Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process that starts the transcription of an RNA molecule. It includes the assembly of the initiation complex and establishment of the start site.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
Transcription factors whose primary function is to regulate the rate in which RNA is transcribed.
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
Factors that associate with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. Many of them are components of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The discontinuation of transcription at the end of a transcription unit, including the recognition of termination sites and release of the newly synthesized RNA molecule.
The mechanisms effecting establishment, maintenance, and modification of that specific physical conformation of CHROMATIN determining the transcriptional accessibility or inaccessibility of the DNA.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (1/75781)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (2/75781)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

Activation of systemic acquired silencing by localised introduction of DNA. (3/75781)

BACKGROUND: In plants, post-transcriptional gene silencing results in RNA degradation after transcription. Among tobacco transformants carrying a nitrate reductase (Nia) construct under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S-Nia2), one class of transformants spontaneously triggers Nia post-transcriptional gene silencing (class II) whereas another class does not (class I). Non-silenced plants of both classes become silenced when grafted onto silenced stocks, indicating the existence of a systemic silencing signal. Graft-transmitted silencing is maintained in class II but not in class I plants when removed from silenced stocks, indicating similar requirements for spontaneous triggering and maintenance. RESULTS: Introduction of 35S-Nia2 DNA by the gene transfer method called biolistics led to localised acquired silencing (LAS) in bombarded leaves of wild-type, class I and class II plants, and to systemic acquired silencing (SAS) in class II plants. SAS occurred even if the targeted leaf was removed 2 days after bombardment, indicating that the systemic signal is produced, transmitted and amplified rapidly. SAS was activated by sense, antisense and promoterless Nia2 DNA constructs, indicating that transcription is not required although it does stimulate SAS. CONCLUSIONS: SAS was activated by biolistic introduction of promoterless constructs, indicating that the DNA itself is a potent activator of post-transcriptional gene silencing. The systemic silencing signal invaded the whole plant by cell-to-cell and long-distance propagation, and reamplification of the signal.  (+info)

Association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by nascent snRNA transcripts. (4/75781)

BACKGROUND: Coiled bodies are nuclear organelles that are highly enriched in small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) and certain basal transcription factors. Surprisingly, coiled bodies not only contain mature U snRNPs but also associate with specific chromosomal loci, including gene clusters that encode U snRNAs and histone messenger RNAs. The mechanism(s) by which coiled bodies associate with these genes is completely unknown. RESULTS: Using stable cell lines, we show that artificial tandem arrays of human U1 and U2 snRNA genes colocalize with coiled bodies and that the frequency of the colocalization depends directly on the transcriptional activity of the array. Association of the genes with coiled bodies was abolished when the artificial U2 arrays contained promoter mutations that prevent transcription or when RNA polymerase II transcription was globally inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Remarkably, the association was also abolished when the U2 snRNA coding regions were replaced by heterologous sequences. CONCLUSIONS: The requirement for the U2 snRNA coding region indicates that association of snRNA genes with coiled bodies is mediated by the nascent U2 RNA itself, not by DNA or DNA-bound proteins. Our data provide the first evidence that association of genes with a nuclear organelle can be directed by an RNA and suggest an autogenous feedback regulation model.  (+info)

TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family. (5/75781)

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

Telomerase reverse transcriptase gene is a direct target of c-Myc but is not functionally equivalent in cellular transformation. (6/75781)

The telomerase reverse transcriptase component (TERT) is not expressed in most primary somatic human cells and tissues, but is upregulated in the majority of immortalized cell lines and tumors. Here, we identify the c-Myc transcription factor as a direct mediator of telomerase activation in primary human fibroblasts through its ability to specifically induce TERT gene expression. Through the use of a hormone inducible form of c-Myc (c-Myc-ER), we demonstrate that Myc-induced activation of the hTERT promoter requires an evolutionarily conserved E-box and that c-Myc-ER-induced accumulation of hTERT mRNA takes place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that the TERT gene is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc. Since telomerase activation frequently correlates with immortalization and telomerase functions to stabilize telomers in cycling cells, we tested whether Myc-induced activation of TERT gene expression represents an important mechanism through which c-Myc acts to immortalize cells. Employing the rat embryo fibroblast cooperation assay, we show that TERT is unable to substitute for c-Myc in the transformation of primary rodent fibroblasts, suggesting that the transforming activities of Myc extend beyond its ability to activate TERT gene expression and hence telomerase activity.  (+info)

B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through SP1-binding sites. (7/75781)

B-MYB is an ubiquitous protein required for mammalian cell growth. In this report we show that B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through a 120 bp segment proximal to the transcription start site. The B-MYB-responsive element does not contain myb-binding sites and gel-shift analysis shows that SP1, but not B-MYB, protein contained in SAOS2 cell extracts binds to the 120 bp B-myb promoter fragment. B-MYB-dependent transactivation is cooperatively increased in the presence of SP1, but not SP3 overexpression. When the SP1 elements of the B-myb promoter are transferred in front of a heterologous promoter, an increased response to B-MYB results. In contrast, c-MYB, the prototype member of the Myb family, is not able to activate the luciferase construct containing the SP1 elements. With the use of an SP1-GAL4 fusion protein, we have determined that the cooperative activation occurs through the domain A of SP1. These observations suggest that B-MYB functions as a coactivator of SP1, and that diverse combinations of myb and SP1 sites may dictate the responsiveness of myb-target genes to the various members of the myb family.  (+info)

Differential stability of the DNA-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit mRNA in human glioma cells. (8/75781)

DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) functions in double-strand break repair and immunoglobulin [V(D)J] recombination. We previously established a radiation-sensitive human cell line, M059J, derived from a malignant glioma, which lacks the catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) of the DNA-PK multiprotein complex. Although previous Northern blot analysis failed to detect the DNA-PKcs transcript in these cells, we show here through quantitative studies that the transcript is present, albeit at greatly reduced (approximately 20x) levels. Sequencing revealed no genetic alteration in either the promoter region, the kinase domain, or the 3' untranslated region of the DNA-PKcs gene to account for the reduced transcript levels. Nuclear run-on transcription assays indicated that the rate of DNA-PKcs transcription in M059J and DNA-PKcs proficient cell lines was similar, but the stability of the DNA-PKcs message in the M059J cell line was drastically (approximately 20x) reduced. Furthermore, M059J cells lack an alternately spliced DNA-PKcs transcript that accounts for a minor (5-20%) proportion of the DNA-PKcs message in all other cell lines tested. Thus, alterations in DNA-PKcs mRNA stability and/or the lack of the alternate mRNA may result in the loss of DNA-PKcs activity. This finding has important implications as DNA-PKcs activity is essential to cells repairing damage induced by radiation or radiomimetric agents.  (+info)

Has anyone ever worked with tagetitoxin, a selective transcription inhibitor of chloroplast with arabidopsis? I would like to know who sells tagetitoxin, and at which concentrations it is recommendable to work with on Arabidopsis. I would appriciate very much any info on this subject. Diana ,http://bgumail.bgu.ac.il/agent/[email protected], leicaj at bgumail.bgu.ac.il ...
The wheat bZip transcription factor TaABF1 mediates both abscisic acid (ABA)-induced and ABA-suppressed gene expression. As levels of TaABF1 protein do not change in response to ABA, and TaABF1 is in a phosphorylated state in vivo, we investigated whether TaABF1 could be regulated at the post-translational level. In bombarded aleurone cells, a TaABF1 protein carrying phosphomimetic mutations (serine to aspartate) at four sites (S36D, S37D, S113D, S115D) was three to five times more potent than wild-type TaABF1 in activating HVA1, an ABA-responsive gene. The phosphomimetic mutations also increased the ability of TaABF1 to downregulate the ABA-suppressed gene Amy32b. These findings strongly suggest that phosphorylation at these sites increases the transcriptional regulatory activity of TaABF1. In contrast to the activation observed by the quadruple serine to aspartate mutation, a single S113D mutation completely eliminated the ability of TaABF1 to upregulate HVA1 or downregulate Amy32b. Thus ...
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factor, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a promoter to form an RNA polymerase-promoter closed complex. In the closed complex the promoter DNA is still fully double-stranded.[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then unwinds approximately 14 base pairs of DNA to form an RNA polymerase-promoter open complex. In the open complex the promoter DNA is partly unwound and single-stranded. The exposed, single-stranded DNA is referred to as the transcription bubble.[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then selects a transcription start site in the transcription bubble, binds to an initiating NTP and an extending NTP (or a short RNA primer and an extending NTP) complementary to the transcription start site sequence, and catalyzes bond formation to yield an initial RNA product.[5]. In bacteria, RNA ...
Transcription begins with the binding of RNA polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factor, to a specific DNA sequence referred to as a promoter to form an RNA polymerase-promoter closed complex. In the closed complex the promoter DNA is still fully double-stranded.[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then unwinds approximately 14 base pairs of DNA to form an RNA polymerase-promoter open complex. In the open complex the promoter DNA is partly unwound and single-stranded. The exposed, single-stranded DNA is referred to as the transcription bubble.[5]. RNA polymerase, assisted by one or more general transcription factors, then selects a transcription start site in the transcription bubble, binds to an initiating NTP and an extending NTP (or a short RNA primer and an extending NTP) complementary to the transcription start site sequence, and catalyzes bond formation to yield an initial RNA product.[5]. In bacteria, RNA ...
Embryonic differentiation depends upon tissue-specific gene expression programs, created by temporally and spatially regulated transcription. Production of specific mRNAs can be stimulated or repressed via regulation of transcription initiation. Transcript production can also be controlled through a rate-limiting step of transcription elongation (Lis, 1998). For example, heat shock response genes, such as hsp70, are constitutively occupied by a RNA polymerase II (Pol II) complex that is paused proximal to the promoter after transcription initiation (Rougvie and Lis, 1988; Rasmussen and Lis, 1993). Transcription elongation is inhibited until heat shock stimulation occurs, at which time the paused Pol II becomes hyperphosphorylated and transcript synthesis proceeds. Several factors have been implicated in the stimulation or repression of transcription elongation (Conaway et al., 2000; Winston, 2001; Yamaguchi et al., 2001; Zorio and Bentley, 2001), but their precise regulatory roles during ...
In cells productively infected with adenovirus type 5, transcription is not terminated between the E1a gene and the adjacent downstream E1b gene. Insertion of the mouse beta(maj)-globin transcription termination sequence (GGT) into the E1a coding region dramatically reduces early, but not late, E1b expression (E. Falck-Pedersen, J. Logan, T. Shenk, and J. E. Darnell, Jr., Cell 40:897-905, 1985). In the study described herein, we showed that base substitution mutations in the globin DNA that specifically relieved transcription termination also restored early E1b promoter activity in cis, establishing that maximal early E1b expression requires readthrough transcription originating from the adjacent upstream gene. To identify potential targets of readthrough activation, a series of recombinant viruses with double mutations was constructed. Each double-mutant virus strain had the transcription termination sequences in the first exon of E1a and a deletion within the transcription control region of ...
Focused transcription typically initiates within the Inr, and the A nucleotide in the Inr consensus is usually designed as the + 1 position, whether or not transcription actually initiates at that particular nucleotide. This convention is useful because other core promoter motifs, such as the MTE and DPE, function with the Inr in a manner that exhibits a strict spacing dependence with the Inr consensus sequence (and hence, the A + 1 nucleotide) rather than the actual transcription start site (Burke and Kadonaga, 1997, Kutach and Kadonaga, 2000 and Lim et al., 2004).[2]. NC2 (negative cofactor 2; also known as Dr1-Drap1) [...] was identified as repressor of TATA-dependent transcription [...].[2]. Several core promoter elements have been previously identified in eukaryotes, but those cannot account for transcription from most RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes.[1]. ...
The major antiinflammatory effects of glucocorticoids appear to be due largely to interaction between the activated glucocorticoid receptor and transcription factors, notably nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1, that mediate the expression of inflammatory genes. NF-kappaB switc …
Faithful transcription initiation is critical for accurate gene expression, yet the mechanisms underlying specific transcription start site (TSS) selection in mammals remain unclear. Here, we show that the histone-fold domain protein NF-Y, a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor, controls the fidelity of transcription initiation at gene promoters in mouse embryonic stem cells. We report that NF-Y maintains the region upstream of TSSs in a nucleosome-depleted state while simultaneously protecting this accessible region against aberrant and/or ectopic transcription initiation. We find that loss of NF-Y binding in mammalian cells disrupts the promoter chromatin landscape, leading to nucleosomal encroachment over the canonical TSS. Importantly, this chromatin rearrangement is accompanied by upstream relocation of the transcription pre-initiation complex and ectopic transcription initiation. Further, this phenomenon generates aberrant extended transcripts that undergo translation, disrupting gene
A retroviral vector-rescue system in which co-packaging of the two co-expressed vectors is required for transduction of one of the vectors has been established previously. By using this rescue system, two distinct packaging-cell populations have been generated. One cell population expressed retroviral RNA from co-localized transcription sites, resulting in local and overlapping accumulation of both RNA transcripts. In the other cell population, the two transcription cassettes were introduced separately, leading to distinct transcription sites of the two RNAs and no significant co-localization of the RNAs. Titre measurements from the two distinct cell populations showed large differences in rescue titre, which is an indirect measure of co-packaging efficiency. Thus, the cell populations with overlapping RNA accumulation gave rise to 15-80-fold-higher rescue titres than cell populations with non-overlapping RNA accumulation. These data show that the spatial position of proviral transcription sites affects
Transcription elongation elements in the NusG family members are ubiquitous from bacterias to human beings and play diverse assignments in the legislation of gene appearance. than facilitates transcript elongation by its cognate RNAP. Alternatively much like the regulators Tth NusG evidently binds close to the upstream end from the transcription bubble competes with σA Cdh13 and mementos forwards translocation by RNAP. Our data claim that the system of NusG recruitment to RNAP is normally universally conserved despite the fact that the regulatory final results among its homologs can happen distinct. Launch The transcription elongation aspect NusG continues to be identified in based on its requirement of phage λ N-dependent gene appearance and thus called N utilization product G (1). Following studies showed that (Eco) NusG impacts Rho-dependent termination (2) transcriptional arrest by HK022 Nun proteins (3) RNA string elongation (4) and translation (5) and can be an essential component from ...
Detects differential transcription between pairs of samples or between groups of replicates. FDM is based on a statistical method for performing a permutation test on ACT-Graphs that does not depend on annotations or an underlying transcripts inference. The application first align RNA-seq reads to a reference genome and determines the regions of differential RNA transcript expression between pairs of splice graphs for finally assess the significance of differential transcription.
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a peroxisome proliferating agent when administered in pharmacological dosages, but it has not been shown to function through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in cell-based assays. Because members of the thyroid hormone/vitamins A and D nuclear receptor subfamily, including PPAR, are known to modulate each others function in gene expression by heterodimerization, we sought to establish whether DHEA and thyroid hormone interact to regulate several of the hepatic and renal enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation, i.e., peroxisomal beta-oxidation and microsomal NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and the cytochromes P450 4A. In rats administered exogenous T3 to attain a hyperthyroid state, induction of the three isozymes of CYP4A (4A1, 4A2, and 4A3) by DHEA was suppressed , 60-80% at the mRNA level, with induction of CYP4A2 mRNA being completely inhibited. Nuclear run-on transcription assays indicated that this inhibitory effect was regulated ...
It recently has been established that adenine-containing cofactors, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and 3-desphospho-coenzyme A (dpCoA), can serve as non-canonical initiating nucleotides (NCINs) for transcription initiation by bacterial and eukaryotic cellular RNA polymerases (RNAPs) and that the efficiency of the reaction is determined by promoter sequence (Bird et al., 2016). Here we describe a protocol to quantify the relative efficiencies of transcription initiation using an NCIN vs. transcription initiation using a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) for a given promoter sequence.
Transcriptome Sequencing analyses provide information to detect novel transcribed regions, splice events and additional promoters and exons. Transcript annotation studies also help to analyze the impact of transcriptional complexity on current models of key signaling pathways. Next Generation Sequencing can also provide information on aberrant transcription events, like pseudogenes, fusion genes, and genome rearrangements. However, the greatest advantage is to decipher quantitative gene expression profile.. ...
Transcription has the capacity to mechanically modify DNA topology, DNA structure and nucleosome arrangement. Resulting from ongoing transcription, these modifications in turn may provide instant feedback to the transcription machinery. To substantiate the connection between transcription and DNA dy …
1. History of molecular biology. Nucleic acids and proteins (Structure and function of DNA, RNA and proteins; interaction of proteins with DNA) 2. Genome structure and genetic information (Structure of bacterial and eukaryotic genome, genome evolution, genetic code, transcription unit) 3. Genome replication, DNA repair and recombination (Replication of bacterial and eukaryotic genome, molecular basis of mutagenesis, DNA recombination and repair mechanisms) 4. Genome transcription (Transcription of bacterial and eukaryotic genome, post-transcriptional processing of RNA, mechanisms of RNA splicing) 5. Genome translation (Translation of bacterial and eukaryotic mRNA, the ribosome structure, post-translational processing) 6. Regulation of gene expression (Control of bacterial and eukaryotic genome expression, induction and repression, operon, transcription factors, posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms) 7. Molecular mechanisms of signalling (Molecules involved in signalling pathways, receiving ...
Renaud Dumas. Significance: In most biological processes, genes have to be activated and/or repressed. In plants, the TOPLESS protein is essential for gene repression through its action as a corepressor bridging transcription factor with chromatin remodeling complexes. Here we combine biochemical and structural studies to describe the structure of TOPLESS, how it tetramerizes, and how it interacts with its protein partners. We show that both the tetramerization interface and the binding site for protein partners have been conserved since algae, highlighting the ancestrality of TOPLESS function. Comparison of this plant protein with one of its animal counterparts also shows how corepressors can use a common domain differently to achieve similar properties, illustrating the tinkering of evolution in transcriptional repression.. Abstract: Transcriptional repression involves a class of proteins called corepressors that link transcription factors to chromatin remodeling complexes. In plants such as ...
Precise patterns of gene expression during development are regulated predominantly at the level of transcription. In transcription-driven gene regulation, transcriptional activators bind to enhancer elements and orchestrate the colocalization of proteins at the gene promoter to activate transcription. The transcriptional status of a particular gene in a cell or developing tissue is therefore determined primarily by the precise combination of transcription factors that can bind to the enhancer sequence in that specific cell.. There are, however, well-known exceptions to transcription-driven gene regulation. Most notably, in newly fertilized embryos of chicken, fish, frog, flies and worms, early cell divisions and fate specification are primarily controlled by proteins and RNAs deposited into the egg by the mother (Newport and Kirschner, 1982; Edgar and Schubiger, 1986; Powell-Coffman et al., 1996). Even in mammals, maternally contributed factors play an essential role early in preimplantation ...
One of the simplest ways to model GFP transcription is to use an ODE:. $\frac{d [GFP_{mRNA}]}{dt} = a - b{\cdot}[GFP_{mRNA}]$. where $a$ is GFP transcription rate and $b$ is GFP mRNA degradation rate (both constants). Normally, we assume $a,,b$.. Suppose we wish to account for plasmid concentration with the value of transcription rate $a$ - e.g. with higher plasmid concentration, the ratio $a/b$ should increase as the mRNA saturation levels are expected to be reached faster. In other words, suppose we transfect 2 individual constructs depicted above, 10 ng of one and 30 ng of the other - how should this difference in concentration impact the rate constants values, assuming the constructs are otherwise identical?. Assuming this, approximately how does gene transcription rate $a$ change as a function of the amount of transfected plasmid containing the above construct? Ideally, Id be interested in knowing this for HEK 293 cells, but any other decent estimation is acceptable. One simple option is ...
The recently determined three-dimensional (3D) structure of a bacterial class II transcription complex helps to reveal how it binds to specific DNA sequences, thus driving transcription of downstream genes. This X-ray-based structural analysis provides the first atomic structure for such an intact class II transcription activation complex, according to Richard H. Ebright at Rutgers University in Piscataway, N.J. He and his colleagues reported their findings on 10 June 2016 in Science (doi:10.1126/science.aaf4417).
Once transcription is initiated at the transcription start site (TSS), Pol II pauses at the site just downstream of TSS and requires elongation factors to allow it to proceed. Switching of the RNA Pol II complex from the initiation to the elongation complexes is important for functional transcription, which is mediated by P-TEFb kinase phosphorylating Ser2 position in CTD (Fig. 3A) (Jonkers and Lis, 2015). As assumed, most of the mRNA processing complexes are assembled during the elongation step of transcription (Perales and Bentley, 2009) So chromatin-associated and pol II-interacting mRNA processing proteins are likely to function in regulating transcription elongation (Allemand et al., 2008).. A direct role for SR proteins in transcriptional regulation has been shown for SRSF2. In contrast to shuttling SR proteins (such as SRSF1, SRSF3, and SRSF7), SRSF2 is a non-shuttling protein located in the nucleus. Interestingly, SRSF2 associates with DNA only, but not with cytoplasmic mRNA, suggesting ...
It has been shown that the overall transcription of ribosomal RNA genes can be stimulated by many signals (41); however, increased transcription is not due to an increased number of actively transcribed rDNA units but instead is due to changes in the rate of transcription, especially of elongation (42, 43). B-WICH is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex containing SNF2h, a human ISWI ATPase, and it was shown to associate with Pol I facilitating its transcription (30). The SIRT7 interaction with components of the B-WICH complex supports a hypothesis where SIRT7 regulates the rate of elongation of Pol I through the ATP-dependent remodeling activities of B-WICH.. SIRT7 knockdown is known to inhibit rDNA transcription (9, 10), and our results show for the first time that SIRT7 knockdown also leads to a reduction in the large subunit of Pol I at the protein level but not at the mRNA level. A question to be addressed in future studies is whether this regulation of Pol I protein level occurs ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) is an important constituent of the cellular transcriptional machinery, where it phosphorylates the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNAP polymerase II (RNAPII). Because many tumor types are critically dependent on transcription for maintenance of their oncogenic state, pharmacological modulation of CDK7 kinase activity is considered as an approach to treat cancer. Multiple series of CDK7 inhibitors were identified by iterative medicinal chemistry efforts and SAR based approach. Early compounds were optimized towards attaining good physicochemical properties, high potency, good selectivity and desirable pharmacokinetic profile to achieve anti-tumor activity. We have identified compounds from two distinct chemical series that are highly potent in inhibiting CDK7 in biochemical assays. These inhibitors demonstrate time-dependent inhibition of CDK7 indicating covalent nature of binding. The compounds showed potent anti-proliferative activity in cell lines derived from ...
Transcription. Molecular model of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, upper right) transcription. During transcription, a complementary messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) strand (bottom left) is synthesised. The enzyme RNA polymerase (not shown) recognises a start sign on the DNA strand and moves along the strand building the mRNA. mRNA is the intermediary between DNA and its protein product. - Stock Image C015/4455
Gene regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels has been the central focus of my research program. While transcription initiation begins the process of gene expression, the post-transcriptional steps of RNA splicing, cleavage polyadenylation, transport and stability all contribute to the type and final levels of protein that will be produced. In addition, these steps are coupled to each other, which can contribute to overall regulation. My lab has been studying several different model systems that allow us to address aspects of gene regulation including immunoglobulin gene expression during B lymphocyte development and, in collaboration with the lab of Brett Spear, liver development and disease. In liver, we have identified Zhx2 as a regulator of genes involved in lipid metabolism and genes that are misregulated during liver cancer.. ...
Transcription and translation are fundamental molecular mechanisms of gene activity regulation with profound implications for human health. The ligand-dependent transcriptional regulation by nuclear receptors bound to DNA response elements involves the transient assembly of large co-regulator complexes. These trigger chromatin remodeling and facilitate the assembly of the general transcription machinery on the promoter of the target gene. Gene expression is also regulated at the level of protein synthesis, for example, by protein factors that bind to the ribosome during the translation initiation, elongation and termination phase. The initiation phase is strongly regulated by factors and also by the mRNA itself and well-characterized reaction intermediates of the initiating ribosomal nano-machinery are potential targets for antibiotics. Both transcription and translation complexes represent large, transient macromolecular assemblies that we investigate by using an integrative structural biology ...
In vitro analysis of transcription and the factors that play a role in transcription require preparation of an extract that faithfully reproduces in vivo transcription
Mice lacking the lymphocyte-specific transcription factor Bob1 (also called OBF-1 or OCA-B) fail to generate germinal centers and a robust Ig response. We show that peripheral B cells in Bob1−/− mice bear characteristics of chronically activated or anergic-like B cells and identify the immunosuppressive microRNA-146a, together with other microRNAs, as novel transcriptional targets of Bob1. The inability to restrict B cell signaling could contribute to the immunodeficient phenotype of these mice and is consistent with an important role for Bob1 in suppressing B cell activation in vivo. ...
Solving structures of complexes is inherently more difficult than solving those for individual proteins. As a result, significantly fewer structures of protein complexes than individual proteins have been determined experimentally [1]. In recent years, homology modeling [2, 3] proved to be successful when the target protein has a similar sequence to proteins with known structures. However, the lack of a sufficiently large database of reference complexes makes the method unsuitable for structural modeling of protein complexes. A conceptually simple and straightforwardly applicable approach for modeling structures of bio-molecular complexes is highly desirable. When proposing new protein complexes, the models developed should be checked against the following attributes: stereo-chemically sound, having sufficient interfacial Solvent Excluded Surface Areas [4] (SESAs) to provide adequate binding strengths, physically meaningful for transcription regulation and consistency with the known experimental ...
Although recent studies have revealed that the majority of human genes are subjected to regulation of alternative promoters (APs), the biological relevance of this phenomenon remains unclear. In order to understand biological significance of the presence of diverg .. [more]ent transcription initiation events in the respective cell types, it is indispensable to obtain bird-view of the transcriptome figures at every step of the gene expression; namely, i) how the genomic structure change to transcriptionally active form, ii) where the transcription initiation complex is recruited, iii) to what extent the transcription is activated, iv) what transcripts formed and sorted to what subcellular fractions. We have recently started multi-faceted use of the Illumina GA to answer these questions. Integrative analysis produced for respective aspects of the gene expression regulations revealed the comprehensive figures of the complex human gene transcriptome for the first time. [less] ...
First, 5-prime specificity. In bacteria, translation is co-transcriptional, which means that when mRNA is transcribed, it is translated immediately, before finishing off the transcription. There is even a physical link between the polymease and the ribosome via NusG. And when mRNA is translated, it is cleaved by RelE. Translation and transcription are starting from the 5-prime... and so is the RelE cleavage, one would guess. Moreover, if you cleave the mRNA once, translation downstream of the cleavage site stops - and the initial cleavage is likely to happen co-transcriptionally at the 5-prime and render cleavage at the 3-prime impossible. Is there any need to involve a conformation or component of the translation complex that is unique to initiation or early elongation? I think not ...
The image shows the cellular organization of chromosomes in the nucleus; you can observe that in the interchromatin space there is a transcription factory (in the picture: RNA transcripts) ,while around this region there are more than one active locus( of different chromosomes).Then,since the chromosomes are so close ,could happen that a traslocation appear between these active loci ...
MIT initially used a unit of measurement called TIPS (Transcription Initiations per Second) for measure rates of transcription at the ends of its parts; however, this was insufficient because there are places on the DNA (e.g. terminators) where transcription initiations are not taking place. PoPS is a relatively new unit developed during construction of standardized ends of DNA pieces that measures the inputs and outputs of BioBrick™ parts. PoPS measure the rate at which RNA polymerase moves past a point in the DNA, similar to measuring the current flow across a specific point in a wire. Devices that have an input and output in PoPS are composable - that is, they can be arbitrarily joined together to create complex devices and systems. Creation of devices allows us to characterize devices and eventually more complex systems, thus PoPS is important as a common signal carrier. PoPS differs from transcription rate in that it can also be measured at terminator sites; upstream, they are ...
EMBL scientists show that close interaction of influenza and host cell transcription machineries is essential for the survival of the virus
387448814 - EP 0851912 A4 2000-01-05 - NOVEL FACTORS WHICH MODIFY GENE TRANSCRIPTION AND METHODS OF USE THEREFOR - [origin: WO9708301A1] Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II holoenzymes that contain RNA polymerase II and one or more regulatory proteins are described. These holoenzymes selectively initiate transcription in vitro when supplemented with general transcription factors. The regulatory proteins act positively and negatively to regulate transcription initiation, at least in part, via functional interactions with RNA polymerase II.[origin: WO9708301A1] Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II holoenzymes that contain RNA polymerase II and one or more regulatory proteins are described. These holoenzymes selectively initiate transcription in vitro when supplemented with general transcription factors. The regulatory proteins act positively and negatively to regulate transcription initiation, at least in part, via functional interactions with RNA polymerase II.
Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Mediator is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors.
Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Mediator is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors. May play a role as a target recruitment subunit in E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes and thus in ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins.
Component of the Mediator complex, a coactivator involved in the regulated transcription of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. Mediator functions as a bridge to convey information from gene-specific regulatory proteins to the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. Mediator is recruited to promoters by direct interactions with regulatory proteins and serves as a scaffold for the assembly of a functional preinitiation complex with RNA polymerase II and the general transcription factors. May be part of a complex containing NF2/merlin that participates in cellular signaling to the actin cytoskeleton downstream of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.
Yeast RNA polymerase II initiation factor b copurifies with three polypeptides of 85, 73, and 50 kilodaltons and with a protein kinase that phosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal repeat domain (CTD) of the largest polymerase subunit. The gene that encodes the 73-kilodalton polypeptide, designated TFB1, was cloned and found to be essential for cell growth. The deduced protein sequence exhibits no similarity to those of protein kinases. However, the sequence is similar to that of the 62-kilodalton subunit of the HeLa transcription factor BFT2, suggesting that this factor is the human counterpart of yeast factor b. Immunoprecipitation experiments using antibodies to the TFB1 gene product demonstrate that the transcriptional and CTD kinase activities of factor b are closely associated with an oligomer of the three polypeptides. Photoaffinity labeling with 3-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (adenosine triphosphate) identified an ATP-binding site in the 85-kilodalton polypeptide, suggesting that the ...
Didier Picard, January 2015 Current list of HBD fusion proteins_ Protein X a HBD b regulated as c Refs. transcription factor in Arabidopsis transcription factor Arabidopsis transcription factor in tobacco coactivator transcription factor 1 2 3 transcription factor transcription factor, differentiation factor transcription factor putative transcription factor in arabidposis transcription factor oncoprotein transcription factor transcription factor oncoprotein oncoprotein oncoprotein transcription factor oncoprotein, transcription factor 6 7 transcription factor transcription factor in yeast, tissue culture cells and zebra fish transcriptional repressor transcription factor transcription factor in yeast, in tissue culture cells, transgenic mice, Xenopus, Drosophila and plants transcription factor, promoter of proliferation transcription factor transcription factor 19 20, 21, i Transcription factors APETALA3 ATF6α Athb-1 GR ER e GR Bob1/OBF1 ER e CCAT (from calcium ER e 4 5 channel cav1.2) C/EBP ...
In vitro studies using highly purified calf thymus RNA polymerase II and a fragment spanning the first intron of H3.3 as template DNA have demonstrated the existence of a strong transcription termination site consisting of thymidine stretches. In this study, nuclear run-on experiments have been performed to assess the extent to which transcription elongation is blocked in vivo using DNA probes corresponding to region 5 and 3 of the in vitro termination sites. These studies suggest that H3.3 expression is stimulated following the inhibition of DNA synthesis through the elimination of the transcription elongation block. Interestingly, both the in vivo and in vitro experiments have revealed that the transcriptional block/termination sites are positioned immediately downstream of a 73 bp region that has been over 90% conserved between the chicken and human H3.3 genes. The extreme conservation of this intronic region suggests a possible role in maintaining cis-acting function. Electrophoretic ...
We have used nuclear run-on, RT-PCR, and transient-transfection analyses to characterize transcription initiation and termination of LmjF chr3. Our data suggest that, like chr1 (19), specific Pol II transcription starts upstream of the most-5′ gene of the two long polycistronic clusters. We have also identified a region where Pol III transcription starts for a tRNA gene located at the convergence of these two gene clusters. Termination of Pol II transcription on both DNA strands, as well as Pol III transcription of the tRNA, seems to occur within this region. Thus, we have now characterized the transcriptional organization of two entire chromosomes and have identified sequences involved in both Pol II and Pol III transcription initiation and termination.. Identification and characterization of the Pol II promoters that drive the expression of protein-coding genes in trypanosomatids has proven to be an elusive goal, complicated by factors such as relatively low transcriptional activity and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal repeat domain in RNA polymerase II by cyclin-dependent kinases is sufficient to inhibit transcription. AU - Gebara, Maha M.. AU - Sayre, Michael H.. AU - Corden, Jeffry L.. PY - 1997/3/1. Y1 - 1997/3/1. N2 - Cdc2 kinase triggers the entry of mammalian cells into mitosis, the only cell phase in which transcription is globally repressed. We show here that Cdc2 kinase phosphorylates components of the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery including the RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal repeat domain (CTD). To test specifically the effect of CTD phosphorylation by Cdc2 kinase, we used a yeast in vitro transcription extract that is dependent on exogenous RNA polymerase II that contains a CTD. Phosphorylation was carried out using immobilized Cdc2 so that the kinase could be removed from the phosphorylated polymerase. ATPγS and Cdc2 kinase were used to produce an RNA polymerase 110 that was not detectably dephosphorylated in the ...
The DNA sequence that a transcription factor binds to is called a transcription factor binding site or response element. Chemically, transcription factors usually interact with their binding sites using a combination of hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. Due to the nature of these chemical interactions, most transcription factors bind DNA in a sequence specific manner. However, not all bases in the transcription factor binding site may actually interact with the transcription factor. In addition some of these interactions may be weaker than others. Thus, transcription factors dont bind just one sequence but are capable of binding a subset of closely related sequences, each with a different strength of interaction. For example, although the consensus binding site for the TATA binding protein (TBP) is: TATAAAA the TBP transcription factor can also bind similar sequences such as: TATATAT or TATATAA Because transcription factors can bind a set of related sequences and the sequences dont tend ...
The DNA sequence that a transcription factor binds to is called a transcription factor-binding site or response element.[55]. Transcription factors interact with their binding sites using a combination of electrostatic (of which hydrogen bonds are a special case) and Van der Waals forces. Due to the nature of these chemical interactions, most transcription factors bind DNA in a sequence specific manner. However, not all bases in the transcription factor-binding site may actually interact with the transcription factor. In addition, some of these interactions may be weaker than others. Thus, transcription factors do not bind just one sequence but are capable of binding a subset of closely related sequences, each with a different strength of interaction. For example, although the consensus binding site for the TATA-binding protein (TBP) is TATAAAA, the TBP transcription factor can also bind similar sequences such as TATATAT or TATATAA. Because transcription factors can bind a set of related ...
Transcription steps are marked by different modifications of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Phosphorylation of Ser5 and Ser7 by cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) as part of TFIIH marks initiation, whereas phosphorylation of Ser2 by CDK9 marks elongation. These processes are thought to take place in localized transcription foci in the nucleus, known as transcription factories, but it has been argued that the observed clusters/foci are mere fixation or labeling artifacts. We show that transcription factories exist in living cells as distinct foci by live-imaging fluorescently labeled CDK9, a kinase known to associate with active RNAPII. These foci were observed in different cell types derived from CDK9-mCherry knock-in mice. We show that these foci are very stable while highly dynamic in exchanging CDK9. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) data show that the genome-wide binding sites of CDK9 and initiating RNAPII overlap on transcribed genes.
Transition from the closed to the open promoter complex happens by separation of the DNA strands to form an unwound DNA region. Once the transcription bubble forms the template single strand DNA gets positioned in the active center of Pol II. RNA synthesis then can initiate from the transcription start site. The initially transcribing complex (ITC) is unstable and releases short RNAs during abortive initiation (not shown in the movie). When the RNA reaches a certain length, initiation factors are released, and a stable elongation complex (EC) is formed. Elongation complex contains a DNA-RNA hybrid of eight to nine base pairs. During transcription elongation, the EC repeatedly performs the nucleotide addition cycle (NAC) to attach a nucleotide to the growing messenger RNA (mRNA) chain by catalyzing DNA template-directed formation of an RNA phosphodiester bond. Errors do occur during RNA transcription and must be corrected to prevent synthesis of mutated, nonfunctional proteins that possibly ...
The various steps of mRNP biogenesis (transcription, processing and export) are interconnected. It has been shown that the transcription machinery plays a pivotal role in mRNP assembly, since several mRNA export factors are recruited during transcription and physically interact with components of the transcription machinery. Although the shuttling DEAD-box protein Dbp5p is concentrated on the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, previous studies demonstrated that it interacts physically and genetically with factors involved in transcription initiation. We investigated the effect of mutations affecting various components of the transcription initiation apparatus on the phenotypes of mRNA export mutant strains. Our results show that growth and mRNA export defects of dbp5 and mex67 mutant strains can be suppressed by mutation of specific transcription initiation components, but suppression was not observed for mutants acting in the very first steps of the pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation. Our results
Author Summary The transcription of eukaryotic genes involves a highly ordered series of events, including the recruitment of RNA polymerase to promoters, the production of the RNA transcript, and termination. These events are coordinated with changes in chromatin structure that allow regulatory proteins and RNA polymerase to access the DNA template. The recruitment of RNA polymerase II to promoters is rate-limiting for the expression of most eukaryotic genes. However, RNA polymerase often pauses or stalls a short distance downstream of promoters, providing an additional step at which transcription can be regulated. In this study, we present evidence suggesting that a chromatin-remodeling factor, KIS-L, activates transcription by counteracting promoter-proximal pausing in Drosophila. KIS-L also counteracts histone H3 lysine 27 methylation-a covalent modification of chromatin involved in hereditable gene silencing. Our findings provide a plausible explanation for the developmental abnormalities
On specific signals, segments of DNA corresponding to one or more cistrons become de-repressed and ready to transcribe. Each such DNA transcription segment has a promoter region, initiation site, coding region and a terminator region. Transcription begins at the initiation site and ends at the terminator region. A promoter region has RNA polymerase recognition site and RNA polymerase binding site.. Chain opening occurs in the region occupied by TATAATG nucleotides (TATA box) in most procaryotes. Enzymes required for chain separation are unwindases, gyrases and single stranded binding proteins. Terminator region has either poly A base sequence or palindromic sequence (iden-tical base sequence running in opposite directions in the two DNA chains).. RNA polymerase (common in procaryotes and specific in eucaryotes) binds itself to the promoter region. The two strands of DNA uncoil progressively from the site of polymerase binding. One of the two strands of DNA (3-» 5′) functions as a template ...
Transcription factors directly control when, where, and the extent to which genes are expressed. Signal transduction pathways are responsible for either activating or inhibiting many of them. Transcription factors are also regulated by cofactors, forming complexes that can activate or inhibit transcriptional activity. Many transcription factors, such as nuclear receptors, reside in the cytoplasm and enter the nucleus upon activation (e.g., ligand binding). Posttranslational modifications and coregulating proteins provide additional layers of regulation. Transcription factors are involved in a wide variety of processes, such as development, stress responses, and immunity. Activation or inhibition of transcription factors is often dysregulated during oncogenesis. Transcription factors can also be dysregulated during developmental processes, promoting or inhibiting cellular differentiation. Analyzing the expression, regulation, activity, and sequence of transcription factor genes can help determine ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in negative regulation of transcription elongation from RNA polymerase I promoter pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Transcriptional repression is a general mechanism for regulating transcriptional initiation in organisms ranging from yeast to humans. Accurate initiation of transcription from eukaryotic protein-encoding genes requires the assembly of a large multiprotein complex consisting of RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors such as TFIIA, TFIIB, and TFIID. DR1 is a repressor that interacts with the TATA-binding protein (TBP) of TFIID and prevents the formation of an active transcription complex by precluding the entry of TFIIA and/or TFIIB into the preinitiation complex. The protein encoded by this gene is a corepressor of transcription that interacts with DR1 to enhance DR1-mediated repression. The interaction between this corepressor and DR1 is required for corepressor function and appears to stabilize the TBP-DR1-DNA complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The Arabidopsis genome contains a large number of gene pairs that encode sense and antisense transcripts with overlapping 3′ regions, indicative for a potential role of natural antisense transcription in regulating sense gene expression or transcript processing. When we mapped poly(A) transcripts of three plant gene pairs with long overlapping antisense transcripts, we identified an unusual transcript composition for two of the three gene pairs. Both genes pairs encoded a class of long sense transcripts and a class of short sense transcripts that terminate within the same polyadenylation region as the antisense transcripts encoded by the opposite strand. We find that the presence of the short sense transcript was not dependent on the expression of an antisense transcript. This argues against the assumption that the common termination region for sense and antisense poly(A) transcripts is the result of antisense-specific regulation. We speculate that for some genes evolution may have especially ...
Aplha, transcription related growth factors and stimulating factors or repressing nuclear factors are complex subunits of proteins involved in cell differentiation. Complex subunit associated factors are involved in hybridoma growth, Eosinohils, eritroid proliferation and derived from promotor binding stimulating subunits on the DNA binding complex. NFKB 105 subunit for example is a polypetide gene enhancer of genes in B cells.The activation of transcription factor subunits is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerases. Transcription factors, unites and elongations can be RNA and DNA nucleic acids, base pairs of nucleotides . Converting from DNA to RNA is made by enzymatic reactions. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, anti-parallel RNA strand called a primary transcript. Transcriptions are key functions in signal transduction pathways. Signaling ...
Transcription is a crucial step in gene expression, orchestrated by RNA polymerase (RNAP), a molecular machine that transfers genetic information from DNA to RNA . Bacterial transcription provides a tractable model system which provides mechanistic insights on its more complex eukaryotic counterpart. Bacterial transcription is initiated after an RNAP holoenzyme (core RNAP bound to a σ initiation factor) melts the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) around the transcription start to form a transcription bubble in the RNAP-promoter DNA open complex (RPo). Subsequently, RNAP performs cycles of RNA synthesis and dissociation (abortive initiation) and at a certain point, escapes from the promoter and enters elongation. RNAP has been studied extensively using genetic, biochemical and structural methods. Recent X-ray structures 3,4 vastly improved our understanding of transcription, leading to mechanistic proposals, and experiments that tested these proposals and further examined RNAP function. However, crystal
Cells are subjected to dramatic changes of gene expression upon environmental changes. Stresscauses a general down-regulation of gene expression together with the induction of a set of stress-responsivegenes. The p38-related stress-activated protein kinase Hog1 is an important regulator of transcription uponosmostress in yeast. Genome-wide localization studies of RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) and Hog1 showed that stress induced major changes in RNA Pol II localization, with a shift toward stress-responsive genes relative to housekeeping genes. RNA Pol II relocalization required Hog1, which was also localized to stress-responsive loci. In addition to RNA Pol II-bound genes, Hog1 also localized to RNA polymerase III-bound genes, pointing to a wider role for Hog1 in transcriptional control than initially expected. Interestingly, an increasing association of Hog1 with stressresponsive genes was strongly correlated with chromatin remodeling and increased gene expression. Remarkably, MNase-Seq ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural basis for the transition from initiation to elongation transcription in T7 RNA polymerase. AU - Yin, Y. Whitney. AU - Steitz, Thomas A.. PY - 2002/11/15. Y1 - 2002/11/15. N2 - To make messenger RNA transcripts, bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) undergoes a transition from an initiation phase, which only makes short RNA fragments, to a stable elongation phase. We have determined at 2.1 angstrom resolution the crystal structure of a T7 RNAP elongation complex with 30 base pairs of duplex DNA containing a transcription bubble interacting with a 17-nucleotide RNA transcript. The transition from an initiation to an elongation complex is accompanied by a major refolding of the amino-terminal 300 residues. This results in loss of the promoter binding site, facilitating promoter clearance, and creates a tunnel that surrounds the RNA transcript after it peels off a seven-base pair heteroduplex. Formation of the exit tunnel explains the enhanced processivity of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo transcription analysis utilizing chromatin immunoprecipation reveals a role for trypanosome transcription factor PBP-1 in RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription. AU - Gilinger, Gwen. AU - Luo, Hua. AU - Bellofatto, Vivian. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1642431643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=1642431643&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2003.10.020. DO - 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2003.10.020. M3 - Article. C2 - 14747156. AN - SCOPUS:1642431643. VL - 134. SP - 169. EP - 173. JO - Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. JF - Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. SN - 0166-6851. IS - 1. ER - ...
Injury-elicited differential transcriptional regulation of phospholipid growth factor receptors in the cornea.: The phospholipid growth factors (PLGFs), includi
There are three major forms of life on Earth, bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes (Figure 3). RNA polymerase in bacteria is less complex than RNA polymerase in eukaryotes. Some of the increased complexity of RNA polymerase in eukaryotes reflects differences between DNA in eukaryotes and DNA in bacteria. Two important differences are that eukaryotes organize their DNA into nucleosomes and have more complex mechanisms for regulation of gene transcription.[5] Nucleosomes are a complex of DNA and histone proteins (Figure 4). In order for transcription to occur, DNA must be released from being tightly coiled in nucleosomes. Bacteria do not have nucleosomes. Another complication of eukaryotic gene expression regulation is that gene sequences controlling transcription are often distant from the DNA site where transcription starts. The RNA polymerase of bacteria is relatively small with a core of five protein subunits and one additional protein that recognizes the start points for transcription[6]. In ...
A promoter is a region of DNA that facilitates the transcription of a particular gene. Promoters can be about 100-1000 [nucleotides] long.[1]. A promoter is on the template strand for the gene and near the gene in numbers of nucleotides (nts) along the DNA template strand. Usually, the promoter lies within the string of nucleotides between genes. Some promoters are called constitutive as they are active in all circumstances in the cell, while others are regulated becoming active in response to specific stimuli. These specific stimuli for a gene find a receptive portion within that genes promoter. In the case of genes that are used to produce proteins, the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme that actually performs the transcription from the template strand needs to find chemical cues for attachment to the DNA and where to begin transcription. Preceding this are chemical cues for which DNA strand is the template strand and in what direction transcription is to be performed. A promoter contains cues for ...
Recent work suggests a role for multiple host factors in facilitating HIV-1 reverse transcription. Previously, we identified a cellular activity which increases the efficiency of HIV-1 reverse transcription in vitro. Here, we describe aspects of the activity which shed light on its function. The cellular factor did not affect synthesis of strong-stop DNA but did improve downstream DNA synthesis. The stimulatory activity was isolated by gel filtration in a single fraction of the exclusion volume. Velocity-gradient purified HIV-1, which was free of detectable RNase activity, showed poor reverse transcription efficiency but was strongly stimulated by partially purified cell proteins. Hence, the cell factor(s) did not inactivate an RNase activity that might degrade the viral genomic RNA and block completion of reverse transcription. Instead, the cell factor(s) enhanced first strand transfer and synthesis of late reverse transcription suggesting it stabilized the reverse transcription complex. The ...
Author(s): Bardales Mendieta, Jorge Adalberto | Advisor(s): Darzacq, Xavier | Abstract: Enhancers are DNA regulatory elements that play an important role in the preciseregulation of Pol II transcription initiation and, consequently, in the generation andmaintenance of patterns of gene expression. A defining characteristic of enhancers is theircapacity to regulate transcription from their target promoter, independent of the genomicdistance that separates them. Importantly, in order for enhancers to exert their regulatoryaction, they must first relocalize into close spatial proximity to their target promoter andform long-range interactions. Although these interactions have been demonstrated tooccur, the mechanisms that allow their specific and efficient formation remains largelyobscure. In this thesis, I focus on the development of tools and the expansion of ourunderstanding with regard to this important topic.In the first chapter, I begin by providing a perspective of transcription initiation asa hub of
Bacterial transcription regulation. Bacteria transcribe their genomes with the help of multi-subunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs), which comprise two large β and β subunits that form the active site, two regulatory α subunits and an ω subunit that supports RNAP assembly. The α2ββω core enzyme cooperates with transcription factors and responds to signals on DNA templates and nascent RNAs to achieve full functionality in vivo. For example, elongating RNAP frequently enters an elemental paused state, and pausing can be stabilized by an RNA hairpin invading the RNA exit tunnel or by RNAP backtracking. RNA synthesis is terminated intrinsically, when the elongation complex transcribes a stable RNA hairpin followed by a uridine-rich stretch, or with the aid of transcription termination factor ρ. Pausing and termination can be further modulated by elongation factors, such as N-utilization substances A and G. Some regulatory factors or RNAs can stably insulate RNAP from the destabilizing effects of ...
How does RNA polymerase II coordinate the synthesis of messenger RNA, resulting in proper cellular regulation and organismic development? The sessions will cover new findings in transcriptional initiation, elongation and termination and the role of RNA polymerase II, its C-terminal domain and the associated factors in this process. New findings on the roles of chromatin, their interacting proteins and post-translational modifications, their numerous transcriptional properties and their role in development also will be addressed. The plenary lecture will be presented by Ramin Shiekhattar, who will describe his work on the functions of long noncoding RNAs in transcriptional regulation, development and disease pathogenesis. This years meeting represents the 10th anniversary of this important and influential conference. ...
During RNA Polymerase II transcription, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpb1 has been proposed to act as a scaffold to coordinate transcription initiation, elongation, termination, histone modification, and mRNA processing events. These events have been shown to correlate with distinct changes in the pattern of CTD phosphorylation across open reading frames. The major focus of our research is to study the role of the CTD phosphatase Rtr1 during the transcription cycle and to understand how alterations in the phosphorylation state of the CTD influence gene expression and mRNA processing.. ...
Transcription factors (TFs) are well-established key factors orchestrating gene transcription, and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are mainly thought to participate in post-transcriptional control of gene. In fact, these two steps are functionally coupled, offering a possibility for reciprocal communications between transcription and regulatory RNAs and RBPs. Recently, a series of exploratory studies, utilizing functional genomic strategies, have revealed that RBPs are prevalently involved in transcription control genome-wide through their interactions with chromatin. Here, we present a refined census of RBPs to grope for such an emerging role and discuss the global view of RBP-chromatin interactions and their functional diversities in transcription regulation. ...
Free CAK and rCAK complexes show a stronger preference for the cdk2 substrate versus the ctd oligopeptide. CAK is thus most likely involved in regulation of the cell cycle through cdk phosphorylation (Morgan, 1995). Although free CAK is able to use the ctd oligopeptide as a substrate, it cannot phosphorylate the CTD of RNA pol II alone or when added to an in vitro transcription system lacking TFIIH. On the contrary, TFIIH which contains CAK, is able to phosphorylate the CTD of RNA pol II, in addition to TBP and TFIIEα, two polypeptides absolutely required for basal transcription of protein‐coding genes.. Free CAK and rCAK are not able to substitute for TFIIH in transcription. TFIIH lacking CAK complex allows RNA synthesis when added to an in vitro transcription system that contains all the components of the basal transcription machinery. However, when a CAK subcomplex (free CAK or rCAK) is added, the level of RNA synthesis is significantly increased. TFIIH may thus incorporate CAK to become ...
Discontinuous transcription has been described for different mammalian cell lines and numerous promoters. However, our knowledge of how the activity of individual promoters is adjusted by dynamic signaling inputs from transcription factors is limited. To address this question, we characterized the activity of selected target genes that are regulated by pulsatile accumulation of the tumor suppressor p53 in response to ionizing radiation. We performed time-resolved measurements of gene expression at the single-cell level by smFISH and used the resulting data to inform a mathematical model of promoter activity. We found that p53 target promoters are regulated by frequency modulation of stochastic bursting and can be grouped along three archetypes of gene expression. The occurrence of these archetypes cannot solely be explained by nuclear p53 abundance or promoter binding of total p53. Instead, we provide evidence that the time-varying acetylation state of p53s C-terminal lysine residues is ...
Transcription factors are frequently the chief determinants of the composition and stability of large transcription complexes. Transcriptional regulation is mediated through the interactions of transcription factors with specific binding sites. Transcription factors help to recruit RNA polymerases to active genes for the production of RNA transcripts. Detect Transcription factors using Mercks antibodies.
Transcription factors are frequently the chief determinants of the composition and stability of large transcription complexes. Transcriptional regulation is mediated through the interactions of transcription factors with specific binding sites. Transcription factors help to recruit RNA polymerases to active genes for the production of RNA transcripts. Detect Transcription factors using Mercks antibodies.
The second session will delve into fundamental mechanisms in gene regulation. Joan Conaway (Stowers Institute for Medical Research) will focus on the Mediator complex, which bridges interactions between transcription activators and RNA polymerase II, helping to recruit polymerase to a genes promoter. New results from the Conaway lab reveal that Mediator also can enhance transcription elongation through stimulating the release of paused Pol II.. Dylan Taatjes (University of Colorado at Boulder) will provide additional insights into Mediator and its interactions with the transcription machinery. Structural analyses of Mediator in complex with various transcription activators shed light on how Mediator translates activator binding to Pol II and the general transcription factors to influence transcription. In addition to protein factors, RNA species are emerging as important regulators of gene expression. Ramin Shiekhettar (Wistar Institute) will present his recent findings on the roles of long ...
Lytic herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection triggers disruption of transcription termination (DoTT) of most cellular genes, resulting in extensive intergenic transcription. Similarly, cellular stress responses lead to gene-specific transcription downstream of genes (DoG). In this study, we performed a detailed comparison of DoTT/DoG transcription between HSV-1 infection, salt and heat stress in primary human fibroblasts using 4sU-seq and ATAC-seq. Although DoTT at late times of HSV-1 infection was substantially more prominent than DoG transcription in salt and heat stress, poly(A) read-through due to DoTT/DoG transcription and affected genes were significantly correlated between all three conditions, in particular at earlier times of infection. We speculate that HSV-1 either directly usurps a cellular stress response or disrupts the transcription termination machinery in other ways but with similar consequences. In contrast to previous reports, we found that inhibition of Ca\(^{2+}\) ...
A central, yet unresolved question related to cytokine‐regulated gene transcription is the mechanism by which STATs are connected to activation of basal transcription machinery. Here, we show that the TAD of STAT6 is interacting with p100. p100 was found to enhance the STAT6‐mediated transcription, and to bind to the large subunit of RNA pol II, thus providing a link between STAT6 and the general transcription apparatus.. p100 is a ubiquitously expressed protein that was initially identified as a protein interacting with the acidic TAD of EBNA2 (Tong et al., 1995). p100 enhanced transcriptional activity of EBNA2, but did not affect the function of another acidic TAD of VP16. Thus, p100 is not a general coactivator of transcription but its function requires specific protein interactions with transcription factors. Based on hydrophobic cluster analysis, the p100 protein is predicted to consist of four similar domains with homology to the SN domain, followed by a C‐terminal TD (Callebaut and ...
DNA transcription control. Computer model showing a molecule of the FP50 homodimer (green) from NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) bound to the DNA interferon regulatory factor (IRF) recognition sequence on a strand of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, orange). NF-kB is a protein complex that controls the transcription of DNA. IRFs are proteins that regulate the transcription of interferons, which are released in response to the presence of pathogens. - Stock Image C010/4990
Transcription is a process finely regulated by different transcription factors (TFs) which bind regulatory sequences present in gene promoters and allow the precise execution of gene expression programs. Misregulation of such process can lead to different pathologies, including development/differentiation defects, uncontrolled cell growth and cancer. For these reasons it is important to understand the molecular details of the interplay that occurs between different TFs to modulate gene expression. NF-Y, the heterotrimeric complex composed by NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits, all required for DNA binding, recognizes the consensus sequence CCAAT, present in about 30% of eukaryotic promoters, at -60/-100 bp from the Transcription Start Site (TSS). One of the most important roles of NF-Y in transcription is to interact synergistically with other TFs to activate, or to repress, gene expression. In this study we focused on the relationship occurring between NF-Y and the TFs MAX, Myc and USF1, which ...
Nutrients regulate gene transcription by the dynamic cycling of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on proteins that constitute the transcriptional machinery. A study shows that O-GlcNAcylation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) subunit c-Rel is required for its binding to the promoters of some, but not all, key T cell receptor-dependent genes; however, O-GlcNAcylation is dispensable for the binding of c-Rel to the promoters of tumor necrosis factor-α-dependent genes. This study not only illustrates how specific stimuli that act on the same transcription factor can elicit the expression of particular sets of genes, it also suggests a possible mechanism for autoimmunity in diabetes.. ...
Buy our Recombinant Human RNA Polymerase II p14.5 protein. Ab81852 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE…
Modern Genetic Analysis - via NCBI. Busby, Steve; Ebright, Richard H (1999-10-22). "Transcription activation by catabolite ... Regulation of gene expression Repressor Transcription factor Bacterial transcription Eukaryotic transcription Ma, Jun (2011). " ... A transcriptional activator is a protein (transcription factor) that increases transcription of a gene or set of genes. ... They can recruit other transcription factors and cofactors that are needed in transcription initiation. Activators can recruit ...
The process has been automated since the late 1970s and can be used to form desired genetic sequences as well as for other uses ... Reverse transcription is part of the replication cycle of particular virus families, including retroviruses. It involves ... A Genetic System with Eight Building Blocks". Science. 363 (6429): 884-887. doi:10.1126/science.aat0971. PMC 6413494. PMID ... DNA replication occurs so, during cell division, each daughter cell contains an accurate copy of the genetic material of the ...
"Introns Protect Eukaryotic Genomes from Transcription-Associated Genetic Instability". Molecular Cell. 67 (4): 608-621.e6. doi: ... The presence of R-loops can also inhibit transcription. Additionally, R-loop formation appears to be associated with "open" ... Drolet M, Bi X, Liu LF (January 1994). "Hypernegative supercoiling of the DNA template during transcription elongation in vitro ... This discovery of endogenous R-loops, in conjunction with rapid advances in genetic sequencing technologies, inspired a ...
Each transcription factor acts in particular groups of cells. Therefore, various genetic mutations are associated with specific ... This requires particular transcription factors that induce the expression of particular genes. Some of these transcription ... If a genetic cause is suspected, genetic testing may be performed. Treatment of hypopituitarism is threefold: removing the ... In addition to the pituitary, some of the transcription factors are also required for the development of other organs; some of ...
POU-Domain transcription factors, Genetic hearing loss. Patrick J. Willems (ed), Marcel Dekker, c2004. LCCN 2003-62467 ... Her team studies the molecular basis of hearing loss using genetic, developmental, biochemical, cellular and bioinformatic ... and the Genetic Society of Israel (GSI). She is an editor of Mammalian Genome (2017), section editor of the European Journal of ...
4 Genetic code variants. *5 Replication, repair, transcription, and translation *5.1 Mitochondrial DNA polymerase ... Genetic code variants[edit]. The genetic code is, for the most part, universal, with few exceptions: mitochondrial genetics ... mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and mitochondrial transcription factors B1 and B2 (TFB1M, TFB2M). POLRMT, TFAM, ... The requirement of transcription to produce primers links the process of transcription to mtDNA replication. Full length ...
Wang G, Vasquez KM (January 2017). "Effects of Replication and Transcription on DNA Structure-Related Genetic Instability". ... Cruciform structures regulate transcription initiation such as the suppression of pX transcription. DNA replication can then be ... Replication and transcription stalling most often leads to deletions of the cruciform DNA sequence by repair enzymes, similar ... Lu S, Wang G, Bacolla A, Zhao J, Spitser S, Vasquez KM (March 2015). "Short Inverted Repeats Are Hotspots for Genetic ...
Sawicki, Stephen (2001). "Genetic Engineering Results in First Primate Deliberately Mutated". Animals: 2. McCall, WilliM. "Meet ... pages= has extra text (help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Dunnett, Stephen (May 2001). "Reverse transcription of ... Scientists are looking to make genetic modifications such as those that would make primates closely mimic human diseases like ...
This region is considered as an enhancer region for the transcription of LCT. The first identified genetic variant associated ... Genetic studies suggest that the oldest mutations associated with lactase persistence only reached appreciable levels in human ... Several genetic markers for lactase persistence have been identified, and these show that lactase persistence has multiple ... 2016). "Genetic diversity of lactase persistence in East African populations". BMC Research Notes. 9 (1): 8. doi:10.1186/s13104 ...
GATA2 interacts with other transcription factors (viz., RUNX1, SCL/TAL1, GFI1, GFI1b, MYB, IKZF1, Transcription factor PU.1, ... Babushok DV, Bessler M (March 2015). "Genetic predisposition syndromes: when should they be considered in the work-up of MDS ... The GATA2 transcription factor contains two zinc finger (i.e. ZnF) motifs. C-ZnF is located toward the protein's C-terminus and ... The transcription factor also contains two transactivation domains and one negative regulatory domain which interact with ...
For DNA transcription terminators, see Terminator (genetics).. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or ... Genetic use restriction technology (GURT), colloquially known as terminator technology or suicide seeds, is the name given to ... "Genetic Use Restriction Technologies (Bangalore, June 2003)" (PDF).. (Position Paper Supporting V-GURT development) ... Variety-level genetic use restriction technologies (V-GURTs): This type of GURT produces sterile seeds, so the seed from this ...
Several different transcription factors regulate the expression of the C8orf34 gene. Many of these transcription factors are ... Alternatively, it may be involved in the maintenance and protection of the cell's genetic material. C8orf34 is expressed in a ... Zuo J, Rungger D, Voellmy R (August 1995). "Multiple layers of regulation of human heat shock transcription factor 1". ... C8orf34's interactions with these proteins support the conclusion that it is involved in transcription regulation and cell ...
Thus the introduction of doxycycline to the system initiates the transcription of the genetic product. The Tet-On system is ... However, the Tet system, which depends on transcription and subsequent translation of a target gene, is not as fast-acting as ... Tetracycline-Controlled Transcriptional Activation is a method of inducible gene expression where transcription is reversibly ...
Gene transcription ceases during prophase and does not resume until late anaphase to early G1 phase. The nucleolus also ... During interphase, the genetic material in the nucleus consists of loosely packed chromatin. At the onset of prophase, ... The genome is composed of a number of chromosomes-complexes of tightly coiled DNA that contain genetic information vital for ... Kadauke S, Blobel GA (April 2013). "Mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors". Epigenetics & Chromatin. 6 (1): 6. doi: ...
December 2006). "T-Box transcription factor Tbx20 regulates a genetic program for cranial motor neuron cell body migration". ... In the rhombomeres, members of the T-box transcription factor family, have been linked to the proper development of migrating ... The Hox gene was expressed rostrocaudally in the same sequence that was physically within the chromosome and its transcription ... Each rhombomere expresses a unique combination of transcription factors, and so each rhombomeric domain has its own distinct ...
Cech's main research area is that of the process of transcription in the nucleus of cells. He studies how the genetic code of ... In 1982, Cech became the first to show that RNA molecules are not restricted to being passive carriers of genetic information ...
The LAT RNA is produced by genetic transcription from a certain region of the viral DNA. LAT regulates the viral genome and ... Acetylation of Histone promotes transcription of DNA to RNA, and then to protein products. A March 2006 University of Florida ... CTCF binding to DNA may result in formation of transcription-ready euchromatin through the Histone H3-acetylating activity ...
... it is highly enriched at active promoters near transcription start sites (TSS) and positively correlated with transcription. ... H3K4me3 also plays an important role in the genetic regulation of stem cell potency and lineage. This is because this histone ... These regions tend to coincide with transcription factor genes expressed at low levels. Some of these factors, such as the Hox ... This makes the DNA in the chromatin accessible for transcription factors, allowing the genes to be transcribed and expressed in ...
Genetic engineering represents the ultimate tool.' 'With genetic technology we assume control over the hereditary blueprints of ... Transcription: "Opinion Piece on Stop Vivisection - Moving Beyond Animal Experimentation Across the European Union," in ... Rifkin, Jeremy, The Biotech Century: the coming age of Genetic Commerce (London, 1998), p. 2 Rifkin, Jeremy, "Man and Other ... The process has already begun." His 1998 book, The Biotech Century, addresses issues accompanying the new era of genetic ...
Such genetic approaches rely on either linear or circular targeting vectors to carry out homologous recombination. Cosmid End- ... T7 & Sp6 phage promoters for transcription of inserted genes. BACs are now being utilized to a greater extent in modelling ... Molecular studies of these viruses can now be achieved using genetic approaches to mutate the BAC while it resides in bacteria ... BACs are preferred for these kind of genetic studies because they accommodate much larger sequences without the risk of ...
Freund C, Horsford DJ, McInnes RR (1996). "Transcription factor genes and the developing eye: a genetic perspective". Human ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor binding. • protein kinase binding. • ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • glucose homeostasis. • transcription, DNA-templated. • central nervous system ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • smoothened ...
... and are not considered to be genetic units participating in transcription. The arrangement of a chromosome into chromomeric ... Maps of chromomeres can be made for use in genetic and evolutionary studies. Chromomeric maps can be used to locate the exact ... In areas of chromatin with the absence of transcription, condensing of DNA and protein complexes will result in the formation ... and act as transcription complexes. The lateral loops are areas where the chromosomes are transcriptionally active. The loops ...
Increased transcription is a result of decreased chromatin condensation, while decreased transcription results from increased ... Though the mechanisms of this genetic control are complex, hypo- and hypermethylation of DNA is implicated in many diseases. ... m5C plays a role to regulate gene transcription. m5C transferases are the enzymes that produce C5-methylcytosine in DNA at C-5 ... DNA methylation, a key component of genetic regulation, occurs primarily at the 5-carbon of the base cytosine, forming ...
NCP activates chloroplast transcription by controlling phytochrome-dependent dual nuclear and plastidial switches New Scientist ... Knowing the exact mechanism can be useful to allow increasing photosynthesis (i.e. through genetic modification). Energy ... two non-catalytic thioredoxin-like proteins that activate chloroplast transcription. ...
Genetic and epigenetic[edit]. There is a diverse classification scheme for the various genomic changes that may contribute to ... One example for rewiring of tissue function in cancer is the activity of transcription factor NF-κB.[78] NF-κB activates the ... Knudson AG (November 2001). "Two genetic hits (more or less) to cancer". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 1 (2): 157-62. doi:10.1038/ ... Often, the multiple genetic changes that result in cancer may take many years to accumulate. During this time, the biological ...
Crick FH (December 1968). "The origin of the genetic code". Journal of Molecular Biology. 38 (3): 367-79. doi:10.1016/0022-2836 ... The transcription terminates after a stretch of four or more thymidines.[2][55] ... Because the genetic code contains multiple codons that specify the same amino acid, there are several tRNA molecules bearing ... One end of the tRNA matches the genetic code in a three-nucleotide sequence called the anticodon. The anticodon forms three ...
... retrovirus that can have positive or negative regulatory influences affecting C4 transcription and the varying genetic ... have identified two genetic variants: F, signifying the presence (F+) or absence (f0/ f0) of four fast moving bands, and S, ... Blanchong CA, Chung EK, Rupert KL, Yang Y, Yang Z, Zhou B, Moulds JM, Yu CY (March 2001). "Genetic, structural and functional ... One of the earlier genetic studies on the C4 protein identified two different groups, found within a human serum, called the ...
This viral DNA can either be incorporated into the host cell's genetic material or persist as a separate genetic vector. Either ... These transcription factors along with the virus' own proteins can repress or activate genes from both the virus and the host ... Depending on the virus, a variety of genetic changes can occur in the host cell. In the case of a lytic cycle virus, the cell ... It is possible that the damage can be repaired; however, the most common result is an instability in the original genetic ...
基因組圖譜主要可以分成兩種,一種是遺傳圖譜(genetic map),另一種則是物理圖譜(physical map)。遺傳圖譜是利用基因的重組率來做分析,單位是分莫甘(centimorgan)。這種圖譜表現出來的是基因或特定DNA片段之間的相對位置,而不 ... a
Genetic factorsEdit. In 6 to 11% of the children born with coronal synostosis, more often involving the bilateral cases than ... The transcription factor gene TWIST is thought to decrease the function of FGFR, thus also indirectly regulating fetal bone ... Lajeunie E, Le Merrer M, Bonaïti-Pellie C, Marchac D, Renier D (March 1996). "Genetic study of scaphocephaly". American Journal ... Multiple potential causes of premature suture closure have been identified, such as the several genetic mutations that are ...
... no Ebola virus was detected apart from some genetic traces found in six rodents (belonging to the species Mus setulosus and ... whose concentration in the host cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication of ...
"Mobile Genetic Elements. 3 (4): e25845. doi:10.4161/mge.25845. PMC 3812789. PMID 24195014.. ... See also: Transcription and translation. Protein synthesis within chloroplasts relies on an RNA polymerase coded by the ... It further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched ... The highly oxidative environment inside chloroplasts increases the rate of mutation so post-transcription repairs are needed to ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License and the GFDL; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details ...
The genetic network logic responds to signals received from the environment and from internal cell status sensors to adapt the ... "An essential transcription factor, SciP, enhances robustness of Caulobacter cell cycle regulation". Proceedings of the ... The genetic basis of the phenotypic differences between the two strains results from coding, regulatory, and insertion/deletion ... The central feature of the cell cycle regulation is a cyclical genetic circuit-a cell cycle engine-that is centered around the ...
The transcription factor Sox9 can be found in multiple sites in the body (pancreas, central nervous system, intestines) and it ... before any genetic or morphological criteria were put in place for bone marrow or connective tissues. Osteoprogenitor cells can ... Runx2 (which may also be known as Cbfa1), and Osx (a zinc finger containing transcription factor) are necessary for ...
... transcription and translation of the genetic material. ... as the causative genes of most monogenic genetic disorders have ...
Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering techniques were developed in the late 1980s that could successfully transfer genetic ... One group added a transcription factor for the production of anthocyanin from Arabidopsis thaliana[33] whereas another used ... A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. ... Tomato as a model system: I. Genetic and physical mapping of jointless". MGG Molecular & General Genetics. 242 (6). doi:10.1007 ...
... a genetic disorder resulting in complete or partial insensitivity to androgens and a lack of external male genitalia. ... complex with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ... "Genetic variation in the progesterone receptor gene and ovarian cancer risk". American Journal of Epidemiology. 161 (5): 442- ... Leonhardt SA, Boonyaratanakornkit V, Edwards DP (November 2003). "Progesterone receptor transcription and non-transcription ... creates a unique transcription start site. Biochemical assays showed that the +331G/A polymorphism increases transcription of ...
... describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. The underlying mechanism is genes that ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ... This article is about genetic pleiotropy. For drug pleiotropy, see Pleiotropy (drugs). ... Genetic and Biometric Foundations by using molecular genetics to support the idea of "universal pleiotropy". The concepts of ...
FISH is often used for finding specific features in DNA for use in genetic counseling, medicine, and species identification.[2] ... "The lncRNA Malat1 is Dispensable for Mouse Development but Its Transcription Plays a cis-Regulatory Role in the Adult". Cell ... Then an oligonucleotide complementary to the suspected pathogen's genetic code is synthesized and chemically tagged with a ...
Bazin, Hervé (2011). Vaccination: a history from Lady Montagu to genetic engineering. Montrouge: J. Libbey Eurotext. p. 407. ... A direct confirmation can be obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, where the genome of the virus is ... It is probably due to the genetic morphology of the immune system. Another possible side effect is an infection of the nervous ... "Genetic relationships and evolution of genotypes of yellow fever virus and other members of the yellow fever virus group ...
... results from excessive intake of preformed vitamin A. A genetic variance in tolerance to vitamin A intake ... members of the retinoic acid receptor or retinoid X receptor nuclear transcription family) which are found in every cell ( ...
These rare genetic variants are autosomal dominant.[26] Cancer[edit]. In addition to its role in Alzheimer's disease, ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • proteolysis. • regulation of synaptic plasticity. • ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • heart development. • negative regulation of axonogenesis. • embryonic ... "Genetic linkage evidence for a familial Alzheimer's seasesease locus on chromosome 14". Science. 258 (5082): 668-71. Bibcode: ...
BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most malignant lung ... This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by increased CYP1A1 protein production.[28] ... This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ...
"Genetic unmasking of an epigenetically silenced microRNA in human cancer cells". Cancer Res. 67 (4): 1424-9. doi:10.1158/0008- ... Transcription-coupled repair *ERCC6. *ERCC8. *Homology directed repair. *Non-homologous end joining *Ku ...
Genetic disorder, protein biosynthesis: Transcription factor/coregulator deficiencies. (1) Basic domains. 1.2. *Feingold ... Genetic testing is available for STAT3 (Job's Syndrome), DOCK8 (DOCK8 Immunodeficiency or DIDS), PGM3 (PGM3 deficiency), SPINK5 ... U.S. NIH Genetic Test Registry. *National Organization for Rare Disorders: Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome Autosomal ... Netherton Syndrome - NTS), and TYK2 genetic defects. Types[edit]. HIES often appears early in life with recurrent ...
The genome RNA is unusual because it has a protein on the 5' end that is used as a primer for transcription by RNA polymerase. ... Like most positive sense RNA genomes, the genetic material alone is infectious; although substantially less virulent than if ... So, an overview of the steps in picornavirus replication are in order: attachment, entry, translation, transcription/genome ...
Hedley PL, Jørgensen P, Schlamowitz S, Moolman-Smook J, Kanters JK, Corfield VA, Christiansen M (Sep 2009). "The genetic basis ... high levels of calcium in mitochondria elevates activity of nuclear factor kappa B NF-κB and transcription of CACNA1c and ... Large-scale genetic analyses have shown the possibility that CACNA1C is associated with bipolar disorder [21] and subsequently ... "Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci". Nature. 511 (7510): 421-427. doi:10.1038/nature13595 ...
Transcription in archaea more closely resembles eukaryotic than bacterial transcription, with the archaeal RNA polymerase being ... Gene transfer and genetic exchangeEdit. Halobacterium volcanii, an extreme halophilic archaeon, forms cytoplasmic bridges ... Circular chromosomes, unique translation and transcription. Multiple, linear chromosomes, similar translation and transcription ... Current knowledge on genetic diversity is fragmentary and the total number of archaeal species cannot be estimated with any ...
... a change in transcription can be seen when there is no TATA box to promote transcription, but transcription of a gene will ... Genetic engineering[edit]. TATA box modification[edit]. Evolutionary changes have pushed plants to adapt to the changing ... Transcription factors, TATA binding protein (TBP), and RNA polymerase II are all recruited to begin transcription. ... Core promoter-specific mechanisms for transcription initiation by the canonical TBP/TFIID-dependent basal transcription ...
Functions in transcription[edit]. Most well-studied histone modifications are involved in control of transcription. ... The formation of this mark is tied to transcription in a rather convoluted manner: early in transcription of a gene, RNA ... Histone gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ... is a transcription factor which activates histone gene transcription on chromosomes 1 and 6 of human cells. NPAT is also a ...
The viroplasm is where components such as replicase enzymes, virus genetic material, and host proteins required for replication ... "Transcription and Replication Evidence that NBs Are Sites of Viral (NBs) in Rabies Virus-Infected Cells: Functional ...
Degeneracy of the genetic code was identified by Lagerkvist.[2] For instance, codons GAA and GAG both specify glutamic acid and ... Post-transcription. *Precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA / hnRNA). *5' capping. *Splicing. *Polyadenylation. *Histone acetylation and ... Inverse table for the standard genetic code (compressed using IUPAC notation) Amino acid. Codons. Compressed Amino acid. Codons ... Shu, Jian-Jun (2017). "A new integrated symmetrical table for genetic codes". BioSystems. 151: 21-26. arXiv:1703.03787. doi: ...
Role in genetic disordersEdit. Many genetic disorders involve hereditary defects in receptor genes. Often, it is hard to ... The N terminus interacts with other cellular transcription factors in a ligand-independent manner; and, depending on these ...
Minor genetic variations are found consistently in different geographic areas; thus, genetic analysis of JC virus samples has ... Certain transcription factors present in the early promoter sequences of the JC virus can induce trophism and viral ... "Transcription factor Spi-B binds unique sequences present in the tandem repeat promoter/enhancer of JC virus and supports ...
"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[۳۷] ۲۰۰۹ عادا یونات Israel "for studies of the structure ... "for his discoveries concerning نوترکیبی ژنی and the organization of the genetic material of باکتری"[۵۲] ... "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۶۱] ... "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of ویروس (زیستی)es"[۵۸] ...
GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ... transcription - transfusion - translation - transmission - transplacental - treatment IND - triglycerides - tuberculin skin ...
A well-known transcription factor in the yeast pheromone pathway is used as an example, and the underlying genetic loci ... By mapping differences in transcription factor binding among individuals, here we present the genetic basis of such variation ... studied the variability of transcription factor binding among individuals on a genome-wide scale, using transcription-binding ... and thus the extent and underlying genetic basis of transcription factor binding diversity is unknown. ...
HU Protein Affects Transcription of Surface Polysaccharide Synthesis Genes in Porphyromonas gingivalis Christine Alberti-Segui ... GlpR Represses Fructose and Glucose Metabolic Enzymes at the Level of Transcription in the Haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii ... Effects of Increasing the Affinity of CarD for RNA Polymerase on Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth, rRNA Transcription, and ... gfpTCD Is a Genetically Remastered gfp Gene with Reduced Susceptibility to H-NS-Mediated Transcription Silencing and with ...
Genetic engineering using transcription factors (TFs) represents an alternative approach that may help overcome this difficulty ... Ueda Y., Yanagisawa S. (2018) Transcription Factor-Based Genetic Engineering to Increase Nitrogen Use Efficiency. In: Shrawat A ... Qu B, He X, Wang J, Zhao Y, Teng W, Shao A, Zhao X, Ma W, Wang J, Li B et al (2015) A wheat CCAAT box-binding transcription ... He X, Qu B, Li W, Zhao X, Teng W, Ma W, Ren Y, Li B, Li Z, Tong Y (2015) The nitrate inducible NAC transcription factor TaNAC2- ...
Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) is generally considered to function as a tumor suppressor in the development of ...
DNA is the genetic material of a cell and is copied in the form of pre-mRNA through transcription in eukaryotes. RNA polymerase ... Stochastic modeling of eukaryotic transcription at