Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A somewhat heterogeneous class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of alkyl or related groups (excluding methyl groups). EC 2.5.
A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.
A non-template-directed DNA polymerase normally found in vertebrate thymus and bone marrow. It catalyzes the elongation of oligo- or polydeoxynucleotide chains and is widely used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of acute leukemias in man. EC 2.7.7.31.
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from trans, trans-farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of deoxyribonucleotides into a chain of DNA. EC 2.7.7.-.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Phosphoric or pyrophosphoric acid esters of polyisoprenoids.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of UMP from UDPglucose to galactose 1-phosphate, forming UDPgalactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Deficiency in this enzyme is the major cause of GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.7.12.
An antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sparsogenes. It inhibits protein synthesis in 70S and 80S ribosomal systems.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the pathway for histidine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. ATP reacts reversibly with 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to yield N-1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)-ATP and pyrophosphate. EC 2.4.2.17.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetylgalactosamine from UDP N-acetylgalactosamine to various 2-fucosylgalactosides as acceptors. EC 2.4.1.40.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 2.5.1.1.
A species of halophilic archaea distinguished by its production of acid from sugar. This species was previously called Halobacterium marismortui.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylhexosaminyl groups to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hydroxymethyl or formyl groups. EC 2.1.2.
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Covalent attachment of LIPIDS and FATTY ACIDS to other compounds and PROTEINS.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
Consists of a polypeptide chain and 4'-phosphopantetheine linked to a serine residue by a phosphodiester bond. Acyl groups are bound as thiol esters to the pantothenyl group. Acyl carrier protein is involved in every step of fatty acid synthesis by the cytoplasmic system.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a source of galactose in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides, and lactose.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.
The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to histamine, forming N-methylhistamine, the major metabolite of histamine in man. EC 2.1.1.8.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The sole species of the genus Oxalobacter consisting of straight or curved gram-negative rods with rounded ends. Cells are nonmotile, nonsporing, and use oxylates as the only source of CARBON and energy, with formate and CARBON DIOXIDE as end products. They are isolated from lake sediments and from the rumen or large bowel of humans and animals. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The enzyme catalyzing the formation of orotidine-5'-phosphoric acid (orotidylic acid) from orotic acid and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate in the course of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. EC 2.4.2.10.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the propylamine moiety from 5'-deoxy-5'-S-(3-methylthiopropylamine)sulfonium adenosine to putrescine in the biosynthesis of spermidine. The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 73,000 kDa and is composed of two subunits of equal size.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
An enzyme catalyzing the formation of AMP from adenine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. It can act as a salvage enzyme for recycling of adenine into nucleic acids. EC 2.4.2.7.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
An intermediate in the pathway of coenzyme A formation in mammalian liver and some microorganisms.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Phosphoric acid esters of dolichol.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Infection of ruminants with tapeworms of the genus Moniezia.
A genus of green nonsulfur bacteria in the family Chloroflexaceae. They are photosynthetic, thermophilic, filamentous gliding bacteria found in hot springs.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CWH8 gene is required for full levels of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides in the endoplasmic reticulum and for efficient N-glycosylation. (1/1662)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant cwh8 was previously found to have an anomalous cell wall. Here we show that the cwh8 mutant has an N -glycosylation defect. We found that cwh8 cells were resistant to vanadate and sensitive to hygromycin B, and produced glycoforms of invertase and carboxypeptidase Y with a reduced number of N -chains. We have cloned the CWH8 gene. We found that it was nonessential and encoded a putative transmembrane protein of 239 amino acids. Comparison of the in vitro oligosaccharyl transferase activities of membrane preparations from wild type or cwh8 Delta cells revealed no differences in enzyme kinetic properties indicating that the oligosaccharyl transferase complex of mutant cells was not affected. cwh8 Delta cells also produced normal dolichols and dolichol-linked oligosaccharide intermediates including the full-length form Glc3Man9GlcNAc2. The level of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides in cwh8 Delta cells was, however, reduced to about 20% of the wild type. We propose that inefficient N -glycosylation of secretory proteins in cwh8 Delta cells is caused by an insufficient supply of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide substrate.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of two mouse L cell lines resistant to the toxic lectin ricin. (2/1662)

Two variant mouse L cell lines (termed CL 3 and CL 6) have been selected for resistant to ricin, a galactose-binding lectin with potent cytotoxic activity. The resistant lines exhibit a 50 to 70% decrease in ricin binding and a 300- to 500-fold increase in resistance to the toxic effects of ricin. Crude membrane preparations of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid content (200% of control), while the galactose, mannose, and hexosamine content is within normal limits. Both the glycoproteins and glycolipids of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid, with the GM3:lactosylceramide ratios for parent L and CL 3 cells being 0.29 and 1.5, respectively. In contrast, the membranes of CL 6 cells have a decrease in sialic acid, galactose, and hexosamine content with mannose being normal. Both cell lines have specific alterations in glycosyltransferase activities which can account for the observed membrane sugar changes. CL 3 cells have increased CMP-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and GM3 synthetase activities, while CL 6 cells have decrease UDP-GlcNAc:glycoproteinN-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and DPU-galactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase activities. The increased sialic acid content of CL 3 cells serves to mask ricin binding sites, since neuraminidase treatment of this cell line restores ricin binding to essentially normal levels. However, the fact that neuraminidase-treated CL 3 cells are still 45-fold resistant to ricin indicates that either a special class of productive ricin binding sites is not being exposed or that the cell line has a second mechanism for ricin resistance.  (+info)

Hyaluronan synthase expression in bovine eyes. (3/1662)

PURPOSE: Hyaluronan (HA), a high-molecular-weight linear glycosaminoglycan, is a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). It is expressed in eyes and plays important roles in many biologic processes, including cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Hyaluronan is produced by HA synthase (HAS), which has three isoforms: HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3. In this study, the HAS expression in the anterior segment of bovine eyes was investigated to determine the significance of HA in eyes. METHODS: To obtain bovine HAS probes, degenerate oligonucleotide primers, based on well-conserved amino acid sequences including the catalytic region of each HAS isoform, were used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify mRNA from bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCECs). Hyaluronan synthase-1 expression in the anterior segment of bovine eyes at the protein level was investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: All three HAS isoforms were expressed in BCECs at the mRNA level. Amplified cDNA fragments of HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 from BCECs can be aligned to human counterparts, showing similarities of 100%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively, at the amino acid level. Hyaluronan synthase 1 was expressed at the protein level in corneal epithelium, keratocyte, corneal endothelium, conjunctival epithelium, ciliary epithelium, capillary endothelium, and trabecular meshwork. CONCLUSIONS: Hyaluronan synthase isoforms were expressed in the ocular anterior segment and are speculated to be involved in HA production in situ.  (+info)

Behavior of transaldolase (EC 2.2.1.2) and transketolase (EC 2.2.1.1) Activities in normal, neoplastic, differentiating, and regenerating liver. (4/1662)

The objective of this investigation was to throw light on the biological behavior and metabolic regulation of hepatic enzymes of the nonoxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway. The activities of transaldolase (EC 2.2.1.2) and trasketolase (EC 2.2.1.1) Were compared in biological conditions that involve modulation of gene expression such as in starvation, in differentiation, after partial hepatectomy, and in a spectrum of hepatomas of different growth rates. The enzyme activities were determined under optimal kinetic conditions by spectrophotometric methods in the 100,000 X g supernatant fluids prepared from tissue homogenates. The kinetic properties of transaldolase and transketolase were similar in normal liver and in rapidly growing hepatoma 3924A. For transaldolase, apparent Km values of 0.13 mM (normal liver) and 0.17 mM (hepatoma) were observed for erythrose 4-phosphate and of 0.30 to 0.35 mM for fructose 6-phosphate. The pH optima in liver and hepatoma were at approximately 6.9 to 7.2. For the transketolase substrates, ribose 5-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate, the apparent Km values were 0.3 and 0.5 mM, respectively, in both liver and hepatoma. A broad pH optimum around 7.6 was observed in both tissues. In organ distribution studies, enzyme activities were measured in liver, intestinal mucosa, thymus, kidney, spleen, brain, adipose tissue, lung, heart, and skeletal muscle. Taking the specific activity of liver as 100%, transaldolase activity was the highest in intestinal mucosa (316%) and in thymus (219%); it was the lowest in heart (53%) and in skeletal muscle (21%). Transketolase activity was highest in kidney (155%) and lowest in heart (26%) and skeletal muscle (23%). Starvation decreased transaldolase and transketolase activities in 6 days to 69 and 74%, respectively, of those of the liver of the normal, fed rat. This was in the same range as the decrease in the protein concentration (66%y. In the liver tumors, transaldolase activity was increased 1.5- to 3.4-fold over the activities observed in normal control rat liver. Transketolase activity showed no relationship to tumor proliferation rate. In the regenerating liver at 24 hr after partial hepatectomy, the activity of both pentose phosphate pathway enzymes was in the same range as that of the sham-operated controls. In differentiation at the postnatal age of 5, 12, 23, and 32 days, hepatic transaldolase activities were 33, 44, 55, and 72%, respectively, of the activities observed in the 60-day-old, adult male rat. During the same period, transketolase activ-ties were 18, 21, 26, and 55% of the activities observed in liver of adult rat. The demonstration of increased transaldolase activity in hepatomas, irrespective of the degree of tumor malignancy, differentiation, or growth rate, suggests that the reprogramming of gene expression in malignant transformation is linked with an increase in the expression of this pentose phosphate pathway enzyme...  (+info)

A 20-kDa domain is required for phosphatidic acid-induced allosteric activation of phospholipase D from Streptomyces chromofuscus. (5/1662)

Two phospholipase D (PLD) enzymes with both hydrolase and transferase activities were isolated from Streptomyces chromofuscus. There were substantial differences in the kinetic properties of the two PLD enzymes towards monomeric, micellar, and vesicle substrates. The most striking difference was that the higher molecular weight enzyme (PLD57 approximately 57 kDa) could be activated allosterically with a low mole fraction of phosphatidic acid (PA) incorporated into a PC bilayer (Geng et al., J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 12195-12202). PLD42/20, a tightly associated complex of two peptides, one of 42 kDa and the other 20 kDa, had a 4-6-fold higher Vmax toward PC substrates than PLD57 and was not activated by PA. N-Terminal sequencing of both enzymes indicated that both components of PLD42/20 were cleavage products of PLD57. The larger component included the N-terminal segment of PLD57 and contained the active site. The N-terminus of the smaller peptide corresponded to the C-terminal region of PLD57; this peptide had no PLD activity by itself. Increasing the pH of PLD42/20 to 8.9, followed by chromatography of PLD42/20 on a HiTrap Q column at pH 8.5 separated the 42- and 20-kDa proteins. The 42-kDa complex had about the same specific activity with or without the 20-kDa fragment. The lack of PA activation for the 42-kDa protein and for PLD42/20 indicates that an intact C-terminal region of PLD57 is necessary for activation by PA. Furthermore, the mechanism for transmission of the allosteric signal requires an intact PLD57.  (+info)

Serine transhydroxymethylase from rabbit liver. Sequence of anonapeptide at the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-binding site. (6/1662)

The amino acid sequence of the coenzyme-binding site of serine transhydroxymethylase from rabbit liver has been determined. After reduction with NaBH4 and aminoethylation, a first sample of enzyme was digested with thermolysin and a single phosphopyridoxyl peptide was isolated. A second sample of similarly treated enzyme was digested with chymotrypsin and three phosphopyridoxyl peptides clearly originating from a unique coenzyme-binding site were isolated. Sequence analysis of these peptides indicate the following structure: Val-Val-Thr-Thr-His(Pxy)-Thr-Leu. Sequence homologies of the active site of various pyridoxalphosphate enzymes are discussed in terms of a possible catalytic role and of evolution of this class of proteins.  (+info)

Bordetella pertussis waaA encodes a monofunctional 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase that can complement an Escherichia coli waaA mutation. (7/1662)

Bordetella pertussis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contains a single 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) residue, whereas LPS from Escherichia coli contains at least two. Here we report that B. pertussis waaA encodes an enzyme capable of transferring only a single Kdo during the biosynthesis of LPS and that this activity is sufficient to complement an E. coli waaA mutation.  (+info)

Expression of prokaryotic 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphatases in Escherichia coli increases carotenoid and ubiquinone biosynthesis. (8/1662)

Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) acts as the common, five-carbon building block in the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids. The first reaction of IPP biosynthesis in Escherichia coli is the formation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate, catalysed by 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXPS). E. coli engineered to produce lycopene, was transformed with dxps genes cloned from Bacillus subtilis and Synechocystis sp. 6803. Increases in lycopene levels were observed in strains expressing exogenous DXPS compared to controls. The recombinant strains also exhibited elevated levels of ubiquinone-8. These increases corresponded with enhanced DXP synthase activity in the recombinant E. coli strains.  (+info)

casSAR Dugability of Q31I56 | lgt | Phosphatidylglycerol--prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase - Also known as LGT_HYDCU, lgt. Catalyzes the transfer of the diacylglyceryl group from phosphatidylglycerol to the sulfhydryl group of the N-terminal cysteine of a prolipoprotein, the first step in the formation of mature lipoproteins.
Glycine is a simple amino acid. The glycine cleavage enzyme system comprises four proteins: P-, T-, H- and L-proteins (EC 1.4.4.2, EC 2.1.2.10 and EC 1.8.1.4 for P-, T- and L-proteins). The glycine cleavage system catalyses the oxidative conversion of glycine into carbon dioxide and ammonia, with the remaining one-carbon unit transferred to folate as methylenetetrahydrofolate. It is the main catabolic pathway for glycine and it also contributes to one-carbon metabolism ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for P9WK92 (LGT_MYCTO), Phosphatidylglycerol--prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain CDC 1551 / Oshkosh)
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MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersOther2-phospho-L-lactate transferase (TIGR01819; EC 2.7.8.28; HMM-score: 35.4) ...
The Escherichia coliglycine cleavage enzyme system catalyzes the cleavage of glycine into carbon dioxide, ammonia, and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (9). Glycine is required for both protein and purine biosynthesis, while 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate serves as a one-carbon donor in the biosynthesis of purines, methionine, thymine, and numerous methylated products (15). Three components of the glycine cleavage enzyme system, the GcvT, GcvH, and GcvP proteins, are encoded by the gcv operon (17). Induced by glycine (13, 17, 28) and repressed by purines (8, 27), it appears that expression of the gcv operon is regulated in order to balance cellular requirements for glycine and one-carbon units.. Currently, four proteins, the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp), the purine repressor protein (PurR), the glycine cleavage activator protein (GcvA), and the glycine cleavage repressor protein (GcvR), have been shown to be involved in regulating expression of thegcv operon. Lrp is a global ...
Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that escapes from phagosomes and induces a robust adaptive immune response in mice, while mutants unable to escape phagosomes fail to induce a robust adaptive immune response and suppress the immunity to wildtype bacteria when co-administered. The capacity to suppress immunity can be reversed by blocking IL-10. In this study, we sought to understand the host receptors that lead to secretion of IL-10 in response to phagosome-confined L. monocytogenes (Δhly), with the ultimate goal of generating strains that fail to induce IL-10. We conducted a transposon screen to identify Δhly L. monocytogenes mutants that induced significantly more or less IL-10 secretion in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). A transposon insertion in lgt, which encodes phosphatidylglycerol-prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase and is essential for the formation of lipoproteins, induced significantly reduced IL-10 secretion. Mutants with ...
A catalytic mechanism has been proposed for CH in analogy with that for TS (Graves et al., 1992). During the initial steps, they both catalyze the transfer of a methylene group from CH2H4folate to C‐5 of either dCMP or dUMP (Carreras and Santi, 1995; Figure 3). 18O‐exchange studies indicated the existence of a 5‐exocyclic methylene intermediate in the reaction mechanism of T4 CH (Butler et al., 1994). The same intermediate was also proposed for TSs (Stroud and Finer‐Moore, 1993). The catalytic activities of these enzymes are differentiated by the last step of the proposed mechanisms. During this critical step, T4 CH catalyzes the hydroxylation of the methylene group to produce Hm‐dCMP without oxidizing the cofactor, whereas TS catalyzes the reduction of the exocyclic methylene to a methyl group with a concomitant oxidation of the cofactor to dihydrofolate. In the TS‐catalyzed reaction, the C‐6 hydrogen of the pterin ring of the folate cofactor is donated to the exocyclic methylene ...
Ina Knerr, Roberto Colombo, Jill Urquhart, Ana Morais, Begona Merinero, Alfonso Oyarzabal, Belén Pérez, Simon A Jones, Rahat Perveen, Mary A Preece, Yvonne Rogers, Eileen P Treacy, Philip Mayne, Giuseppe Zampino, Sabrina MacKinnon, Evangeline Wassmer, Wyatt W Yue, Ian Robinson, Pilar Rodríguez-Pombo, Simon E ...
A - Tilt: 12° - Segments: 1( 11- 31), 2( 111- 135), 3( 136- 146), 4( 163- 182), 5( 197- 217), 6( 218- 235), 7( 245- 266), 8( 278- 297), 9( 314- 336), 10( 375- 400), 11( 405- 423), 12( 427- 447), 13( 469- 493 ...
STT3A - STT3A (untagged)-Human STT3, subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex, homolog A (S. cerevisiae) (STT3A) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Berikut lirik lagu Lazuardi - OST Marlina si Pembunuh Dalam Empat Babak, dilengkapi chord kunci gitar Lazuardi - Zeke Khaseli & Yudhi Arfani OST Marlina si Pembunuh Dalam Empat Babak, dipersembahkan oleh Maingitardulu.com
This enzyme, along with protein farnesyltransferase (EC 2.5.1.58) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (EC 2.5.1.59), constitutes the protein prenyltransferase fa
Prevalence and incidence statistics for Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, lethal neonatal form covering estimated populations and diagnosis rates.
A leaky rice mutant was isolated from an ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized rice library based on its short root phenotype. The map-based cloning results showed that the mutant was due to a point mutation in the intron of OsDGL1 (LOC_Os07g10830), which encodes the dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycosyltransferase 48 kDa subunit precursor. The mutation results in premature termination of protein synthesis. OsDGL1 is an ortholog of Arabidopsis DGL1, human OST48 and yeast WBP1, an essential protein subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex, which is involved in N-glycosylation in eukaryotes. The leaky rice mutant, Osdgl1, displayed a change of matrix polysaccharides in its root cell wall, shorter root cell length, smaller root meristem and cell death in the root. Consistent with the known function of the OST complex in eukaryotes, the Osdgl1 mutation leads to a defect in N-glycosylation in the root. It was also found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be involved ...
Background-Statins have anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic effects that have been attributed to inhibition of RHO protein geranylgeranylation in inflammatory cells. The activity of protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I) is widely believed to promote membrane association and activation of RHO family proteins. However, we recently showed that knockout of GGTase-I in macrophages activates RHO proteins and proinflammatory signaling pathways, leading to increased cytokine production and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we asked whether the increased inflammatory signaling of GGTase-I-deficient macrophages would influence the development of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Methods and Results-Aortic lesions in mice lacking GGTase-I in macrophages (Pggt1bΔ/Δ) contained significantly more T lymphocytes than the lesions in controls. Surprisingly, however, mean atherosclerotic lesion area in Pggt1bΔ/Δ mice was reduced by ~60%. GGTase-I deficiency reduced the ...
The hyaluronate synthase complex was identified in plasma membranes from B6 cells. It contained two subunits of molecular masses 52 kDa and 60 kDa which bound the precursor UDP-GlcA in digitonin solution and partitioned into the aqueous phase, together with nascent hyaluronate upon Triton X-114 phase separation. The 52 kDa protein cross-reacted with poly- and monoclonal antibodies raised against the streptococcal hyaluronate synthase and the 60 kDa protein was recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against a hyaluronate receptor. The 52 kDa protein was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography with monoclonal anti-hyaluronate synthase. ...
The hyaluronate synthase complex was identified in plasma membranes from B6 cells. It contained two subunits of molecular masses 52 kDa and 60 kDa which bound the precursor UDP-GlcA in digitonin solution and partitioned into the aqueous phase, together with nascent hyaluronate upon Triton X-114 phase separation. The 52 kDa protein cross-reacted with poly- and monoclonal antibodies raised against the streptococcal hyaluronate synthase and the 60 kDa protein was recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against a hyaluronate receptor. The 52 kDa protein was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography with monoclonal anti-hyaluronate synthase. ...
This HMM describes a protein related to a number of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzymes, and in particular to selenocysteine synthase (SelA), which converts Ser to selenocysteine on its tRNA. While resembling SelA, this protein is found only in species that have a better candidate SelA or else lack the other genes (selB, selC, and selD) required for selenocysteine incorporation ...
1MXC: Structure and function of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase: crystal structures of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase with ADP, BrADP, and PPi at 28 angstroms resolution.
OST is a component of the translocon in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. A lipid-linked core-oligosaccharide is assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum and transferred to selected asparagine residues of nascent polypeptide chains by the oligosaccharyl transferase complex.[3] The active site of OST is located about 4 nm from the lumenal face of the ER membrane.[4] It usually acts during translation as the nascent protein is entering the ER, but this cotranslational glycosylation is nevertheless called a posttranslational modification. A few examples have been found of OST activity after translation is complete.[5][6] Current opinion is that post-translational activity may occur if the protein is poorly folded or folds slowly.[6] ...
Rao, Narasimha K and Vijayalakshmi, D and Baskaran, N (1986) Mechanism of interaction of reversible and irreversible inhibitors with human-liver serine hydroxymethyltransferase. In: Journal of Protein Chemistry, 5 (4). 291 -292. Full text not available from this repository ...
1P7L: Crystal structure of the s-adenosylmethionine synthetase ternary complex: a novel catalytic mechanism of s-adenosylmethionine synthesis from ATP and MET.
A subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex is important for efficient glycosylation of specific glycoproteins, including the receptor kinase EFR involved in innate immunity and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase KORRIGAN1 required for cellulose biosynthesis. ...
1999 (English)In: In: Gene Therapy and Molecular Biology. From basic mechanisms to clinical applications (T. Boulikas, ed.), Gene Therapy Press, Palo Alto , 1999, Vol. 3, 465- p.Chapter in book (Other scientific) ...
polysaccharide capsules (CPS) are characterized by the presence of nonstoichiometric -methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modifications. The lack of stoichiometry is due to phase variation at homopolymeric tracts within the MeOPN transferase genes. strain 81-176 contains two MeOPN transferase genes and has been shown previously to contain MeOPN modifications at the 2 and 6 positions of the galactose (Gal) moiety in the CPS. We demonstrate here that one of the two MeOPN transferases, encoded by CJJ81176_1435, is bifunctional and is responsible for the addition of MeOPN to both the 2 and the 6 positions of Gal. A new MeOPN at the 4 position of Gal was observed in a mutant lacking the CJJ81176_1435 transferase and this was encoded by the CJJ81176_1420 transferase. During routine growth of 81-176, the CJJ81176_1420 transferase was predominantly in an off configuration, while the CJJ81176_1435 transferase was primarily on. However, exposure to normal human serum selected for cells expressing the ...
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The SCOP classification for the Formylmethanofuran:tetrahydromethanopterin formyltransferase superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , GenWay \ S-adenosylmethionine synthetase isoform type-2 - EC 2.5.1.6; Methionine adenosyltransferase 2; AdoMet synthetase 2; Methionine adenosyltransferase II; MAT-II \ 10-288-22390F for more molecular products just contact us
Catalyzes consecutive E-type condensation of two isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) molecules with an allylic substrate such as geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) or geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to yield the medium-chain product trans-C30-hexaprenyl pyrophosphate (HexPP). GGPP is the physiological substrate.
With DHDDS, forms the dehydrodolichyl diphosphate synthase (DDS) complex, an essential component of the dolichol monophosphate (Dol-P) biosynthetic machinery. Adds multiple copies of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to produce dehydrodolichyl diphosphate (Dedol-PP), a precursor of dolichol which is utilized as a sugar carrier in protein glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Regulates the glycosylation and stability of nascent NPC2, thereby promoting trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol.
2014, The Society for In Vitro Biology. The present study aimed to demonstrate the phenomena of hyaluronan synthesis in response to lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in SW982, a human synovial sarcoma cell line. The expression of IL-1ß, including Toll-like receptor 4 and IL-1ß-converting enzyme, was proved to be induced by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of HAS genes encoding enzyme hyaluronan synthase 2 and 3, including CD44 gene which encodes the cell surface receptor of hyaluronan were upregulated in association with the activation of inflammation, along with an increase in hyaluronan level in the culture medium. The highest expression of HAS2 and HAS3 was found at 9 h after treatment with lipopolysaccharide. However, HAS1 gene expression was not detectable neither with the non-treatment nor with the treatment with lipopolysaccharide. Dexamethasone at 30 nM significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced HAS genes expression, leading to the ...
CAS# 121268-17-5 Description of Alendronate sodium: Alendronate sodium is the sodium salt of alendronate, a second generation bisphosphonate and synthetic analog of pyrophosphate with bone anti-resorption activity. Alendronate sodium binds to and inhibits the activity of geranyltranstransferase (farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase), an enzyme involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. Inhibition of this enzyme prevents the biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids (FPP and GGPP) that are donor substrates of farnesylation and geranylgeranylation during the post-translational modification of small GTPase signalling proteins, which is important in the process of osteoclast turnover. As a result, osteoclast activity is inhibited and bone resorption and turnover are reduced.
Rab Family GTPase; Involved In The ER-to-Golgi Step Of The Secretory Pathway; Complex Formation With The Rab Escort Protein Mrs6p Is Required For Prenylation Of Ypt1p By Protein Geranylgeranyltransferase Type II (Bet2p-Bet4p); Binds To Unspliced HAC1 MRNA; Regulates Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) By Promoting The Decay Of HAC1 RNA
Human oligosaccharyl transferase subunit DAD1 ELISA Kit;Human defender against cell death 1 ELISA Kit;Human DAD-1 ELISA Kit;Human OST2 ELISA Kit;Human dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase subunit DAD1 ELISA Kit;Human oligosaccharyltransferase 2 homolog ELISA Kit;Human oligosaccharyltransferase subunit 2 (non-catalytic) ELISA Kit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a novel inhibition site in translocase MraY based upon the site of interaction with lysis protein e from bacteriophage φx174. AU - Rodolis, Maria T.. AU - Mihalyi, Agnes. AU - OReilly, Amy. AU - Slikas, Justinas. AU - Roper, David I.. AU - Hancock, Robert. AU - Bugg, Timothy D.H.. PY - 2014/6/16. Y1 - 2014/6/16. N2 - Translocase MraY is the site of action of lysis protein E from bacteriophage φX174. Previous genetic studies have shown that mutation F288L in transmembrane helix 9 of E. coli MraY confers resistance to protein E. Construction of a helical wheel model for transmembrane helix 9 of MraY and the transmembrane domain of protein E enabled the identification of an Arg-Trp-x-x-Trp (RWxxW) motif in protein E that might interact with Phe288 of MraY and the neighbouring Glu287. This motif is also found in a number of cationic antimicrobial peptide sequences. Synthetic dipeptides and pentapeptides based on the RWxxW consensus sequence showed inhibition of ...
Reaction mass of Chromate(1-), [N-[7-hydroxy-8-[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-1-naphthalenyl]acetamidato(2-)][1-[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphthalenolato(2-)]-, hydrogen, compd. with N-cyclohexylcyclohexanamine (1:1) and hydrogen bis[1-[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-2-naphtholato(2-)]chromate(1-) , compound with dicyclohexylamine (1:1) and hydrogen bis[N-[7-hydroxy-8-[(2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)azo]-1-naphthyl]acetamidato(2-)]chromate(1-) , compound with dicyclohexylamine (1:1) ...
PDS OST to PST software is one of the best Convert Exchange OST to PST email recovery tool which can efficiently recover inaccessible OST email into MS Outlook. Perfect OST converter tool assist you to scan entire OST database and recover OST to PST. Award winning Perfectdatasolution develop advance Convert Exchange OST to PST Email Recovery software which is the splendid OST data recovery tool. By using OST to PST converter tool you can easily fix OST, repair corrupt OST file and convert OST ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether Aldehyde-Ketone Transferases was a major or minor topic of these publication ...
ST6 Gal Sialyltransferase 1/ST6GAL1/CD75 Overexpression Lysate (Denatured). Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
C. Scully, C. S. Miller, J. M. A. Urizar, I. Alajbeg, O. P. D. Almeida, J. V. Bagan, C. Birek, Q. Chen, C. S. Farah, J. P. Figueirido, Bengt Hasséus, Mats Jontell, A. R. Kerr, G. Laskaris, L. Lo Muzio, A. Mosqueda-Taylor, K. S. Nagesh, N. G. Nikitakis, D. Peterson, J. Sciubba, K. Thongprasom, S. Tovaru, Y. Zadik ...
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme donor:acceptor group transferase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
MetabolismBiosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, and carriersPantothenate and coenzyme A3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase (TIGR00222; EC 2.1.2.11; HMM-score: 297.7) ...
sialyltransferase 7 ((alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl 2,3-betagalactosyl-1,3)-N-acetyl galactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase) D ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Substrate specificity of bacterial oligosaccharyltransferase suggests a common transfer mechanism for the bacterial and eukaryotic systems. AU - Wacker, Michael. AU - Feldman, Mario F.. AU - Callewaert, Nico. AU - Kowarik, Michael. AU - Clarke, Bradley R.. AU - Pohl, Nicola L.. AU - Hernandez, Marcela. AU - Vines, Enrique D.. AU - Valvano, Miguel A.. AU - Whitfield, Chris. AU - Aebi, Markus. PY - 2006/5/2. Y1 - 2006/5/2. N2 - The PglB oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase) of Campylobacter jejuni can be functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and its relaxed oligosaccharide substrate specificity allows the transfer of different glycans from the lipid carrier undecaprenyl pyrophosphate to an acceptor protein. To investigate the substrate specificity of PglB, we tested the transfer of a set of lipid-linked polysaccharides in E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. A hexose linked to the C-6 of the monosaccharide at the reducing end did not inhibit the transfer of the O ...
Like the other amino acids used by cells, selenocysteine has a specialized tRNA. The primary and secondary structure of selenocysteine tRNA, tRNA(Sec), differ from those of standard tRNAs in several respects, most notably in having an 8-base (bacteria) or 9-base (eukaryotes) pair acceptor stem, a long variable region arm, and substitutions at several well-conserved base positions. The selenocysteine tRNAs are initially charged with serine by seryl-tRNA ligase, but the resulting Ser-tRNA(Sec) is not used for translation because it is not recognised by the normal translation factor (EF-Tu in bacteria, EF1alpha in eukaryotes). Rather, the tRNA-bound seryl residue is converted to a selenocysteyl-residue by the pyridoxal phosphate-containing enzyme selenocysteine synthase. Finally, the resulting Sec-tRNA(Sec) is specifically bound to an alternative translational elongation factor (SelB or mSelB) which delivers it in a targeted manner to the ribosomes translating mRNAs for selenoproteins. The ...
Rheumatoid arthritis is a painful and debilitating inflammatory disorder with no known cure. It has been hypothesised that targeting the activity of RHO family proteins might be an effective therapeutic strategy, as these proteins are required for the function of macrophages, which contribute to immunopathology in arthritic joints. However, this notion is challenged in a recent paper by Khan et al. Unexpectedly, mice deficient for a key RHO-activating enzyme, geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I), specifically in macrophages were found to develop spontaneous and severe joint inflammation resembling erosive rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophage-specific deficiency in GGTase-I was sufficient to induce pro-inflammatory signalling pathways and initiate the disease owing to sustained activation of RHO family proteins in macrophages. These data indicate that GGTase-I is not essential for the activity of RHO family proteins, and that inhibition of this enzyme can worsen, rather than prevent, the ...
PubMed journal article: A serine hydroxymethyltransferase from marine bacterium Shewanella algae: Isolation, purification, characterization and l-serine production. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
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ID DXS_SHISS Reviewed; 620 AA. AC Q3Z4Y9; DT 31-OCT-2006, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 27-SEP-2005, sequence version 1. DT 08-MAY-2019, entry version 89. DE RecName: Full=1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00315}; DE EC=2.2.1.7 {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00315}; DE AltName: Full=1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00315}; DE Short=DXP synthase {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00315}; DE Short=DXPS {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00315}; GN Name=dxs {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00315}; GN OrderedLocusNames=SSON_0397; OS Shigella sonnei (strain Ss046). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Gammaproteobacteria; Enterobacterales; OC Enterobacteriaceae; Shigella. OX NCBI_TaxID=300269; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Ss046; RX PubMed=16275786; DOI=10.1093/nar/gki954; RA Yang F., Yang J., Zhang X., Chen L., Jiang Y., Yan Y., Tang X., RA Wang J., Xiong Z., Dong J., Xue Y., Zhu Y., Xu X., Sun L., Chen S., RA Nie H., Peng ...
Creative Peptides offers N-α-Boc-N-β-allyloxycarbonyl-D-2,3-diaminopropionic acid dicyclohexylamine salt for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
Complete information for DHDDS gene (Protein Coding), Dehydrodolichyl Diphosphate Synthase Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
ST8 alpha-2,8-Sialyltransferase 8B/ST8SIA2 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our ST8 alpha-2,8-Sialyltransferase 8B/ST8SIA2 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Complete information for SHMT1 gene (Protein Coding), Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Numerous matches in gapped BLAST to 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic-acid transferase (KdtA) sequences. Residues 1-371 are 40% similar to the enzyme from P.aeruginosa (gb,AAG08373 ...
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Dempski RE, Imperiali B (December 2002). "Oligosaccharyl transferase: gatekeeper to the secretory pathway". Curr Opin Chem Biol ... oligosaccharyl transferase complex) the newly synthesized protein is transported across the membrane (gray) into the interior ... "Structure of the mammalian oligosaccharyl-transferase complex in the native ER protein translocon". Nat. Commun. (5): 3072. ... "STT3, a highly conserved protein required for yeast oligosaccharyl transferase activity in vivo". EMBO J. 14 (20): 4949-60. ...
transferase activity. • transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups. • enoyl-CoA hydratase ... transferase activity, transferring acyl groups. • 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity. • RNA binding. • acetyl-CoA C- ...
In addition, the enzyme transferase shifts a block of 3 glucosyl residues from the outer branch to the other end, and then a α1 ...
transferase activity. • nucleotide binding. • protein kinase activator activity. • 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase ...
"Lessons from genome-wide studies: an integrated definition of the coactivator function of histone acetyl transferases" ...
DNA nucleotidylexotransferase/Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. RNA nucleotidyltransferase. RNA polymerase/DNA-directed ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, to be specific those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is phosphoenolpyruvate:D-erythrose-4-phosphate C-(1-carboxyvinyl)transferase ( ...
transferase activity. • transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer. • citrate ...
Transferases: phosphorus-containing groups (EC 2.7). 2.7.1-2.7.4:. phosphotransferase/kinase. (PO4). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups ( ...
transferases. Ribose. ADP-ribosyltransferase. *NAD+:diphthamide ADP-ribosyltransferase *Diphtheria toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin ...
DNA nucleotidylexotransferase/Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. RNA nucleotidyltransferase. RNA polymerase/DNA-directed ...
transferases. Ribose. ADP-ribosyltransferase. *NAD+:diphthamide ADP-ribosyltransferase *Diphtheria toxin. *NAD(P)+:arginine ADP ...
Transferases: phosphorus-containing groups (EC 2.7). 2.7.1-2.7.4:. phosphotransferase/kinase. (PO4). ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring aryl or alkyl groups other than methyl ... transferase. Other names in common use include N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate lyase, N-acetylneuraminate 9-phosphate sialic ...
Transferases: acyltransferases (EC 2.3). 2.3.1: other than amino-acyl groups. *acetyltransferases: Acetyl-Coenzyme A ...
Transferases: phosphorus-containing groups (EC 2.7). 2.7.1-2.7.4:. phosphotransferase/kinase. (PO4). ...
transferase activity. • enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein reductase (NADPH, A-specific) activity]. • 3-hydroxypalmitoyl-[acyl-carrier ... 2cg5: STRUCTURE OF AMINOADIPATE-SEMIALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE-PHOSPHOPANTETHEINYL TRANSFERASE IN COMPLEX WITH CYTOSOLIC ACYL ...
... the term non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase describes a class of enzymes that belong to the family of transferases, ...
transferases. Ribose. ADP-ribosyltransferase. *NAD+:diphthamide ADP-ribosyltransferase *Diphtheria toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin ...
... S-transferase enzymes catalyze its conjugation to lipophilic xenobiotics, facilitating their excretion or further ... Hayes, John D.; Flanagan, Jack U.; Jowsey, Ian R. (2005). "Glutathione transferases". Annual Review of Pharmacology and ... a tool to measure the cellular glutathione redox potential Glutathione-ascorbate cycle Bacterial glutathione transferase ...
Sharma R, Yang Y, Sharma A, Awasthi S, Awasthi YC (April 2004). "Antioxidant role of glutathione S-transferases: protection ... In addition, the glutathione S-transferases show high activity with lipid peroxides. These enzymes are at particularly high ... Hayes JD, Flanagan JU, Jowsey IR (2005). "Glutathione transferases". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 45: 51-88. ... The glutathione system includes glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, and glutathione S-transferases. ...
Hayes JD, Flanagan JU, Jowsey IR (2005). "Glutathione transferases". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 45: 51-88. ... The glutathione system includes glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, and glutathione S-transferases.[ ... Sharma R, Yang Y, Sharma A, Awasthi S, Awasthi YC (April 2004). "Antioxidant role of glutathione S-transferases: protection ... glutathione S-transferase etc. protect DNA from oxidative stress. It has been proposed that polymorphisms in these enzymes are ...
Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB (1974). "Glutathione S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation". J ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically the transaminases, which transfer nitrogenous groups. The ...
Transferase (EC 2). *2.1 COMT. *Thymidylate synthase. *2.4 PARP. *2.5 Dihydropteroate synthetase ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
EC2 Transferases (list). *EC3 Hydrolases (list). *EC4 Lyases (list). *EC5 Isomerases (list) ...
transferase activity. • nucleotide binding. • protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase ...
Transferase deficiencies are at the root of many common illnesses. The most common result of a transferase deficiency is a ... Terminal transferases are transferases that can be used to label DNA or to produce plasmid vectors. It accomplishes both of ... The A and B transferases are the foundation of the human ABO blood group system. Both A and B transferases are ... "ABO Blood Group (Transferase A, Alpha 1-3-N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase;Transferase B, Alpha 1-3-Galactosyltransferase)". ...
transferase (plural transferases). *(biochemistry) Any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a functional group, ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=transferase&oldid=44320354" ...
Overview of Glutathione-S-Transferases. *Glutathione+S-Transferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), previously known as ligandins, comprise a family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II ... Glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain. Structure of the xenobiotic substrate binding site of rat glutathione S- ... Allocati N, Federici L, Masulli M, Di Ilio C (January 2009). "Glutathione transferases in bacteria". The FEBS Journal. 276 (1 ...
GST; Gsto 1 The Glutathione- S-transferases exist as cytosolic, mitochondrial, and microsomal which can participate in signal ... Glutathione transferases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2005;45:51-88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Glutathione S-transferase pi1 promotes tumorigenicity in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2005;65:9485-94.PubMed ... The glutathione S-transferases: influence of polymorphism on cancer susceptibility. IARC Sci Publ. 1999;231-49.Google Scholar ...
Transferases are defined as enzymes that catalyse the transfer of one functional group from one molecule (donor) to another ( ... acceptor). Glutathione-S-transferases are a complex group of enzymes which mediate the conjugation of compounds with ...
This family includes a number of transferase enzymes, mainly from plants and fungi. The motif HXXXD is probably part of the ... An important role of a BAHD acyl transferase-like protein in plant innate immunity.. Plant J. 57 1040-53 2009 ... GO:0016747 transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups ...
Multiple forms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes present in human tissues are dimers of subunits belonging to three ... Human glutathione S-transferases Int J Biochem. 1994 Mar;26(3):295-308. doi: 10.1016/0020-711x(94)90050-7. ... 1. Multiple forms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes present in human tissues are dimers of subunits belonging to ... 2. These subunits are differentially expressed in a tissue-specific manner and the composition of glutathione S-transferases in ...
J. D. Hayes, J. U. Flanagan, and I. R. Jowsey, "Glutathione transferases," Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. ... 15-deoxy-δ prostaglandin J2-induced expression of glutathione S-transferases," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, ... D. M. Townsend, Y. Manevich, L. He, S. Hutchens, C. J. Pazoles, and K. D. Tew, "Novel role for glutathione S-transferase π ... I. R. Jowsey, S. A. Smith, and J. D. Hayes, "Expression of the murine glutathione S-transferase α3 (GSTA3) subunit is markedly ...
Hen erythrocytes were investigated with respect to their Purinphosphoribosyl-pyrophosphatetransferase activities. These enzyme systems connected within the salvage pathway of purines have a low...
The glutathione transferase kappa family.. Morel F1, Aninat C.. Author information. 1. INSERM UMR991, Université de Rennes 1, F ... Glutathione transferase (GST) kappa, also named mitochondrial GST, is a very ancient protein family with orthologs in bacteria ...
GABA transferase may refer to: 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, an enzyme 4-aminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase, an enzyme This ...
The Genetic Architecture of Murine Glutathione Transferases.. Lu L1,2, Pandey AK1, Houseal MT1, Mulligan MK1. ... Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes play a protective role against oxidative stress and may influence disease risk and drug ...
Polymerase, nucleotidyl transferase domain (IPR002934). Short name: Polymerase_NTP_transf_dom Overlapping homologous ...
A gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) test measures the amount of GGT in the blood. GGT is a liver enzyme. High levels of GGT are ... What is a gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) test?. A gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) test measures the amount of GGT in the ... Gamma Glutamyl Transferase; p. 314.. *Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Washington D.C.: American Association for Clinical Chemistry ... Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) blood test: Overview; [updated 2020 Apr 23; cited 2020 Apr 23]; [about 2 screens]. Available ...
The crystal structures of glutathione S-transferases isozymes 1-3 and 1-4 from Anopheles dirus species B.. Oakley, A.J.,& ... The insect GST (glutathione transferase) supergene family encodes a varied group of proteins belonging to at least six ... The insect GST (glutathione transferase) supergene family encodes a varied group of proteins belonging to at least six ... Identification, characterization and structure of a new Delta class glutathione transferase isoenzyme.. Udomsinprasert, R., ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for transferase All GO annotations for Trmt2a (7) ...
... , catalyzes the repetitive addition of mononucleotides to the terminal 3´-OH ... C in 1X Terminal Transferase Buffer. The resulting oligo(dT)17 is measured by HPLC. ...
Gene Ontology (GO) annotations for transferase All GO annotations for Stk32a (14) ...
2012) A Xanthomonas uridine 5′-monophosphate transferase inhibits plant immune kinases. Nature 485(7396):114-118. ... Intrinsic regulation of FIC-domain AMP-transferases by oligomerization and automodification Message Subject (Your Name) has ... The physiological importance of AMP-transferases with FIC fold has escaped attention for a long time, because their activity is ... Intrinsic regulation of FIC-domain AMP-transferases by oligomerization and automodification. Frédéric V. Stanger, Björn M. ...
Mammalian xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450, esterases and glutathione transferases (GSTs), have been ...
... a lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase or LPAAT activity) that can make phosphatidic acid in membranes1,2,3. This activity is ... Endophilin and CtBP/BARS are not acyl transferases in endocytosis or Golgi fission. *Jennifer L. Gallop1. , ... Lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase (LPAAT) activities. Full TLC plates of LPAAT activities of proteins purified from BL21 ... Gallop, J., Butler, P. & McMahon, H. Endophilin and CtBP/BARS are not acyl transferases in endocytosis or Golgi fission. Nature ...
3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency is an inherited disorder that impairs the bodys ability to break down ketones, ... The OXCT1 gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT). The SCOT ... Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency is an inherited disorder that impairs the bodys ability to break ... Neonatal hypoglycaemia in severe succinyl-CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2001 Oct;24(5):587-95 ...
Ghrelin octanoylation mediated by an orphan lipid transferase. Jesus A. Gutierrez, Patricia J. Solenberg, Douglas R. Perkins, ... Ghrelin octanoylation mediated by an orphan lipid transferase. Jesus A. Gutierrez, Patricia J. Solenberg, Douglas R. Perkins, ... The specificity of GOAT as the acyl transferase for ghrelin and a member of the MBOAT family of proteins was further tested by ... We named the predicted protein encoded by the longer transcript of candidate 7 the ghrelin O-acyl transferase, GOAT (Fig. S2). ...
KudoZ) Spanish to English translation of GGR: GGT (gamma-glutamyl transferase) [CBC & Differential Report - Medical: Health ... GGT (gamma-glutamyl transferase). Explanation:. Only if there is a typo. Roxanna Delgado. United States. Local time: 04:17. ... Both terms, transpeptidase and transferase are medically correct, but only if there is a typo of course. I hope you finished ... Formal name: Gamma-glutamyl transferase. http://www.labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/ggt/tes... ...
TransferaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ... tr,A0A0P5Y4A3,A0A0P5Y4A3_9CRUS O-mannosyl-transferase OS=Daphnia magna OX=35525 PE=4 SV=1 ...
The aim of this study was to examine the polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) as potential modifiers of this ... The aim of this study was to examine the polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) as potential modifiers of this ...
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... transferases, a1,3-galactosyl transferase, a1,3-GalNAc transferase, structural basis, molecular genetic basis of ABO, ABO ... A transferase, B transferase, cell surface antigens, carbohydrate antigens, oligosaccharide antigens, oligosaccharides, complex ... transferase chimeras, GBGT1, GGTA1, A3GALT2, monoclonal antibody, sera, plant lectins, Fumi-ichiro Yamamoto, Fumiichiro ... transferases, a1,3-galactosyl transferase, a1,3-GalNAc transferase, structural basis, molecular genetic basis of ABO, ABO ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
... I. Hamilton-Craig. ,1 M. Yudi. ,2 L. Johnson. ,3 and ... Carnitine palmitoyl transferase type 2 (CPT2) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid ...
  • Glutathione S -transferases ( GSTs ), previously known as ligandins , comprise a family of eukaryotic and prokaryotic phase II metabolic isozymes best known for their ability to catalyze the conjugation of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) to xenobiotic substrates for the purpose of detoxification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the polymorphisms in the glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) as potential modifiers of this relationship, since these enzymes may be involved in the phase II metabolism of the reactive intermediates of vinyl chloride. (cdc.gov)
  • Conflicting findings have been reported for associations of primary brain tumors and constitutive polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs). (nih.gov)
  • Glutathione transferases (GSTs) of a novel class, which it is proposed to term Theta, were purified from rat and human liver. (uniprot.org)
  • Glutathione S -transferases (GSTs) comprise a family of detoxification enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of glutathione with carcinogens, drugs, toxins, and products of oxidative stress ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) belong to a large family of proteins involved in detoxification [ 1 - 3 ]. (plos.org)
  • Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) is a genetic factor for many diseases and exhibits great diversities among various populations. (ebscohost.com)
  • The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) represent a family of cytosolic enzymes whose primary function is the detoxification of electrophilic chemical species of endogenous and exogenous origin. (washington.edu)
  • A multi-method approach was employed to compare the responses of Glutatione Transferases (GSTs) in the gills and hepatopancreas of Venerupis philippinarum to microcystins (MCs) toxicity. (mdpi.com)
  • Glutathione transferases (GSTs) constitute a superfamily of enzymes with essential roles in cellular detoxification and secondary metabolism in plants as in other organisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanistically, an enzyme that catalyzed the following reaction would be a transferase: X g r o u p + Y → t r a n s f e r a s e X + Y g r o u p {\displaystyle Xgroup+Y{\xrightarrow[{transferase}]{}}X+Ygroup} In the above reaction, X would be the donor, and Y would be the acceptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1953, the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase was shown to be a transferase, when it was found that it could reversibly produce UTP and G1P from UDP-glucose and an organic pyrophosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucuronyl transferase is a liver enzyme . (medlineplus.gov)
  • GABA transferase may refer to: 4-aminobutyrate transaminase, an enzyme 4-aminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase, an enzyme This set index page lists enzyme articles associated with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12 ) described that porcupine, an enzyme with structural similarities to membrane-bound O -acyl transferases (MBOAT), is required for serine-209 acylation with palmitoleic acid and for transport of Wnt3a from the endoplasmic reticulum for secretion. (pnas.org)
  • X-linked agammaglobulinaemia patients had significantly lower glutathione S-transferase enzyme activities at all sites in the normal colonic mucosa as compared to adenoma patients. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This lower glutathione S-transferase enzyme activity might play a role in the apparently increased colorectal cancer risk in X-linked agammaglobulinaemia patients, assuming that detoxification of carcinogenic compounds plays a role in the aetiology of colon cancer of these patients. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Jemth P, Mannervik B: Kinetic characterization of recombinant human glutathione transferase T1-1, a polymorphic detoxication enzyme. (drugbank.ca)
  • The results indicate that a GSH S-transferase is involved in the metabolism of isoprene and that the enzyme can detoxify reactive epoxides produced by monooxygenation of chlorinated ethenes. (tudelft.nl)
  • Metabolic networks are highly connected and complex, but a single enzyme, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) can sense the availability of metabolites and also modify target proteins. (harvard.edu)
  • This condition is caused by a genetic defect in the carnitine palmityl transferase 2 enzyme (CPT2), which normally escorts breakdown products of fats from the main part of the muscle cell into the mitochondria (the cell's "engine"), where they can be further metabolized for energy. (mda.org)
  • Antioxidant enzyme Glutathione S- Transferase (GST) is thought to do the primary cellular defense mechanism against reactive oxygen species. (prospecbio.com)
  • A gene coding for an enzyme (quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase) involved in the biosynthesis of NAD + was identified between these two regions by sequence analysis and functional assays. (asm.org)
  • The fact that elevated levels of quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase enhance growth on phthalate stems from the structural similarities between phthalate and quinolinate: phthalate is a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme and the phthalate catabolic pathway cometabolizes quinolinate. (asm.org)
  • The enzyme farnesyl transferase is involved in posttranslational modification of the ras proteins by covalently linking a farnesyl group to the ras protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Preparation of Antibodies against Soluble Recombinant Dengue E Proteins Fused with Glutathione's Transferase. (who.int)
  • Your search returned 16 succinyl-CoA:glutarate-CoA transferase Biomolecules across 8 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 2 succinyl-CoA:glutarate-CoA transferase Biomolecules across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • An important role of a BAHD acyl transferase-like protein in plant innate immunity. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Glutathione transferase (GST) kappa, also named mitochondrial GST, is a very ancient protein family with orthologs in bacteria and eukaryotes. (nih.gov)
  • O -GlcNAc transferase (OGT) regulates a wide range of cellular processes through the addition of the O- GlcNAc sugar moiety to thousands of protein substrates. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dynamic interplay between catalytic and lectin domains of GalNAc-transferases modulates protein O-glycosylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Protein O-glycosylation is controlled by polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) that uniquely feature both a catalytic and lectin domain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen 3-Oxoacid CoA Transferase 1 Proteine (9) und 3-Oxoacid CoA Transferase 1 Kits (4) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Identification, characterization and crystal structure of the omega class glutathione transferases. (springer.com)
  • Here we report the identification and characterization of human GOAT, the ghrelin O -acyl transferase. (pnas.org)
  • Pemble S, Schroeder KR, Spencer SR, Meyer DJ, Hallier E, Bolt HM, Ketterer B, Taylor JB: Human glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT1): cDNA cloning and the characterization of a genetic polymorphism. (drugbank.ca)
  • Sprenger R, Schlagenhaufer R, Kerb R, Bruhn C, Brockmoller J, Roots I, Brinkmann U: Characterization of the glutathione S-transferase GSTT1 deletion: discrimination of all genotypes by polymerase chain reaction indicates a trimodular genotype-phenotype correlation. (drugbank.ca)
  • In this study, we report the cloning, expression and characterization of the glutathione transferase isoenzyme P1-1 gene from Camelus dromedarius (CdGSTP1-1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The glycosyl transferase module is linked, via a short junction site, to the amino end of a Q447-N844 acyl transferase module, which possesses the catalytic centre-defining motifs of the penicilloyl serine transferases superfamily. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Glutathione S -transferase-μ1, GSTM1, belongs to a superfamily of glutathione S -transferases that metabolizes a broad range of reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) subunits were characterized and quantified with the aid of a recently developed h.p.l.c. method. (biochemj.org)
  • Scott K, George S & Leaver M (1992) Regulation of hepatic glutathione S-transferase expression in flounder, Marine Environmental Research , 34 (1-4), pp. 233-236. (stir.ac.uk)
  • The role of human glutathione S-transferases (hGSTs) in the detoxification of the food-derived carcinogen metabolite N -acetoxy-PhIP, and the effect of a polymorphism in hGSTA1 on colorectal cancer risk. (springer.com)
  • Glutathion-S-transferases (GST) are a group of enzymes, which are involved in the detoxification processes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Glutathione S-transferases are a family of biotransformation enzymes involved in the detoxification of cytotoxic and carcinogenic compounds, that may function in the prevention of carcinogenesis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a gene family generally associated with detoxification and plays an important role in detoxifying exogenous compounds. (bioone.org)
  • Enzymatic conjugation of chlorambucil with glutathione by human glutathione S -transferases and inhibition by ethacrynic acid. (springer.com)
  • Glutathione-S-transferases are a complex group of enzymes which mediate the conjugation of compounds with glutathione. (archive.org)
  • Glutathione transferases (GST) are essentially known as enzymes that catalyse the conjugation of glutathione to various electrophilic compounds such as chemical carcinogens, environmental pollutants, and antitumor agents. (hindawi.com)
  • Glutathione S-transferase (GST) catalyzes the conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to a variety of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. (proteopedia.org)
  • Glutathione S-transferase A1-1 (40 μM) also increased the conjugation of phosphoramide mustard and GSH (both 1 mM) 2- fold, while the other major human isoenzymes, A2-2, M1a-1a, and P1-1, did not influence the formation of monochloromonoglutathionylphosphoramide mustard. (tudelft.nl)
  • The glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymes catalyse the conjugation of xenobiotics to glutathione. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • RxPG] The new Hopkins research, and similar results from other labs, shows that a class of drugs known as farnesyl transferase inhibitors, or FTIs, can reverse an abnormality in laboratory-grown cells engineered to mimic cells from progeria patients. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The class of farnesyl transferase inhibitors is designed to block farnesylation and prevent the mature ras signaling and thus inhibit cell proliferation and facilitate apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Multiple agents that inhibit farnesylation have been developed, and two farnesyl transferase inhibitors have been tested in patients with lung cancer in three Phase II trials. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Multiple farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs) have been developed to prevent the covalent linkage of the farnesyl group to the ras family of proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We offer Polypeptide GalNac Transferase 4/GALNT4 Lysates for use in common research applications: Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Each Polypeptide GalNac Transferase 4/GALNT4 Lysate is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Polypeptide GalNac Transferase 4/GALNT4 Lysates can be used in a variety of model species. (novusbio.com)
  • Polypeptide GalNAc Transferase 3/GALNT3 " has 2 results in Products. (rndsystems.com)
  • The insect GST (glutathione transferase) supergene family encodes a varied group of proteins belonging to at least six individual classes. (rcsb.org)
  • Histone methyl transferases, or HMTs, modify histone proteins in order to increase or decrease the accessibility of certain genes. (xvivo.net)
  • We examined associations for glutathione S- transferases M1 ( GSTM1 ), T1 ( GSTT1 ), and P1 ( GSTP1 ) genotypes and breast cancer in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study in North Carolina. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As BU is mainly metabolized by glutathione S -transferase (GST), we investigated the relationship between GSTA1 , GSTM1 and GSTP1 genotypes with first-dose BU PKs, and the relationship with HSCT outcomes in 69 children receiving myeloablative conditioning regimen. (nature.com)
  • Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases in French vinyl chloride workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Association of genetic polymorphisms at the glutathione S-transferase Pi locus with prostate cancer. (ebscohost.com)
  • It has been found that monochlorobimane readily enters cells to form a fluorescent GSH mono-chlorobimane adduct that can be measured fluorometrically and that this reaction is catalyzed by glutathione S-transferase. (abcam.com)
  • We previously reported that high expression of glutathione S -transferase M4 (GSTM4) in primary tumors correlates with poor patient outcomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The effect of the dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense , on relative expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) transcripts was examined in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus . (plos.org)
  • Expression of glutathione transferase pi as a predictor for treatment results at different stages of acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • GOAT is a conserved orphan membrane-bound O -acyl transferase (MBOAT) that specifically octanoylates serine-3 of the ghrelin peptide. (pnas.org)
  • In in vitro assays with the lipid precursor and in the presence of penicillin at concentrations sufficient to derivatize the active-site serine 510 of the acyl transferase, the rate of glycan chain synthesis is unmodified, showing that the functioning of the glycosyl transferase is acyl transferase independent. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The acyl transferase of the PBP also catalyses aminolysis and hydrolysis of properly structured thiolesters, but it lacks activity ond-alanyl-d-alanine-terminated peptides. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Acetyl transferase. (bio.net)
  • Has anyone worked with the yeast acetyl transferase? (bio.net)
  • A peroxisomal-specific pathway for acetyl-CoA transport requiring peroxisomal carnitine acetyl transferase (CAT) activity has been identified in Magnaporthe grisea peroxisomes. (apsnet.org)
  • In this case, an amino acid chain is the functional group transferred by a peptidyl transferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptidyl transferase center? (biology-online.org)
  • For example, RNA Polymerase is the modern common name for what was formerly known as RNA nucleotidyltransferase, a kind of nucleotidyl transferase that transfers nucleotides to the 3' end of a growing RNA strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mainwaring GW, Williams SM, Foster JR, Tugwood J, Green T: The distribution of theta-class glutathione S-transferases in the liver and lung of mouse, rat and human. (drugbank.ca)
  • BU is primarily metabolized by liver glutathione S -transferase enzymes (GST), predominantly by GSTA1. (nature.com)
  • Gamma glutamyl transferase which is also known as GGT and glutamyl-transpeptidase shows the state of liver health. (griphyn.org)
  • Since it is synthesized mostly by the liver, any abnormality of liver functioning leads to raised levels of gamma glutamyl transferase (along with other liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). (griphyn.org)
  • Gamma glutamyl transferase test is one of the principal tools that doctors use to prevent liver damage. (griphyn.org)
  • The major glutathione S-transferase isoform of flounder liver, an antigenically related structural homologue of plaice GST-A, also displays mRNA homology. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Weight loss and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: falls in gamma-glutamyl transferase concentrations are associated with histologic improvement. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Classification of transferases continues to this day, with new ones being discovered frequently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Namely, the A allele encodes A transferase, which transfers a GalNAc to the H antigen. (google.com)
  • Similarly, the B allele encodes B transferase, which transfers a galactose molecule to the H antigen to synthesize the B antigen. (google.com)
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase type 2 (CPT2) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • What is carnitine palmityl transferase deficiency (CPT deficiency)? (mda.org)
  • Danielson UH, Mannervik B. Kinetic independence of the subunits of cytosolic glutathione transferase from the rat. (springer.com)
  • ABO BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM LECTURE SLIDE 207: In addition to the alpha 1, 3 GalNAc (galactose) transferases such as A and B transferases, there are more than a hundred genes encoding glycosyltransferases with different specificities. (google.com)
  • Transferases are defined as enzymes that catalyse the transfer of one functional group from one molecule (donor) to another (acceptor). (archive.org)
  • Three examples of these reactions are the activity of coenzyme A (CoA) transferase, which transfers thiol esters, the action of N-acetyltransferase, which is part of the pathway that metabolizes tryptophan, and the regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Group" would be the functional group transferred as a result of transferase activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Earliest discoveries of transferase activity occurred in other classifications of enzymes, including Beta-galactosidase, protease, and acid/base phosphatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to A and B transferases, there are other glycosyltransferases with α1-3 Gal(NAc) transferase activity/specificity. (google.com)
  • This substrate specificity suggests that carbonyl donor activity requires the attachment of the pentapeptides to the glycan chains made by the glycosyl transferase, and it implies that one and the same PBP molecule catalyses transglycosylation and peptide cross-linking in a sequential manner. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Provides reagents and methods to simply and quickly measure glutathione transferase activity in live cells, tissues or cell lysate samples. (abcam.com)
  • Shokeer A, Mannervik B: Residue 234 is a master switch of the alternative-substrate activity profile of human and rodent theta class glutathione transferase T1-1. (drugbank.ca)
  • One of the physiological significances of this lies in the observation that cancer cells resistant to the cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents have higher levels of GSH and high glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. (tudelft.nl)
  • A glutathione S-transferase with activity towards cis-1,2- dichloroepoxyethane is involved in isoprene utilization by Rhodococcus sp. (tudelft.nl)
  • Biochemically, it is characterized by high uric acid concentrations in blood, high uric acid and hypoxanthine excretion in urine, and decreased activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase activity (HGPRT). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, we demonstrate that suppression of the temperature-sensitive phenotype of strain LH530 upon overexpression of AcpT is not due to its phosphopantetheinyl transferase activity and that AcpT overexpression also suppresses the lethality of yejM null mutants. (genetics.org)
  • Glutathione s transferase and hydrolytic activity in a tetrachlorvinphos-resistant strain of housefly and their influence on resistance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glutathione transferases structure and catalytic activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prognostic value of serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activity after myocardial infarction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency without elevated urinary hypoxanthine excretion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Partial hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) deficiency, also known as the Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome, can give rise to a wide range of neurological symptoms, and renal insufficiency. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 3-ketoacid CoA transferase ( SCOT ) deficiency causes episodic ketoacidotic crises and no apparent symptoms between them. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Caracterização molecular da glutationa S-transferase de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum. (usp.br)
  • Ultrasensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay of glutathione transferase a in serum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) test measures the amount of GGT in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Su nombre correcto en textos médicos es gamma-glutamil-transpeptidasa. (proz.com)
  • Don't worry about it since I am going to reveal all about gamma glutamyl transferase. (griphyn.org)
  • The main function of gamma glutamyl transferase is to transfer amino acids between cells. (griphyn.org)
  • Gamma glutamyl transferase and metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and mortality risk: the Framingham Heart Study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1. Multiple forms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes present in human tissues are dimers of subunits belonging to three distinct gene families namely alpha, mu and pi. (nih.gov)
  • 2. These subunits are differentially expressed in a tissue-specific manner and the composition of glutathione S-transferases in various tissues differs significantly. (nih.gov)
  • A transferase is any one of a class of enzymes that enact the transfer of specific functional groups (e.g. a methyl or glycosyl group) from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • This segment is linked, via an ≅ 100-amino-acid insert, to a D198-G435 glycosyl transferase module that possesses the five motifs characteristic of the PBPs of class A. In in vitro assays, the glycosyl transferase of the PBP catalyses the synthesis of linear glycan chains from the lipid carrier with an efficiency of ≅ 39 000 M −1 s −1 . (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The glycosyl transferase module of PBP1b, the lysozymes and the lytic transglycosylase Slt70 have much the same catalytic machinery. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Fluoride induced increase in the activities of Alanine and Aspartate transferases were reported (Miszta and Dabrowski, 1986), in Wistan rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effect of fluoride on aspertate and alanine amino transferase activities in the fresh water fish, Clarias batrachus (linn. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this paper we describe the involvement of purified human glutathione S-transferases isoenzymes GST A1-1, A2-2, M1a-1a, and P1-1 in the formation of two types of glutathionyl conjugates of cyclophosphamide, i.e., 4-glutathionylcyclophosphamide (4-GSCP) and monochloromonoglutathionylphosphoramide mustard. (tudelft.nl)
  • 1. Four different rat glutathione S-transferase (GST) isoenzymes, belonging to three different classes, were examined for their GSH conjugating capacity towards 11 2-substituted 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene derivatives. (tudelft.nl)
  • [12] [13] Therefore, if a human glutathione S -transferase is a homodimer in the pi-class subfamily 1, its name will be written as "hGSTP1-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beuckmann CT, Fujimori K, Urade Y, Hayaishi O. Identification of mu-class glutathione transferases M2-2 and M3-3 as cytosolic prostaglandin E synthases in the human brain. (springer.com)
  • Theta, a new class of glutathione transferases purified from rat and man. (uniprot.org)
  • Transferases ( EC 2.x.x.x ) are a class of enzymes that transfer the specific functional groups from one molecule (called the donor) to another (called the acceptor). (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Liu, Crystallographic and Mechanistic Studies of Class Mu Glutathione S- Transferases , in Proceedings of the International Meeting on Structure and Function of Glutathione Transferases , K. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Microsomal and alpha-class glutathione transferases were also induced transcriptionally. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glutathione S-transferase copy number variation alters lung gene expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Sfp is a 4'-phosphopantetheinyl (PPant) transferase endogenous to B. Subtilis , first crystallized in 1999 [1]. (proteopedia.org)
  • We assessed association of the genotypes of Glutathione S-transferases Omega-1 (GSTO1) A140D with ethnicity in China. (ebscohost.com)
  • Crystallographic structure of glutathione S-transferase from Anopheles cracens . (wikipedia.org)
  • The crystal structures of glutathione S-transferases isozymes 1-3 and 1-4 from Anopheles dirus species B. (rcsb.org)
  • Structure of the xenobiotic substrate binding site of rat glutathione S-transferase mu 1 bound to the GSH adduct of phenanthrene -9,10-oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oakley A. Glutathione transferases: a structural perspective. (proteopedia.org)