuring serum iron has no value in the diagnosis, but measuring transferrin saturation is necessary. (medscape.com)
  • Transferrin is also responsible for circadian variation in serum iron (which peaks in the AM). (lifeextension.com)
  • These effects are associated with reduced intestinal 59Fe uptake, lower serum iron and transferrin saturation, but no change in liver non-heme iron stores. (harvard.edu)
  • to about 5.5, causing transferrin to release its iron ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pH of the vesicle is reduced by hydrogen ion pumps (H+ ATPases) to about 5.5, causing transferrin to release its iron ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell will acidify the vesicle, causing human transferrin(TF) to release its iron ions. (leebio.com)
  • The affinity of transferrin for Fe(III) is extremely high ( association constant is 10 20 M −1 at pH 7.4) [7] but decreases progressively with decreasing pH below neutrality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) mediates the endocytosis of diferric transferrin in order to transport iron, and Tfr1 has been suggested to play an important role in hematopoiesis. (haematologica.org)
  • These findings provide direct evidence that Tfr1 is essential for hematopoiesis through binding diferric transferrin to supply iron to cells. (haematologica.org)
  • The liver is the main site of transferrin synthesis but other tissues and organs, including the brain, also produce transferrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • An absence of transferrin results from a rare genetic disorder known as atransferrinemia , a condition characterized by anemia and hemosiderosis in the heart and liver that leads to heart failure and many other complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your liver makes transferrin. (rochester.edu)
  • When your body's stores of iron run low, your liver produces more transferrin in order to get more iron into your blood. (rochester.edu)
  • Transferrin is largely made in the liver and regulates your body's iron absorption into the blood. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Besides vividly proliferating cells a high expression of the transferrin receptor is found on immature erythrocytes, placental syncytiothrophoblasts and in the liver (Iacopetta et al 1982, Loh et al 1980). (ifcc.org)
  • DMT1 is also present in the liver, where it has been implicated in the uptake of transferrin-bound iron (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), which appears in the plasma during iron overload. (wiley.com)
  • To directly assess the role of DMT1 in NTBI and TBI uptake, we injected 59 Fe-labeled ferric citrate (for NTBI) or 59 Fe-transferrin into plasma of Dmt1 liv/liv and Dmt1 flox/flox mice and measured uptake of 59 Fe by the liver. (wiley.com)
  • Normally, iron is absorbed from food and transported throughout the body by transferrin, which is produced by the liver. (lifeextension.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of rabbit liver transferrin cDNA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Nucleotide sequence of porcine liver transferrin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The liver is the main site of transferrin synthesis and its main role is to deliver iron to all tissues. (perkinelmer.com)
  • After biocompatibility confirmation by cytotoxicity evaluation, these fluorescent MLs were further embedded with transferrin and applied to an in vitro BBB transmigration study in the presence or absence of external magnetic force. (nih.gov)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Transferrin receptor bearing cells in rheumatoid arthritis and an in vitro model of lymphocyte activation from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium (ITS) was investigated as a partial replacement for FBS during in vitro culture of rabbit articular chondrocytes in three-dimensional alginate scaffold. (hindawi.com)
  • If transferrin saturation is greater than 45%, the presence of the C282Y or H63D mutation may be evaluated to confirm the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. (medscape.com)
  • [5] Human transferrin is encoded by the TF gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene coding for transferrin in humans is located in chromosome band 3q21. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrin receptor and hereditary hemochromatosis gene variants interact to modify childhood leukemia risk. (ashg.org)
  • An interaction between the transferrin receptor ( TFRC ) rs3817672 (S142G) and hereditary hemochromatosis gene ( HFE ) rs1800672 (C282Y) is associated with increased risk for multiple myeloma, breast, colorectal and hepatocellular cancers as well as childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk in European studies. (ashg.org)
  • Structure of medaka transferrin gene and its 5'-flanking region. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This effect is not attributable to a change in the transcription rate of the transferrin receptor gene or in the cytoplasmic stability of the mRNA. (epfl.ch)
  • Our results suggest the existence of another mechanism of regulation for transferrin receptor gene expression not so far considered. (epfl.ch)
  • Furthermore, the distinction between the mechanism of regulation exerted by IFN gamma and that exerted by cell proliferation on transferrin receptor gene expression suggests that, in WISH cells, the IFN-induced transferrin receptor decay is not a consequence of cell growth arrest but rather one of the causes of the antiproliferative effect of IFN through iron deprivation. (epfl.ch)
  • The single-banding components of bovine transferrin from animals homozygous for the four transferrin variants found in the U.K. were isolated. (biochemj.org)
  • The results support the concept that bovine transferrin is essentially a single polypeptide chain, but they do not explain differences in electrophoretic mobility between bands of the same variant which are not produced by differing sialic acid content. (biochemj.org)
  • The dominating mechanism for iron delivery to tissues is the internalisation of the transferrin receptor-diferric transferrin complex. (ifcc.org)
  • Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferrins are glycoproteins that are often found in biological fluids of vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, the molecular basis of iron uptake from host iron-binding glycoproteins, the transferrins, is not known. (bl.uk)
  • The receptor with its ligand bound transferrin is then transported through the endocytic cycle back to the cell surface, ready for another round of iron uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transport of iron into the brain is regulated by the expression of the transferrin receptor on capillary endothelial cells and on epithelial cells in the choroid plexus. (ifcc.org)
  • Many other medical conditions can cause high or low levels of transferrin. (rochester.edu)
  • Transferrin is also associated with the innate immune system, since its binding of iron can create decreased levels of free iron and impede bacterial survival. (peprotech.com)
  • Measurement of blood transferrin levels can be used as an indicator for blood iron-carrying capacity and abnormalities of iron metabolism such as anaemia, iron overload and haemochromatosis.Serum transferrin may also have a further role in stimulating cell proliferation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Measuring your transferrin levels can give you and your healthcare provider valuable information about your risk of anemia or other iron-related health issues. (lifeextension.com)
  • Transferrin levels rise with iron deficiency and fall in cases of iron overload. (lifeextension.com)
  • Human Transferrin levels may be checked in iron deficiency, hemochromatosis and other iron overload disorders. (leebio.com)
  • Normal human serum transferrin levels range from 200-360 mg/dL. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Cellular uptake of iron occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis of ligand-occupied transferrin receptor into specialized endosomes. (fishersci.com)
  • 1. The binding of transferrin and the uptake of iron by rat bone-marrow-cell suspensions was investigated by the use of transferrin doubly labelled with 125 I and 59 Fe. (portlandpress.com)
  • Fig. 3: Binding of the transferrin receptor to transferrin from different mammalian species. (nature.com)
  • The separation revealed unambiguous two peaks associated with the complex Pu(NTA) 2 used as the initial species and with Pu-transferrin. (rsc.org)
  • Discuss the various biological functions of the transferrins and its importance in these roles. (ionicviper.org)
  • A low transferrin saturation is a common indicator of iron deficiency anemia whereas a high transferrin saturation may indicate iron overload or hemochromatosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Elevated transferrin saturation confers a two- to threefold increased risk of developing any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 and type 2 diabetes separately. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is unclear, however, whether elevated transferrin saturation confers an increased risk of diabetes in the general population. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Serum transferrin may also have a further role in stimulating cell proliferation. (abcam.com)
  • It has been suggested that the coupling between cell proliferation and expression of the transferrin receptor is mediated by the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase. (ifcc.org)
  • Recombinant Human Transferrin is a universal iron carrier capable of delivering iron to cells. (peprotech.com)
  • Recombinant Human Transferrin is manufactured animal free in a GMP facility and can be utilized to increase the quantity and quality of a wide range of cell types. (peprotech.com)
  • Catalog number 04-744Q contains L-glutamine, but not gentamicin or phenol red.X-VIVO™ 15, catalog number, BE02-053Q is formulated with L-glutamine, gentamicin, recombinant transferrin and phenol red. (sartorius.com)
  • Recombinant transferrin replaces native transferrinPlease see Supplemental Information for additional hematopoietic cell applications. (sartorius.com)
  • Above 50% the risk of toxic non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) rises exponentially, potentially causing organ damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoplasmic domain is necessary for clustering of the receptor-transferrin complex leading to the formation of coated pits in the cell membrane and subsequent endocytosis (Iacopetta et al 1988, Rothenberger et al 1987). (ifcc.org)
  • BMJ 2017;357:j2513 doi: 10.1136/bmj.j2513 (Published 2017 June 15) Brissot P, Ropert M, Le Lan C, Loréal O.: Non-transferrin bound iron: a key role in iron overload and iron toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/730130/all/transferrin. (tabers.com)
  • 2017) Controlling transferrin receptor trafficking with GPI-valence in bloodstream stage African trypanosomes, PLoS Pathog 13, e1006366. (findaphd.com)
  • Get results in 90 minutes with Human Transferrin ELISA Kit ( ab187391 ) from our SimpleStep ELISA ® range. (abcam.com)