Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.
Transforming proteins coded by rel oncogenes. The v-rel protein competes with rel-related proteins and probably transforms cells by acting as a dominant negative version of c-rel. This results in the induction of a broad range of leukemias and lymphomas.
A group of viruses in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS comprising a few isolates from birds, with no known corresponding endogenous relatives.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
A group of pathologic syndromes found in avian species caused by RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUS. The distinct syndromes include non-neoplastic runting, acute neoplastic disease, and chronic neoplastic disease. Humans and mammals appear resistant.

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (1/18446)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Cancer genetics: tumor suppressor meets oncogene. (2/18446)

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein is inactivated by mutations in the majority of colorectal cancers. A recent study has revealed that alterations in the APC signaling pathway can result in the transcriptional activation of the c-MYC gene.  (+info)

Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL serve an anti-inflammatory function in endothelial cells through inhibition of NF-kappaB. (3/18446)

To maintain the integrity of the vascular barrier, endothelial cells (EC) are resistant to cell death. The molecular basis of this resistance may be explained by the function of antiapoptotic genes such as bcl family members. Overexpression of Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL protects EC from tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated apoptosis. In addition, Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL inhibits activation of NF-kappaB and thus upregulation of proinflammatory genes. Bcl-2-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB in EC occurs upstream of IkappaBalpha degradation without affecting p65-mediated transactivation. Overexpression of bcl genes in EC does not affect other transcription factors. Using deletion mutants of Bcl-2, the NF-kappaB inhibitory function of Bcl-2 was mapped to bcl homology domains BH2 and BH4, whereas all BH domains were required for the antiapoptotic function. These data suggest that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL belong to a cytoprotective response that counteracts proapoptotic and proinflammatory insults and restores the physiological anti-inflammatory phenotype to the EC. By inhibiting NF-kappaB without sensitizing the cells (as with IkappaBalpha) to TNF-mediated apoptosis, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL are prime candidates for genetic engineering of EC in pathological conditions where EC loss and unfettered activation are undesirable.  (+info)

B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through SP1-binding sites. (4/18446)

B-MYB is an ubiquitous protein required for mammalian cell growth. In this report we show that B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through a 120 bp segment proximal to the transcription start site. The B-MYB-responsive element does not contain myb-binding sites and gel-shift analysis shows that SP1, but not B-MYB, protein contained in SAOS2 cell extracts binds to the 120 bp B-myb promoter fragment. B-MYB-dependent transactivation is cooperatively increased in the presence of SP1, but not SP3 overexpression. When the SP1 elements of the B-myb promoter are transferred in front of a heterologous promoter, an increased response to B-MYB results. In contrast, c-MYB, the prototype member of the Myb family, is not able to activate the luciferase construct containing the SP1 elements. With the use of an SP1-GAL4 fusion protein, we have determined that the cooperative activation occurs through the domain A of SP1. These observations suggest that B-MYB functions as a coactivator of SP1, and that diverse combinations of myb and SP1 sites may dictate the responsiveness of myb-target genes to the various members of the myb family.  (+info)

Deletion of a region that is a candidate for the difference between the deletion forms of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and deltabeta-thalassemia affects beta- but not gamma-globin gene expression. (5/18446)

The analysis of a number of cases of beta-globin thalassemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) due to large deletions in the beta-globin locus has led to the identification of several DNA elements that have been implicated in the switch from human fetal gamma- to adult beta-globin gene expression. We have tested this hypothesis for an element that covers the minimal distance between the thalassemia and HPFH deletions and is thought to be responsible for the difference between a deletion HPFH and deltabeta-thalassemia, located 5' of the delta-globin gene. This element has been deleted from a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing the complete human beta-globin locus. Analysis of this modified YAC in transgenic mice shows that early embryonic expression is unaffected, but in the fetal liver it is subject to position effects. In addition, the efficiency of transcription of the beta-globin gene is decreased, but the developmental silencing of the gamma-globin genes is unaffected by the deletion. These results show that the deleted element is involved in the activation of the beta-globin gene perhaps through the loss of a structural function required for gene activation by long-range interactions.  (+info)

Assembly requirements of PU.1-Pip (IRF-4) activator complexes: inhibiting function in vivo using fused dimers. (6/18446)

Gene expression in higher eukaryotes appears to be regulated by specific combinations of transcription factors binding to regulatory sequences. The Ets factor PU.1 and the IRF protein Pip (IRF-4) represent a pair of interacting transcription factors implicated in regulating B cell-specific gene expression. Pip is recruited to its binding site on DNA by phosphorylated PU.1. PU.1-Pip interaction is shown to be template directed and involves two distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces: (i) the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains; and (ii) the phosphorylated PEST region of PU.1 and a lysine-requiring putative alpha-helix in Pip. Thus, a coordinated set of protein-protein and protein-DNA contacts are essential for PU.1-Pip ternary complex assembly. To analyze the function of these factors in vivo, we engineered chimeric repressors containing the ets and IRF DNA-binding domains connected by a flexible POU domain linker. When stably expressed, the wild-type fused dimer strongly repressed the expression of a rearranged immunoglobulin lambda gene, thereby establishing the functional importance of PU.1-Pip complexes in B cell gene expression. Comparative analysis of the wild-type dimer with a series of mutant dimers distinguished a gene regulated by PU.1 and Pip from one regulated by PU.1 alone. This strategy should prove generally useful in analyzing the function of interacting transcription factors in vivo, and for identifying novel genes regulated by such complexes.  (+info)

The amino-terminal C/H1 domain of CREB binding protein mediates zta transcriptional activation of latent Epstein-Barr virus. (7/18446)

Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is maintained as a nucleosome-covered episome that can be transcriptionally activated by overexpression of the viral immediate-early protein, Zta. We show here that reactivation of latent EBV by Zta can be significantly enhanced by coexpression of the cellular coactivators CREB binding protein (CBP) and p300. A stable complex containing both Zta and CBP could be isolated from lytically stimulated, but not latently infected RAJI nuclear extracts. Zta-mediated viral reactivation and transcriptional activation were both significantly inhibited by coexpression of the E1A 12S protein but not by an N-terminal deletion mutation of E1A (E1ADelta2-36), which fails to bind CBP. Zta bound directly to two related cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of CBP, referred to as C/H1 and C/H3. These domains both interacted specifically with the transcriptional activation domain of Zta in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Interestingly, we found that the C/H3 domain was a potent dominant negative inhibitor of Zta transcriptional activation function. In contrast, an amino-terminal fragment containing the C/H1 domain was sufficient for coactivation of Zta transcription and viral reactivation function. Thus, CBP can stimulate the transcription of latent EBV in a histone acetyltransferase-independent manner mediated by the CBP amino-terminal C/H1-containing domain. We propose that CBP may regulate aspects of EBV latency and reactivation by integrating cellular signals mediated by competitive interactions between C/H1, C/H3, and the Zta activation domain.  (+info)

Smad3-Smad4 and AP-1 complexes synergize in transcriptional activation of the c-Jun promoter by transforming growth factor beta. (8/18446)

Transcriptional regulation by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a complex process which is likely to involve cross talk between different DNA responsive elements and transcription factors to achieve maximal promoter activation and specificity. Here, we describe a concurrent requirement for two discrete responsive elements in the regulation of the c-Jun promoter, one a binding site for a Smad3-Smad4 complex and the other an AP-1 binding site. The two elements are located 120 bp apart in the proximal c-Jun promoter, and each was able to independently bind its corresponding transcription factor complex. The effects of independently mutating each of these elements were nonadditive; disruption of either sequence resulted in complete or severe reductions in TGF-beta responsiveness. This simultaneous requirement for two distinct and independent DNA binding elements suggests that Smad and AP-1 complexes function synergistically to mediate TGF-beta-induced transcriptional activation of the c-Jun promoter.  (+info)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Involvement of the transcription factor lid protein complex in gene activation by the N-terminal transactivation domain of the glucocorticoid receptor in vitro. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Aberrant activation of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway has been found in a wide range of cancers, especially in cancers derived from intestine, skin, mammary gland and haematopoietic cells. Moreover, the Wnt-β-catenin pathway may preferentially influence stem/progenitor cell expansion in these cancers (Wend et al., 2010). Although many downstream target genes for both normal development and tumorigenesis have been identified in different cellular contexts, the genes that mediate the Wnt-β-catenin pathway activity in maintaining the stem cell properties are still not very clear. c-Myc, a reprogramming factor and a well-known Wnt target, was recently demonstrated to be an important stem cell regulator in normal and cancerous cells (Kim et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2011). However, no study has established a convincing relationship between the Wnt-β-catenin pathway and c-Myc in stem cells. In contrast, recent studies on both iPS and ESCs suggest that the role of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway in ...
Transcriptional regulator which displays a remarkable functional diversity in the regulation of cellular responses. These include the regulation of IFN and IFN-inducible genes, host response to viral and bacterial infections, regulation of many genes expressed during hematopoiesis, inflammation, immune responses and cell proliferation and differentiation, regulation of the cell cycle and induction of growth arrest and programmed cell death following DNA damage. Stimulates both innate and acquired immune responses through the activation of specific target genes and can act as a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating target genes by binding to an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) in their promoters. Its target genes for transcriptional activation activity include: genes involved in anti-viral response, such as IFN-alpha/beta, DDX58/RIG-I, TNFSF10/TRAIL, OAS1/2, PIAS1/GBP, EIF2AK2/PKR and RSAD2/viperin; antibacterial response, such as NOS2/INOS; anti-proliferative response, ...
MDM4 inhibits p53- and p73-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by binding its transcriptional activation domain. It inhibits degradation of MDM2.…
Role of EGF receptor transactivation on LPA-induced LPA1-3 receptor phosphorylation.Cells overexpressing LPA1 (panel A, black bars), LPA2 (panel B, blue bars)
Intestinal cells express alpha(2A)-adrenoreceptors that stimulate sodium and peptide absorption and promote cell proliferation. Involved mechanisms are poorly understood and are not fully related to inhibition of cAMP production. Previous study using a clone of CaCo2 cells expressing the human alpha …
Transcriptional regulator which displays a remarkable functional diversity in the regulation of cellular responses. These include the regulation of IFN and IFN-inducible genes, host response to viral and bacterial infections, regulation of many genes expressed during hematopoiesis, inflammation, immune responses and cell proliferation and differentiation, regulation of the cell cycle and induction of growth arrest and programmed cell death following DNA damage. Stimulates both innate and acquired immune responses through the activation of specific target genes and can act as a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating target genes by binding to an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) in their promoters. Its target genes for transcriptional activation activity include: genes involved in anti-viral response, such as IFN-alpha/beta, DDX58/RIG-I, TNFSF10/TRAIL, OAS1/2, PIAS1/GBP, EIF2AK2/PKR and RSAD2/viperin; antibacterial response, such as NOS2/INOS; anti-proliferative response, ...
Among recently investigated potential targets for selective cancer treatment are signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). STATs are transcription factors activated in response to cytokines and growth factors and are involved in different cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation and inflammation. Of the seven known mammalian STAT proteins STAT3 was shown to be constitutively activated in many human malignancies. Aberrant STAT3 activity promotes tumor progression through transcriptional activation of genes encoding apoptosis inhibitors, cell-cycle regulators and inducers of angiogenesis. Available data indicate that inhibition of STAT3 signaling leads to an attenuation of cancer cell growth and the induction of apoptosis.. The aim of our investigation was to design a novel STAT3 small molecule inhibitor that would selectively inhibit STAT3 activity, reducing expression of its downstream genes. Thus, we performed computational modeling and small molecule ...
The p53 protein has been divided into four domains; (i) a transcriptional activation domain that contacts TAF components of TFIID (residues 1-40; refs. 18 and 19); (ii) a sequence-specific DNA binding domain (residues 120-290; refs. 16 and 17); (iii) a tetramerization domain (residues 310-360; ref. 20); and (iv) a domain that recognizes and binds to damaged DNA nonspecifically (residues 364-390; refs. 46 and 47). This manuscript describes a new fifth functional domain, localized between residues 61-94, containing a putative proline-rich signaling domain. Deletion of this domain from the p53 protein leaves a normal p53 protein with respect to transcriptional transactivation. Therefore, despite its physical juxtaposition between the transcriptional activation and DNA binding domains, the proline-rich region of p53 is not essential to the function of these domains. Because the proline-rich domain of p53 is dispensable for transactivation, the ΔproAE mutant serves as a useful tool to address the ...
In the context of gene regulation: transactivation is the increased rate of gene expression triggered either by biological processes or by artificial means, through the expression of an intermediate transactivator protein. In the context of receptor signaling, transactivation occurs when one or more receptors activate yet another; receptor transactivation may result from the crosstalk of signaling cascades. Transactivation can be triggered either by endogenous cellular or viral proteins, also called transactivators. These protein factors act in trans (i.e., intermolecularly). HIV and HTLV are just two of the many viruses that encode transactivators to enhance viral gene expression. These transactivators can also be linked to cancer if they start interacting with, and increasing expression of, a cellular proto-oncogene. HTLV, for instance, has been associated with causing leukemia primarily through this process. Its transactivator, Tax, can interact with p40, inducing overexpression of ...
P53 is a short-lived, non-abundant protein that regulates the response of cells to DNA damage, in part through transcriptional activation of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA repair, and apoptosis. P53 is a tumour suppressor protein; consequently, mice in which the p53 gene has been disrupted develop tumours with high frequency, and deletions or mutations in the p53 gene are prevalent in a majority of human cancers. The protein level and activity of p53 is regulated by MDM2 (murine double minute 2). The MDM2 gene is induced by p53, and MDM2 prevents apoptosis by inhibiting p53 activity and promoting its degradation. ...
Barak, Y; Lupo, A; Zauberman, A; Juven, T; Aloni, Grinstein R.; Gottlieb, E; Rotter, V; and Oren, M, Targets for transcriptional activation by wild-type p53: endogenous retroviral LTR, immunoglobulin-like promoter, and an internal promoter of the mdm2 gene. (1994). Faculty Research 1990 - 1999. 611 ...
Transcription factors use a DNA‐binding domain to localize their action and a transactivation domain (tAD) to stimulate activation of the associated gene. Recent work has renewed interest in how tADs activate genes, which ...
Botella LM، Sánchez-Elsner T، Sanz-Rodriguez F، Kojima S، Shimada J، Guerrero-Esteo M، Cooreman MP، Ratziu V، Langa C، Vary CP، Ramirez JR، Friedman S، Bernabéu C (Dec 2002). Transcriptional activation of endoglin and transforming growth factor-beta signaling components by cooperative interaction between Sp1 and KLF6: their potential role in the response to vascular injury. Blood. 100 (12): 4001-10. PMID 12433697. doi:10.1182/blood.V100.12.4001. الوسيط ...
NaturalNews) We may need to seek them out and destroy them where they live, wrote a Merck & Co. employee who was actively plotting to murder or discredit doctors who had voiced concerns regarding the adverse health effects of an anti-inflammatory drug called Vioxx.. Launched in 1999, Vioxx was extremely popular (with more than 80 million users worldwide), as its makers heralded the drug as being the answer to inflammation, minus the nausea that often follows with anti-inflammatory medication.. It was later discovered that the New Jersey-based Merck & Co. was knowingly selling a drug that frequently caused heart attacks and strokes in its unsuspecting victims. A study revealed that Vioxx actually doubled the risk of heart attacks and strokes, prompting the company to voluntary withdraw the drug from the market in 2004.. Prior to the drug being pulled from the market, several Merck & Co. staff exchanged emails in which they discussed a hit list they drafted of doctors whom they believed needed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural proteins of Helicoverpa armigera densovirus 2 enhance transcription of viral genes through transactivation. AU - Xu, Pengjun. AU - Yuan, He. AU - Yang, Xianming. AU - Graham, Robert I.. AU - Liu, Kaiyu. AU - Wu, Kongming. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - © 2017, Springer-Verlag Wien. Herein, we report the identification of putative promoters for the non-structural proteins (NS) and capsid structural proteins (VP) of Helicoverpa armigera densovirus (HaDV2) as well as a potential mechanism for how these promoters might be regulated. For the first time, we report that VP is able to transactivate the VP promoter and, to a lesser degree, the NS promoter in densoviruses. In addition to this, another promoter-like sequence designated P2, when co-transfected with the VP gene, enhanced luciferase activity by approximately 35 times compared to a control. This suggests that there are two promoters for VP in HaDV2 and that the VP of parvoviruses might play a more important role ...
Conjugate inhibits androgen receptor transactivation and translocation in prostate cancer cells.Effect of conjugate on the transactivation of androgen receptor
A 58-amino acid region mediates the core transactivation activity of the glucocorticoid receptor tau 1 activation domain. This tau 1 core domain is unstructured in aqueous buffers, but in the presence of trifluoroethanol three Alpha-helical segments are induced. Two of these putative structural modules have been tested in different combinations with regard to transactivation potential in vivo and binding capacity to the coactivators in vitro, The results show that whereas single modules are not transcriptionally active, any combination of two or three modules is sufficient, with trimodular constructs having the highest activity. However, proteins containing one, two, or three segments bind Ada2 and cAMP-response element-binding protein with similar affinity. A single segment is thus able to bind a target factor but cannot transactivate target genes significantly. The results are consistent with models in which activation domains are comprised of short activation modules that allow multiple ...
Brain tumors belong among highly invasive types of tumors. Inactivation of specific genes along with point mutations of tumor suppressor gene TP53 is linked to poor prognosis. Mutant forms of p53 manage quite a number of specific abilities, associated with aggressive character of tumors e. g. inhibition of apoptosis, chemoresistance, angiogenesis or differentiation block, through transcriptional activation or repression of series of genes. Regulation of target genes is a subject of intensive studies. Into mechanisms of their regulation are involved a structure-specific DNA binding of p53, interaction of p53 mutants with transcriptional factors (SP, ETS1 et al.) and other proteins (p63, p73 or TOP1). In this thesis an influence of TP53 mutation and mutant p53 driven mechanism on oncogenic behaviour of glioblastoma cell lines was studied. Parental glioblastoma cell lines U87 (wtp53), Onda 11 (R273C), U251 (R273H), Onda 10 (G245S) and derived clones with reduced expression of p53 (Usi 12, Usi 16, ...
To ensure that the attached RNA module both retains targeting functionality as well as the resulting complex drive transcriptional activation at a specific site of interest, transient reporter gene expression of luciferase and fluorescent protein was measured. Two variations of such a transcription activator assay was performed; directly with a dCas9 fused to a transcriptional activator/repressor (VP64, a factor known to enhance gene expression) (Direct activation) or indirectly where the transcriptional activator is fused to an RNA binding protein module on the sgRNA (Bridged activation). Reporter gene activation through direct activation imply the sgRNA variant binds and targets dCas9 efficiently. All the five topologies showed direct activation except TOP3 and TOP4, which showed reduced activity. Bridged activation indicates that the fused RNA accessory domain is intact in mature dCas9 complexes. Bridged activation was observed with TOP1, TOP3 and INT. The results were recapitulated at ...
The activation of the p53 protein by cellular stress signals is fundamental for tumor suppression but also promotes pathological states, such as provoking the side effects of genotoxic cancer therapies. To better understand the mechanisms of p53 action in different contexts, we have leveraged both mouse genetic and genomic approaches. First, we have used mouse genetics to define transcriptional programs involved in p53 function in different in vivo settings, specifically by generating a panel of p53 transcriptional activation domain mutant knock-in mouse strains. These include strains expressing p53 mutants in the first (p5325,26), second (p5353,54), or both transactivation domains (p5325,26,53,54). We have observed that p5325,26 is severely compromised for transactivation of most classical p53 target genes, but retains the ability to activate a subset of p53 targets, while p5325,26,53,54 lacks transactivation activity completely. Interestingly, although unable to induce apoptosis or cell cycle ...
BioAssay record AID 82682 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibitory activity of compound was tested against transcriptional activation by Tat protein in human cells.
BioAssay record AID 396055 submitted by ChEMBL: Agonist activity at human PPARgamma in U2OS cells by transactivation assay relative to rosiglitazone.
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To determine the role of C-Rel in nitric-oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) transcriptional activation, we evaluated the effect of lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma (LPS/IFNgamma) on C-Rel DNA binding in RAW 264.7. LPS/IFNgamma-stimulated C-Rel binding peaked at 4 to 8 h and declined at 24 h. Transfecti …
Hyaluronic acid and its derivative as a multi-functional gene expression enhancer: Protection from non-specific interactions, adhesion to targeted cells, and transcriptional activation ...
reference: Structure of the MDM2 oncoprotein bound to the p53 tumor suppressor transactivation domain., Kussie PH, Gorina S, Marechal V, Elenbaas B, Moreau J, Levine AJ, Pavletich NP, Science 1996 Nov 8;274(5289):948-53. PMID: 8875929 ...
The coiled-coil coactivator (CoCoA) enhances transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors, the xenobiotic aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the lymphocyte enhancer factors (LEF) in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. CoCoA is comprised of a large central coiled coil domain flanked by N-terminal and C-terminal activation domains (AD). The N-terminal AD of CoCoA is required for coactivator function with LEF and β-catenin, while the C-terminal AD of CoCoA is required for coactivator function with nuclear receptors. We explored the role of sumoylation in regulating the activities of the two ADs and the coactivator function of CoCoA. The N-terminus of CoCoA is covalently modified by SUMO1 at Lys-29; both PIAS1 and ARIP3 function as E3 ligases. Fusion of SUMO1 to the N-terminus (mimicking sumoylation) reduced coactivator function of CoCoA with LEF1 and the activity of the N-terminal AD. The N- and C-termini of CoCoA can bind to each other, and C-terminal transactivation activity is attenuated in the presence
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcriptional transactivation functions localized to the glucocorticoid receptor N terminus are necessary for steroid induction of lymphocyte apoptosis. AU - Dieken, E. S.. AU - Miesfeld, R. L.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - Genetic studies have suggested that transcriptional regulation of specific target genes (by either induction or repression) is the molecular basis of glucocorticoid-mediated lymphocyte apoptosis. To examine the role of transcriptional regulation more directly, we developed a complementation assay utilizing stable transfection of wild-type (wt) and mutant (nt(i)) glucocorticoid receptor (GR) cDNA constructs into a GR-deficient S49 murine cell line (7r). Our data confirm that the level of functional GR is rate limiting for S49 apoptosis and moreover that the GR amino terminus (N terminus), which has been deleted from the nt(i) GR, is absolutely required for complementation in this system. Surprisingly, we found that at physiological levels of receptor, ...
We examined how ERK affects the transcriptional activity of LIN-1 to determine if phosphorylation by ERK abrogates LIN-1 activity or converts LIN-1 to a transcriptional activator. If LIN-1 cannot be phosphorylated by ERK because the docking sites for ERK are mutated, then the carboxy-terminus of LIN-1 repressed transcription by about fivefold. By contrast, the carboxy-terminus of LIN-1 activated transcription by ∼80-fold when ERK-docking sites were intact. Stimulating ERK activity with bFGF caused a further 2-fold increase in transcriptional activation. Overall, the difference between transcriptional activation by LIN-1 that cannot be phosphorylated and LIN-1 that is maximally phosphorylated is ∼900-fold. The dramatic ERK-responsive transcriptional activation potential of the carboxy-terminus of LIN-1 strongly supports the model that ERK switches LIN-1 from a transcriptional repressor to a phosphorylated transcriptional activator.. These results extend the similarities between LIN-1 and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The bacterial enhancer-binding protein NTRC is a molecular machine. T2 - ATP hydrolysis is coupled to transcriptional activation. AU - Wedel, Andrew. AU - Kustu, Sydney. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1995/8/15. Y1 - 1995/8/15. N2 - NTRC is a prokaryotic enhancer-binding protein that activates transcription by σ54-holoenzyme. NTRC has an ATPase activity that is required for transcriptional activation, specifically for isomerization of closed complexes between σ54-holoenzyme and a promoter to open complexes. In the absence of ATP hydrolysis, there is known to be a kinetic barrier to open complex formation (i.e., the reaction proceeds so slowly that the polymerase synthesizes essentially no transcripts even from a supercoiled template). We show here that open complex formation is also thermodynamically unfavorable. In the absence of ATP hydrolysis the position of equilibrium between closed and open complexes favors the closed ones. Use of ...
The present invention discloses steroid/thyroid hormone receptor DNA binding domain compositions that determine target gene specificity. The invention further discloses methods converting the target gene specificity of one receptor into the target gene specificity of another. Still further the invention discloses novel assays for identifying ligands for orphan hormone receptors. These assays are especially useful since they avoid the necessity of constructing chimeric genes and proteins in order to search for ligands that can activate a putative receptor.
Activation of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) triggers proinflammatory signaling through pathways independent of classical Gq signaling that regulate vascular homeostasis. Here, we report that the AT1 receptor preformed a heteromeric complex with the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE). Activation of the AT1 receptor by angiotensin II (Ang II) triggered transactivation of the cytosolic tail of RAGE and NF-κB-driven proinflammatory gene expression independently of the liberation of RAGE ligands or the ligand-binding ectodomain of RAGE. The importance of this transactivation pathway was demonstrated by our finding that adverse proinflammatory signaling events induced by AT1 receptor activation were attenuated when RAGE was deleted or transactivation of its cytosolic tail was inhibited. At the same time, classical homeostatic Gq signaling pathways were unaffected by RAGE deletion or inhibition. These data position RAGE transactivation by the AT1 receptor as a target for ...
Activation of the type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1) triggers proinflammatory signaling through pathways independent of classical Gq signaling that regulate vascular homeostasis. Here, we report that the AT1 receptor preformed a heteromeric complex with the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE). Activation of the AT1 receptor by angiotensin II (Ang II) triggered transactivation of the cytosolic tail of RAGE and NF-κB-driven proinflammatory gene expression independently of the liberation of RAGE ligands or the ligand-binding ectodomain of RAGE. The importance of this transactivation pathway was demonstrated by our finding that adverse proinflammatory signaling events induced by AT1 receptor activation were attenuated when RAGE was deleted or transactivation of its cytosolic tail was inhibited. At the same time, classical homeostatic Gq signaling pathways were unaffected by RAGE deletion or inhibition. These data position RAGE transactivation by the AT1 receptor as a target for ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene is part of the Mediator complex, which is involved in transcriptional coactivation of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. The Mediator complex links gene-specific transcriptional activators with the basal transcription machinery. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010 ...
High-risk human papillomaviruses are causative agents of cervical cancer. Viral protein E7 is required to establish and maintain the pro-oncogenic phenotype in infected cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which E7 promotes carcinogenesis are only partially understood. Our transcriptome analyses in primary human fibroblasts transduced with the viral protein revealed that E7 activates a group of mitotic genes via the activator B-Myb-MuvB complex. We show that E7 interacts with the B-Myb, FoxM1 and LIN9 components of this activator complex, leading to cooperative transcriptional activation of mitotic genes in primary cells and E7 recruitment to the corresponding promoters. E7 interaction with LIN9 and FoxM1 depended on the LXCXE motif, which is also required for pocket protein interaction and degradation. Using E7 mutants for the degradation of pocket proteins but intact for the LXCXE motif, we demonstrate that E7 functional interaction with the B-Myb-MuvB complex and pocket protein degradation ...
As the key regulatory factor in lipogenesis, SREBPs are targets of hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and growth factors (17, 28, 36). The abundance of the nuclear form of SREBPs is controlled by transcriptional upregulation followed by proteolytic cleavage. However, an increasing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that posttranslational modifications of SREBPs modulate their transactivity and stability (22, 32, 39). In this study, we found that PKA phosphorylated SREBP-1 in cultured hepatoma cells and led to decreased binding and transactivation of SREBP-1. As a result, the expression of SREBP-1-mediated genes was decreased. Because the heterodimer of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated SREBP-1 retained some DNA binding capacity, neither cAMP nor forskolin suppressed the activity of nuclear SREBP-1a fully in our reporter assays. In addition to phosphorylation, cAMP also may inhibit SREBP cleavage, as suggested in a recent report (43). However, our present results have shown that levels ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yukari Nakamura, Eiichi Hinoi, Takeshi Takarada, Yoshifumi Takahata, Tomomi Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Fujita, Saya Takada, Syota Hashizume, Yukio Yoneda].
ZNF619, 0.1 ml. Zinc-finger proteins contain DNA-binding domains and have a wide variety of functions, most of which encompass some form of transcriptional activation or repression.
Miao, L. and Song, Z. and Jin, L. et al. (2010) ARF antagonizes the ability of Miz-1 to inhibit p53-mediated transactivation. Oncogene, 29 (5). pp. 711-722. ISSN 0950-9232. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100301-102009616 ...
By differential hybridization, we identified a number of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are activated by addition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) to cAMP-depleted cells. A majority, but not all, of these genes encode ribosomal proteins. While expression of these genes is also induced by addition of the appropriate nutrient to cells starved for a nitrogen source or for a sulfur source, the pathway for nutrient activation of ribosomal protein gene transcription is distinct from that of cAMP activation: (i) cAMP-mediated transcriptional activation was blocked by prior addition of an inhibitor of protein synthesis whereas nutrient-mediated activation was not, and (ii) cAMP-mediated induction of expression occurred through transcriptional activation whereas nutrient-mediated induction was predominantly a posttranscriptional response. Transcriptional activation of the ribosomal protein gene RPL16A by cAMP is mediated through a upstream activation sequence element consisting of a pair of RAP1 binding ...
The Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway elicits an adaptive response for cell survival after endogenous and exogenous stresses, such as inflammation and carcinogens, respectively. Keap1 inhibits the transcriptional activation activity of Nrf2 (p45 nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2) in unstressed cells by facilitating its degradation. Through transcriptional analyses in Keap1- or Nrf2-disrupted mice, we identified interactions between the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE and the Notch1 signaling pathways. We found that Nrf2 recognized a functional antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of Notch1. Notch1 regulates processes such as proliferation and cell fate decisions. We report a functional role for this cross talk between the two pathways and show that disruption of Nrf2 impeded liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and was rescued by reestablishment of Notch1 signaling.. ...
Stimulation of pancreatic β-cells with glucose activates the protein kinases B-Raf and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase that participate in glucose sensing. Inhibition of both kinases results in impairment of glucose-regulated gene transcription. To analyze the signaling pathway controlled by B-Raf, we expressed a conditionally active form of B-Raf in INS-1 insulinoma cells. Here, we show that stimulation of B-Raf strongly activated the transcription factor AP-1 which is accompanied by increased c-Jun and c-Fos promoter activities, an upregulation of c-Jun and c-Fos biosynthesis, and elevated transcriptional activation potentials of c-Jun and c-Fos ...
By means of the fluorescent differential display method, we isolated novel mouse and human genes, Drctnnb1a and DRCTNNB1A, the expression levels of which were inversely correlated to the amount of β-catenin present in cells. Recent reports have identified a number of mammalian genes including c-myc (6) , cyclin D1 (7) , matrilysin (8) , WISP (9) , c-jun, fra-1, uPAR, ZO-1 (10) , and NBL4 (11) that are regulated by stabilization and activation of β-catenin. In Xenopus or Drosophila, target genes for Wnt signaling include the nodal-related 3 gene, Xnr3 (17) , a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, and homeobox genes engrailed (18) , goosecoid, siamois (17) , twin (19) , ultrabithorax (20) , and fibronectin (21) . Among those reported molecules, all but ZO-1 appeared to be up-regulated byβ -catenin through transactivation of Tcf/Lef transcription factors. Hence, DRCTNNB1A is only the second gene to be identified as down-regulated by the accumulation of β-catenin. ...
Involved in transcriptional regulation. Modulates TGF-beta-mediated transcription via association with SMAD proteins, MYOD1-mediated transcription via association with PABPN1, RB1-mediated transcriptional repression, and retinoid-X receptor (RXR)- and vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent gene transcription in a cell line-specific manner probably involving coactivators NCOA1 and GRIP1. Is involved in NOTCH1-mediated transcriptional activation. Binds to multimerized forms of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and is proposed to recruit transcriptional coactivators such as MAML1 to form an intermediate preactivation complex which associates with DNA-bound CBF-1/RBPJ to form a transcriptional activation complex by releasing SNW1 and redundant NOTCH1 NICD. Proposed to be involved in transcriptional activation by EBV EBNA2 of CBF-1/RBPJ-repressed promoters. Is recruited by HIV-1 Tat to Tat:P-TEFb:TAR RNA complexes and is involved in Tat transcription by recruitment of MYC, MEN1 and TRRAP to the HIV ...
We have examined the involvement of components of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling pathway in the transactivation of gene expression by the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. Transient transfection of cells with plasmids encoding wild-type MyD88, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1), and TRAF-6 drove p65-mediated transactivation. In addition, dominant negative forms of MyD88, IRAK-1, and TRAF-6 inhibited the IL-1-induced response. In cells lacking MyD88 or IRAK-1, no effect of IL-1 was observed. Together, these results indicate that MyD88, IRAK-1, and TRAF-6 are important downstream regulators of IL-1-mediated p65 transactivation. We have previously shown that the low-molecular-weight G protein Rac1 is involved in this response. Constitutively active RacV12-mediated transactivation was not inhibited by dominant negative MyD88, while dominant negative RacN17 inhibited the MyD88-driven response, placing Rac1 downstream of MyD88 on this pathway. Dominant negative RacN17 inhibited wild-type IRAK-1- ...
Mouse anti Human glucocorticoid receptor antibody, clone 8E9 recognizes the human glucocorticoid receptor (GR), also known as Nuclear rece
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Estrogen receptor-1 (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are ligand-induced transcription factors. Accessory proteins, termed coactivators modulate the transcriptional activation of these factors. It has been shown that coactivators enhance transcription of the target genes and play important roles in diverse pathological processes, such as cancers, inherited genetic diseases, metabolic disorders, and inflammation. Earlier work by our laboratory identified E6-associated protein (E6-AP) as a coactivator of steroid hormone receptors. In an attempt to identify E6-AP-interacting protein(s), we have cloned WW-domain binding protein-2 (WBP-2) and have shown that WBP-2 selectively coactivates the transactivation functions of ER and PR. WBP-2 is a novel polyproline rich (PPXY) motif containing protein. The PPXY motif of WBP-2 has been shown to be involved in transcriptional activation pathways. The PPXY motif interacts with WW-domain containing proteins and form PPXY ...
Chrysin greatly increased UGT1A1 expression in immortalized cell lines, such as Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, in previous reports (Galijatovic et al., 2000, 2001; Walle et al., 2000). Our studies confirmed the large induction observed in HepG2 cells. However, only a few reports have focused on the mechanism by which chrysin induces drug-metabolizing enzymes. Zhang et al. (2003) found that the induction of CYP1A1 reporter activity by chrysin was mediated through AhR activation and subsequent binding to dioxin-responsive elements present in the gene in HepG2 cells. In a separate study, Sugatani et al. (2004) found that the UGT1A1 response to chrysin was alleviated the most when the AhRE within the gtPBREM was mutated in transactivation experiments conducted in HepG2 cells. UGT1A1 and CYP2B6 gene reporter activation by chrysin and 3-MC was compared in HepG2 cells in the present study. CYP2B6 was not responsive to chrysin, but it was responsive to PB, a PXR and CAR activator, when the PBREM was ...
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There are no specific protocols for Human Glucocorticoid Receptor alpha peptide (ab39764). Please download our general protocols booklet
CoAA contains two copies of RNA recognition motifs (RRM) and an intrinsic transactivation domain rich in repetitive tyrosines and glutamines (YxxQ domain). Previously, CoAA has been shown to be a transcriptional coactivator that stimulates transcriptional activation and regulates alternative splicing. A pattern and profile search revealed that the YxxQ domain in CoAA shared significant pattern homology with the oncogenic EWS activation domains (EAD) in TET family proteins, including, TLS/FUS, EWS and TAFII 68. It was further demonstrated that CoAAs YxxQ domain and EWS EAD also shared functional similarities. Based on these findings, this work investigated the aberration of CoAA in cancers and its pathophysiological significance. The results showed that the CoAA gene was amplified in a high percentage of inflammation-related human cancers with recurrent loss of the 5 regulatory element upstream of its promoter. This genomic aberration resulted in CoAA protein overexpression, which in turn, ...
CoAA contains two copies of RNA recognition motifs (RRM) and an intrinsic transactivation domain rich in repetitive tyrosines and glutamines (YxxQ domain). Previously, CoAA has been shown to be a transcriptional coactivator that stimulates transcriptional activation and regulates alternative splicing. A pattern and profile search revealed that the YxxQ domain in CoAA shared significant pattern homology with the oncogenic EWS activation domains (EAD) in TET family proteins, including, TLS/FUS, EWS and TAFII 68. It was further demonstrated that CoAAs YxxQ domain and EWS EAD also shared functional similarities. Based on these findings, this work investigated the aberration of CoAA in cancers and its pathophysiological significance. The results showed that the CoAA gene was amplified in a high percentage of inflammation-related human cancers with recurrent loss of the 5 regulatory element upstream of its promoter. This genomic aberration resulted in CoAA protein overexpression, which in turn, ...
Chromatin organization is highly dynamic and regulates transcription. Upon transcriptional activation, chromatin is remodeled and referred to as open, but quantitative and dynamic data of this decompaction process are lacking. Here, we have developed a quantitative high resolution-microscopy assay in living yeast cells to visualize and quantify chromatin dynamics using the GAL7-10-1 locus as a model system. Upon transcriptional activation ...
Activation of transcription is the ultimate endpoint for many signal transduction and developmental pathways, and understanding the mechanism of activation is a...
MADRID, Jan. 28, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Adrian Bird wins the Frontiers of Knowledge Award for mapping gene activation and introducing new prospects to cure...
STAT4 and DNMT3A play opposing roles in regulating Th1 gene expression, and one mechanism for STAT4-dependent gene programming is in establishing a derepressed genetic state susceptible to transactivation by additional fate-determining transcription factors ...
Scientists have made a medical breakthrough which may help bring new insights on how genes are activated. Roughly 3 metres of DNA is tightly folded into the nucleus of every cell in our body. This folding allows some genes to be expressed, or activated, while excluding others.
Tetracycline-Controlled Transcriptional Activation is a method of inducible gene expression where transcription is reversibly ... "Transcriptional activation by tetracyclines in mammalian cells". Science. 268 (5218): 1766-9. Bibcode:1995Sci...268.1766G. doi: ... It is also human codon optimized and composed of 3 minimal VP16 activation domains. However, the Tet-On 3G protein has 5 amino ... In the Cre and FRT systems, activation or knockout of the gene is irreversible once recombination is accomplished, whereas, in ...
Transcriptional activation of lysosomal exocytosis promotes cellular clearance.. Medina DL1, Fraldi A, Bouche V, Annunziata F, ... TFEB Elevates Intracellular Ca2+ Levels through the Activation of MCOLN1. (A) Flow cytometric Ca2+ flux assay of stable TFEB- ... levels through the activation of the lysosomal Ca²⁺ channel MCOLN1. Induction of lysosomal exocytosis by TFEB overexpression ...
The recruitment model for gene activation stipulates that an activator works by bringing the transcriptional machinery to the ... Transcriptional activation by recruitment Nature. 1997 Apr 10;386(6625):569-77. doi: 10.1038/386569a0. ... The recruitment model for gene activation stipulates that an activator works by bringing the transcriptional machinery to the ...
Next-generation CRISPR/Cas9 transcriptional activation in Drosophila using flySAM. Yu Jia, Rong-Gang Xu, Xingjie Ren, Ben Ewen- ... Next-generation CRISPR/Cas9 transcriptional activation in Drosophila using flySAM. Yu Jia, Rong-Gang Xu, Xingjie Ren, Ben Ewen- ... A) Transcriptional activation of hh or ci in the wing (using MS1096-Gal4) results in patterning defects in the anterior and ... 2017) Robust transcriptional activation in plants using multiplexed CRISPR-Act2.0 and mTALE-act systems. Mol Plant 11:245-256. ...
Genome-scale transcriptional activation by an engineered CRISPR-Cas9 complex.. Konermann S1, Brigham MD1, Trevino AE1, Joung J2 ... targeting rules for effective transcriptional activation, to demonstrate multiplexed activation of ten genes simultaneously, ... a, Activation of individual genes by single sgRNAs with dCas9-VP64 and MS2-p65-HSF1. b, Simultaneous activation of the same ten ... Activation levels for each type of MS2-fusion is presented as a percentage relative to the activation achieved using MS2-p65. b ...
In Vivo Transcriptional Activation Using CRISPR/Cas9 in Drosophila. Shuailiang Lin, Ben Ewen-Campen, Xiaochun Ni, Benjamin E. ... In Vivo Transcriptional Activation Using CRISPR/Cas9 in Drosophila. Shuailiang Lin, Ben Ewen-Campen, Xiaochun Ni, Benjamin E. ... In Vivo Transcriptional Activation Using CRISPR/Cas9 in Drosophila. Shuailiang Lin, Ben Ewen-Campen, Xiaochun Ni, Benjamin E. ... providing the first demonstration of dCas9 activation in a multicellular animal. Transcriptional activation using dCas9-VPR ...
Transcriptional activation by tetracyclines in mammalian cells. By M Gossen, S Freundlieb, G Bender, G Muller, W Hillen, H ... Transcriptional activation by tetracyclines in mammalian cells. By M Gossen, S Freundlieb, G Bender, G Muller, W Hillen, H ... Transcriptional activation by tetracyclines in mammalian cells Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... A transcriptional transactivator was developed that fuses the VP16 activation domain with a mutant Tet repressor from ...
Forming a complex, AR converged with CSL/RBP-Jκ in transcriptional repression of key CAF effector genes. AR and CSL were ... activation. Surprisingly little is known about the role of androgen receptor (AR) signaling in this context. We have found ... from multiple individuals induced early steps of CAF activation, and in an orthotopic skin cancer model, AR loss in HDFs ...
... Cell. 1986 Mar 28;44(6):871-7. doi: ... We conclude that all classes of genes become competent for activation during cycle 10, and that subsequent activation is ... and reach maximal activation during late cycle 14. The high transcriptional activity characteristic of cycle 14 can be ... Histone genes are transcribed during S phases, and reach maximal activation in cycle 12, whereas nonhistone genes are ...
... sufficient for transcriptional activation and that an unknown biochemical activity is required for transcriptional activation ( ... Postrecruitment Function of Yeast Med6 Protein during the Transcriptional Activation by Mediator Complex. Gwang Sik Kim and ... Y. C. Lee, S. Min, B. S. Gim, and Y. J. Kim, "A transcriptional mediator protein that is required for activation of many RNA ... Y. J. Kim, S. Björklund, Y. Li, M. H. Sayre, and R. D. Kornberg, "A multiprotein mediator of transcriptional activation and its ...
"Transcriptional Activation" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Transcriptional Activation" was a ... "Transcriptional Activation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Transcriptional Activation" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Transcriptional Activation". ...
Transcriptional upregulation of p21Cip1 by ErbB2 overexpression through STAT3 activation. Valerie S. Hawthorne ... Transcriptional upregulation of p21Cip1 by ErbB2 overexpression through STAT3 activation Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Activation of Src kinase has been suggested in STAT3 activation/phosphorylation. We found that Src kinase is activated in ErbB2 ... To see if Src is responsible for ErbB2-mediated STAT3 activation and p21Cip1 upregulation, we established breast cancer cells ...
Cra-Dependent Transcriptional Activation of theicd Gene of Escherichia coli. Jean-François Prost, Didier Nègre, Christelle ... Cra-Dependent Transcriptional Activation of theicd Gene of Escherichia coli. Jean-François Prost, Didier Nègre, Christelle ... Cra-Dependent Transcriptional Activation of theicd Gene of Escherichia coli. Jean-François Prost, Didier Nègre, Christelle ... Cra-Dependent Transcriptional Activation of theicd Gene of Escherichia coli Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Modular Activation of Nuclear Factor-κB Transcriptional Programs in Human Diabetic Nephropathy. ... Modular Activation of Nuclear Factor-κB Transcriptional Programs in Human Diabetic Nephropathy ... Modular Activation of Nuclear Factor-κB Transcriptional Programs in Human Diabetic Nephropathy ... Modular Activation of Nuclear Factor-κB Transcriptional Programs in Human Diabetic Nephropathy ...
Moreover, in reporter gene experiments, the transcription activation is highly dependent upon the number of repeats that are ... Importantly, in vivo EWS-FLI1-bound microsatellites are significantly associated with EWS-FLI1-driven gene activation. Put ... 1994) DNA-binding and transcriptional activation properties of the EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein resulting from the t(11;22) ... Transcriptional control Is the Subject Area "Transcriptional control" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Two modes of transcriptional activation at native promoters by NF-κB p65. PLOS Biol. 7, e1000073 (2009).. ... In conclusion, transcriptional activation of genes involved in lipogenesis by USF1 in response to insulin requires multiple ... These results demonstrate that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Ser53 in MED17 is required for the transcriptional activation of ... Transcriptional activation of lipogenesis by insulin requires phosphorylation of MED17 by CK2 ...
Transcriptional activation correlated with the highest increases in MYC binding at promoters. Repression followed a reciprocal ... Integrative analysis of RNA polymerase II and transcriptional dynamics upon MYC activation.. [Stefano de Pretis, Theresia R ... Here, we present an integrated time-course analysis of transcription and mRNA dynamics following MYC activation in ... Altogether, the relative abundance (henceforth, "share") of MYC at promoters was the strongest predictor of transcriptional ...
... of worms with bacterial and fungal pathogens causes the activation of well-characterized innate immune transcriptional programs ... Here, we show that infection-activated transcriptional responses are, in large part, recapitulated by either physiological or ... Together, our data suggest infection and osmotic adaptation share previously unappreciated transcriptional similarities which ... However, the pathophysiological events that drive such transcriptional responses are not understood. ...
In vitro transcriptional activation by a metabolic intermediate: activation by Leu3 depends on alpha-isopropylmalate ... In vitro transcriptional activation by a metabolic intermediate: activation by Leu3 depends on alpha-isopropylmalate ... In vitro transcriptional activation by a metabolic intermediate: activation by Leu3 depends on alpha-isopropylmalate ... In vitro transcriptional activation by a metabolic intermediate: activation by Leu3 depends on alpha-isopropylmalate ...
Transcriptional Activation of Cyclooxygenase-2in Wnt-1-transformed Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells Louise R. Howe, Kotha ... 3) ⇓ , suggesting the effect of Wnt-1 on Cox-2 was likely to be due to transcriptional activation of the Cox-2 gene. To test ... Thus, expression of Wnt-1 in RAC311, and most likely C57MG, causes transcriptional activation of the Cox-2 gene. ... Both Wnt-1 expression and APC mutation activate a common signaling pathway involving transcriptional activation mediated by β- ...
Transcriptional Activation of the Bacillus subtilis ackA Gene Requires Sequences Upstream of the Promoter. Andrew J. Turinsky, ... Transcriptional activation of ackA was lost with a 5-bp insertion between cre2 and the promoter and was reestablished with a 10 ... FruR-mediated transcriptional activation at the ppsA promoter of Escherichia coli.J. Mol. Biol.2761998355365. ... Transcriptional co-activation at the ansB promoters: involvement of the activating regions of CRP and FNR when bound in tandem. ...
TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION. DA-Complex Assembly Activity Required for VP16C Transcriptional Activation. Naoko Kobayashi, Peter ... Transcriptional activation by TFIIB mutants that are severely impaired in interaction with promoter DNA and acidic activation ... An earlier study (3) had shown that mutations in an activation domain which diminish transcriptional activation also relieve ... A mechanism for TAFs in transcriptional activation: activation domain enhancement of TFIID-TFIIA-promoter DNA complex formation ...
Genetic and Physiological Activation of Osmosensitive Gene Expression Mimics Transcriptional Signatures of Pathogen Infection ... Genetic and Physiological Activation of Osmosensitive Gene Expression Mimics Transcriptional Signatures of Pathogen Infection ... of worms with bacterial and fungal pathogens causes the activation of well-characterized innate immune transcriptional programs ... Here, we show that infection-activated transcriptional responses are, in large part, recapitulated by either physiological or ...
5A). If transcriptional interference is the primary mechanism by which long-distance transcriptional activation is prevented, ... Northern and 5′ RACE analysis of long-distance activation.To assay long-distance activation at the transcriptional level and to ... cerevisiae to examine long-distance transcriptional activation in vivo and have used it to demonstrate that activation by Gal4 ... is the distance over which transcriptional activation occurs. In S. cerevisiae, upstream activation sequences (UASs) are ...
Transcriptional activation by Oct4 is sufficient for the maintenance and induction of pluripotency. Hammachi F , Morrison GM , ... Reciprocal transcriptional regulation of Pou5f1 and Sox2 via the Oct4/Sox2 complex in embryonic stem cells. 2005, Pubmed Evans ... An extended transcriptional network for pluripotency of embryonic stem cells. 2008, Pubmed Kim, Oct4-induced pluripotency in ... Negative effect of the transcriptional activator GAL4. 1988, Pubmed Hall, Oct4 and LIF/Stat3 additively induce Krüppel factors ...
Thank you for submitting your article "Activation of a neural stem cell transcriptional program in parenchymal astrocytes" for ... located upstream of a neural stem cell state and acquire a transcriptional profile of neural stem cells upon their activation. ... These findings fit well with what is known about neural stem cell activation in the DG and SVZ, where expression levels of ... We found that, at the transcriptional level, Rbpj-deficient striatal astrocytes became highly similar to SVZ neural stem cells ...
... journal article The regulatory VirG protein specifically binds to a cis-acting regulatory sequence involved in transcriptional ... activation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence gene were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad. ... Transcriptional activation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence gene promoters in Escherichia coli requires the A. ... The regulatory VirG protein specifically binds to a cis-acting regulatory sequence involved in transcriptional activation of ...
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein LP stimulates EBNA-2 acidic domain-mediated transcriptional activation.. S Harada, E Kieff ... We now show that EBNA-LP stimulates EBNA-2 activation of the LMP1 promoter and of the LMP1/LMP2B bidirectional transcriptional ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein LP stimulates EBNA-2 acidic domain-mediated transcriptional activation. ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein LP stimulates EBNA-2 acidic domain-mediated transcriptional activation. ...
The v-rel oncogene: insights into the mechanism of transcriptional activation, repression, and transformation.. W H Walker, B ... The v-rel oncogene: insights into the mechanism of transcriptional activation, repression, and transformation. ... The v-rel oncogene: insights into the mechanism of transcriptional activation, repression, and transformation. ... The v-rel oncogene: insights into the mechanism of transcriptional activation, repression, and transformation. ...
In Utero Ethanol Suppresses Cerebellar Activator Protein-1 and Nuclear Factor-κB Transcriptional Activation in a Rat Fetal ... In Utero Ethanol Suppresses Cerebellar Activator Protein-1 and Nuclear Factor-κB Transcriptional Activation in a Rat Fetal ... In Utero Ethanol Suppresses Cerebellar Activator Protein-1 and Nuclear Factor-κB Transcriptional Activation in a Rat Fetal ... In Utero Ethanol Suppresses Cerebellar Activator Protein-1 and Nuclear Factor-κB Transcriptional Activation in a Rat Fetal ...
  • We used these engineered Cas9 activation complexes to investigate single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting rules for effective transcriptional activation, to demonstrate multiplexed activation of ten genes simultaneously, and to upregulate long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) transcripts. (nih.gov)
  • We also synthesized a library consisting of 70,290 guides targeting all human RefSeq coding isoforms to screen for genes that, upon activation, confer resistance to a BRAF inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • A number of approaches for Cas9-mediated transcriptional activation have recently been developed, allowing target genes to be overexpressed from their endogenous genomic loci. (genetics.org)
  • Finally, we show that dCas9-VPR can activate target genes and cause dominant phenotypes in vivo , providing the first demonstration of dCas9 activation in a multicellular animal. (genetics.org)
  • For example, the dCas9-mediation activation technique is preferable for genes that are difficult to clone, e.g. , if they occur in multiple splice isoforms and/or are very large. (genetics.org)
  • Forming a complex, AR converged with CSL/RBP-Jκ in transcriptional repression of key CAF effector genes. (jci.org)
  • Histone genes are transcribed during S phases, and reach maximal activation in cycle 12, whereas nonhistone genes are transcribed only in G2 periods, and reach maximal activation during late cycle 14. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that all classes of genes become competent for activation during cycle 10, and that subsequent activation is differentially suppressed by functions associated with nuclear division. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo, these transcriptional cofactors indeed participate in the regulated expression of specific genes in response to environmental and physiological cues, which has been demonstrated in a wide range of eukaryotic model organisms. (hindawi.com)
  • found that insulin stimulation in hepatocytes or feeding in mice triggered the phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator MED17, which enabled the transcription factor USF1 to activate genes encoding lipogenic factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results demonstrate that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Ser 53 in MED17 is required for the transcriptional activation of lipogenic genes in response to insulin. (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast, after feeding, especially a high-carbohydrate diet, increased glucose concentration in the circulation triggers the secretion of insulin, which induces the conversion of excess glucose to fatty acids and fat by coordinately activating numerous lipogenic genes at the transcriptional level. (sciencemag.org)
  • If so, loss of APC function would result in uncontrolled transcriptional activation of Tcf target genes, which might contribute to colon tumorigenesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is not known whether activation and/or repression of specific genes by Oct4 is relevant to these functions. (xenbase.org)
  • their interplay is required for transcriptional activation of a sizeable number of eukaryotic genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Brassinosteroid (BR) signal transduction research has progressed rapidly from the initial discovery of the BR receptor to a complete definition of the basic molecular components required to relay the BR signal from perception by receptor kinases at the cell surface to activation of a small family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of more than a thousand genes in a BR-dependent manner. (plantcell.org)
  • A comparison of the recruitment patterns between ATF and C/EBP transcription factors and RNA polymerase II at the AARE of several amino acid-responsive genes revealed that a highly co-ordinated response programme controls the transcriptional activation of these genes following amino acid limitation. (biochemj.org)
  • Among the R genes in this locus, RPP4 confers resistance to two races of the fungal pathogen Hyaloperonospora parasitica , while activation of SNC1 (for suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1 ) results in the resistance to another race of H. parasitica and to pathovars of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae through the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA). (plantcell.org)
  • This preponderance of transcriptional up-regulation of cardiac-specific genes suggests a mechanism of action whereby unilateral dephosphorylation of coded proteins resulted in a feedback loop of regulation (e.g., transcriptional activation of coding genes). (aspetjournals.org)
  • p300 is a transcriptional coactivator that governs gene expression patterns by being recruited to target genes through association with specific transcription factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • To determine if this interaction is generally required for activation of all class II genes in vivo, we have constructed substitution mutations in yeast TFIIA which compromise its ability to bind TBP. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In Drosophila melanogaster , Zygotic Genome Activation (ZGA) occurs in two waves, starting respectively at mitotic cycles 8 (approximately 60 genes) and 14 (over a thousand genes). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although this study is mainly based on the analysis of publicly available transcriptome and ChiP-seq datasets, the resulting model suggests novel mechanisms that underly the coordinated activation of several hundreds genes at a precise time point during embryonic development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Zygotic Genome Activation (ZGA) occurs in two successive waves: a minor wave involving a few tens of genes, followed by a major wave affecting several hundreds of genes (Figure 1 A). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ε (C/EBPε), a new member of the C/EBP family, significantly upregulates both the mim-1 and human myeloperoxidase promoters, suggesting an important role for C/EBPε in the transcriptional regulation of a subset of myeloid-specific genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Additional analyses of target genes identify miRNAs exhibiting dynamic changes in expression during satellite cell activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNA binding proteins and genes involved in post-transcriptional regulation were significantly over-represented whereas splicing factors were preferentially downregulated and mRNA stability genes preferentially upregulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Activation of the ERK pathway in a subset of nociceptive spinal neurons contributes, therefore, to persistent pain hypersensitivity, possibly via transcriptional regulation of genes, such as prodynorphin and NK-1. (jneurosci.org)
  • Use of selective pharmacological inhibitors and knockdown of candidate genes identifies a pathway whereby local trophic deprivation results in loss of Akt signaling and activation of DLK signaling, leading to activation of the JNK/c-jun signaling and a Foxo3a dependent transcriptional program. (rockefeller.edu)
  • An Rrf2-Type Transcriptional Regulator Is Required for Expression of psaAB Genes in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Transcriptional regulation of the psaAB genes is a critical process for this photoacclimation in cyanobacteria. (plantphysiol.org)
  • There are many other works to study transcriptional regulation of genes in Synechocystis sp. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Furthermore, PPAR gamma activation by rosiglitazone strongly suppresses cytokine-induced transcript levels of the NF-kappa B-dependent genes intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and CXCL1 ( KC), the murine homolog of IL-8, in myotubes. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Yeast Mediator is required for diverse aspects of transcriptional regulation, such as activation, repression, stimulation of basal transcription, and TFIIH-dependent phosphorylation of the CTD (C-terminal repeat domain) of the Rpb1 subunit in vitro [ 2 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Unlike the positive regulatory mechanism found in E. coli , carbon catabolite regulation in gram-positive bacteria appears to be mediated by transcriptional repression, requiring trans -acting CcpA (catabolite control protein A), a member of the LacI-GalR family of bacterial regulatory proteins ( 16 ), and a cis -acting consensus sequence, designated cre ( 20 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • The v-rel oncogene: insights into the mechanism of transcriptional activation, repression, and transformation. (asm.org)
  • We now demonstrate that a highly conserved motif within the Rel homology domain of v-Rel containing a consensus protein kinase A phosphorylation site is required for DNA binding, transcriptional repression, and cellular transformation mediated by this oncoprotein. (asm.org)
  • It is notable that these same mutations do not impair the ability of v-Rel to heterodimerize with the 50-kDa subunit of NF-kappa B, suggesting that v-Rel-mediated transcriptional repression likely involves direct nuclear blockade of the kappa B enhancer rather than indirect alterations in the composition of preformed cytoplasmic NF-kappa B complexes. (asm.org)
  • Fusion of this repression domain to the VP16 activation domain inhibited the transactivation function of VP16. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that C/EBPε regulates transcription by utilizing both activation and repression functions. (elsevier.com)
  • Programmable repression and activation of bacterial gene expression using an engineered CRISPR-Cas system. (mit.edu)
  • wp-content/uploads/2016/03/[email protected] 0 0 syn-admin /wp-content/uploads/2016/03/[email protected] syn-admin 2013-08-01 00:00:55 2016-02-08 15:24:59 Programmable repression and activation of bacterial gene expression using an engineered CRISPR-Cas system. (mit.edu)
  • Programmable transcriptional repression in mycobacteria using an orthogonal CRISPR interference platform. (nature.com)
  • Genome-scale CRISPR-mediated control of gene repression and activation. (nature.com)
  • The recruitment model for gene activation stipulates that an activator works by bringing the transcriptional machinery to the DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Also, an inactivating mutation of that residue severely impairs RelA transcriptional activity, blocks its anti-apoptotic function and abrogates the interaction of RelA with the co-activator CBP as well as its recruitment, and that of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter. (csic.es)
  • Paradoxically, when introduced into undifferentiated F9 cells, v-Rel functions as a kappa B-specific transcriptional activator rather than as a dominant-negative repressor. (asm.org)
  • The mechanism of transcriptional activation of Polymerase II (Pol II) can be studied in a unique way by using a model transcriptional activator, TFIIIA-VP16, whose DNA-binding domain is derived from the zinc finger protein TFIIIA. (umsystem.edu)
  • We have recently shown that treatment of microvascular endothelial cells with ONOO - induces increased VEGF expression that is dependent on the activation of the transcription factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). (arvojournals.org)
  • Progestins induce transcriptional activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) via a Jak- and Src-dependent mechanism in breast cancer cells. (hotzehwc.com)
  • TFIIA is required for activator-mediated transcriptional stimulation in reactions reconstituted with human or Drosophila TFIID but appears dispensable for basal-level transcription in reactions reconstituted with TBP ( 20 , 58 , 72 , 74 , 78 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Human TFIIA binds directly to at least three viral transcriptional activators ( 16 , 37 , 58 , 72 , 78 ) and mediates an activator-induced conformational change in TFIID that allows TAF II s to interact with promoter sequences downstream of the transcriptional initiation site ( 42 , 58 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • TFIIA can also induce changes in the interaction of TAF II s with promoter sequences in the absence of a transcriptional activator ( 40 , 55 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Functional studies revealed that p53 is an important transcriptional activator. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Here we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an in vivo model system to show that the Myc protein is a sequence-specific transcriptional activator whose DNA binding is strictly dependent on dimerization with Max. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we show that the human GLUT2 gene is closely regulated by HNF-1α via sequences downstream of the transcriptional start site by interaction with transcriptional co-activator p300. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These findings demonstrated that HNF-1α binds to the 5′-untranslated region of GLUT2 and that p300 acts as a transcriptional co-activator for HNF-1α. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The presence of α-IPM was also required for Leu3p to compete effectively with another transcriptional activator, GAL4/VP16, for limiting transcription factors. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, the addition of α-IPM appears to convert a transcriptional repressor into an activator. (elsevier.com)
  • A transcriptional transactivator was developed that fuses the VP16 activation domain with a mutant Tet repressor from Escherichia coli. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Tet-Off system makes use of the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) protein, which is created by fusing one protein, TetR (tetracycline repressor), found in Escherichia coli bacteria, with the activation domain of another protein, VP16, found in the Herpes Simplex Virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that glucose metabolism regulates pro-inflammatory NF-κB transcriptional activity through effects on the cytosolic NADH:NAD + ratio and the NAD(H) sensitive transcriptional co-repressor CtBP. (nature.com)
  • Comprehensive interrogation of natural TALE DNA-binding modules and transcriptional repressor domains. (mit.edu)
  • wp-content/uploads/2016/03/[email protected] 0 0 syn-admin /wp-content/uploads/2016/03/[email protected] syn-admin 2012-07-24 00:00:06 2016-02-08 15:34:42 Comprehensive interrogation of natural TALE DNA-binding modules and transcriptional repressor domains. (mit.edu)
  • In the absence of the leucine biosynthetic precursor α- isopropylmalate (α-IPM), the yeast LEU3 protein (Leu3p) binds DNA and acts as a transcriptional repressor in an in vitro extract. (elsevier.com)
  • We have shown previously that FOXP3 functions as a transcriptional repressor and inhibits activation-induced IL-2 gene transcription. (jimmunol.org)
  • These data demonstrate that Msx1 and Msx2 are direct transcriptional targets of Lhx2. (umn.edu)
  • This represents an example in eukaryotes of direct transcriptional regulation by a small effector molecule. (elsevier.com)
  • To test whether this DA-complex assembly activity contributes significantly to the overall mechanism of activation in vivo, we analyzed mutants of the 38-amino-acid residue VP16C activation subdomain from herpes simplex virus. (asm.org)
  • These results argue that the ability of VP16C to increase the rate and extent of DA-complex assembly makes a significant contribution to the overall mechanism of transcriptional activation in vivo. (asm.org)
  • Since wild-type (wt) VP16C exhibits DA-complex assembly activity ( 24 ), the isolation of these VP16C mutants allowed us to test whether this in vitro activity correlated with their in vivo activation function, as would be expected if DA-complex assembly contributes significantly to the overall mechanism of activation in vivo. (asm.org)
  • These results strongly support the model that DA-complex assembly activity is an important component of the VP16C activation mechanism. (asm.org)
  • Nam and Li, 2002 ), similar to the mechanism of action of many animal receptor kinases that signal through ligand-mediated homo- or heterooligomerization of the receptor followed by phosphorylation and activation of the intracellular kinase domain. (plantcell.org)
  • To elucidate the mechanism of oncogenic activation of Xmrk, we compared the structure and expression of two oncogenic loci with the corresponding proto-oncogene. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Boerkoel, CF & Kung, H-J 1992, ' Transcriptional interaction between retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs): Mechanism of 5′ LTR suppression and 3′ LTR promoter activation of c-myc in avian B-cell lymphomas ', Journal of Virology , vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 4814-4823. (elsevier.com)
  • Genetic and biochemical studies identified 21 polypeptides as bona fide subunits of the core Mediator, including transcriptional regulators previously identified by genetic studies, as well as the novel subunits collectively named Med proteins [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the course of our screening of transcriptional regulators in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Several redox-sensitive transcriptional regulators have been reported in Synechocystis . (plantphysiol.org)
  • RpaA and RpaB are the response regulator-type transcriptional regulators, although the multistress sensing and signal transduction have not yet been elucidated. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In the course of our screening of transcriptional regulators in Synechocystis , we found that an Rrf2-type regulator Slr0846 is critical for maintenance of normal chlorophyll accumulation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Recent elucidation of roles for this family of transcriptional regulators in thymic development ( Foxn1 ), lineage commitment ( Foxp3 ), and function of lymphocytes ( Foxj1 , Foxo3 , and Foxd1 ) has firmly established a role for this transcription factor family in the development and maintenance of normal immune responses ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, activation of Penk gene expression upon neurotransmitter challenge is suggested to be due to an enhanced transcriptional activity of the gene mediated by de novo synthesized protein(-like) factors. (eurekamag.com)
  • the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of this gene have yet to be elucidated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As such their underlying gene expression programs may not be determined by robust transcriptomic and epigenetic programs but by more flexible means like post‐transcriptional mechanisms affecting mRNA use. (wiley.com)
  • The regulatory mechanisms underlying these drastic transcriptional changes remain largely unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, a growing pool of data demonstrates that cell fate determination is reliant on post-transcriptional gene regulation [ 16 - 20 ] and may provide mechanisms to maintain quiescent satellite cells in a ready state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanisms in Transcriptional Regulation provides a concise discussion of the fundamental concepts in transcription and its regulation. (wiley.com)
  • He also directs an active research program examining the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation during fruit fly development. (wiley.com)
  • This review will summarize the transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms by which AT 1 R gene expression is regulated and discuss the pathological relevance of these mechanisms in mediating cardiovascular disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, we found that a mammalian transcription factor IID (TFIID) protein fraction is required for transcriptional stimulation by an Sp1-dependent activating element placed upstream of either TATA or Inr elements. (pnas.org)
  • These results demonstrate that mammalian TFIID is functionally distinct from the yeast TATA-binding protein and may contain additional subunits or domains that are important for transcriptional activation from some promoters. (pnas.org)
  • Guillon N, Tirode F, Boeva V, Zynovyev A, Barillot E, Delattre O (2009) The Oncogenic EWS-FLI1 Protein Binds In Vivo GGAA Microsatellite Sequences with Potential Transcriptional Activation Function. (plos.org)
  • Expression of Wnt-1 in these cells caused transcriptional up-regulation of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene, resulting in increased levels of cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transcriptional activation of the Bacillus subtilis ackA gene, encoding acetate kinase, was previously shown to require catabolite control protein A (CcpA) and sequences upstream of the ackA promoter. (asm.org)
  • No significant correlation between in vivo activation function and in vitro binding to human TATA binding protein, human TFIIB, or Drosophila melanogaster TAF II 40 was observed for this set of VP16C mutants. (asm.org)
  • To study the role of the VirG protein in the activation process, we overproduced the native-sized VirG protein in Escherichia coli by fusing the lacZ' start codon ATG with the second virG codon AAA using site-directed mutagenesis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein LP stimulates EBNA-2 acidic domain-mediated transcriptional activation. (asm.org)
  • EBNA-LP strongly stimulated activation of an adenovirus E1b promoter with upstream Gal4 binding sites by a Gal4 DNA binding domain/ EBNA-2 acidic domain fusion protein, indicating that EBNA-LP coactivation requires only the EBNA-2 acidic domain to be localized near a promoter. (asm.org)
  • On the basis of these results, the relationship between the transcriptional regulation of Cah1 and protein-binding to the enhancer elements in the 5′-upstream region of Cah1 is discussed. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The general transcription factor IIA (TFIIA) interacts with the TATA binding protein (TBP) and promoter DNA to mediate transcription activation in vitro. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • TFIID consists of the TATA binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAF II s), which modify the promoter recognition and transcriptional activities of TBP (reviewed in reference 75 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The c-myc protein (Myc) contains an amino-terminal transcriptional activation domain and a carboxy-terminal basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Z) domain that directs dimerization of Myc with its partner, the max protein (Max), and promotes DNA binding to sites containing a CACGTG core consensus sequence. (elsevier.com)
  • The activity of various DNA-binding transcription factors is regulated by global transcriptional co-activators such as p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase in dorsal horn neurons of the spinal cord by peripheral noxious stimulation contributes to short-term pain hypersensitivity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Murai, K , Murakami, H & Nagata, S 1998, ' Myeloid-specific transcriptional activation by murine myeloid zinc-finger protein 2 ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 3461-3466. (elsevier.com)
  • Consideration of the novel ones suggests many aspects of NFAT5 regulation, interaction and function that were not previously appreciated, for example, hypertonicity inhibits NFAT5 by sumoylating it and the NFAT5 protein preys include components of the CHTOP complex that desumoylate proteins, an action that should contribute to activation of NFAT5. (physiology.org)
  • To understand the ErbB2 downstream signaling events leading to p21 Cip1 upregulation, various stable ErbB2 overexpressing transfectants were compared with their parental ErbB2-low-expressing cells for activation of ErbB2 downstream signaling events. (aacrjournals.org)
  • p21 is a negative regulator of Wnts transcription downstream of Notch1 activation, independently of effects on the cell cycle. (epfl.ch)
  • Kinase activation results in recognition and phosphorylation of downstream components of the signal transduction pathway, leading ultimately to alterations in gene expression. (plantcell.org)
  • The promoter is flanked by a TATA box and a transcriptional start site is located 22 bp downstream of the TATA box. (biochemj.org)
  • Activation of Src kinase has been suggested in STAT3 activation/phosphorylation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To see if Src is responsible for ErbB2-mediated STAT3 activation and p21 Cip1 upregulation, we established breast cancer cells stably expressing dominant negative Src or constitutively active Src and will investigate STAT3 phosphorylation, p21 Cip1 promoter activity in response to ErbB2, and sensitivity to Taxol-induced apoptosis in these cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, activation of the FASN promoter in response to insulin required this CK2-mediated phosphorylation event, which occurred only in the absence of p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation at Thr 570 . (sciencemag.org)
  • STAT3 activation was monitored by western analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation. (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition, p300/CBP itself has histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, and p300/CBP forms a complex with multiple HATs such as p300/CBP-associated factor (P/CAF) ( 18 ) and steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1( 19 ), suggesting that the p300/CBP complex contributes to transcriptional activation by disrupting the repressive chromatin structure. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The middle region recruits a coactivator, which is responsible for myeloid-specific transcriptional activation. (elsevier.com)
  • The N-terminal domain inhibits transactivation by masking the effect of the activation domain. (elsevier.com)
  • Using C2C12 myotubes as an in vitro model of myofibers, we demonstrate that PPAR, and specifically PPAR gamma, activation potently inhibits inflammatory mediator-induced NF-kappa B transcriptional activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Transcriptional activation correlated with the highest increases in MYC binding at promoters. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Altogether, the relative abundance (henceforth, "share") of MYC at promoters was the strongest predictor of transcriptional responses in diverse cell types, predominating over MYC's association with the corepressor ZBTB17 (also known as MIZ1). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • MYC activation elicited immediate loading of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) at activated promoters, followed by increases in pause-release, while repressed promoters showed opposite effects. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • NF-Y and the transcriptional activation of CCAAT promoters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Dolfini2012NFYAT, title={NF-Y and the transcriptional activation of CCAAT promoters. (semanticscholar.org)
  • thus facilitating the assembly of the transcriptional machinery at promoters. (rupress.org)
  • This view has been challenged by results showing that transcriptional inhibition prevents caspase activation in axons, as does physically separating the axon from its cell body. (rockefeller.edu)
  • These findings demonstrate that muscle-specific inhibition of NF-kappa B activation may be an interesting therapeutic avenue for treatment of several inflammation-associated skeletal muscle abnormalities. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Moreover, in reporter gene experiments, the transcription activation is highly dependent upon the number of repeats that are included in the construct. (plos.org)
  • In the present paper, analysis of the transcription regulatory domains (TRDs) of six phylogenetically representative, plant-specific NAC [no apical meristem, ATAF ( Arabidopsis transcription activation factor), cup-shaped cotyledon] TFs shows that the domains are present in similar average pre-molten or molten globule-like states, but have different patterns of order/disorder and MoRFs (molecular recognition features). (portlandpress.com)
  • Furthermore, in an in vivo competition assay, the middle region of MZF-2 inhibited the mMZF-2-mediated transcription activation. (elsevier.com)
  • It is also human codon optimized and composed of 3 minimal VP16 activation domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function of the deletion derivative is restored by fusion to the acidic Herpesvirus VP16 activation domain. (genetics.org)
  • An extensive mutational analysis of a well-studied activation domain with DA-complex assembly activity, the 38-residue C-terminal activation subdomain of herpes simplex virus type 1 VP16, called VP16C, has recently been completed ( 43a ). (asm.org)
  • If the in vivo concentration is much higher than the equilibrium binding constant, then the activation binding site should be fully occupied regardless of whether the TFIIIA-VP16 is mutated or not. (umsystem.edu)
  • This suggests that the activation binding site absolutely should be full regardless of whether the TFIIIA-VP16 is mutated or not, which means activation isn't based solely on an equilibrium binding parameter. (umsystem.edu)
  • The collection of RNPs within a cell defines the ribonome, that is, a high order system of coordinative post‐transcriptional determination. (wiley.com)
  • The 'antagonistic' model of an inflammatory post‐transcriptional regulon in macrophages predicts that RNPs can be assembled by RNA activators (i.e. (wiley.com)
  • The 'synergistic' model of inflammatory post‐transcriptional regulons in macrophages predicts that HuR acts as an organizer/operon determinant for RNAs involved in the determination of the CAM/AAM responses. (wiley.com)
  • Satellite cell activation appears to be regulated by post-transcriptional gene regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have reported its regulation at the post-translational and post-transcriptional level. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Consistent with this, the recombinant forms of Med6p having these mutations partially (Δ2) restore or fail (Δ5 and Δ6) to restore in vitro transcriptional defects caused by temperature-sensitive med6 mutation. (hindawi.com)
  • Using an in vitro transcription approach, we found that in addition to its main promoter (P1), the icd control region contains a second promoter whose activation is dependent on the action of Cra (P2). (asm.org)
  • An excellent correlation was observed between the in vivo activation function of these mutants and their in vitro DA-complex assembly activity. (asm.org)
  • Mutants severely defective for in vivo activation also showed reduced in vitro binding to native TFIIA. (asm.org)
  • In fact, we observed an excellent correlation between DA-complex assembly activity in vitro and activation function in vivo for a set of eight VP16C mutants with minor to severe defects in activation function. (asm.org)
  • No correlation was observed between in vivo activation function and in vitro binding to several other polypeptides in the initiation complex that bind in vitro to VP16C to various extents. (asm.org)
  • An Oct4 activation domain fusion supported embryonic stem cell self-renewal in vitro at lower concentrations than that required for Oct4 while alleviating the ordinary requirement for the cytokine LIF . (xenbase.org)
  • These results demonstrate that progestins are able to induce Stat3 transcriptional activation, which is in turn an obligatory requirement for progestin stimulation of both in vitro and in vivo breast cancer growth. (hotzehwc.com)
  • AGE-albumin) and in particular carboxymethyllysine (CML) are known to play a central role in diabetic nephropathy, we studied the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in tubular epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro by AGE-albumin and CML. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The findings that excreted pTECs demonstrate activated NF-κB and IL-6 antigen and that AGE-albumin and CML lead to a perpetuated activation of NF-κB in vitro infer that a perpetuated increase in proinflammtory gene products, such as IL-6, plays a role in damaging the renal tubule. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We used the in vitro culture system described above to address this controversy and conclusively show that, although the apoptotic machinery is present in axons, the cell body is required for gating axonal caspase activation and axon degeneration in response to trophic factor withdrawal. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The molecular determinants of these selective transcriptional responses remain elusive. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • p300/CBP binds not only to the activation domain of some transcription factors, such as CREB and the glucocorticoid receptor, but also to multiple components of the basal transcriptional machinery, including the TFIIB ( 15 ) and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complex ( 17 ), suggesting that p300/CBP serves as a molecular bridge between the transcription factors and the basal transcriptional machinery. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Importantly, in vivo EWS-FLI1-bound microsatellites are significantly associated with EWS-FLI1-driven gene activation. (plos.org)
  • A number of single-, double-, and triple-point mutants of this sequence with various levels of activation function in vivo in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were identified. (asm.org)
  • We have thus generated, for the first time, an in vivo readout for studying the role of Smad1/5-mediated transcriptional activity in development. (biologists.org)
  • Satellite cells isolated by FACS from uninjured skeletal muscle and 12 h post-muscle injury from wild type and Syndecan-4 null mice were probed using Affymetrix 430v2 gene chips and analyzed by Spotfire tm and Ingenuity Pathway analysis to identify gene expression changes and networks associated with satellite cell activation, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Skeletal muscle pathology associated with a chronic inflammatory disease state ( e. g., skeletal muscle atrophy and insulin resistance) is a potential consequence of chronic activation of NF-kappa B. It has been demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) can exert anti-inflammatory effects by interfering with transcriptional regulation of inflammatory responses. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The goal of the present study, therefore, was to evaluate whether PPAR activation affects cytokine-induced NF-kappa B activity in skeletal muscle. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • In this paper, we describe a conserved DNA sequence in the two enhancer elements involved in the transcriptional activation of Cah1 under low-CO 2 conditions and the presence of DNA-binding proteins that interact with the enhancer elements in nuclear extracts. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Its effects on transcriptional regulation of ion channels and Ca 2+ -handling proteins, surprisingly, are basically unknown. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Among these are the C-terminal binding proteins (CtBP), which function as transcriptional corepressors. (nature.com)
  • Reintroduction of APC removed β-catenin from hTcf-4 and abrogated the transcriptional transactivation. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, insertion of 5 bp between cre2 and the promoter disrupted activation, while 10 bp was tolerated, suggesting face-of-the-helix dependence of the position of cre2 and/or upstream sequences. (asm.org)
  • Considerable experimental evidence indicates that transcriptional activators bound to enhancer and promoter proximal sequences stimulate transcription through interactions between their activation domains and components of the initiation complex assembled at the associated promoter ( 33 , 36 , 39 , 42 , 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Considering that DNA demethylation or hypermethylation of transposable element sequences is associated with their activation or silencing, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • These sequences were shown by luciferase reporter assay to be essential for Lhx2-mediated transcriptional activation. (umn.edu)
  • This study suggests that retroviruses contain internal sequences which directionally activate the 5′ LTR promoter to facilitate transcription of the viral genome and that deletion of these sequences is one step in the activation of the 3′ LTR of myc-associated proviruses in avian bursal lymphomas. (elsevier.com)
  • 1.2.2 The transcriptional machinery. (wiley.com)
  • PDF] A dual role of linker histone H1.4 Lys 34 acetylation in transcriptional activation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genetic evidence for transcriptional activation by the yeast IME1 gene product. (genetics.org)
  • Here, we show that infection-activated transcriptional responses are, in large part, recapitulated by either physiological or genetic activation of the osmotic stress response. (umd.edu)
  • Our results provide evidence for the existence of a potent enhancer module, 8 kb distal to the transcription start point, which mediates the transcriptional induction of CYP3A4 by activators of hPXR. (aspetjournals.org)
  • High glucose (25mM) stimulation of BRE cells resulted in STAT3 activation and increased levels of VEGF mRNA within 24 hours. (arvojournals.org)
  • Stimulation of NF-κB binding activity was dose dependent and was one-half maximal at 250 nmol/l AGE-albumin or CML and time dependent at a maximum of activation after 4 days. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here we describe structure-guided engineering of a CRISPR-Cas9 complex to mediate efficient transcriptional activation at endogenous genomic loci. (nih.gov)
  • Both Wnt-1 expression and APC mutation activate a common signaling pathway involving transcriptional activation mediated by β-catenin/Tcf complexes, but few targets relevant to carcinogenesis have yet been identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition, its expression is considered to be more stable in eukaryotic cells due to being human codon optimized and utilizing 3 minimal transcriptional activation domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functionally, decreased AR expression in primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from multiple individuals induced early steps of CAF activation, and in an orthotopic skin cancer model, AR loss in HDFs enhanced tumorigenicity of SCC and melanoma cells. (jci.org)
  • Our current data suggest that ErbB2 overexpression can confer Taxol resistance of breast cancer cells by transcriptional upregulation of p21 Cip1 via activation of STAT3, suggesting a potential clinical role for STAT3 inhibitors in sensitizing ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancers to Taxol therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Transcriptional activation of PRMT5 by NF-Y is required for cell growth and negatively regulated by the PKC/c-Fos signaling in prostate cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • High glucose increases transcriptional activation of VEGF in bovine retinal endothelial cells via peroxynitrite. (arvojournals.org)
  • Therefore, we hypothesized that high levels of glucose induce increased VEGF expression in microvascular endothelial cells through ONOO - -mediated activation of STAT3. (arvojournals.org)
  • We tested this by determining the effects of the ONOO - decomposition catalyst FeTPPs on high glucose-induced STAT3 activation and VEGF expression in retinal microvascular endothelial cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that high glucose stimulates VEGF expression in microvascular retinal endothelial cells via peroxynitrite-mediated activation of STAT3. (arvojournals.org)
  • In the present study, we demonstrate that the increase in ATF3 mRNA content following amino acid limitation of human HepG2 hepatoma cells is dependent on transcriptional activation of the ATF3 gene, through a highly co-ordinated amino acid-responsive programme of transcription factor synthesis and action. (biochemj.org)
  • To better understand the transcriptional regulation of TLR5S gene in fish, we determined the TLR5S 5′-flanking sequence region from flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and assayed its promoter activity in Hirame natural embryo (HINAE) cells. (ovid.com)
  • successfully address these issues by following the activation of the TALE target Dcx while adult progenitor cells differentiate into neurons. (rupress.org)
  • In addition transcriptional activity and IL-6 release from transfected cells could be inhibited by overexpression of the NF-κB-specific inhibitor κBα. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We assessed the transcriptional profiles of Rac1 high and Rac1 low cells and performed gene ontology analysis. (biologists.org)
  • These results suggest that mMZF-2 is a transcriptional factor that can specifically work in myeloid cells and can be divided into at least three functional domains. (elsevier.com)
  • Our observations indicate that PIGF is a direct and physiologically relevant transcriptional target of BF-2. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we present an integrated time-course analysis of transcription and mRNA dynamics following MYC activation in proliferating mouse fibroblasts, based on chromatin immunoprecipitation, metabolic labeling of newly synthesized RNA, extensive sequencing, and mathematical modeling. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The fact that Trl is known to act as chromatin remodelling factor suggests that epigenetic regulation might play an important role in zygotic genome activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have reported that the binding of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) to the −65 enhancer box (E-box) is required for the activation of the FASN promoter in response to insulin ( 5 - 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, cre2 , the site closer to the promoter, and the region upstream of cre2 were shown to be indispensable for CcpA-dependent transcriptional activation of ackA , whereas cre1 was not required. (asm.org)
  • Western blot (immunoblot) analysis showed that the 70 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site were sufficient for full virE gene induction. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Four EECs in the 5′-upstream region from -651 to -231 of Cah1 played a central role in the transcriptional activation of Cah1 under low-CO 2 conditions. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Deletion of this putative activation domain results in a defective IME1 derivative. (genetics.org)
  • Deletion of the 2.4kb p21 Cip1 promoter to 660bp (still containing the STAT3 site) is responsive to ErbB2-mediated transcriptional upregulation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Further deletion to 640bp (deleting the STAT3 site) or a 660bp p21 Cip1 promoter with STAT3 binding site mutated renders them irresponsive to ErbB2-mediated transcriptional upregulation, suggesting p21 Cip1 promoter activation by ErbB2 requires STAT3. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study sheds new insights into the regulation of the WBP2 oncogene at the transcriptional level by a novel oncogenic transcription factor USF-1. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Ma R, Cotton B, Lichtensteiger W, Schlumpf M.2003 UV filters with antagonistic action at androgen receptors in the MDA-kb2 cell transcriptional-activation assay. (eugris.info)
  • Transcriptional activation by Oct4 is sufficient for the maintenance and induction of pluripotency. (xenbase.org)
  • In addition, our data indicate that the induction of the expression of the leptin gene by dexamethasone is at least in part due to a transcriptional activation that is mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor. (epfl.ch)
  • Cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant cytochrome P-450 expressed in adult human liver, is subject to transcriptional induction by a variety of structurally unrelated xenobiotics, including the antibiotic rifampicin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Expression of E1A did not change the cardiac nuclear localization of NFATc1 but blocked its interaction with p300, DNA binding, and bcl-2 promoter activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • By co-transfection studies we show that Smad4 is essential for Muc5ac promoter activation and that it does not synergize with Smad2 or Smad3. (biochemj.org)
  • FeTPPs significantly inhibited the glucose-induced increases in activation of STAT3 and expression of VEGF. (arvojournals.org)
  • Infection of worms with bacterial and fungal pathogens causes the activation of well-characterized innate immune transcriptional programs in pathogen-exposed hypodermal and intestinal tissues. (umd.edu)
  • Experiments in yeast and thermodynamic characterization suggest that its single MoRF region is sufficient for both transcriptional activation and interaction with RCD1. (portlandpress.com)
  • Land, H. / Transcriptional activation by the human c-Myc oncoprotein in yeast requires interaction with Max . (elsevier.com)
  • rather it renders activation dependent upon starvation and RIM11. (genetics.org)
  • The AGE- and CML-dependent activation of NF-κBp65 and NF-κB-dependent IL-6 expression could be inhibited using the soluble form of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) (soluble RAGE [sRAGE]), RAGE-specific antibody, or the antioxidant thioctic acid. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transcriptional activation using dCas9-VPR thus offers a simple and broadly applicable technique for a variety of overexpression studies. (genetics.org)
  • Overexpression of ErbB2 transcriptionally upregulates p21 Cip1 inhibiting cdc2 activation, thus inhibiting apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, oncogenic activation of the melanoma inducing Xmrk gene appears primarily to be due to novel transcriptional control and overexpression. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Some activation domains have been found to increase both the rate and the final extent of an early step in initiation complex assembly, the concerted binding of TFIIA and TFIID to the TATA box and initiation site region of the promoter ( 8 , 9 , 24 , 28 , 49 ). (asm.org)
  • 2.4 Transcriptional initiation. (wiley.com)
  • However, the pathophysiological events that drive such transcriptional responses are not understood. (umd.edu)
  • Computational, transgenic, and functional approaches revealed that two GATA transcription factors previously implicated in infection-induced transcriptional responses, elt-2 and elt-3, are also essential for coordinated tissue-specific activation of osmosensitive gene expression and promote survival under osmotically stressful conditions. (umd.edu)
  • toa2 mutant strains supported high levels of CUP1 , PHO5 , TRP3 , and GAL1 gene activation, but the constitutive expression of DED1 was significantly reduced. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Upregulation of fatDCEB would lead to an increase of intracellular iron and, in turn, to the activation of the Fenton reaction and the increase of reactive oxygen species. (asm.org)
  • These observations are consistent with a model in which IME1 normally stimulates IME2 expression by providing a transcriptional activation domain at the IME2 5' regulatory region. (genetics.org)
  • One class of transcriptional activation domains stimulates the concerted binding of TFIIA and TFIID to promoter DNA. (asm.org)
  • We now show that EBNA-LP stimulates EBNA-2 activation of the LMP1 promoter and of the LMP1/LMP2B bidirectional transcriptional regulatory element. (asm.org)
  • EBNA-LP also stimulates EBNA-2 activation of a multimerized regulatory element from the BamC EBNA promoter. (asm.org)
  • c-Fos mRNA levels measured by semiquantitative RT-PCR were significantly decreased in thymocytes following treatment with morphine and activation with PHA and IL-1. (elsevier.com)
  • Transcriptional activation followed by cleavage of the mRNA and disproportionate production of the toxin constitutes a possible positive feedback loop, which can fire other TA systems and cause bistable growth heterogeneity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To elucidate the structure and function of C/EBPε in transcriptional activation, amino acid residues 1-115, 147-249, or 1-249 of C/EBPε were fused to the yeast GAL4 DNA binding domain. (elsevier.com)
  • This RNP regulates a subset of RNAs activated by a transcriptionally primed state that marks an activation phenotype (CAM or AAM1). (wiley.com)
  • Massive demethylation and transcriptional activation of TEs were also observed in newly formed allopolyploids. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study we identified a cis-acting regulatory sequence in the 5'-noncoding region of the virE operon that is essential for this activation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • By using an arylsulfatase reporter gene, a regulatory region essential for the transcriptional activation of Cah1 was delimited to a 63-bp fragment between -293 and -231 relative to the transcription start site. (plantphysiol.org)
  • It is now largely agreed that EWS-FLI1 oncogenic potential is at least partially mediated by the expression modulation of transcriptional targets. (plos.org)
  • Here, we describe transcriptional cross-activation between different TA systems of Escherichia coli . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequent analyses in cultured myotubes revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of PPAR gamma activation is not due to decreased RelA translocation to the nucleus or reduced RelA DNA binding. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)