Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Milk, HumanBreast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Nursing, Team: Coordination of nursing services by various nursing care personnel under the leadership of a professional nurse. The team may consist of a professional nurse, nurses' aides, and the practical nurse.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hantavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.Hantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Acute respiratory illness in humans caused by the Muerto Canyon virus whose primary rodent reservoir is the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. First identified in the southwestern United States, this syndrome is characterized most commonly by fever, myalgias, headache, cough, and rapid respiratory failure.Puumala virus: A species of HANTAVIRUS causing nephropathia epidemica, a mild form of HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME. It is found in most of Europe and especially in Finland, along with its carrier rodent, the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus).Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.Hantaan virus: The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.Seoul virus: A species of HANTAVIRUS causing a less severe form of HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME in Asia (primarily Korea and Japan). It is transmitted by rats, especially Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLWhole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Rhipicephalus: A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
  • These findings highlight the potential need for second-generation vaccines that incorporate these targets given T cells play an important role in mediating long-term immunity to the virus, as well as the development of T-cell based diagnostics and T cell therapies. (yahoo.com)
  • T cells play a critical role in fighting viral infections and are particularly important in generating long-term immunity to future infections,' said Gavin MacBeath, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer at TScan. (yahoo.com)
  • This inability to induce long-term immunity was not due to the nature of Borrelia antigens, as even T-dependent antigens of Borrelia were unable to induce such responses. (prolekare.cz)
  • In the presence of an immune response modifier, such as poly-IC, the anti-HCMV cellular immunity is re-directed to kill the cancerous tumors and induce antigen spreading to tumor-associated antigens. (cancer.gov)
  • It has long been considered that the acquisition and maintenance of sterile immunity obtained through immunization with attenuated malaria sporozoites required the presence of infected hepatocytes. (embopress.org)
  • Pertussis results in substantial morbidity among adults and adolescents whose immunity to past childhood vaccination or B. pertussis infection might have waned and who have not received booster immunization for pertussis with adult tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These findings suggest that two phenotypically distinct T cell subpopulations function in the development of the immune response to L. monocytogenes and that only one cell subpopulation is required for expression of immunity to this intracellular parasite. (jimmunol.org)
  • Counter to expectations, we found no indication that maternally transferred yolk IgGs have direct beneficial effects on nestling development, nestling immune response or nestling resistance or tolerance to fleas. (uzh.ch)
  • We have investigated whether immunoglobulins from mothers who displayed a strong anti-FrCas(E) humoral response induced upon MAb treatment could affect both viremia and the immune systems of FrCas(E)-infected pups till adult age upon placental and/or breastfeeding transfer. (cnrs.fr)
  • Supplement Facts: A Proprietary Blend of Immune proteins and Transfer Factors derived from Colostrum and Avian sources, Super Oxide Dismutase [SOD] Natural liver flavoring. (paws4health.ca)
  • This way, you can be assured, K9 Immunity™ is the MOST POTENT canine immune supplement available anywhere today. (paws4health.ca)
  • K9 immunity for dogs is a supplement made from mushrooms with known medicinal benefits that are designed to boost the immune system particularly for dogs with cancer. (paws4health.ca)
  • Artificial induction of immunity is the artificial induction of immunity to specific diseases - making people immune to disease by means other than waiting for them to catch the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest recorded artificial induction of immunity in humans was by variolation or inoculation , which is the controlled infection of a subject with a less lethal natural form of smallpox (known as Variola Minor) to make him or her immune to re-infection with the more lethal natural form, Variola Major. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1798, Jenner extended his observations by showing that cowpox could be passed from a lesion on one patient to others through four arm to arm transfers and that the last in the series was immune by exposing him to smallpox. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herd immunity (also called herd effect , community immunity , population immunity , or social immunity ) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some individuals cannot become immune due to medical reasons and in this group herd immunity is an important method of protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfer factors are used for infectious conditions in people with weak immune systems. (rxlist.com)
  • We apply these approaches to understanding the host parasite interaction in immunity to infection as well as the host immune response against self in autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • A prior bill that would have abrogated tribal sovereign immunity in IPR proceedings was introduced last fall by Sen. Claire McCaskill (D-MO), who is a co-sponsor of the PACED Act. (jdsupra.com)
  • Additionally, the bill would amend the Tariff Act-the statute governing the U.S. International Trade Commission, a popular venue for patent owners-to bar the assertion of tribal sovereign immunity in that venue as well. (jdsupra.com)
  • Nov. 6, 2020) On October 23, 2020, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit affirmed a lower court's decision permanently enjoining Seneca County, New York, from foreclosing on the Cayuga Indian Nation's real property for nonpayment of property taxes on the ground of tribal sovereign immunity. (loc.gov)
  • Allegan's Restasis Patents Invalidated by a Federal District Court Even After Transfer to Native American Tribe and Sovereign Immunity Claim. (weintraub.com)
  • This controversial transfer in an attempt to protect the patents from inter partes review at the PTAB via the tribe's sovereign immunity received sharp criticism from generic drug manufactures and some in Congress. (weintraub.com)
  • Sovereign immunity, however, was not argued in District Court action. (weintraub.com)
  • The PACED Act (S. 2514, text here ) appears to be a response to recent assertions of sovereign immunity in PTAB post-grant review proceedings by state entities and Native American tribes. (jdsupra.com)
  • The PACED Act, however, goes much farther than the prior bill-it would prohibit the assertion of sovereign immunity by any patent owner in all Patent Office proceedings, including IPRs, post-grant reviews, covered business method reviews, ex parte reexaminations, and interferences/derivation proceedings. (jdsupra.com)
  • But in recognition of the Supreme Court's 1999 holding in Florida Prepaid v. College Savings Bank that Congress could not abrogate patented-related state sovereign immunity absent a finding of a pattern of constitutional violations by the states, the proposed legislation notes that its effect is limited by the 11th Amendment (i.e., the act likely would have no effect on state sovereign immunity). (jdsupra.com)
  • But foreign sovereign entities are expressly included in the act as among those whose sovereign immunity would abrogated, at least in some circumstances. (jdsupra.com)
  • The PACED Act would also expressly apply to the standards of the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (FSIA)-which currently applies only to courts-to Patent Office proceedings in order to determine whether a foreign sovereign patent owner might appropriately raise sovereign immunity claims. (jdsupra.com)
  • The bill would also overrule certain district court precedent and prohibit Native American tribes from raising sovereign immunity as a defense in district court proceedings involving patent claims (both infringement and declaratory judgment actions). (jdsupra.com)
  • The issue of sovereign immunity in PTAB proceedings is currently being appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, which may issue rulings later this spring or summer. (jdsupra.com)
  • A molecule that is key to mothers' ability to pass along immunity to intestinal infections to their babies through breast milk has been identified by a research team at BYU-Harvard-Stanford. (medindia.net)
  • Diabetes patients have reduced immunity, which makes them more susceptible to skin infections like boils. (medindia.net)
  • Immunity against infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Pasteur provided support for a germ theory of infectious disease, we have increasingly induced immunity against a widening range of diseases to prevent the associated risks from the wild infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • How exactly the Covid-19 pandemic will finally bugger off into history is still anyone's guess, but virologists and public health experts generally agree that immunity is key-either through widespread safe and effective vaccination, or when enough of our population has recovered from infections and gained herd immunity. (singularityhub.com)
  • For sexually transmitted infections (STIs), high levels of immunity in one sex induces herd immunity for both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effectors of plant pathogens play important roles in not only pathogenesis but also plant immunity. (nih.gov)
  • Transfer factor from humans doesn't seem to affect the course of ALS. (rxlist.com)
  • A sophisticated common mucosal immunity system is provided in the nasopharyngeal mucosal linings, as previously shown by a large number of studies on animals and humans. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Our results emphasize the value of using the mucosal route to administer DNA modulators such as chemokines that function as adjuvants by regulating the activity of innate immunity. (asm.org)
  • In consequence, immunity at mucosal sites represents an important issue in vaccine development. (asm.org)
  • Publications] Hideyuki Kawauchi: 'Mucosal Immunity of Nasopharynx'Rhinology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Once a certain threshold has been reached, herd immunity gradually eliminates a disease from a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Herd immunity does not apply to all diseases, just those that are contagious , meaning that they can be transmitted from one individual to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetanus , for example, is infectious but not contagious, so herd immunity does not apply. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term herd immunity was first used in 1923. (wikipedia.org)
  • NACs have been established in 22 of these population immunity, prolonged transmission of Sabin vaccine countries. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this study was to clarify whether cats have a colostral and milk phase of lactation differentiated by concentrations of immunoglobulins, and whether colostrum ingestion by newborn kittens is essential for optimal transfer of passive immunity. (edu.au)
  • Conclusions Gamma-glutamyltransferase amounts, ELISA tests and circulating globulin amounts performed greatest in detecting failing of unaggressive transfer in serum examples, although all three got some practical factors. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Synapse formation requires integrin engagement and facilitates the transfer of internalized MC-specific antigen from MCs to DCs. (rupress.org)
  • PV2 disease immunity in cases has declined from 350,000 in 125 countries to 176 in only the community was to be provided by high coverage with two countries in 2019 ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Using tumor tropic human papillomavirus pseudovirions, that contain plasmids expressing HCMV peptides or direct intra-tumoral injection of HCMV peptides, this methodology directs the pre-existing anti-HCMV immunity against those peptides to the tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is a promising therapy for various non-epithelial tumors but has not yet proven successful in ovarian cancer . (dartmouth.edu)