A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
"Regulation of integrin alpha10 expression in chondrocytes by the transcription factors AP-2epsilon and Ets-1". Biochem. Biophys ... 345 (1): 495-501. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.04.123. PMID 16684505. ITGA10 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway This ... The I-domain containing alpha 10 combines with the integrin beta 1 chain (ITGB1) to form a novel collagen type II-binding ...
PEMT gene expression is regulated by transcription factors including activator protein 1 (AP-1) and Sp1. Sp1 is a negative ... transcription. This is one of several examples of the reciprocal regulation of PEMT and CT in the PEMT and CDP-choline pathways ... Resseguie ME, da Costa KA, Galanko JA, Patel M, Davis IJ, Zeisel SH (Jan 2011). "Aberrant estrogen regulation of PEMT results ... Estrogen has also been shown to be a positive regulator of hepatocyte PEMT transcription. Ablation of the estrogen binding site ...
PLC activates 3 major transcription factors and their pathways: NFAT, NFkB and AP-1. After costimulation from CD28 the optimal ... Gene expression regulation for IL-2 can be on multiple levels or by different ways. One of the checkpoints is signaling through ... It cooperates with other transcription factors including NFkB and Oct. NFkB is translocated to the nucleus after costimulation ... This phosphorylation recruits STAT transcription factors, predominantly STAT5, which dimerize and migrate to the cell nucleus ...
This work led to identification of AP-1 transcription factors, later found to be composed of Jun and Fos prototo- oncoproteins ... At UCSD Karin has continued his studies of metallothionein gene regulation, mapping promoter elements that mediate gene ... where he studied genetic regulation of metallothioneins. He then did a postdoctoral fellowship with Beatrice Mintz at the Fox ... thus providing an explanation to the surprising efficacy of PD-1 checkpoint inhibitory drugs in human non-viral HCC. 2005 - ...
... the myogenic transcription factor MEF2 which an essential role in muscle differentiation as a DNA binding transcription factor ... Tip60 has roles in the regulation of gene transcription, HBO has been found to impact the DNA replication process, MORF is able ... Inflammatory lung diseases are characterized by expression of specific inflammatory genes such as NF-κB and AP-1 transcription ... and transcription factors that process and "read" the modification codes. The outcome can be activation of transcription or ...
There are several binding domains for various transcription factors including AP-1, PEA-3 and OSE-2 as well as a sequence with ... Transcriptional regulation of MMP-13 is tightly controlled due to its potent proteolytic capacity. ... Yu H, Fellows A, Foote K, Yang Z, Figg N, Littlewood T, Bennett M (March 2018). "FOXO3a (Forkhead Transcription Factor O ... The upstream regulatory region of the Mmp13 gene contains a number of transcription factor binding sites but it was recently ...
"Interactions between a DNA-binding transcription factor (COUP) and a non-DNA binding factor (S300-II)". Cell. 50 (5): 701-9. ... Lin F, Kolluri SK, Chen GQ, Zhang XK (Jun 2002). "Regulation of retinoic acid-induced inhibition of AP-1 activity by orphan ... COUP-TF1 (COUP Transcription Factor 1) also known as NR2F1 (Nuclear Receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 1) is a protein that ... Wang LH, Tsai SY, Cook RG, Beattie WG, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW (Jul 1989). "COUP transcription factor is a member of the steroid ...
The nuclear transcription factor activator protein, AP-1, which controls the transcription of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), ... thereby resulting in the up-regulation of the above-mentioned receptors. Another transcription factor NF-κB, which is also ... UV radiation activates the transcription factor, NF-κB, which is the first step in inflammation. NF-κB activation results in ... and the up-regulation of an angiogenesis activator which is platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, in keratinocytes. ...
The activated transcription factor c-Jun regulates nuclear transcription via AP-1 to increase pro-apoptotic gene transcription ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance ... which results in the release of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) transcription activator. NF-κB regulates nuclear gene transcription ... Villoslada P, Genain CP (2004). "Role of nerve growth factor and other trophic factors in brain inflammation". Progress in ...
... necessary for the activation of transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1, and for production of IL-2. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 also ... further mediated by a lower regulation of the gene Bcl-2.[citation needed] PD-L1 was characterized at the Mayo Clinic as an ... In normal tissue, feedback between transcription factors like STAT3 and NF-κB restricts the immune response to protect host ... In cancer, loss of feedback restriction between transcription factors can lead to increased local PD-L1 expression, which could ...
This up-regulation is directly controlled by GATA3 transcription factor. IL-33 combined with IL-2, IL-7 or TSLP also stimulates ... These signaling pathways lead to activation of many transcription factors, such as NF-κB, AP-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) ... Its expression is induced by transcription factor NF-κB after exposure of innate immune cells to alarmins. This occurs, for ... functioning as a transcription factor. The precursor form of IL-1α, which has both the N-terminal and C-terminal receptor ...
... including regulation of cyclin D1, E2F factors and their target genes. c-Jun, which is one of the AP-1 sub units, regulates the ... Activator protein Transcription factor Hess J, Angel P, Schorpp-Kistner M (December 2004). "AP-1 subunits: quarrel and harmony ... Lee W, Mitchell P, Tjian R (June 1987). "Purified transcription factor AP-1 interacts with TPA-inducible enhancer elements". ... activation of a predetermined enhancer landscape controlled by the pioneer transcription factor AP-1", which "defines the ...
Sun P, Lou L, Maurer RA (1996). "Regulation of activating transcription factor-1 and the cAMP response element-binding protein ... 1996). "B-ATF: a novel human bZIP protein that associates with members of the AP-1 transcription factor family". Oncogene. 11 ( ... Cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ATF1 gene. This gene encodes an ... 1993). "Activating transcription factor-1 can mediate Ca(2+)- and cAMP-inducible transcriptional activation". J. Biol. Chem. ...
... and NF-κB transcription factors regulating the inducible and constitutive expression of both subunits In terms of enzyme ... Lu SC (2009). "Regulation of glutathione synthesis". Mol Aspects Med. 30 (1-2): 42-59. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2008.05.005. PMC ... AP-1, ... GCL enzymatic activity is influenced by numerous factors, ... Lu SC (2009). "Regulation of glutathione synthesis". Mol Aspects Med. 30 (1-2): 42-59. doi:10.1016/j.mam.2008.05.005. PMC ...
Liedtke M, Pandey P, Kumar S, Kharbanda S, Kufe D (October 1998). "Regulation of Bcr-Abl-induced SAP kinase activity and ... "Association of SH2 domain protein tyrosine phosphatases with the epidermal growth factor receptor in human tumor cells. ... Kumar S, Avraham S, Bharti A, Goyal J, Pandey P, Kharbanda S (October 1999). "Negative regulation of PYK2/related adhesion ... Potential role of SHP-2 in STAT5 regulation". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (1): 599-604. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.1.599. PMID 10617656. Chiang ...
... a transcription factor and a regulator of myelopoiesis, and a validated target of this miRNA. It was also established that in ... MiR-155 mediates regulation of AID abundance and expression time upon immunological cues however, mutations in the target on ... Support for a role of AP-1 in MIR155HG activation comes from studies using stimuli relevant to viral infection such as TLR3 ... it was hypothesized that endotoxin activation of MIR155HG may be mediated by those transcription factors. Indeed, MIR155HG ...
Li B, Tournier C, Davis RJ, Flavell RA (1999). "Regulation of IL-4 expression by the transcription factor JunB during T helper ... "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits transforming growth factor-beta /Smad signaling in human dermal fibroblasts via AP-1 ... Transcription factor jun-B is a transcription factor involved in regulating gene activity following the primary growth factor ... Transcription factor jun-B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUNB gene. ...
... cDNA indicate a number of transcription factor binding site consensus sequences, including those for AP-2, c-Myb, NF-1, sox-5, ... 2012). "Regulation of dendritic arborization by BCR Rac1 GTPase-activating protein, a substrate of PTPRT". J Cell Sci. 125 (Pt ... RE1-silencing transcription factor) (REST) is a transcription repressor that binds to REST DNA recognition element (RE-1) in ... where it needs to localize to function as a transcription factor. PTPrho also dephosphorylates paxillin on tyrosine 88. Higher ...
Hypoxia also activates transcription factor AP-1, which is involved in MET transcription. MET pathway plays an important role ... "Ab-induced ectodomain shedding mediates hepatocyte growth factor receptor down-regulation and hampers biological activity". ... "Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor activates the ETS1 transcription factor by a RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway". ... ETS1 activates MET transcription in vitro. MET transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1), which is ...
When this occurs, complexes like SWI/SNF and other transcriptional factors can bind to the DNA and allow transcription to occur ... Morris KL (2008). "Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of ... Robertson KD, Wolffe AP (October 2000). "DNA methylation in health and disease". Nature Reviews Genetics. 1 (1): 11-9. PMID ... For these reasons, ΔFosB is considered a primary and causative transcription factor in creating new neural connections in the ...
But, for many transcription factors, this is a key point in their regulation. Important classes of transcription factors such ... doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-11905-3. PMID: 31467272 Wärnmark A, Treuter E, Wright AP, Gustafsson JA (October 2003). "Activation ... "Roles and Regulation of Stat Family Transcription Factors in Human Breast Cancer" 2004 ""Transcription factors as targets and ... This is also true with transcription factors: Not only do transcription factors control the rates of transcription to regulate ...
2003). "Critical role of the transcription factor AP-1 for the constitutive and interferon-induced expression of IFI 16". J. ... Kwak JC, Ongusaha PP, Ouchi T, Lee SW (2003). "IFI16 as a negative regulator in the regulation of p53 and p21(Waf1)". J. Biol. ... Johnstone RW, Kerry JA, Trapani JA (1998). "The human interferon-inducible protein, IFI 16, is a repressor of transcription". J ... The encoded protein contains domains involved in DNA binding, transcriptional regulation, and protein-protein interactions. The ...
Chen Q, Xu R, Zeng C, Lu Q, Huang D, Shi C, Zhang W, Deng L, Yan R, Rao H, Gao G. Down-regulation of Gli transcription factor ... Rajurkar M, De Jesus-Monge WE, Driscoll DR, Appleman VA, Huang H, Cotton JL, Klimstra DS, Zhu LJ, Simin K, Xu L, McMahon AP. ... One example is the activation of SMO without the subsequent entry of GLI transcription factors into the nucleus. Another, ... Arsenic Trioxide, an inhibitor of GLI transcription factors, is being used for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. ...
... p38 and NF-κB signalling and transcriptional activation via promoter binding of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. IL-10 ... IL-10 can block NF-κB activity, and is involved in the regulation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Discovered in 1991 IL-10 ... Sharma A, Kumar M, Aich J, Hariharan M, Brahmachari SK, Agrawal A, Ghosh B (April 2009). "Posttranscriptional regulation of ... Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. In ...
Different transcription factors that have been reported responsible for the regulation of fhl2 expression include the well- ... Morlon A, Sassone-Corsi P (Apr 2003). "The LIM-only protein FHL2 is a serum-inducible transcriptional coactivator of AP-1". ... The name LIM was derived from the first letter of the transcription factors LIN-11, ISL-1 and MEC-3, from which the domain was ... Such discrepancies are most likely due to the existence of the wide variety of transcription factors governing FHL2 expression ...
"Regulation of the human interleukin-5 promoter by Ets transcription factors. Ets1 and Ets2, but not Elf-1, cooperate with GATA3 ... Blumenthal SG, Aichele G, Wirth T, Czernilofsky AP, Nordheim A, Dittmer J (Apr 1999). " ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ETS family of transcription factors. ETS2 has been shown to interact with: C- ... Basuyaux JP, Ferreira E, Stéhelin D, Butticè G (Oct 1997). "The Ets transcription factors interact with each other and with the ...
Yagi R, Zhu J, Paul WE (Jul 2011). "An updated view on transcription factor GATA3-mediated regulation of Th1 and Th2 cell ... Blumenthal SG, Aichele G, Wirth T, Czernilofsky AP, Nordheim A, Dittmer J (Apr 1999). "Regulation of the human interleukin-5 ... GATA3 is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the GATA3 gene. Studies in animal models and humans indicate that ... The GATA3 transcription factor is critical for the embryonic development of various tissues as well as for inflammatory and ...
... mainly via regulation and inhibition of transcription factors such as nuclear factor NF-kB and activator protein 1 (AP-1). ... Proteins are imperative for the body's tissues and organs, working in their function, structure and regulation. Protein's ... Nutritional Immunology, as a discipline, aims to understand nutritional factors influencing on immune responses. [...] ... which then further affect signaling cascades and inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcriptional factor NF-κB ...
The promoter for WDR90 in humans has been predicted to have domains for the transcription factors: ARNT, AP-1, MYB, and ... or transcription regulation. Database, GeneCards. "WDR90 Gene - GeneCards , WDR90 Protein , WDR90 Antibody". www.genecards.org ... domains have been found to play a role in a variety of functions ranging from signal transduction and transcription regulation ... "Molecular Profiling of the Human Testis Reveals Stringent Pathway‐Specific Regulation of RNA Expression Following Gonadotropin ...
... thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell ... Reddy SP, Mossman BT (Dec 2002). "Role and regulation of activator protein-1 in toxicant-induced responses of the lung". ... Herdegen T, Leah JD (Dec 1998). "Inducible and constitutive transcription factors in the mammalian nervous system: control of ... transcription factor) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000175592 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • skeletal system morphogenesis. • transcription, DNA-templated. • ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ...
AP-4, CEBPB,[13] and epidermal growth factor. Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways ... Substance P has been associated with the regulation of mood disorders, anxiety, stress,[30] reinforcement,[31] neurogenesis,[32 ... Huskey SE, Dean BJ, Bakhtiar R, Sanchez RI, Tattersall FD, Rycroft W, Hargreaves R, Watt AP, Chicchi GG, Keohane C, Hora DF, ... Zubrzycka M, Janecka A (Dec 2000). "Substance P: transmitter of nociception (Minireview)". Endocrine Regulations. 34 (4): 195- ...
One group added a transcription factor for the production of anthocyanin from Arabidopsis thaliana[33] whereas another used ... Craig Freudenrich; Dora Barlaz; Jane Gardner (2009). AP Environmental Science. Kaplen inc. pp. 189-190. ISBN 978-1-4277-9816-9. ... A gene from rice (Osmyb4), which codes for a transcription factor, that was shown to increase cold and drought tolerance in ... "Enrichment of tomato fruit with health-promoting anthocyanins by expression of select transcription factors". Nature ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cell-cell signaling. • negative regulation of gene expression. • transcription, ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcriptional activator ... "The Angelman syndrome-associated protein, E6-AP, is a coactivator for the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily". Molecular and ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • ovulation from ovarian follicle. • epithelial cell ...
Barker ME, Blumsohn A (November 2003). "Is vitamin A consumption a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture?". The Proceedings of ... Jorens PG, Michielsen PP, Pelckmans PA, Fevery J, Desmet VJ, Geubel AP, Rahier J, Van Maercke YM (December 1992). "Vitamin A ... because of homeostatic regulation, that range varies little with widely disparate vitamin A intakes[20] ... members of the retinoic acid receptor or retinoid X receptor nuclear transcription family) which are found in every cell ( ...
regulation of double-strand break repair via homologous recombination. • DNA metabolic process. • telomere organization. • ... Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... Base excision repair/AP site *DNA glycosylase. *Uracil-DNA glycosylase. *Poly ADP ribose polymerase ... positive regulation of DNA ligation. • cellular response to alkaloid. • telomere maintenance via recombination. • telomere ...
... gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ... the sole cell cycle-regulated factor required for regulation of histone mRNA processing, at the end of S phase". Molecular and ... de Napoles M, Mermoud JE, Wakao R, Tang YA, Endoh M, Appanah R, Nesterova TB, Silva J, Otte AP, Vidal M, Koseki H, Brockdorff N ... is a transcription factor which activates histone gene transcription on chromosomes 1 and 6 of human cells. NPAT is also a ...
A scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... A new mode of regulation of the MAP kinase cascade". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 277 (43): 40703-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Guan Z, Buckman SY, Pentland AP, et al. (1998). "Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by the activated MEKK1 --> SEK1/MKK4 --> p38 ... Chen, Z; Cobb M H (May 2001). "Regulation of stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways by TAO2". J. ...
regulation of sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity. · righting reflex. · positive regulation of ... AP-1(c-Fos、FOSB、FOSL1、FOSL2、c-Jun、JUNB、JUND) · BACH(1、2) · BATF · BLZF1 · C/EBP(α、β、γ、δ、ε、ζ) · CREB(1、3、L1) · CREM · DBP · ... 转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ...
Williams, A; Spilianakis, CG; Flavell, RA (April 2010). "Interchromosomal association and gene regulation in trans.". Trends in ... Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y (April 2007). "Noncoding RNA transcription beyond annotated genes". Current Opinion in Genetics & ... AP (8 March 2013). "Gene transfer from bacteria and archaea facilitated evolution of an extremophilic eukaryote.". Science 339 ... "Recircularization and Autonomous Replication of a Sheared R-Factor DNA Segment in Escherichia coli Transformants - PNAS". Pnas. ...
Lüscher B (2001). "Function and regulation of the transcription factors of the Myc/Max/Mad network". Gene 277 (1-2): 1-14. PMID ... AP-1 (c-Fos, FOSB, FOSL1, FOSL2, c-Jun, JUNB, JUND) • BACH (1, 2) • BATF • BLZF1 • C/EBP (α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ) • CREB (1, 3, L1) ... ARX • CDX (1, 2) • CRX • CUTL1 • DBX (1, 2) • DLX (3, 4, 5) • EMX2 • EN (1, 2) • FHL (1, 2, 3) • HESX1 • HHEX • HLX • Homeobox ... HMGB (1, 2, 3) • HNF (1A, 1B) • LEF1 • SOX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21) • SRY • SSRP1 • TCF (3, 4) ...
As some co-factors contain both nucleotide and amino-acid characteristics, it may be that amino acids, peptides and finally ... "AP News. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2012.. ... This change in structure can result in the formation or disruption of a terminator, truncating or permitting transcription ... Such enzyme targeting is also responsible for gene down regulation though RNA interference (RNAi), where an enzyme-associated ...
Degradation of Aux/IAA proteins derepresses transcription factors in the auxin-response factor (ARF) family and induces ARF- ... Regulation of plant growthEdit. In plants, signaling by auxins, or phytohormones that order the direction and tropism of plant ... Arrigo AP, Tanaka, K, Goldberg F, Welch WJ (1988). "Identity of 19S prosome particle with the large multifunctional protease ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ...
Contributes to Platelet-derived Growth Factor-induced Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3". J. ... Downstream effects of this include regulation of gene expression and the cell cycle. The role of PI3K has been investigated by ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one among numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division. In ... Other growth factors in this family include vascular endothelial growth factors B and C (VEGF-B, VEGF-C)[16][17] which are ...
... a neurotrophic factor important for long-term memory.[66] Expression of CREB, an activity-dependent transcription factor ... Bakulski KM, Dolinoy DC, Sartor MA, Paulson HL, Konen JR, Lieberman AP, Albin RL, Hu H, Rozek LS (2012). "Genome-wide DNA ... The term epigenetics refers to three levels of gene regulation: (1) DNA methylation, (2) histone modifications, and (3) non- ... onto or around which transcription factors may bind and transcription can begin. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides and/or ...
Single-cell analysis of the several transcription factors by scRNA-seq revealed heterogeneity across the population. These ... Gasch AP, Yu FB, Hose J, Escalante LE, Place M, Bacher R, et al. (December 2017). Balaban N (ed.). "Single-cell RNA sequencing ... such as long-noncoding RNA and microRNAs in gene expression regulation. Small-seq is a single-cell method that captures small ... Once reverse transcription is complete, the cDNAs from many cells can be mixed together for sequencing; transcripts from a ...
AR, an androgen-activated transcription factor, belongs to the steroid nuclear receptor family. Development of the prostate is ... Hsing AW, Chokkalingam AP (2006). "Prostate cancer epidemiology". Frontiers in Bioscience. 11: 1388-413. doi:10.2741/1891. PMID ... "Regulation of inflammation in cancer by eicosanoids". Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 96 (1-4): 27-36. doi:10.1016/j. ... Retrieved 1 July 2014.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter ...
Phosphorylation STATs form transcription factors and activate transcription of appropriate genes. The β chain of IL-15R ... positive regulation of T cell proliferation. • regulation of defense response to virus by host. • positive regulation of ... Bamford RN, DeFilippis AP, Azimi N, Kurys G, Waldmann TA (May 1998). "The 5' untranslated region, signal peptide, and the ... positive regulation of natural killer cell differentiation. • regulation of T cell differentiation. • positive regulation of ...
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • regulation of tau-protein kinase activity. • ... Kochhar KS, Johnson ME, Volpert O, Iyer AP (1995). "Evidence for autocrine basis of transformation in NIH-3T3 cells transfected ... regulation of p38MAPK cascade. • cell proliferation. • negative regulation of autophagy. • hepatocyte growth factor receptor ... Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is ...
positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity. • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter ... p21 interacts with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in ... negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity. • transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • ... positive regulation of B cell proliferation. • negative regulation of cell growth. • cell cycle arrest. • response to ...
regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • spermatogenesis. • positive regulation of ... transcription factor binding. • protein domain specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence- ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma (HNF-3G), also known as forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3) or transcription factor 3G (TCF-3G) ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • sequence- ...
regulation of axon diameter. • peripheral nervous system axon regeneration. • locomotion. • response to acrylamide. • spinal ... Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • protein domain specific binding. • phospholipase binding. • structural ... Pospelov VA, Pospelova TV, Julien JP (February 1994). "AP-1 and Krox-24 transcription factors activate the neurofilament light ... positive regulation of axonogenesis. • MAPK cascade. • anterograde axonal transport. • axonal transport of mitochondrion. • ...
"CpG islands and the regulation of transcription". Genes Dev. 25 (10): 1010-22. doi:10.1101/gad.2037511. PMC 3093116 . PMID ... "c-MYC Generates Repair Errors via Increased Transcription of Alternative-NHEJ Factors, LIG3 and PARP1, in Tyrosine Kinase- ... Illingworth RS, Gruenewald-Schneider U, Webb S, Kerr AR, James KD, Turner DJ, Smith C, Harrison DJ, Andrews R, Bird AP (2010). ... In humans, about 70% of promoters located near the transcription start site of a gene (proximal promoters) contain a CpG island ...
North Carolina Macular Dystrophy Is Caused by Dysregulation of the Retinal Transcription Factor PRDM13 ,Ophthalmology. 123(1):9 ... Small KW, DeLuca AP, Whitmore SS, Rosenberg T, Silva-Garcia R, Udar N, Puech B, Garcia CA, Rice TA, Fishman GA, Héon E, Folk JC ... Apical and basal regulation of the permeability of the retinal pigment epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44: 808-817, 2003. ... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)[24], pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF)[25]. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ...
Molecular bases of regulation by proto-oncogenic transcription factors, in Cell, vol. 112, nº 2, gennaio 2003, pp. 193-205, DOI ... Transcriptional activation by Myc is under negative control by the transcription factor AP-2, in EMBO J., vol. 14, nº 7, aprile ... Lüscher B, Function and regulation of the transcription factors of the Myc/Max/Mad network, in Gene, vol. 277, 1-2, 17 ottobre ... a novel Max-like BHLHZip protein that interacts with the Max network of transcription factors (PDF), in J. Biol. Chem., vol. ...
There are three main factors affecting photosynthesis[clarification needed] and several corollary factors. The three main are:[ ... Reyes-Prieto A, Weber AP, Bhattacharya D (2007). "The origin and establishment of the plastid in algae and plants". Annual ... The CoRR Hypothesis proposes that this co-location of genes with their gene products is required for redox regulation of gene ... Second, Blackman's experiments illustrate the concept of limiting factors. Another limiting factor is the wavelength of light. ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay ... Phonetic Transcription:. Even if the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft transcription was abundantly used in early ... a complete work about the regulations of the use of the Buckwalter transliteration for Tunisian was issued by Ines Zribi and ... The profusion is from many factors including the length of time the country was inhabited, its long history as a migration land ...
Transcription factors are regulatory proteins that bind to DNA, either promoting or inhibiting the transcription of a gene.[72] ... Gene regulationEdit. Main article: Regulation of gene expression. The genome of a given organism contains thousands of genes, ... Strachan T, Read AP (1999). Human Molecular Genetics 2 (second ed.). John Wiley & Sons Inc.. Chapter 18: Cancer Genetics ... The tryptophan repressor blocks the transcription and expression of the genes, thereby creating negative feedback regulation of ...
... including transcription factors as well as F-box proteins.[99] In many organisms, including humans, miRNAs are linked to the ... McCaffrey AP, Meuse L, Pham TT, Conklin DS, Hannon GJ, Kay MA (July 2002). "RNA interference in adult mice". Nature. 418 (6893 ... of Arabidopsis was shown to be involved in the regulation of several genes that control plant shape.[97] In plants, the ... 10 (1): 1-12. doi:10.1016/j.ajps.2014.08.011.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Whitehead KA, Dahlman JE, Langer RS, Anderson DG ( ...
One of the central regulators of oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Yap1, a bZIP transcription factor of the AP-1 ... Structural basis for redox regulation of Yap1 transcription factor localization. Nature 430:917-921. ... transcription factors.. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP-1-like transcription factor Yap1 is the best-characterized member of ... Redox Regulation of an AP-1-Like Transcription Factor, YapA, in the Fungal Symbiont Epichloë festucae. Gemma M. Cartwright, ...
Regulation of AP-1 and NFAT transcription factors during thymic selection of T cells.. M Rincon, R A Flavell ... Regulation of AP-1 and NFAT transcription factors during thymic selection of T cells. ... analyze the transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of these two transcription factors that are involved in the regulation ... Regulation of AP-1 and NFAT transcription factors during thymic selection of T cells. ...
Regulation of retinoic acid-induced inhibition of AP-1 activity by orphan receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter- ... transcription factor ... Regulation of retinoic acid-induced inhibition of AP-1 activity ... by orphan receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor Title. Regulation of retinoic acid-induced ... inhibition of AP-1 activity by orphan receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor. ...
Regulation of MAPK Activation, AP-1 Transcription Factor Expression and Keratinocyte Differentiation in Wounded Fetal Skin. ... Regulation of MAPK Activation, AP-1 Transcription Factor Expression and Keratinocyte Differentiation in Wounded Fetal Skin. In ... Gangnuss, S, Cowin, A, Daehn, I, Hatzirodos, N, Rothnagel, J, Varelias, A & Rayner, T 2004, Regulation of MAPK Activation, AP- ... Regulation of MAPK Activation, AP-1 Transcription Factor Expression and Keratinocyte Differentiation in Wounded Fetal Skin. / ...
... transcription factors have been identified in a number of filamentous fungi, the components involved in the upstream regulation ... Redox regulation of an AP-1-like transcription factor, YapA, in the fungal symbiont Epichloë festucae : a thesis presented in ... This work provides a comprehensive analysis of the role and regulation of the AP-1 transcription factor pathway in a ... suggesting a novel mechanism of regulation exists in E. festucae. ...
... of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by a mechanism that may involve enhanced proinflammatory gene transcription. Histone ... Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism * Up-Regulation* * p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism ... and increased DNA binding of the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB, independent of inhibitory protein- ... Histone acetylation and deacetylation is a key regulator of the specificity and duration of gene transcription. Disruption in ...
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter - positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production ... Transcription Factor AP-1. *Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. *Cancer Gene Expression Regulation. *Base Sequence ... positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity - positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation - ... positive regulation of interleukin-23 production - positive regulation of interleukin-6 production - positive regulation of JNK ...
The transcription factor c-fos is also dramatically increased prior to the onset of labor and is ... 0/Connexin 43; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0/Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun; 0/Transcription Factor AP-1 ... We constructed expression vectors for c-Fos and c-Jun to investigate the role of these transcription factors in the regulation ... These data indicate that the transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun are important in the regulation of Cx43 expression.. ...
In CIA, activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB precede both clinical arthritis and metalloproteinase gene expression. NF-kappaB ... The DNA binding activity of AP-1 and NF-kappaB are markedly increased in both CIA and RA. ... expression correlated better than AP-1 with metalloproteinase expression. ... Objective: To determine the expression and regulation of nuclear transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB in rheumatoid ...
Cation-Stress-Responsive Transcription .... Poster. Gene Regulation. 381F. Wednesday - Friday,. March 15 - March 17. Fireside ... Deletion of the AP1 transcription factor .... Poster. Pathogenic and Mutalistic Interactions. 524T. Wednesday - Friday,. March ... AP-1-type transcription factor PcYap1 is .... Poster. Gene Regulation. 443T. Wednesday - Friday,. March 15 - March 17. Fireside ... Regulation of Sulfur Metabolism in .... Poster. Gene Regulation. 406W. Wednesday - Friday,. March 15 - March 17. Fireside ...
... including regulation of cyclin D1, E2F factors and their target genes. c-Jun, which is one of the AP-1 sub units, regulates the ... Activator protein Transcription factor Hess J, Angel P, Schorpp-Kistner M (December 2004). "AP-1 subunits: quarrel and harmony ... Lee W, Mitchell P, Tjian R (June 1987). "Purified transcription factor AP-1 interacts with TPA-inducible enhancer elements". ... activation of a predetermined enhancer landscape controlled by the pioneer transcription factor AP-1", which "defines the ...
We report 5759 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 3037 were regulated by 980 miRNAs, 1528 transcription factors ... Down-regulation of DNA replication genes and up-regulation of abscisic acid pathway genes were observed. Study further reveals ... We report 5759 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 3037 were regulated by 980 miRNAs, 1528 transcription factors ... Chemical approach having new herbicide discovery has constraint of limited lead molecule options, statutory regulations and ...
... with a focus on the regulation of immune checkpoints and Tregs, seeking to extract useful insights for more efficacious ... The dimeric transcription factor complex Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) is a group of proteins involved in a wide array of cell ... In this review, we will attempt to unravel the roles of AP-1 in the regulation of anti-tumor immune responses, ... transcription factors; Tregs AP-1; immune checkpoints; PD-1; CTLA-4; PD-L1; immunotherapy; targeted therapy; transcription ...
Lee, W, Mitchell, P, Tjian, R 1987 Purified transcription factor AP-1 interacts with TPA-inducible enhancer elements. Cell 49: ... correlation with expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors. J Neurosci Res 40:707-15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... MCF7 Cell Nerve Growth Factor Phorbol Ester Estrogen Response Element Oxytocin Receptor These keywords were added by machine ... Bale T.L., Dorsa D.M. (1998) Transcriptional Regulation of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene. In: Zingg H.H., Bourque C.W., Bichet D.G ...
This study analyzes the regulation of the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun during hepatic regeneration. There is a progressive ... When primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes are incubated with epidermal growth factor or transforming growth factor-alpha, ... resulting in enhanced transcription of AP-1-dependent genes. ... The c-Jun protein is a major constituent of the AP-1 complex in ... A concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity is also observed. ...
Cross-talk between transcription factors AP-1 and NFAT in the regulation of gene expression]. ... The role of NADPH oxidase NOX4 in regulation of proliferation, senescence and differentiation of the cells]. ... Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) as a new component of the signal transduction pathway in glioma cells. ... Elevated AP-1 transcription factor DNA binding activity at the onset of functional plasticity during development of rat sensory ...
The transcription factor c-Jun binds to this AP-1 site (Weiss et al., 2003), suggesting regulation of UPRmt by the JNK pathway ... questioning its specificity in UPRmt regulation. Interestingly, both CHOP and C/EBPβ contain an AP-1 binding site in their ... contribute to the activation of transcription factor c-Jun, which binds to AP-1 elements and activates transcription of the ... The major player is the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which is activated during cellular stress and induces ...
... is a member of the forkhead box family of transcription factors. Recently, researchers discovered that overexpression of FOXK2 ... 1-3,* XueBin Zhang,2-4,* Wei Wang,1-3 ZhiZhong Zhu,5 Fan Tang,2-4 Dong Wang,6-8 Xi Liu,9 Hao Zhuang,10 XiaoLing Yan2-4 ... Cell cycle-dependent regulation of the forkhead transcription factor FOXK2 by CDK·cyclin complexes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(46): ... The forkhead transcription factor FOXK2 promotes AP-1-mediated transcriptional regulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32(2):385-398. ...
The oxidant-sensitive transcription factor of yeast, YAP1, and its orthologs in filamentous fungi, are central to tolerance to ... The oxidant-sensitive transcription factor of yeast, YAP1, and its orthologs in filamentous fungi, are central to tolerance to ... YAP1 accumulates in the nucleus, promoting transcription of genes that provide the cell with the ability to counteract ... YAP1 accumulates in the nucleus, promoting transcription of genes that provide the cell with the ability to counteract ...
By generating conditional rho-1 mutants, we dissected the function of the essential GTPase RHO1 in cell polarization and ... 9409259 - Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (erk/jnk) and ap-1 transcription factor.... 19017799 - Role of erk1/2 ... We identified NCU00668/RGF1 as RHO1-specific exchange factor, which controls actin organization and the cell wall integrity ( ... 10905049 - Janus kinases (jaks) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (stats) in .... 18762249 - Wnt-ligand- ...
May control transcription via direct regulation of the modification of histones and the assembly of chromatin. ... Involved in a variety of transcriptional responses associated with AP-1 such as UV-induced apoptosis, cell differentiation, ... Component of the AP-1 transcription factor that represses transactivation mediated by the Jun family of proteins. ... "Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ...
Buy Regulation of Organelle and Cell Compartment Signaling (9780123822130): Cell Signaling Collection Volume 3: NHBS - Edited ... 250 FOXO Transcription Factors: Key Targets of the PI3K-Akt Pathway 251 The Multi-gene Family of Transcription Factor AP-1 252 ... 253 Transcriptional Regulation via the cAMP Responsive Activator CREB 254 The NFAT Family: Structure, Regulation and Biological ... 270 Regulation of mRNA Turnover by Cellular Stress 271 Oncogenic Stress Responses 272 Ubiquitin and FANC Stress Responses 273 ...
"A Novel Strategy for Gene Therapy and Gene Regulation Analysis Using Transcription Factor Decoy Oligonucleotides," Exp.Nephrol ... The transcription factor may be, e.g., NF-κB, RBP-Jκ, AP-1, NF IL-6, SP-1, GRE, SRE, mixtures thereof and the like. The ... The NF-κB transcription factor, in conjunction with other cellular transcription factors, plays a critical role in gene ... More particularly, the thioaptamers disclosed herein may be used to modulate the activity of a transcription factor (e.g., AP-1 ...
Oeth P, Parry GCN, Mackman N: Regulation of the tissue factor gene in human monocytic cells: Role of AP-1, NF-kappaB/Rel, and ... Tissue Factor Expression in Vital Organs during Murine Traumatic Shock : Role of Transcription Factors AP-1 and NF-κB. ... Tissue Factor Expression in Vital Organs during Murine Traumatic Shock : Role of Transcription Factors AP-1 and NF-κB ... Tissue Factor Expression in Vital Organs during Murine Traumatic Shock : Role of Transcription Factors AP-1 and NF-κB ...
Publications] T.Ohno他(分担執筆): Thioredox in and its involvement in the redox regulation of transcription factors, NF-kBand AP-1 ... Publications] T.Ohno et al.: Thioredoxin and its involvement in the redox regulation of transcription factors, NF-kB and AP-1 ... Publications] T.Ohno et al.: Thioredoxin and its involvement in the redox regulation of transcription factors, NF-kB and AP-1 ... A two-step mechanism of redox regulation of transcription factor NF-kB.J.Biol.Chem.. 274. 27891-27897 (1999). *. Description. ...
... the defect in cytokine production could be caused by impaired up-regulation or activation of the proper transcription factors ... Regulation of AP-1 and NFAT transcription factors during thymic selection of T cells. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16: 1074-1084. ... Once the locus has been remodeled, it would be accessible to other transcription factors, such as NF-AT2, that could further ... The reduction in cytokine production correlated with the near absence of GATA-3 and T-bet, key transcription factors regulating ...
Sahota Gurmukh, Stormo Gary D: Novel sequence-based method for identifying transcription factor binding sites in prokaryotic ... Regulation of the Drosophila Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed gene complexes by sister chromatid cohesion proteins. ... The AP-1 transcription factor Batf controls T(H)17 differentiation. Nature 460(7253): 405-9, Jul 2009.. Kotsikorou Evangelia, ... 1-7, Feb 2015.. Sahota G, Sophocles A, Augoustides JG: Lesson 314: Preoperative Assessment of the Patient for Stent Placement. ...
Transcription factor AP-1 regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways. J. Mol. Med. 74:589-607. ... Complex regulation of SOS activity. (A) Graphic representation of the published Ras-SOScat-Ras GTP crystal structure and ... Exchange factors of the RasGRP family mediate Ras activation in the Golgi. J. Biol. Chem. 278:33465-33473. ... Regulation of ras signaling dynamics by Sos-mediated positive feedback. Curr. Biol. 16:2173-2179. ...
These results suggest that the sequence-specific DNA-binding protein JDP2 may control transcription via direct regulation of ... is a component of the AP-1 transcription factor that represses transactivation mediated by the Jun family of proteins. Here, we ... Aronheim, A., Zandi, E., Hennemann, H., Elledge, S.J. & Karin, M. Isolation of an AP-1 repressor by a novel method for ... Regulation of histone acetylation and nucleosome assembly by transcription factor JDP2. *Chunyuan Jin1,2. nAff8, ...
Rao A, Luo C, Hogan PG. Transcription factors of the NFAT family: regulation and function. Annu Rev Immunol 15: 707-747, 1997. ... EMSA was used to verify the activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. The binding of NFAT3 transcription factor to its cis- ... and dose-dependent activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. A dominant negative form of NFAT3 transcription factor inhibited H ... Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part ...
  • This was associated with an increase in the active phosphorylated form of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase concomitant with increased histone 3 phospho-acetylation, histone 4 acetylation, and increased DNA binding of the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB, independent of inhibitory protein-kappaB degradation, and activator protein 1. (nih.gov)
  • The promoter region of Cx43 contains a conserved activator protein-1 (AP-1) site, which binds dimers of Fos and Jun proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress, and bacterial and viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dimeric transcription factor complex Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) is a group of proteins involved in a wide array of cell processes and a critical regulator of nuclear gene expression during T-cell activation. (mdpi.com)
  • Several regulatory elements of interest were identified, including a cAMP response element (CRE), a serum response element (SRE), several activator protein-1 elements (AP-1) in addition to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE). (springer.com)
  • The NFAT3 binding site in the promoters of most genes contains a weak activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site adjacent to the core consensus NFAT binding sequence. (physiology.org)
  • We and others have previously shown that HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) sensitizes T cells toward CD95-mediated apoptosis and up-regulates CD95L expression by affecting the cellular redox balance. (jimmunol.org)
  • Young and his team will examine the role of ER stress in the activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1), a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, in hypothalamic neurons during the development of NAFLD. (eurekalert.org)
  • The pro-haematopoietic effects of EETs were conserved in the developing zebrafish embryo, where 11,12-EET promoted HSPC specification by activating a unique activator protein 1 (AP-1) and runx1 transcription program autonomous to the haemogenic endothelium. (zfin.org)
  • The expression of MMP genes is primarily regulated through transcriptional factors such as activator protein-1 (AP-1) and/or nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) via mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathways ( 10 - 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Nuclear translocation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were also measured by electromobility shift assay in BAL fluid leucocytes and lung biopsy samples. (bmj.com)
  • 3- 5 Transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) that are important for gene transcription of the inflammatory cytokines associated with airway inflammation in COPD-such as interleukin (IL)-8, tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), and IL-6) 1, 2, 6 -are oxidant sensitive. (bmj.com)
  • This chapter focuses on these modifications, which take place in the absence of protein synthesis, and on auxiliary factors involved in modulating activator protein (AP-1) function. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • In addition to the already known free radical scavenging effect, flavonoids exert beneficial effects through the interaction with nuclear transcription factor kappa-B, activator protein 1, Janus kinases and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling pathways. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated the impact of YB-1 expression on the clinical outcome in breast cancer patients ( n = 83) and compared it with expression of the tumor-biologic factors HER2, 7 urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), 8 which are already in use for clinical decision making. (wiley.com)
  • A comparison of the microarray and proteomic datasets allowed for the identification of a number of candidate proteins that are post-transcriptionally regulated by elevated inorganic phosphate, including Fra-1, a member of the activator protein-1 family of transcription factors. (mcponline.org)
  • Much less, however, is known about the role of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in ABC DLBCL. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The target of this work was to identify control points in the fos, jun and myc genes expression and in the AP-1 transcription factors (Fos and Jun proteins dimers) by ACTH, cAMP derivatives (PKA activators), PMA (PKC activator) and FCS (Fetal Calf Serum). (usp.br)
  • Here, we show that both AP-1 and NFAT transcriptional activities are not inducible in the majority of DP cells but that during the differentiation of DP cells to the mature single-positive stage, thymocytes regain this inducibility. (asm.org)
  • Indeed AP-1 inducibility, just like the ability to express the interleukin-2 gene, is reacquired during the differentiation of DP TcRlow CD69low heat-stable antigen (HSA)high thymocytes to DP TcRhigh CD69high HSAhigh cells, which is considered to be the consequence of the first signal that initiates positive selection. (asm.org)
  • We therefore propose that the inability of DP thymocytes to induce AP-1 and NFAT activities is one of the causes for the lack of cytokine gene expression at this stage and that this inducibility is reacquired at the latest stage of DP differentiation as a consequence of positive selection. (asm.org)
  • AP-1 controls a number of cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to have a hand in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involved in a variety of transcriptional responses associated with AP-1 such as UV-induced apoptosis, cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and antitumogeneris. (uniprot.org)
  • The AP-1 transcription factor Batf controls T(H)17 differentiation. (upenn.edu)
  • Figure 5: Role of histone-binding and HAT-inhibition activities of JDP2 in transcription and differentiation of F9 cells. (nature.com)
  • Since the establishment of all- trans retinoic acid as a differentiation therapy to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), APL has become a curable subtype of AML ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These factors regulate development and differentiation of neurons by acting through various receptors and their signaling pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • c jun and cfos (components of transcription factor AP1) regulate cellular growth and differentiation and also exert a regulatory role in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. (springer.com)
  • However, PRC2 removal is not sufficient for activation of differentiation genes and, in addition, ΔN-JARID2 is required for their up-regulation likely through, directly or indirectly, facilitating transcription factors such as AP-1. (genengnews.com)
  • JARID2 knockout in keratinocytes results in up‐regulation of cell cycle genes and repression of many epidermal differentiation genes. (genengnews.com)
  • We propose that a switch from expression of full‐length JARID2 to ΔN‐JARID2 is important for the up‐regulation differentiation genes. (genengnews.com)
  • AP-1 proteins play a role in the expression of many genes involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. (activemotif.com)
  • Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is a family of transcription factors implicated in multiple biological processes including cytokine gene expression, cardiac hypertrophy and adipocyte differentiation. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. (uniprot.org)
  • Using the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast differentiation model ( 1 - 3 ), we have recently described the significance of inorganic phosphate, which is generated during differentiation, as a signaling molecule capable of altering specific signal transduction pathways, gene expression, and ultimately mineralization ( 4 , 5 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Here, we show that AP-1, like NF-κB, was controlled by constitutive activation of the B-cell receptor signaling component caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase 1 (CARMA1) and/or the Toll-like receptor signaling component myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in ABC DLBCL cell lines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Defects in ARD1A have been shown to cause amino-terminal acetyltransferase deficiency (NATD), which results in severe delays and defects in postnatal growth (6).In addition to functioning as amino-terminal acetyltransferases in the NatA complex, free ARD1A and ARD1B proteins regulate cell growth and differentiation through ε-amino acetylation of lysine residues in multiple target proteins, including the HIF-1α, β-catenin, and AP-1 transcription factors (7-9). (cellsignal.com)
  • Therefore, AP-1-mediated regulation of processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and transformation should be considered within the context of a complex dynamic network of signalling pathways and other nuclear factors that respond simultaneously. (biologists.org)
  • We demonstrated that both PPARα (clofibrate and ciprofibrate) and PPARγ ligands (troglitazone and 15 deoxy-prostaglandin J2, 15d-PGJ2) inhibited growth, induced the onset of monocytic-like differentiation, and increased the proportion of G 0 /G 1 cells in the HL-60 leukemic cell line. (aspetjournals.org)
  • While proteins related to the Yap1 and Pap1 basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors have been identified in a number of filamentous fungi, the components involved in the upstream regulation remain unclear. (massey.ac.nz)
  • The structure of AP-1 is a heterodimer composed of proteins belonging to the c-Fos, c-Jun, ATF and JDP families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Component of the AP-1 transcription factor that represses transactivation mediated by the Jun family of proteins. (uniprot.org)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the steps of identifying the protein by mass spectrometry is preceded by the steps of extracting and separating the proteins by liquid chromatography. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more thioaptamers bound to one or more proteins are isolated from a gel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more thioaptamers are attached to beads and the one or more proteins that have bound the one or more thioaptamers are labeled and the beads are sorted based on protein binding. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 10. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more thioaptamers are attached to beads and the step of selecting one or more beads to which one or more proteins has bound is defined further as being fluorescent sorting using a flow-cytometer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more proteins is further defined as being a cell extract. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Regulation of the Drosophila Enhancer of split and invected-engrailed gene complexes by sister chromatid cohesion proteins. (upenn.edu)
  • The cycle of Ras activation is under the control of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and Ras GTPase-activating proteins (RasGAPs). (asm.org)
  • Jun dimerization protein-2 (JDP2) is a component of the AP-1 transcription factor that represses transactivation mediated by the Jun family of proteins. (nature.com)
  • Whether transcription factors such as AP-1 proteins participate in modulating expression of SERT gene is discussed. (mcmaster.ca)
  • 18 One of these transcripts, follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1), is a member of the follistatin family of factors that bind to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • The c-Jun and ATF2 proteins are members of the bZIP group that function as components of AP-1 and AP-1-like transcription factors. (pnas.org)
  • These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. (genecards.org)
  • For this process the RNA is associated with nuclear proteins that aid in splicing and nuclear export [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA-binding proteins (RBP) are involved in ( 1 ) splicing and alternative splicing of hnRNA, resulting in the formation of mRNAs. (mdpi.com)
  • Changing the composition of the dimers can result in AP-1 proteins with a dramatically different transactivation potential. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • Recombinant c-Fos and Recombinant c-Jun proteins are available separately to generate an optional protein standard curve in the TransAM AP-1 Transcription Factor ELISA kits. (activemotif.com)
  • In addition to forming transcriptionally active homodimers with AP-1 members, Jun proteins can also bind to form transcriptionally active heterodimers with CREB/ATF members to bind the CRE element. (activemotif.com)
  • Once in the nucleus, NFAT proteins act synergistically with the AP-1 transcription factor complex to regulate the expression of multiple genes. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The terminal phenotype of a given cell response remains a poorly understood combination of changes in signal transduction pathways, promoter regulation, mRNA processing and subsequent protein abundance, and post-translational regulation of proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Additionally, some members of the ATF (ATFa, ATF-2 and ATF-3) and JDP (JDP-1 and JDP-2) subfamilies, which share structural similarities and form heterodimeric complexes with AP-1 proteins (predominantly with Jun proteins), can bind to TRE-like sequences. (biologists.org)
  • Each of these proteins is differentially expressed and regulated, which means that every cell type has a complex mixture of AP-1 dimers with subtly different functions (reviewed by Wagner, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • A common feature of all these proteins is the evolutionarily conserved bZIP domain, the collective term for a basic DNA-binding domain combined with a leucine zipper region ( Fig. 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • Sp1, and NF-kB.Western blot analysis of these transcription factors revealed that tBHQ induced de novo sysnthesis of these proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This work provides a comprehensive analysis of the role and regulation of the AP-1 transcription factor pathway in a filamentous fungal species. (massey.ac.nz)
  • Down-regulation of DNA replication genes and up-regulation of abscisic acid pathway genes were observed. (frontiersin.org)
  • TISSUE factor (TF) is a cell-surface glycoprotein responsible for initiating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. (asahq.org)
  • The calcineurin/NFAT3 pathway can be activated by classical hypertrophy inducers, including ANG II, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and catecholamines ( 27 , 49 ). (physiology.org)
  • The RAS signaling pathway is also modulated, with 5% to 50% of OSCC having mutated RAS and 45% to 80% having overexpressed nonmutated RAS ( 1 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Regulated AP-1 transcriptional activity, a target of the JNK signal transduction pathway, was also selectively blocked in MKK4 (−/−) cells. (pnas.org)
  • These data indicate a central role for the MAP kinase kinase MKK4 in the JNK signal transduction pathway ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • This pathway is crucial for optimal CD95L induction ( 28 , 29 ) and is involved in induction of the transcription factor AP-1 (Fos/Jun) ( 30 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings reveal the basis for P2Y purinergic receptor regulation of endothelial TF expression and indicate that targeting the P2Y2R-Fra-1-TF pathway may be an attractive new strategy in control of vascular thrombogenicity and/or inflammation associated with endothelial dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Upregulation or downregulation of the p38 pathway regulates YAP-mediated transcription. (sdbonline.org)
  • This work thus reveals a conserved crosstalk between the p38 MAPK pathway and the Hippo pathway in growth regulation. (sdbonline.org)
  • In addition, recent studies on p38 MAPK in thmocytes have led her to identify a novel mechanism by which p38 MAPK can mediate cell survival (an unconventional function of this pathway) through the regulation of GSK3? (uvm.edu)
  • Expression of podoplanin in human astrocytic brain tumors is controlled by the PI3K-AKT-AP-1 signaling pathway and promoter methylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Together, our findings show that increased PDPN expression in human GB is caused by loss of PTEN function and activation of the PI3K-AKT-AP-1 signaling pathway, accompanied by epigenetic regulation of PDPN promoter activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These findings indicate that the up-regulation of the eNOS gene transactivity by LPC involves the enhancement of SP1 transcription factor by the activation of JNK and ERK1/2 signalling pathways and AP1 transcription factor by the activation of JNK signalling pathway. (nih.gov)
  • We find that the AP-1 transcription factor FOS serves as a convergence point for this signal and for the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, which promotes ISC proliferation in response to stress. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we show that the EGF Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the regulation of ISC proliferation. (biologists.org)
  • On the other hand, involvement of α 1 -adrenoceptors and the signaling pathway PKC activation in norepinephrine-induced VEGF expression in brown adipocytes appears to be minimal, 16 and, conversely, it has been reported that the α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin triggers the augmented production of VEGF in mouse skeletal muscles through shear stress-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • A common pathway responsible for cytokine induction in all of these systems involves chemical-medicated, cellular oxidative stress, which, in turn, activates nuclear transcription factors, such as NF-kB, NF-IL-6 and AP-1. (cdc.gov)
  • Cancer immunotherapy using PolyPurine Reverse Hoogsteen hairpins targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in human tumor cells. (ub.edu)
  • However, sensing of the redox signal (H 2 O 2 ) is mediated by the glutathione peroxidase Gpx3 (also known as Hyr1 [hydrogen peroxide resistance protein 1] or ORP1 [oxidant receptor peroxidase 1]) rather than by Yap1 itself, resulting in oxidation of a conserved Cys in Gpx3 to a sulfenic acid ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • This protein functions as an essential signal transducer in the interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. (cancerindex.org)
  • Connexin26 is regulated in rat urothelium by the scaffold protein IB1/JIP-1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The AP-1 subunit Jun was identified as a novel oncoprotein of avian sarcoma virus, and Fos-associated p39 protein was identified as the transcript of the cellular Jun gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The c-Jun protein is a major constituent of the AP-1 complex in quiescent and early regenerating liver. (jci.org)
  • When primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes are incubated with epidermal growth factor or transforming growth factor-alpha, AP-1 transcriptional activity is increased and the activation domain of the c-Jun protein is further potentiated. (jci.org)
  • IRF2-binding protein-1 is a JDP2 ubiquitin ligase and an inhibitor of ATF2-dependent transcription. (uniprot.org)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of separating the protein into fragments prior to separation by liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the steps of identifying the protein using mass spectrometry comprises matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 13. The method of claim 1, wherein one or more thioaptamers are attached to beads and the beads are substantially protein-free. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These results suggest that the sequence-specific DNA-binding protein JDP2 may control transcription via direct regulation of the modification of histones and the assembly of chromatin. (nature.com)
  • Regulation of histone acetyltransferases p300 and PCAF by the bHLH protein Twist and adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. (nature.com)
  • Control of the histone-acetyltransferase activity of Tip60 by the HIV-1 transactivator protein, Tat. (nature.com)
  • Karin M, Hunter T. Transcription control by protein phosphorylation: signal transmission from the cell surface to the nucleus. (springer.com)
  • Su B, Karin M. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and the regulation of gene expression. (springer.com)
  • A protein kinase involved in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Transcription factor AP-1 regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways. (springer.com)
  • Exposure of A498 cells to a cytokine mixture consisting of interferon gamma, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) increased nitrite production, iNOS mRNA and protein expression. (deepdyve.com)
  • The possible interaction of these transcription factors with the conserved AP-1 motifs present in MT promoters has been corroborated by protein-DNA interaction experiments. (ucm.es)
  • Conclusions- These results indicate that Fstl1 is a cardiac-secreted factor that functions as an antiapoptotic protein. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, it was determined that human lung cancer cells with Ras mutations, among other popular mutations, showed significantly higher expression of CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) than those without. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CUB domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1), also known as SIMA135, gp140, and Trask ( 6-8 ), is a transmembrane glycoprotein and a major substrate of Src family kinases (SFK) in cancer cells ( 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Three distinct groups of mammalian enzymes closely related to mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been identified: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 MAP kinase, and c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In an electrophoretic mobility-shift assay, the ferritin-L ARE was bound by ARE-binding protein 1, a protein previously identified as the likely mediator of the chemoprotective response. (pnas.org)
  • CD95 (Apo-1/Fas), a member of the TNFR superfamily ( 2 , 3 ), and its ligand (CD95L), 3 a type II transmembrane protein of the corresponding TNF family ( 4 ), are important initiators of apoptosis ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We have previously shown that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induced the up-regulation of the sialyltransferase gene ST3GAL4 (α2,3-sialyltransferase gene) BX transcript through mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1/2 (MSK1/2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. (portlandpress.com)
  • FOSB (FosB Proto-Oncogene, AP-1 Transcription Factor Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Cadmium tolerance mediated by the yeast AP-1 protein requires the presence of an ATP-binding cassette transporter-encoding gene, YCF1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Plasma levels of lycopene, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3, and prostate-specific antigen were measured at baseline and after 3 weeks of supplementation or observation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, PFIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the expression level of COX-2, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in A549 cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 1 ], Nrf2 controls 1055 protein-coding genes in mice. (intechopen.com)
  • The protein, termed IP-1, is present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells and reduces AP-1 complex formation with DNA in a rapid and phosphorylation-dependent fashion. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • In human glioma cells lacking functional PTEN, reintroduction of wild-type PTEN, inhibition of the PTEN downstream target protein kinase B/AKT, or interference with transcription factor AP-1 function resulted in efficient downregulation of PDPN expression. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells, TNF-α mediates CD38 expression through mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB and AP-1. (nih.gov)
  • The transcription factor AP-1 is composed of a mixture of heterodimeric protein complexes derived from the Fos and Jun families, including c-Fos , FosB , Fra-1 , c-Jun , JunB and JunD . (activemotif.com)
  • We have previously shown that the Y-box protein YB-1 is involved in regulating transcription of the P-glycoprotein gene mdr1 and that nuclear localization of YB-1 in human breast cancer is associated with increased P-glycoprotein expression. (wiley.com)
  • Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting were performed to evaluate matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) expression and activation of specificity protein-1 (Sp1) and protein kinase B (AKT) in ARPE-19 cells treated with EGF and with or without fisetin. (molvis.org)
  • Two transcription factors, nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) and specificity protein 1 (Sp1), directly bind to these cis -acting elements in CYP3A proximal promoters in HepG2 cells and porcine hepatocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Although c-Jun phosphorylation is also observed as a result of JNK activation, ongoing host protein synthesis is not essential for the apoptotic induction, suggesting that c-Jun- or other AP-1-driven activation of gene expression is dispensable in this process. (jove.com)
  • The ET system consists of two G-protein-coupled receptors (ET receptors A and B, ETRs), three peptides (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3), and two activating peptidases (ECE-1 and ECE-2). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Background: MYST3, also known as Monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (MOZ) and lysine acetyltransferase 6A (KAT6), is a member of the MYST (MOZ, YBF2, SAS2, and TIP60) family of histone acetyltransferases (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • The N-α-acetyltransferase ARD1 homolog A protein (ARD1A, also known as NAA10) and the highly homologous N-α-acetyltransferase ARD1 homolog B protein (ARD1B, also known as ARD2 or NAA11) are mutually exclusive catalytic subunits of the amino-terminal acetyltransferase complex (NatA) (1-3). (cellsignal.com)
  • This complex, which consists of either ARD1A or ARD1B and the N-α-acetyltransferase 15 (NAA15) auxiliary protein, localizes to ribosomes where it functions to acetylate Ser-, Ala-, Gly-, Thr-, Cys-, Pro-, and Val- amino termini after initiator methionine cleavage during protein translation (1-5). (cellsignal.com)
  • The AP-1 transcription factor is mainly composed of Jun, Fos and ATF protein dimers. (biologists.org)
  • Much of our current knowledge about the characteristics of transcription factors comes from the discovery and study of activating protein 1 (AP-1). (biologists.org)
  • AP-1 collectively describes a group of structurally and functionally related members of the Jun protein family [Jun (originally described as c-Jun), JunB and JunD] and Fos protein family [Fos (originally described as c-Fos), FosB, Fra-1 and Fra-2]. (biologists.org)
  • ACTH, PMA and dcAMP raise the AP-1 DNA binding activity, independently of protein synthesis. (usp.br)
  • Stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells with SP was found to up-regulate the production of inflammatory mediators, specifically chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α ( Ramnath and Bhatia, 2006 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Intracellular gene transcription factor protein-guided MRI by DNA aptamers in vivo. (harvard.edu)
  • We don't yet understand the changes that occur in the nervous system, however, they are crucial in the acute and long-term regulation of liver metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
  • ET-1 is the predominant neural ET and plays a critical role in abnormal vascular endothelial cell permeability and inflammation after SCI, while the upregulation of ET-1 modulates behavior and the metabolism without affecting cerebral blood flow ( 23 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • ARD1A-mediated acetylation of HIF-1α at Lys532 under normoxic conditions enhances binding of VHL, leading to increased ubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1α and down-regulation of HIF-1α target genes involved in angiogenesis, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, and glucose metabolism (7). (cellsignal.com)
  • Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important steroid hormones with widespread activities in metabolism, development, and immune regulation. (rupress.org)
  • In CIA, activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB precede both clinical arthritis and metalloproteinase gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The growth factors TGF alpha, TGF beta, and IL2 have all been shown to stimulate c-Fos, and thereby stimulate cellular proliferation via AP-1 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In transfection assays, PKC and PKA activation by phorbol ester and forskolin treatment optimally enhanced transcription of the OTR gene. (springer.com)
  • Combining the results of these in vivo and culture studies, we conclude that the minimal stimulation of one-third PH activates JNK, which phosphorylates the c-Jun activation domain in hepatocytes, resulting in enhanced transcription of AP-1-dependent genes. (jci.org)
  • Son of Sevenless 1 and 2 (SOS1 and -2, respectively) are ubiquitously expressed mammalian RasGEFs that are recruited to the membrane by the adapter Grb2 following growth factor or antigen receptor stimulation which can lead to activation of membrane-anchored Ras ( 6 , 17 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine inducers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy such as angiotensin II (ANG II) and serves as an important molecular regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (physiology.org)
  • H 2 O 2 induces a time- and dose-dependent activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. (physiology.org)
  • ERK inhibitor PD98059 was found previously to inhibit AP-1 activation by H 2 O 2 . (physiology.org)
  • NFAT3 promoter containing the core NFAT cis -element without AP-1 binding site failed to show activation by H 2 O 2 treatment. (physiology.org)
  • Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part to the changes in gene expression associated with hypertrophy ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • Mechanistically, ROS produced in diabetes induced c-Src-dependent but VEGF-C-independent VEGFR3 phosphorylation, and upregulated epsins through the activation of transcription factor AP-1. (jci.org)
  • Similarly, JNK phosphorylate two sites (Thr-69 and Thr-71) on the NH 2 terminal activation domain of the transcription factor ATF2 ( 11 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, the activation of c-Jun and ATF2 by JNK has been proposed to account, in part, for the regulation of AP-1 transcriptional activity ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, angiotensin II is well known to accelerate atherogenesis through activation of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). (ahajournals.org)
  • 17 Intriguingly, an LXR agonist inhibited nuclear factor-κB activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • There's mounting evidence that suggests ER stress-induced transcription factor activation is involved in the development of NAFLD," said Colin Young, PhD, assistant professor of pharmacology and physiology at the GW School of Medicine and Health Sciences. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dissecting the links between ER stress and transcription factor activation in NAFLD development has the potential to identify new therapeutic targets for the treatment and prevention of this condition. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers will use a combination of innovative imaging, molecular, neuroanatomical and integrative physiological approaches to address the hypothesis that hepatic sympathetic overactivity due to ER stress-induced AP-1 activation in forebrain-hypothalamic circuits is critical in driving NAFLD. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previously we reported that the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) is one of the predominant purinergic receptors expressed in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC), and that P2Y2R activation by ATP or UTP induces dramatic up-regulation of tissue factor (TF), key initiator of the coagulation cascade. (ahajournals.org)
  • Truncation, deletion, and mutation of this new distal AP-1 site all significantly supressed TF promoter activity in response to P2Y2R activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • EMSA and ChIP assays further confirmed that upon P2Y2R activation, c-Jun, ATF-2 and Fra-1, but not the typical c-Fos, bound to the new AP-1 site. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that P2Y2R activation promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation, leading to Fra-1 activation while JNK activated c-Jun and ATF-2. (ahajournals.org)
  • A/B, C, D, and E/F indicate N-terminal A/B domain containing a ligand-independent activation function 1, DNA-binding domain (DBD), hinge region, and C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD), respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • 14 17 18 We previously showed that Rac and Src are involved in interleukin-1β (IL)-, isoproterenol (ISO)-, and dibutyryl cAMP-induced activation of the hBNP promoter, 19 20 so we questioned whether they would also be involved in the effects of ET. (ahajournals.org)
  • The stimulation of LPC highly activated both extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), with differences in the dynamic processes of activation between them. (nih.gov)
  • CD38 expression and activation of Akt, NF-κB, and AP-1 were determined. (nih.gov)
  • TransAM ® Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that facilitate the study of transcription factor activation in mammalian tissue and cell extracts. (activemotif.com)
  • Figure 1: AP-1 family profiling for DNA binding activation upon stimulation with TPA. (activemotif.com)
  • A hallmark of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the activated B-cell (ABC) type, a molecular subtype characterized by adverse outcome, is constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which controls expression of genes promoting cellular survival and proliferation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These findings identify the activation of AP-1 complexes of the Jun/ATF-type as an important element controlling the growth of ABC DLBCL. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2 The ABC subtype of DLBCL is characterized by adverse prognosis and constitutive activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Dual Regulations by α 2 -Adrenoceptor Activation? (ahajournals.org)
  • Xu M, Shi H, Wang H, Gao X. Salidroside protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in HUVECs via the regulation of REDD1 and mTOR activation. (labome.org)
  • Functionally, BATF in cooperation with Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 4 along with Stat3 and Stat6 trigger IL-4 production in Tfh cells by directly binding to and activation of the CNS2 region in the IL-4 locus. (omicsonline.org)
  • Chemical-induced activation of nuclear transcription factors and their regulation of cytokine secretion. (cdc.gov)
  • Activation of PPARγ by rosiglitazone or pioglitazone significantly reduced TNF-α and PMA induced MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity in a concentration dependent manner in both cell lines, but did not alter the expression of tissue inhibitor of MMPs type 1 (TIMP-1), the local inhibitor of MMP-9. (bmj.com)
  • 7 Recent work has shown that TNF-α induced MMP-9 expression in bronchial epithelial cells is regulated by activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. (bmj.com)
  • Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear transcription factor originally described as a major regulator in glucose homeostasis and adipogenesis, 8 but recent work has shown that PPARγ activation might exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in different chronic inflammatory processes. (bmj.com)
  • Although efficient intestinal immune responses protect the host from invading pathogens, the inappropriate activation of intestinal T cells may also result in chronic inflammatory reactions and tissue destruction, e.g., as observed in inflammatory bowel disease (for review see reference 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • Thus, a tight regulation of intestinal immune cells and their activation is crucial to maintain tissue homeostasis and ensure protective host defense. (rupress.org)
  • Although the antiinflammatory activity of GCs is well described, there is also accumulating evidence that GCs are not only inhibitory, but may also enhance immune cell activation and induce gene transcription ( 10 , 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • In an attempt to understand the molecular basis of this specific regulatin, we use AP-1-luciferase and newly generated NFAT-luciferase transgenic mice to analyze the transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of these two transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of cytokine gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Regulation of connexin43 expression by c-fos and c-jun in myometrial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We constructed expression vectors for c-Fos and c-Jun to investigate the role of these transcription factors in the regulation of Cx43 expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These data indicate that the transcription factors c-Fos and c-Jun are important in the regulation of Cx43 expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To determine the expression and regulation of nuclear transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB in rheumatoid arthritis and in collagen-induced arthritis in mice. (nih.gov)
  • AP-1 and NF-kappaB expression and function were determined in RA, OA and normal synovial tissue by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and immunohistochemistry. (nih.gov)
  • The kinetics of transcription factor expression were then examined in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. (nih.gov)
  • In CIA, AP-1 and NF-kappaB expression increased by day 20, which was 1-2 weeks before onset of clinical arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • NF-kappaB expression correlated better than AP-1 with metalloproteinase expression. (nih.gov)
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 transcription is deeply involved in the modulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signal transduction is mediated by transcription factors that reprogram gene expression to cope with the stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • Regulation of CD31 expression and IL-4 production by naive human cord blood CD4+ T cells with IL-4 and IL-7. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The reduction in cytokine production correlated with the near absence of GATA-3 and T-bet, key transcription factors regulating cytokine expression and maturation of NKT cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Regulation of CD44 expression remains incompletely understood in head and neck cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antibodies for serotonin transporter (SERT) were used to assess expression of SERT in neuronal and non-neuronal cells, and to investigate trancriptional and post-tranlational regulations of this gene. (mcmaster.ca)
  • MT gene expression is normally induced by a broad variety of stimulus and its gene expression regulation mainly occurs at a transcriptional level. (ucm.es)
  • These motifs show a consensus sequence very similar to AP-1 sites, and bZIP type transcription factors might participate in the MT gene expression regulation. (ucm.es)
  • For the first time, and based on our findings, a possible gene expression regulation model including both AP-1 transcription factors and MT genes from the ciliate T. thermophila has been elaborated. (ucm.es)
  • Complementation studies demonstrated that the defective AP-1 transcriptional activity was restored by transfection of MKK4 (−/−) cells with an MKK4 expression vector. (pnas.org)
  • A model of the ARE as a composite regulatory site, where multiple transcription factors interact, is presented to account for the complex characteristics of ARE-mediated chemoprotective gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • COX-1 is a housekeeping gene with essentially constant levels of expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Up-regulation of CD95 and CD95L expression in T lymphocytes of HIV-1-infected individuals may contribute to T cell depletion in AIDS ( 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because CD95L expression is crucial in the induction of AICD, efforts have been made to explore the connection between TCR signaling and its regulation. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the present study, we tested whether LXRs are involved in the regulation of AT1R gene expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • Under stress conditions, the activity of yAP-1 is increased, leading to the induced expression of a number of target genes encoding protective enzymes or molecules. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PPAR-gamma inhibits gene expression in part by antagonizing the activities of the transcription factors AP-1, STAT and NF-kappaB. (nih.gov)
  • To facilitate long-lasting alterations in central nervous system function, there needs to be changes in gene expression through regulation of inducible transcription factors," Young explained. (eurekalert.org)
  • Accordingly, over-expression of these transcription factors in D. melanogaster is sufficient to induce transcription of p38Kb and enhances resistance to oxidative stress. (sdbonline.org)
  • Although 645 of the 1055 Nrf2 target genes were found to have basal type of expression regulation by this factor [ 1 ], Nrf2 is still required to be present in the nucleus in significant amounts to drive their expression. (intechopen.com)
  • 8 The ET A receptor is the predominant type in neonatal ventricular myocytes (NVMs) and is coupled to both Gα i and Gα q . 8 9 ET is a hypertrophic growth factor in NVMs and induces expression of several cardiac genes, including atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), BNP, and cardiac α- and β-myosin heavy-chain genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14 15 16 Src and the small GTPases Ras and Rac have been implicated in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy and the expression of ANF and other genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The fact that components of the AP-1 transcription factor are involved as "third messengers" in several signal transduction pathways implies that their expression, DNA binding activity and transcriptional activity, is finely controlled. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • In addition, we observed hypoxia-dependent PDPN transcriptional control and demonstrated that PDPN expression is subject to negative transcriptional regulation by promoter methylation in human GB and in glioma cell lines. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Regulation of CD38 expression in human airway smooth muscle cells: role of class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinases. (nih.gov)
  • We examined expression level of miR-663a in 62 cases of NSCLC tissues and 5 NSCLC cell lines by reverse transcription PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AP-1 expression is induced by multiple stimuli, including the presence of serum, growth factors, phorbol esters and oncogenes. (activemotif.com)
  • Expression of isoforms is tissue specific, suggesting tight tissue-specific regulation of expression. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 1 In the experimental setting, expression of P-glycoprotein confers cross-resistance to a variety of cytotoxic agents differing in structure and mechanism of action ( e.g. , anthracyclines, vinca alkaloids, epipodophyllotoxins and taxanes), resulting in a multidrug-resistant phenotype. (wiley.com)
  • Notably, YB-1 is not only a key regulator for P-glycoprotein expression 1 but also functions in additional biologic processes that contribute to the development of a malignant phenotype. (wiley.com)
  • These data demonstrate a role for NFκB in the regulation of MMP-9 expression and the ability of dykellic acid to suppress this action of NFκB. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Therefore, the regulation of MMPs occurs at three levels: gene expression, proenzyme processing, and inhibition of enzymatic activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Until recently, little was known about the signaling mechanism of neuregulin in the regulation of AChR gene expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neuregulin induced expression of immediate early genes c-jun and c-fos and activated c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK), both of which were required for the ε-promoter transcription. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1 Based on gene expression profiling (GEP), 3 distinct subtypes of DLBCL have been identified, namely the germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB), activated B-cell (ABC), and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma subtypes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Few orthologs showed similar expression regulation between the two growth phases, which suggests that, globally, the genes associated with these two life forms are poorly conserved. (g3journal.org)
  • 1 Furthermore, numerous studies in vivo have shown that expression of VEGF and its receptors is upregulated during angiogenesis under physiological and pathological processes, such as development of the embryo, 2-4 estrous cycle, 5 tumor growth, 6,7 and wound healing. (ahajournals.org)
  • Different mechanisms appear to participate in the regulation of VEGF mRNA expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this issue of Circulation Research , Muthig et al demonstrate a critical role for α 2B -adrenoceptors in VEGF-associated angiogenic regulation in the placenta via the suppression of expression of the VEGF receptor-1 (Flt-1) and its soluble splice variant (sFlt-1). (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, truncated FOSB acted as an active transcription factor capable to regulate its own transcription, as well as to upregulate PDGFRA and FLT1 expression (four-fold). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, hCG is an important paracrine or autocrine hormone maintaining 11beta-HSD2 expression and the up-regulation of 11beta-HSD2 expression by cortisol may be mediated in part by hCG in the syncytiotrophoblasts. (labome.org)
  • In the current study, we found that the transcription factor BATF, a member of the AP-1/Jun family is essential for IL-4 expression in Tfh cells rather than in canonical Th2 cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • IL-4 acts as an autocrine factor in controlling BATF-mediated IL-4 expression in Tfh cells. (omicsonline.org)
  • MMP-9 expression is induced by inflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but to date nothing is known about the mechanisms of inhibition of MMP-9 expression in these cells. (bmj.com)
  • A study was undertaken to examine whether activators of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) might modulate MMP-9 expression in two different bronchial epithelial cell lines. (bmj.com)
  • 3 MMP-9 is increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 4 and bronchial tissue in patients with bronchial asthma, 5, 6 while the expression of TIMP-1 is increased to a lesser extent, thus shifting the balance towards matrix degradation in the airway wall. (bmj.com)
  • Various proinflammatory mediators such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and platelet activating factor (PAF) released from inflammatory cells in the airway system are potent inducers of MMP-9 but not MMP-2 expression. (bmj.com)
  • Decreased expression of ARD1A under hypoxic conditions contributes to the stabilization of HIF-1α and upregulation of target genes (7). (cellsignal.com)
  • ARD1A also promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by acetylating and activating β-catenin and AP-1 transcription factors, leading to the stimulation of cyclin D1 expression (8,9). (cellsignal.com)
  • A novel DNA-binding motif in prostate tumor overexpressed-1 (PTOV1) required for the expression of ALDH1A1 and CCNG2 in cancer cells. (ub.edu)
  • Probably, the cell cycle regulation by ACTH is mediated by the expression control of the proto-oncogenes from the fos, jun and myc families. (usp.br)
  • In this study, we investigated the unexplored mechanisms that mediate SP and NK1R expression using an in vitro AP model. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that supraphysiological concentrations of caerulein up-regulate the expression of SP and NK1R in pancreatic acinar cells, and the signaling molecules that are involved in this up-regulation include ERK1/2, JNK, NF-κB, and AP-1. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The down-regulations of c-myb and cyclin D2 expression represent the first evidence of the inhibitory effect exerted by PPAR ligands on these genes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The articles are written and edited by experts in the field and emphasize signaling to and from intracellular compartments including transcriptional responses to cytoplasmic and nuclear signaling events, chromatin remodeling and stress responses, the regulation of endoplasmic reticulum function, control of cell cycle progression and apoptosis and the modulation of the activities of mitochondria and other organelles. (nhbs.com)
  • In AICD, CD95 (Apo-1/Fas) ligand (L) triggers apoptosis of CD95-positive activated T lymphocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • H 2 O 2 generated by HIV-1 Tat combines with CD4-dependent calcium influx and causes massive T cell apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Apoptosis is a morphologically distinct form of cell death involved in many physiological and pathological processes ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this review, we will attempt to unravel the roles of AP-1 in the regulation of anti-tumor immune responses, with a focus on the regulation of immune checkpoints and Tregs, seeking to extract useful insights for more efficacious immunotherapy. (mdpi.com)
  • During stimulation by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), tumor necrosis factor, and other factors, cells initiate transcription of TF. (asahq.org)
  • Infliximab (climatic anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody) versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving concomitant methotrexate: a randomized phase II trial. (springer.com)
  • Cancers originate from genetic alterations such as the loss of tumor suppression genes and the acquisition of tumor promoting or oncogenic genes, which results in uncontrolled cell growth or behavior ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hence, identification of these biological factors and elucidation of their regulatory pathways in governing tumor development, invasion, and metastasis is an important step toward the rational design of drugs for treatment of advanced NSCLC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF a) and certain members of the neutrophil chemoattractant family of chemokines (CXC), including interleukin-8, play major roles in these responses. (cdc.gov)
  • Silencing PD-1 and PD-L1: the potential of PolyPurine Reverse Hoogsteen hairpins for the elimination of tumor cells. (ub.edu)
  • In this review we discuss the complex molecular mechanisms of proteotoxic stress responses in different cellular compartments with a focus on the UPR mt and its role in health and life-span regulation. (biologists.org)
  • Regulation of histone acetylation and transcription by INHAT, a human cellular complex containing the Set oncoprotein. (nature.com)
  • These MAP kinases phosphorylate distinct groups of substrates in vitro and have been implicated in the regulation of fundamental cellular processes ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • This raises a question: how does NRF2, being a well-known stand-by inducible transcription factor curbed in cytoplasm by KEAP1, fit into cellular context with so many target genes? (intechopen.com)
  • The tuning of AP-1 activity is necessary to allow a flexible regulation in response to different cellular stimuli. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • AP-1 activity also appears to be modulated by cellular translocation. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • We are currently investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hormone and growth factor regulation of vasodilatation and angiogenesis at the maternal, fetal and placental interface with focus on reactive nitrogen and oxygen species as well as reactive sulfides. (uci.edu)
  • This includes cellular response to environmental stress 4 as well as regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation 5 and metastasis. (wiley.com)
  • Numerous factors determine both the initial cellular response and ultimate cellular adaptation to a given stimulus or insult. (mcponline.org)
  • Studies in genetically modified mice and cells have highlighted a crucial role for AP-1 in a variety of cellular events involved in normal development or neoplastic transformation causing cancer. (biologists.org)
  • However, emerging evidence indicates that the contribution of AP-1 to determination of cell fates critically depends on the relative abundance of AP-1 subunits, the composition of AP-1 dimers, the quality of stimulus, the cell type and the cellular environment. (biologists.org)
  • The pathophysiology of AP has largely been determined using cellular and animal models of AP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The concept that stress responses and the aging process share common mechanisms arose initially from studies in model organisms, where the identification of molecular pathways that regulate aging - insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF), sirtuins, target of rapamycin (TOR), AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) - highlighted that intrinsic induction of stress defense programs and the resulting adaptation can increase life expectancy ( Haigis and Yankner, 2010 ). (biologists.org)
  • The fungal cell employs conserved eukaryotic signaling pathways and dedicated transcription factors to program its response to these stresses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The major goal is to determine the regulation and the role of AP-1 and NFAT transcription factors and JNK and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways during thymocyte development. (uvm.edu)
  • The regulation of the inflammatory pathways by PPARs can be achieved on each one of the cells involved in the atherosclerotic process, that is, monocytes, macrophages, T cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. (hindawi.com)
  • To accommodate these functions, ISC proliferation is regulated dynamically by various growth factors and stress signaling pathways. (biologists.org)
  • MyD88-Dependent Signaling Decreases the Antitumor Efficacy of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibition in Head and Neck Cancer Cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • Figure 1: Inhibition by JDP2 of histone acetylation. (nature.com)
  • Inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis by pre-exposure of rodents to protective chemical compounds was first observed over 65 years ago ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • For example, GCs potently inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα, presumably through the inhibition of the transcription factors NFκB and AP-1 ( 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • However, inhibition of ERK1/2 reversed the up-regulation of NK1R but not of PPT-A and SP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP-1-like transcription factor Yap1 is the best-characterized member of the bZIP family of transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • Forkhead box K2 (FOXK2) is a member of the forkhead box family of transcription factors. (dovepress.com)
  • NFAT3 belongs to the NFAT family of transcription factors, discovered as important regulators of immune responses in mammals ( 8 , 25 , 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • Moreover, overexpressing dominant-negative forms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase, p38, and c-Jun blocked EGF-mediated induction of COX-2 promoter activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3 This is thought to be the consequence of somatic mutations in the genes encoding the B-cell receptor (BCR)-associated CD79A and CD79B chains, 4 or the BCR signal transducer caspase recruitment domain-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase-1 (CARMA1) (also known as CARD11), 5 and polymorphisms in RNF31 (also known as HOIP ), 6 which result in constitutive BCR signaling. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Using a dominant negative approach, in vitro cell proliferation assays, western blots, and flow cytometry showed that MAPK signaling via BRAFV600E promotes melanoma cell proliferation at G1 through AP-1-mediated negative regulation of the INK4 family member, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (CDKN2C), and the CIP/KIP family member, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A). (harvard.edu)
  • AP-1 describes an activity that controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes containing AP-1 sites (consensus sequence 5′-TGAG/CTCA-3′), also known as TPA-responsive elements (TREs) ( Angel and Karin, 1991 ). (biologists.org)
  • The AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to play numerous roles in cell growth and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-jun has been shown to be essential for fibroblast proliferation, and levels of both AP-1 subunits have been shown to be expressed above basal levels during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transfection of Fstl1 into cancer cell lines is reported to inhibit proliferation and invasive behavior, 19,20 but there are no functional studies on this factor in the heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Above all, both miRNA mimic and inhibitor in two different NSCLC cell lines demonstrated that miR-663a inhibits proliferation and invasion by targeting AP-1 transcription factor JunD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MiR-663a suppresses proliferation and invasion by targeting AP-1 component JunD in NSCLC cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Precise regulation of ISC proliferation is thus crucial to limit overproliferation while maintaining regenerative capacity, ensuring long-term functional maintenance of this tissue. (biologists.org)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily that act by altering the transcription of PPAR-regulated genes by means of a recognition sequence known as a peroxisome proliferation responsive element (PPRE). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In fact RBPs are involved in every step of the RNA lifecycle, e.g., transport of mRNA to the site of translation, storage and mRNA degradation ( Figure 1 ) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Diferentemente de c-fos, o mRNA de fosB é superinduzido por ActinomicinaD em células Y-1 tratadas com ACTH e PMA. (usp.br)
  • Differently of c-fos, fosB mRNA is superinduced by ActinomicinD treatment in Y-1 cells treated with ACTH or PMA. (usp.br)
  • Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 1 and tumour necrosis factor α, play an important role in maintaining the chronicity of RA and mediating tissue damage. (springer.com)
  • COX-2 is an inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase that participates in pro-inflammatory responses to certain stimuli such as mitogens, cytokines and growth factors ( 14 , 15 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Neuronal development requires many hormones and growth factors such as retinoic acid, nerve growth factors, and cytokines. (mdpi.com)
  • The importance of these immunoregulatory cytokines in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in the gut is illustrated by the fact that TGFβ and IL-10-deficient mice develop spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease (for review see reference 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • It mediates gene regulation in response to a plethora of physiological and pathological stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress signals, bacterial and viral infections, as well as oncogenic stimuli. (biologists.org)
  • Four lines of evidence indicate that neuregulin is a trophic factor released from motoneurons to regulate AChR synthesis at the neuromuscular junction. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cigarette smoke-triggered inflammation is considered to play a central role in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by a mechanism that may involve enhanced proinflammatory gene transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Histone acetylation and deacetylation is a key regulator of the specificity and duration of gene transcription. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest a possible molecular mechanism by which cigarette smoke drives proinflammatory gene transcription and an inflammatory response in the lungs. (nih.gov)
  • Upon translocation into the nucleus, activated NF-AT initiates gene transcription and, therefore, it is regarded as one of the key participants in CD95L regulation ( 20 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The present study is based on a finding that dykellic acid suppresses MMP-9 gene transcription. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors that is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, adrenal gland and spleen. (nih.gov)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. (hindawi.com)
  • One of the central regulators of oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Yap1, a bZIP transcription factor of the AP-1 family. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that specific ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors reduce NF-κB and AP-1 activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MMP-2 is activated on the cell surface by a multimeric complex consisting of MMP-2, membrane type-1 MMP, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), whereas TIMP-1 is known as a specific inhibitor of MMP-9 ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • One of the key regulators mediating an oxidative stress response is the AP-1 class of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • Barnes PJ, Karin M. Nuclear factor-kappa B: a pivotal transcription factor in chronic inflammatory diseases. (springer.com)
  • These observations suggest that PPAR-gamma and locally produced prostaglandin D2 metabolites are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses, and raise the possibility that synthetic PPAR-gamma ligands may be of therapeutic value in human diseases such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis in which activated macrophages exert pathogenic effects. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, transcription is also controlled by other pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as SP-1 and AP-2. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • 1, 2 Degradation of collagen type IV is a critical step in the inflammatory disorganisation of the airway wall, and is mainly determined by the balance between matrix degrading matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). (bmj.com)
  • Regulation of AP-1 and NFAT transcription factors during thymic selection of T cells. (asm.org)
  • 1-4 Although TF is expressed constitutively in nonvascular cells, monocytes and endothelial cells within the vascular compartment do not normally express TF constitutively. (asahq.org)
  • Genes Cells 1 , 1045-1056 (1996). (nature.com)
  • Electrophoretic mobility shift assay of nuclear extract from cytokine-stimulated cells demonstrated a pronounced binding to a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) sequence present in the human iNOS promoter. (deepdyve.com)
  • To identify factors with novel therapeutic applications in cardiac diseases, we focused on the identification of factors secreted from Akt1-activated cells that have cardioprotective effects through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. (ahajournals.org)
  • 8 Furthermore, it has been reported that the injection of Akt-transduced mesenchymal stem cells into infarcted rat hearts leads to an improvement in cardiac function that results from the release of paracrine factors from these cells rather than through their limited ability to fuse with or differentiate into myocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • 17 These data indicate that the autocrine/paracrine effects of factors secreted from Akt-activated cells could play significant roles in cardiac growth and maintenance. (ahajournals.org)
  • We previously demonstrated that loss of epsins 1 and 2 in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) prevented VEGF-C-induced VEGFR3 from endocytosis and degradation. (jci.org)
  • Because the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor is commonly overexpressed in cervical cancer, we investigated whether EGF could induce COX-2 in cultured human cervical carcinoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because the CD95L promoter contains an AP-1 binding site ( 31 ), AP-1 is engaged in regulation of CD95L in human T cells ( 32 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This up-regulation resulted in sialyl-Lewis x (sLe x ) overexpression on high-molecular-weight glycoproteins in inflamed airway epithelium and increased the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAK strains to lung epithelial cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • 16 In line with this notion, Ang II was reported to activate nuclear factor-κB, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of many inflammation-related genes, in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through AT1R. (ahajournals.org)
  • The YAP1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a bZIP-containing transcription factor that is essential for the normal response of cells to oxidative stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Endothelin-1 (ET), a 21-amino-acid peptide, is a potent vasoconstrictor expressed in endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, and vascular smooth muscle cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, we confirmed that miR-663a could inhibit AP-1 activity and AP-1 component JunD was a direct target of miR-663a in lung cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nuclear extracts from K-562 cells stimulated with TPA were assayed for activity of AP-1 family members c-Jun, c-Fos, FosB, JunB, JunD and Fra-1. (activemotif.com)
  • 1. Lyse approximately 10e7 cells in 0.5 mL of ice cold Cell Lysis Buffer (formulation provided below). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Luciferase and ChIP assays suggested that fisetin remarkably decreased the EGF-induced transcription activity of MMP-9 and Sp1 and inhibited EGF-mediated Sp1 from directly binding to the MMP-9 promoter in ARPE-19 cells. (molvis.org)
  • They found that deletion of the α 2B -adrenoceptor gene resulted in upregulation of sFlt-1 in spongiotrophoblast cells with a vasculogenesis defect in the placenta labyrinth and that neutralization of sFlt-1 by a specific antibody completely prevented the vascular defect in α 2B -deficient placentae during mouse embryonic development. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast to BRAF V600E or NRAS G12D-expressing melanocytes, melanoma cells have an inherent resistance to suppression of AP-1 activity by BRAFV600E- or MEK-inhibitors. (harvard.edu)
  • Interestingly, in FOSB overexpressing cells, telatinib specifically affected PDGFRA, FLT1, and FLT4 signaling and downregulated SERPINE1, thereby affecting the self-regulation of the fusion gene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apart from T helper (Th)-2 cells, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a major class of IL-4 producing T cells, required for regulation of type 2 humoral immunity . (omicsonline.org)
  • Although the transcriptional control of IL-4 has been an area of extensive investigation, the precise regulation mechanism of IL-4 production in Tfh cells remains mainly unknown. (omicsonline.org)
  • Similar to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the BSCB is primarily formed by endothelial cells interconnected by tight junctions, which limits passive diffusion of blood-borne solutes and actively transports nutrients into the spinal cord ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Among them, gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9), as well as TIMP-1, released from bronchial epithelial cells seem to be crucially involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. (bmj.com)
  • Silencing of CD47 and SIRPα by Polypurine reverse Hoogsteen hairpins to promote MCF-7 breast cancer cells death by PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. (ub.edu)
  • Urolithin A causes p21 up-regulation in prostate cancer cells. (ub.edu)
  • The Y-1 cells belong to a clonal lineage of functional mouse adrenocortical cells, which are responsive to ACTH. (usp.br)
  • In Y-1 cells, ACTH promotes esteroidogenesis (function) and has complex effects on the G0→G1→S transition of the Y-1 cell cycle. (usp.br)
  • Tretatment of RL34 cells to tBHQ resulted in the changes in the DNA binding activity of several redox-active transcription factors including AP-1. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The presence of substance P and its receptor, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) has been shown in the pancreas and the pancreatic acinar cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is thought that the initiating event of AP is the injury of enzyme-secreting pancreatic acinar cells ( Bhatia, 2005 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • EMSAs were performed with the nuclear extracts obtained from paws of CIA mice from 10 to 45d after immunization to determine AP-1 and NF-kappaB binding activity. (nih.gov)
  • The DNA binding activity of AP-1 and NF-kappaB are markedly increased in both CIA and RA. (nih.gov)
  • AP-1 activity is often regulated via post-translational modifications, DNA binding dimer composition, and interaction with various binding partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • A concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity is also observed. (jci.org)
  • Secondly, using gel-shift assays, we measured the binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors in the lung during murine traumatic shock, which have been shown in vitro to play an important role in the regulation of TF promoter activity. (asahq.org)
  • Initial work on its regulation focused on alternative splicing and showed that the v6 CD44 isoform promoted metastatic activity ( 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The phosphorylation of these transcription factors by JNK leads to increased transcriptional activity ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, direct evidence for a role of MKK4 in the regulation of JNK activity in vivo has not been reported. (pnas.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and transcription factor binding . (genecards.org)
  • Phosphorylation of AP-1 family members by kinases is required for transactivation activity. (activemotif.com)
  • Serine 54 in mouse NFAT1 has been shown to be important in the regulation of its transcriptional activity. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Whereas this compound does not affect DNA binding activity of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), dykellic acid does inhibit transactivation of NFκB. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to examine Sp1 transcription activity and MMP-9 binding activity. (molvis.org)
  • Decreases NF-kappa-B DNA-binding activity and inhibits NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription from the IL6 promoter and displace RELA/p65 and associated coregulators from the promoter. (uniprot.org)
  • N-terminal domain-mediated homodimerization is required for photoreceptor activity of Arabidopsis CRYPTOCHROME 1. (labome.org)
  • Under specific circumstances, the latter might even act as repressors of AP-1 activity by competing for binding to AP-1 sites or by forming `inactive' heterodimers with Jun, Fos or FosB. (biologists.org)
  • Translational perioperative and pain medicine 1(4): 20-30, 2016. (upenn.edu)
  • 2016 Sep 26;17(1):32. (ub.edu)
  • Bale, TL, Dorsa, DM 1995 Regulation of oxytocin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the ventromedial hypothalamus by testosterone and its metabolites. (springer.com)
  • The bZIP domains of Jun and Fos form an X-shaped α-helical structure, which binds to the palindromic AP-1 site (TGAGTCA) ( Glover and Harrison, 1995 ). (biologists.org)
  • AP-1 transcription factors are also associated with numerous physiological functions especially in determination of organisms' life span and tissue regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The I-domain containing alpha 10 combines with the integrin beta 1 chain (ITGB1) to form a novel collagen type II-binding integrin expressed in cartilage tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since these bacteria were first isolated from the lung tissue of sheep with lung adenoma in 1963 [ 1 ], the mechanisms underpinning its pathogenesis have been extensively investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The proper interplay of growth factor and stress signals in ISCs is expected to be important for tissue function and integrity. (biologists.org)
  • Most PHE patients present with multifocal disease (33 of 50 patients) with multiple discontiguous nodules present in different tissue planes ( 1, 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The endogenous hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) or its amphibian ortholog caerulein is often used to induce experimental AP. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A family kit is also available with the ability to independently screen the members of the AP-1 family (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, c-Jun, JunB & JunD) simultaneously. (activemotif.com)
  • The Fra-1 and JunB antibodies can be used with human extracts, while the c-Fos, FosB and JunD antibodies can be used with human, mouse and rat extracts. (activemotif.com)
  • In contrast to germinal center (GC) B-cell (GCB) DLBCL, ABC DLBCL cell lines expressed high levels of the AP-1 family members c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, which formed heterodimeric complexes with the AP-1 family members activating transcription factor (ATF) 2, ATF3, and ATF7. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Whereas Jun, Fos and FosB are considered strong transactivators, JunB, JunD, Fra-1 and Fra-2 exhibit only weak transactivation potential. (biologists.org)
  • We further show that HIV-1 Tat interferes with TCR signaling and induces a H 2 O 2 signal. (jimmunol.org)
  • Run off transcription assays show that ACTH, PMA and FCS are strong c-fos, c-jun and junB inducers, while dcAMP induces only c-fos and junB. (usp.br)
  • Disruption in the nuclear histone acetylation:deacetylation balance (chromatin remodeling) may result in excessive transcription of specific proinflammatory genes in the lungs. (nih.gov)
  • The neuropeptide substance P (SP) has emerged to be an important proinflammatory mediator in acute pancreatitis (AP). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Peroxiredoxin-mediated redox regulation of the nuclear localization of Yap1, a transcription factor in budding yeast. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Taken together, our results provide insights into transcriptome regulation and molecular specificity in O. novo-ulmi and offer a new perspective for understanding fungal dimorphism. (g3journal.org)
  • Claret, F.X. AP-1 Transcription Factors as Regulators of Immune Responses in Cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Our data suggest that hypertrophy inducers ANG II and H 2 O 2 may activate NFAT3 in cardiomyocyte through an AP-1 transcription factor-dependent mechanism. (physiology.org)
  • Regulation of yAP-1 nuclear localization in response to oxidative stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, little is known about the role of p38K transcriptional regulation in response to oxidative stress. (sdbonline.org)
  • To date, there have been no reports on the role of AP-1-like transcription factors in symbiotic fungi. (asm.org)
  • Here we report a role of a newly identified AP-1 consensus sequence along with its new binding components in P2Y2R regulation of TF transcription. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, loss-of-function studies using siRNAs confirmed a positive transactivation role of c-Jun and ATF-2, but unexpectedly revealed a strong negative role of Fra-1 in P2Y2R-induced TF up-regulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1. The role of IL-6 in the immune response and diseases. (uvm.edu)
  • However, PPARs also play a role in the regulation of cancer cell growth. (hindawi.com)
  • Dr. Mackenzie´s research focuses on the role of diet and other lifestyle factors in cancer development and prevention. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Glucocorticoids (GCs) are lipid hormones playing an important role in the regulation of the immune system (for review see reference 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Numerous general functions rely on NRF2 and related factors. (intechopen.com)
  • MYST3 forms an evolutionarily conserved complex with ING5, EAF6, and BRD1 and has been shown to be a coactivator for many different transcription factors including PU.1, NRF2, and Runx family members (7-9). (cellsignal.com)
  • Overactivation of selective kinases or aberrant function of downstream transcription factors could help convert a normal immune response to a chronic disease state. (springer.com)
  • The ability of MKK4 to activate JNK is not shared by any of the other MAP kinases kinases (MKK1, MKK2, MKK3, MKK5, and MKK6) that have been molecularly cloned ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Similarly, overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), found in 80% to 90% of OSCC, heralds a worse prognosis ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The excess Jun deregulated transactivation of the chimera by competing for an inhibitory factor and titrating it. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription factors, such as AP-1/c-Jun, c-Fos, ATF-2, Sp1 and Sp3, to mediate ERE-independent signaling. (uniprot.org)
  • May control transcription via direct regulation of the modification of histones and the assembly of chromatin. (uniprot.org)
  • NAP-1 is a functional homologue of TAF-1 that is required for replication and transcription of the adenovirus genome in a chromatin-like structure. (nature.com)
  • Okuwaki, M. & Nagata, K. Template-activating factor-I remodels the chromatin structure and stimulates transcription from the chromatin template. (nature.com)
  • The effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) are mediated by Ang II receptors, and so far 2 isoforms, type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor, have been identified. (ahajournals.org)
  • RAGE was originally identified as a receptor for advanced glycation end products, but it also interacts with other structurally unrelated ligands including HMGB1 , several members of the S100 family, amyloid-beta peptide , transthyretin and beta2 integrin Mac-1 . (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Neuregulin is a neural factor implicated in upregulation of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) synthesis at the neuromuscular junction. (jneurosci.org)
  • HIV-1 tat binds TAFII250 and represses TAFII250-dependent transcription of major histocompatibility class I genes. (nature.com)
  • When nuclear or whole-cell extract is added, activated transcription factor of interest binds the oligonucleotide at its consensus binding site and is quantified using the included antibody, which is specific for the bound, active form of the transcription factor being studied. (activemotif.com)
  • and (4) ET regulation of the hBNP promoter targets both distal and proximal cis elements. (ahajournals.org)
  • To identify downstream effectors of MAPK signaling that could be used as potential additional therapeutic targets for BRAFV600E inhibitors, we used hTERT/CDK4R24C/p53DD-immortalized primary human melanocytes genetically modified to ectopically express BRAF V600E or NRAS G12D and observed induction of the AP-1 transcription factor family member c-Jun. (harvard.edu)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that the basal transcriptional regulation of CYP3A genes in hepatocytes is evolutionarily conserved between humans and pigs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • an extracellular region (aa 1-342) composed of a signal peptide (aa 1-22), followed by three immunoglobulin-like domains, a V-type domain, (aa 23-116) and two C type domains (C1: aa 124-221 and C2: 227-317), a single transmembrane domain (aa 343-363), and a short cytoplasmic domain (aa 364-404) necessary for signaling. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • BAL fluid cell numbers and levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNFα) and interleukin (IL)-8 were measured as markers of airway inflammation and glutathione (GSH) levels as a marker of antioxidant status. (bmj.com)
  • In order to keep researchers and students up to date on developments in the field, 55 articles were selected and reprinted from the 2008 second edition of the Handbook of Cell Signaling" on the transcriptional regulation and the function of nuclei and other subcellular organelles in signaling activities. (nhbs.com)
  • This TNF-responsive element contains potential binding sites for ETS1 and ATF2 transcription factors related to TNF signaling. (portlandpress.com)
  • Ethanol exposure during development impairs neuronal signaling mechanisms mediated by the N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptors, the retinoic acid receptors, and by growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). (mdpi.com)
  • glucan from Grifola frondosa and its antitumor effect by activating Dectin-1/Syk/NF-?B signaling. (labome.org)