A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.
A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.
A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.
A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.
An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates GLOBIN gene expression and is related to TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1. NF-E2 consists of a small MAF protein subunit and a tissue-restricted 45 kDa subunit.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Factors that form a preinitiation complex at promoters that are specifically transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE I.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in determining cell fate during embryogenesis. It forms a heterodimer with TWIST TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR and ACHAETE-SCUTE GENE COMPLEX-related TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.

JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. (1/3886)

Lack of JunB, an immediate early gene product and member of the AP-1 transcription factor family causes embryonic lethality between E8.5 and E10.0. Although mutant embryos are severely retarded in growth and development, cellular proliferation is apparently not impaired. Retardation and embryonic death are caused by the inability of JunB-deficient embryos to establish proper vascular interactions with the maternal circulation due to multiple defects in extra-embryonic tissues. The onset of the phenotypic defects correlates well with high expression of junB in wild-type extra-embryonic tissues. In trophoblasts, the lack of JunB causes a deregulation of proliferin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene expression, resulting in a defective neovascularization of the decidua. As a result of downregulation of the VEGF-receptor 1 (flt-1), blood vessels in the yolk sac mesoderm appeared dilated. Mutant embryos which escape these initial defects finally die from a non-vascularized placental labyrinth. Injection of junB-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells into tetraploid wild-type blastocysts resulted in a partial rescue, in which the ES cell-derived fetuses were no longer growth retarded and displayed a normal placental labyrinth. Therefore, JunB appears to be involved in multiple signaling pathways regulating genes involved in the establishment of a proper feto-maternal circulatory system.  (+info)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 by UV irradiation is inhibited by wortmannin without affecting c-iun expression. (2/3886)

Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs)/stress-activated protein kinases is an early response of cells upon exposure to DNA-damaging agents. JNK-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun is currently understood to stimulate the transactivating potency of AP-1 (e.g., c-Jun/c-Fos; c-Jun/ATF-2), thereby increasing the expression of AP-1 target genes. Here we show that stimulation of JNK1 activity is not a general early response of cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Treatment of NIH 3T3 cells with UV light (UV-C) as well as with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) caused activation of JNK1 and an increase in c-Jun protein and AP-1 binding activity, whereas antineoplastic drugs such as mafosfamide, mitomycin C, N-hydroxyethyl-N-chloroethylnitrosourea, and treosulfan did not elicit this response. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin specifically blocked the UV-stimulated activation of JNK1 but did not affect UV-driven activation of extracellular regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). To investigate the significance of JNK1 for transactivation of c-jun, we analyzed the effect of UV irradiation on c-jun expression under conditions of wortmannin-mediated inhibition of UV-induced stimulation of JNK1. Neither the UV-induced increase in c-jun mRNA, c-Jun protein, and AP-1 binding nor the activation of the collagenase and c-jun promoters was affected by wortmannin. In contrast, the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98056, which blocked ERK2 but not JNK1 activation by UV irradiation, impaired UV-driven c-Jun protein induction and AP-1 binding. Based on the data, we suggest that JNK1 stimulation is not essential for transactivation of c-jun after UV exposure, whereas activation of ERK2 is required for UV-induced signaling leading to elevated c-jun expression.  (+info)

Smad3-Smad4 and AP-1 complexes synergize in transcriptional activation of the c-Jun promoter by transforming growth factor beta. (3/3886)

Transcriptional regulation by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a complex process which is likely to involve cross talk between different DNA responsive elements and transcription factors to achieve maximal promoter activation and specificity. Here, we describe a concurrent requirement for two discrete responsive elements in the regulation of the c-Jun promoter, one a binding site for a Smad3-Smad4 complex and the other an AP-1 binding site. The two elements are located 120 bp apart in the proximal c-Jun promoter, and each was able to independently bind its corresponding transcription factor complex. The effects of independently mutating each of these elements were nonadditive; disruption of either sequence resulted in complete or severe reductions in TGF-beta responsiveness. This simultaneous requirement for two distinct and independent DNA binding elements suggests that Smad and AP-1 complexes function synergistically to mediate TGF-beta-induced transcriptional activation of the c-Jun promoter.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor activates nuclear factor of activated T cells in human endothelial cells: a role for tissue factor gene expression. (4/3886)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic inducer that stimulates the expression of tissue factor (TF), the major cellular initiator of blood coagulation. Here we show that signaling triggered by VEGF induced DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and AP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). VEGF also induced TF mRNA expression and gene promoter activation by a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive mechanism. As in lymphoid cells, NFAT was dephosphorylated and translocated to the nucleus upon activation of HUVECs, and these processes were blocked by CsA. NFAT was involved in the VEGF-mediated TF promoter activation as evidenced by cotransfection experiments with a dominant negative version of NFAT and site-directed mutagenesis of a newly identified NFAT site within the TF promoter that overlaps with a previously identified kappaB-like site. Strikingly, this site bound exclusively NFAT not only from nuclear extracts of HUVECs activated by VEGF, a stimulus that failed to induce NF-kappaB-binding activity, but also from extracts of cells activated with phorbol esters and calcium ionophore, a combination of stimuli that triggered the simultaneous activation of NFAT and NF-kappaB. These results implicate NFAT in the regulation of endothelial genes by physiological means and shed light on the mechanisms that switch on the gene expression program induced by VEGF and those regulating TF gene expression.  (+info)

Phosphorylation of the DNA repair protein APE/REF-1 by CKII affects redox regulation of AP-1. (5/3886)

The DNA repair protein apurinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) exerts several physiological functions such as cleavage of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and redox regulation of the transcription factor AP-1, whose activation is part of the cellular response to DNA damaging treatments. Here we demonstrate that APE/Ref-1 is phosphorylated by casein kinase II (CKII). This was shown for both the recombinant APE/Ref-1 protein (Km=0.55 mM) and for APE/Ref-1 expressed in COS cells. Phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 did not alter the repair activity of the enzyme, whereas it stimulated its redox capability towards AP-1, thus promoting DNA binding activity of AP-1. Inhibition of CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 blocked mutagen-stimulated increase in AP-1 binding. It also abrogated the induction of c-Jun protein and rendered cells more sensitive to induced DNA damage. Thus, phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 appears to be involved in regulating the different physiological activities of the enzyme. CKII mediated phosphorylation of APE/Ref-1 and concomitant increase in AP-1 binding activity appears to be a novel mechanism of cellular stress response, forcing transcription of AP-1 target gene(s) the product(s) of which may exert protective function.  (+info)

Differential regulation of Bcl-2, AP-1 and NF-kappaB on cardiomyocyte apoptosis during myocardial ischemic stress adaptation. (6/3886)

Acute ischemia followed by prolonged reperfusion has been shown to induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this report, we demonstrate that myocardial adaptation to ischemia induced by repeated cyclic episodes of short-term ischemia each followed by another short duration of reperfusion reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. This was associated with the induction of the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and translocation and activation of NF-kappaB. Another transcription factor, AP-1, remained unaffected by repeated ischemia and reperfusion, but exhibited significant upregulation by a single episode of 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. This activation of AP-1 was inhibited by a scavenger of oxygen free radicals, DMTU. Thirty minutes ischemia and 120 min reperfusion downregulated the induction of the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA, but moderately activated NF-kappaB binding activity. This was associated with an increased number of apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation in cardiomyocytes which were attenuated by DMTU. The results of this study indicate that Bcl-2, AP-1 and NF-kappaB differentially regulate cardiomyocyte apoptosis mediated by acute ischemia and prolonged reperfusion.  (+info)

Recruitment of the retinoblastoma protein to c-Jun enhances transcription activity mediated through the AP-1 binding site. (7/3886)

The retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (RB) is a transcriptional modulator. One of the targets for this modulator effect is the AP-1 binding site within the c-jun and collagenase promoters. The physical interactions between RB and c-Jun were demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation of these two proteins using anti-c-Jun or anti-RB antisera, glutathione S-transferase affinity matrix binding assays in vitro, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The C-terminal site of the leucine zipper of c-Jun mediated the interaction with RB. Although the B-pocket domain of RB alone bound to c-Jun, a second c-Jun binding site in the RB was also suggested. Mammalian two-hybrid-based assay provided corroborative evidence that transactivation of gene expression by RB required the C-terminal region of c-Jun. We conclude that RB enhances transcription activity mediated through the AP-1 binding site. Adenovirus E1A or human papillomavirus E7 inhibits RB-mediated transcription activity. These data reveal that the interactions between these two distinct classes of oncoproteins RB and c-Jun may be involved in controlling cell growth and differentiation mediated by transcriptional regulation.  (+info)

JunB forms the majority of the AP-1 complex and is a target for redox regulation by receptor tyrosine kinase and G protein-coupled receptor agonists in smooth muscle cells. (8/3886)

To understand the role of redox-sensitive mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth, we have studied the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a thiol antioxidant, and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a potent NADH/NADPH oxidase inhibitor, on serum-, platelet-derived growth factor BB-, and thrombin-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation; c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression; and DNA synthesis. Both NAC and DPI completely inhibited agonist-induced AP-1 activity and DNA synthesis in VSMC. On the contrary, these compounds had differential effects on agonist-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression. NAC inhibited agonist-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression except for platelet-derived growth factor BB-induced ERK2 activation. In contrast, DPI only inhibited agonist-induced p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos and JunB expression. Antibody supershift assays indicated the presence of c-Fos and JunB in the AP-1 complex formed in response to all three agonists. In addition, cotransfection of VSMC with expression plasmids for c-Fos and members of the Jun family along with the AP-1-dependent reporter gene revealed that AP-1 with c-Fos and JunB composition exhibited a higher transactivating activity than AP-1 with other compositions tested. All three agonists significantly stimulated reactive oxygen species production, and this effect was inhibited by both NAC and DPI. Together, these results strongly suggest a role for redox-sensitive mechanisms in agonist-induced ERK2, JNK1, and p38 MAP kinase activation; c-Fos, c-Jun, and JunB expression; AP-1 activity; and DNA synthesis in VSMC. These results also suggest a role for NADH/NADPH oxidase activity in some subset of early signaling events such as p38 MAP kinase activation and c-Fos and JunB induction, which appear to be important in agonist-induced AP-1 activity and DNA synthesis in VSMC.  (+info)

Objective: To study inhibitory effects of transcription factor activator protein-2α (Ap-2α) on proliferation of colon cancer cells in vitro and its mechanism. Methods: The pcDNA3.1 (+)-AP-2α recombinant plasmid was constructed. Plasmid pcDNA3.1 (+) AP-2α and pcDNA3.1 (+) were transfected into SW480 cells by liposome mediation. Normal SW480 cells were cultured as a negative control. The DNA-binding activity of AP-2α expressed in the SW480 cells of each group was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift Assay (EMSA). Proliferative activities of SW480 cells were evaluated by MTT assay at 24, 48 or 72 h after AP-2α transfection. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry at 48 h after transfection. The intracellular expression of p21/WAF1 was detected by Western blotting. Results: RT-PCR analysis showed the mRNA and protein levels of AP-2α significantly increased at 48 h after transfection of pcDNA3.1 (+)-AP-2α recombinant plasmid. The expressed AP-2α had higher DNA-binding activity. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutrophil recruitment by intradermally injected neutrophil attractant/activation protein-1. AU - Leonard, Edward J.. AU - Yoshimura, Teizo. AU - Tanaka, Shuji. AU - Raffeld, Mark. PY - 1991/5. Y1 - 1991/5. N2 - Neutrophil attractant/activation protein-1 (NAP-1) is a recently described cytokine that attracts neutrophils, but not monocytes or eosinophils. This leukocyte specificity is not absolute, in that NAP-1 attracts basophils and small numbers of lymphocytes. Our purpose was to determine in vivo effects of NAP-1, and to compare them to the reported action of the complement attractant, C5a. Intradermal injection into normal human subjects of 40 μl of NAP-1, over a concentration range of 4 × 10-8 M to 10-6 M, caused no symptoms or signs such as wheal-and-flare, itching, induration, or tenderness. However, biopsies of injection sites showed perivascular neutrophil infiltration as early as 30 min, which increased at 1 and 3 h. The mean number of neutrophils per mm2 of dermis ...
The transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) has been implicated in a large variety of biological processes including oncogenic transformation. The tyrosine kinases of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) constitute the beginning of one signal transduction cascade leading to AP-1 activation and are known to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Drug discovery efforts targeting this receptor and other pathway components have centred on monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors. Resistance to such inhibitors has already been observed, guiding the prediction of their use in combination therapies with other targeted agents such as RNA interference (RNAi). This study examines the use of RNAi and kinase inhibitors for qualification of components involved in the EGFR/AP-1 pathway of ME180 cells, and their inhibitory effects when evaluated individually or in tandem against multiple components of this important disease-related pathway. AP-1 activation was assessed using an ME180
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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional cancer therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. PDT comprises the administration of a photosensitizer, its accumulation in tumor tissue, and subsequent irradiation of the photosensitizer-loaded tumor, leading to the localized photoproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resulting oxidative damage ultimately culminates in tumor cell death, vascular shutdown, induction of an antitumor immune response, and the consequent destruction of the tumor. However, the ROS produced by PDT also triggers a stress response that, as part of a cell survival mechanism, helps cancer cells to cope with the PDT-induced oxidative stress and cell damage. These survival pathways are mediated by the transcription factors activator protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and those that mediate the proteotoxic stress response. The ...
These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
Homo sapiens transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha) (TFAP2A), transcript variant 2, mRNA. (H00007020-R01V) - Products - Abnova
J:138599 Hong SJ, Lardaro T, Oh MS, Huh Y, Ding Y, Kang UJ, Kirfel J, Buettner R, Kim KS, Regulation of the noradrenaline neurotransmitter phenotype by the transcription factor AP-2beta. J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 13;283(24):16860-7 ...
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Gene duplication has been proposed to drive the evolution of novel morphologies. After gene duplication, it is unclear whether changes in the resulting paralogs coding-regions, or in their cis-regulatory elements, contribute most significantly to the assembly of novel gene regulatory networks. The Transcription Factor Activator Protein 2 (Tfap2) was duplicated in the chordate lineage and is essential for development of the neural crest, a tissue that emerged with vertebrates. Using a tfap2-depleted zebrafish background, we test the ability of available gnathostome, agnathan, cephalochordate and insect tfap2 paralogs to drive neural crest development. With the exception of tfap2d (lamprey and zebrafish), all are able to do so. Together with expression analyses, these results indicate that sub-functionalization has occurred among Tfap2 paralogs, but that neo-functionalization of the Tfap2 protein did not drive the emergence of the neural crest. We investigate whether acquisition of novel target ...
In this study, we also analyzed binding of lung nuclear proteins from sham-operated control and trauma rats with AP-1, Egr-1, and NF-κB probes specific for the regulatory region of the rat TF gene using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Sequence-specific complex binding to AP-1 and NF-κB domains was shown to be significantly enhanced in the lung 2 h after trauma. Because the 5′-region of the rat TF gene contains two, closely spaced AP-1 elements, we incubated the nuclear proteins with different AP-1 probes. Both AP-1 sites include core sequence elements, TGAATCA (distal) and TGAGTCA (proximal), that resemble the consensus binding site of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. Oeth et al. 10 demonstrated that the two AP-1 sites bind c-Fos/c-Jun heterodimers in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytic cells. However, Groupp and Donovan-Peluso 40 demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide induces a change in the AP-1 binding from JunD/Fos in control THP-1 monocytes to ...
Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. Plays an important role in the cascades of cellular responses evoked by changes in the environment. Mediates signal transduction of TRAF6, various cytokines including interleukin-1 (IL-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB), TGFB-related factors like BMP2 and BMP4, toll-like receptors (TLR), tumor necrosis factor receptor CD40 and B-cell receptor (BCR). Ceramides are also able to activate MAP3K7/TAK1. Once activated, acts as an upstream activator of the MKK/JNK signal transduction cascade and the p38 MAPK signal transduction cascade through the phosphorylation and activation of several MAP kinase kinases like MAP2K1/MEK1, MAP2K3/MKK3, MAP2K6/MKK6 and MAP2K7/MKK7. These MAP2Ks in turn activate p38 MAPKs, c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and I-kappa-B kinase complex (IKK). Both p38 MAPK and JNK pathways control the transcription factors activator protein-1 (AP-1), while nuclear ...
AP-2 is a tissue type-specific transcription factor hypothesized to be involved in the development of breast cancer (7 , 29 , 37 , 38) . Previously, AP-2 has been reported to possess tumor suppressive properties in breast cancer (24) . Until now, however, the prognostic significance of AP-2 has not been defined. We demonstrate here, in a large prospective series of breast cancer patients, that low nuclear AP-2 expression associates with disease progression and increased metastatic capability of the tumor cells and, in addition, independently predicts increased risk of recurrent disease in breast cancer. Still, however, the traditional prognostic factors such as stage, lymph node status, and ER status remained the strongest predictors of RFS and BCRS in the survival analyses.. To divide the continuous values of nuclear AP-2 staining into two expression categories, we chose the median as the cutoff value. Similarly, Gee et al. (24) have used median value as a cutoff for AP-2 proteins in breast ...
The regulation of macrophage activator protein-1 (AP-1) gene expression by LPS and cytokines is of potentially crucial importance in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The action of LPS and four cytokines on AP-1 gene expression in the murine macrophage J774.2 cell line was, therefore, studied. Exposure of the cells to IL-6 produced no changes in the mRNA levels of all AP-1 members studied. In contrast, the expression of JunB, c-jun and c-fos, but not JunD, was increased by LPS, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1, albeit with different kinetics and magnitude of induction. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed a close correlation between the expression of the AP-1 genes and the functional AP-1 DNA binding activity and, additionally, demonstrated the participation of heterodimeric interactions between the different members. These studies provide insights into the potential mechanisms that may be involved in the mediator-specific modulation of AP-1 regulated macrophage gene expression.. ...
Carcinogenesis is caused by a cumulative, multistage process that mainly consists of initiation, promotion, and progression. ROS, which are produced as a result of the metabolism of molecular oxygen via biochemical reactions in cells, play a key role in tumor promotion. Some tumor promoters accelerate/induce the conversion of initiated cells (carcinogen-mediated mutation or potential stem cells) into tumorigenic cells possibly via the production of oxidative/inflammatory responses (30, 31). TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a phorbol ester, is a tumor promoter that induces the neoplastic/tumorigenic transformation of preneoplastic JB6 cells through the overproduction of ROS (32). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of SFN on TPA-stimulated neoplastic transformation in the mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cell line to assess whether SFN is able to block tumor promoter-induced tumorigenesis in skin cells. Our results show that SFN was effective when it was given together with ...
TransAM AP-1 Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that quantify activated c-Fos, FosB, c-Jun, JunB, JunD & Fra-1 transcription factors using a method that is faster and more sensitive than gelshift, without radioactivity and gels.
Plasmid NFAT/AP-1 3x luciferase from Dr. Anjana Raos lab contains the insert NFAT/AP-1 3x and is published in EMBO J. 2000 Sep 1. 19(17):4783-95. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
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AP unable to get to controller running 6.3.1.6. From the controller: Reboot Reason: AP rebooted Fri Dec 31 16:02:39 PST 1999; SAPD: Reboot after
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen peroxide-induced liver cell necrosis is dependent on AP-1 activation. AU - Yang, X. U.. AU - Bradham, Cynthia. AU - Brenner, David A.. AU - Czaja, Mark J.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - To deter-mine whether intracellular signaling events involved in apoptosis may also mediate necrosis, the role of the transcription factor AP-1 was investigated in a hepatoma cell model of cellular necrosis induced by oxidant stress. Treatment of the human hepatoma cell line HuH-7 with H2O2 caused dose-dependent necrosis as determined by light microscopy, fluorescent staining, and an absence of DNA fragmentation. H2O2 treatment led to increases in c-fos and c-jun mRNA levels, Jun nuclear kinase activity, and AP-1 DNA binding. AP-1 transcriptional activity measured with an AP-1-driven luciferase reporter gene was also increased. To determine whether this AP-1 activation contributed to H2O2-induced cell necrosis, HuH-7 cells were stably transfected with an antisense c-jun expression vector. ...
CORVELLO, C M; METZ, R; BRAVO, R; ARMELIN, M C S. Expression and characterization of mouse cfos protein using the baculovirus expression system: ability to form functional ap-1 complex with co-expressed c jun protein. Cellular and Molecular Biology Research, New York, v. 41, p. 527-35, 1996 ...
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References for Abcams Recombinant Human c-Jun protein (ab54319). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
AP-1 Is a Component of the Transcriptional Network Regulated by GSK-3 in Quiescent Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
binding to the DR-1/AP-1 site in suppressing MMP-1 and MMP-13 production and addressed possible mechanisms of inhibition, including competitive binding between RXR:PPAR ...
Aim: Activator protein 2α (AP-2α) belongs to the AP-2 family of transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis and has been suggested to function as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. However, the physiological role of AP-2α in hepatocytes is unknown. The present study is to characterize the expression and function of AP-2α in the liver of conscience mouse. Methods: Exogenous AP-2α was overexpressed in the mouse liver by in vivo gene delivery and changes in transcription factor expression were identified by using protein-DNA arrays and immunoblotting. Results: Western blotting and protein/DNA arrays showed that AP-2α is expressed in the nuclei of mouse hepatocytes. Overexpression of AP-2αin vivo significantly suppressed transcription factors AP-1, CREB and c-Myc, and markedly increased CBF, c-Myb, NF-1, Pax-5, RXR, Smad3/4, TR(DR-4), USF-1 and GATA. Among all GATA proteins, only GATA-4 level was dramatically ...
Among environmental pollutants, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin) is one of the most potent tumor promoters and teratogens known. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the biological activity of TCDD, however, remain largely unknown. In this report, we show that the first observable effects of TCDD in cultured murine hepatoma cells are a rapid, transient increase in Ca2+ influx and a minor but significant elevation of activated, membrane-bound protein kinase C. These changes are then followed by induction of the immediate early proto-oncogenes c-fos, jun-B, c-jun, and jun-D, and by large increases in AP-1 transcription factor activity. Induction of these changes by TCDD is delayed compared with that by phorbol esters, although the magnitude of the effects caused by both treatments is similar, and both induction processes can be blocked by staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor. In cultured cells, proto-oncogene induction by TCDD appears to be independent of the presence of a
Heparin is a potent inhibitor of the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. This agent selectively inhibits the transcription of tissue-type plasminogen activator and interstitial collagenase, probably by decreasing the binding of activator protein-1 (AP-1) to phorbol ester-responsive elements in the promoters of these genes. Decreased AP-1 binding is not due to a direct inhibition by heparin, since heparinase digestion of nuclear extracts prepared from heparin-treated smooth muscle cells does not restore AP-1 binding activity. Treatment of cells with heparin suppresses the expression of Jun B, one of the components of AP-1. The major effect of heparin is at the level of posttranslational modification of Jun B. Results from pulse-chase labeling experiments show that the newly synthesized Jun B is rapidly converted to a higher-molecular-weight form and that conversion is suppressed by heparin. Evidence is presented suggesting that the heparin-inhibited event is ...
Chameau HAT and DRpd3 HDAC function as antagonistic cofactors of JNK/AP-1-dependent transcription during Drosophila metamorphosis
Constitutive expression of c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, or c-Jun in rat fibroblasts leads to up-regulation of the immediate-early gene fra-1. Using the posttranslational FosER induction system, we demonstrate that this AP-1-dependent stimulation of fra-1 expression is rapid, depends on a functional DNA-binding domain of FosER, and is a general phenomenon observed in different cell types. In vitro mutagenesis and functional analysis of the rat fra-1 gene in stably transfected Rat-1A-FosER fibroblasts indicated that basal and AP-1-regulated expression of the fra-1 gene depends on regulatory sequences in the first intron which comprise a consensus AP-1 site and two AP-1-like elements. We have also investigated the transactivating and transforming properties of the Fra-1 protein to address the significance of fra-1 up-regulation. The entire Fra-1 protein fused to the DNA-binding domain of Ga14 is shown to lack any transactivation function, and yet it possesses oncogenic potential, as overexpression of Fra-1 ...
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Kharat SS, Tripathi V, Damodaran AP, Priyadarshini R, Chandra S, Tikoo S, Nandhakumar R, Srivastava V, Priya S, Hussain M, Kaur S, Fishman JB, Sengupta S ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estradiol upregulates mesangial cell MMP-2 activity via the transcription factor AP-2. AU - Guccione, Michael. AU - Silbiger, Sharon. AU - Lei, Jun. AU - Neugarten, Joel. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The accumulation of extracellular matrix in the glomerular mesangium reflects the net balance between the synthesis and degradation of matrix components. We have shown that estradiol suppresses the synthesis of types I and IV collagen by cultured mesangial cells (Kwan G, Neugarten J, Sherman M, Ding Q, Fotadar U, Lei J, and Silbiger S. Kidney Int 50: 1173-1179, 1996; Neugarten J, Acharya A, Lei J, and Silbiger S. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 279: F309-F318, 2000; Neugarten J, Medve I, Lei J, and Silbiger SR. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 277: F1-F8, 1999; Neugarten J and Silbiger S. Am J Kidney Dis 26: 147-151, 1995; Silbiger S, Lei J, and Neugarten J. Kidney Int 55: 1268-1276, 1998; Silbiger S, Lei J, Ziyadeh FN, and Neugarten J. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 274: F1113-F1118, 1998). In the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of transcription factor AP-2 gamma with proto-oncogene PELP1 promotes tumorigenesis by enhancing RET signaling. AU - Liu, Junhao. AU - Liu, Zexuan. AU - Li, Mengxing. AU - Tang, Weiwei. AU - Pratap, Uday P.. AU - Luo, Yiliao. AU - Altwegg, Kristin A.. AU - Li, Xiaonan. AU - Zou, Yi. AU - Zhu, Hong. AU - Sareddy, Gangadhara R.. AU - Viswanadhapalli, Suryavathi. AU - Vadlamudi, Ratna K.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Dr. Igor Dawid, NIH and Dr. Helen Hurst (London, UK) for providing pGL3‐AP2‐Luc reporter plasmid. This study is supported by VA Grant I01BX004545 (RKV); NIH R01CA223828 (RKV); Mays Cancer Pilot grant funded by NCI P30 CA054174 (RKV); Voelcker Fund Young Investigator Award (GRS); CPRIT Predoctoral Fellowship (KAA); and Elsa U. Pardee Foundation Grant 166675‐44096 (SV). Publisher Copyright: © 2020 The Authors. Molecular Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European BiochemicalSocieties.. PY - 2020. Y1 - ...
Sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that interacts with inducible viral and cellular enhancer elements to regulate transcription of selected genes. AP-2 factors bind to the consensus sequence 5-GCCNNNGGC-3 and activate genes involved in a large spectrum of important biological functions including proper eye, face, body wall, limb and neural tube development. They also suppress a number of genes including MCAM/MUC18, C/EBP alpha and MYC. AP-2-alpha is the only AP-2 protein required for early morphogenesis of the lens vesicle. Together with the CITED2 coactivator, stimulates the PITX2 P1 promoter transcription activation. Associates with chromatin to the PITX2 P1 promoter region ...
Quercetin (QUE; 3,5,7,3′,4′-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been shown to possess several beneficial biological activities including antitumor, anti-inflammation and antioxidant properties; however, the effects of QUE in preventing invasion by breast carcinoma cells are still undefined. Increases in the protein, messenger RNA and enzyme activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were observed in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-treated MCF-7 cells, and these were blocked by QUE, but not by quercitrin or rutin. A translocation of protein kinase C (PKC)δ from the cytosol to the membrane followed by activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun/activator protein-1 (AP-1) by TPA was demonstrated, and TPA-induced MMP-9 activation and migration were inhibited by the pan PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, the specific PKCδ inhibitor, rottlerin, an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) and an AP-1 inhibitor (curcumin). Application of QUE significantly suppressed TPA-induced activation ...
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This chapter focuses on these modifications, which take place in the absence of protein synthesis, and on auxiliary factors involved in modulating activator
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The targetPROFILER allows to monitor activities of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) under diverse stimuli conditions. Individual signaling events, such as dimerisations and adaptor recruitment, can be simultaneously analysed using the EXTassay technology.. Additional signaling events, like transcription factor activities, can also be included and addressed in one experiment using the deepPROFILER.. ...
The AP-1 (activator protein-1) complex, which consists of proteins of the Fos and Jun families, is thought to play an important role in the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, the response to genotoxic stress ...
Complete information for JUND gene (Protein Coding), JunD Proto-Oncogene, AP-1 Transcription Factor Subunit, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Buy our Recombinant Human c-Jun protein. Ab54318 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
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AP-1 transcriptional activity is stimulated by the transformation promoters phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, TPA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in promotion-sensitive (P+) but not in promotion-resistant (P-) JB6 mouse epidermal cell lines. Although TPA stimulates expression of the jun and fos family genes, only c-jun expression shows higher elevation in P+ cells than in P- cells. The present study tests the hypothesis that induced AP-1 activity is required for tumor promoter-induced transformation in JB6 P+ cells. Both retinoic acid and the glucocorticoid fluocinolone acetonide inhibited basal and TPA-induced AP-1 activities that were tested with a stromelysin promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in P+ cells. Since both retinoic acid and fluocinolone acetonide are active in inhibiting TPA-induced anchorage-independent transformation of P+ cells in the dose range that blocks TPA-induced AP-1 activity, their antipromoting effects may ...
Transcription factor AP-2 alpha (AP-2α or TFAP2A) is a newly identified prognostic marker of chemotherapy; its expression is positively correlated with chemosensitivity and survival of cancer patients. Using computational programs, we predicted that the coding region of AP-2α gene contains a potential miRNA response element (MRE) of miR-193a-5p, and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site (c.497A,G, rs111681798) resides within the predicted MRE. The results of luciferase assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that miR-193a-5p negatively regulated the expression of AP-2α proteins, but have no influence on the mutant AP-2α (c.497A,G). Infection with lentiviral AP-2α gene or miR-193a-5p inhibitor in the bladder cancer cells decreased migration and cisplatin resistance, while knockdown of AP-2α gene or overexpression of miR-193a-5p in the urothelial cell line SV-HUC-1 increased migration and cisplatin resistances. We concluded that miR-193a-5p induced cisplatin resistance by ...
Neuronal migration is a crucial process that allows neurons to reach their correct target location to allow the nervous system to function properly. AP-2α is a transcription factor essential for neural crest cell migration and its mutation results in apoptosis within this cell population, as demonstrated by genetic models. We down-modulated AP-2α expression in GN-11 neurons by RNA interference and observe reduced neuron migration following the activation of a specific genetic programme including the Adhesion Related Kinase (Axl) gene. We prove that Axl is able to coordinate migration per se and by ChIP and promoter analysis we observe that its transcription is directly driven by AP-2α via the binding to one or more functional AP-2α binding sites present in its regulatory region. Analysis of migration in AP-2α null mouse embryo fibroblasts also reveals an essential role for AP-2α in cell movement via the activation of a distinct genetic programme. We show that AP-2α plays an essential role in cell
View Notes - Lec20 from BCH 110 at UC Riverside. Lecture 20 Eukaryotic Gene Regulation 2 REGULATORY TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS & ACTIVATION MECHANISMS Lodish 6th edition Chapter 7 Lodish 5th edition
We demonstrate that JunD, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, activates transcription of the human proenkephalin gene in a fashion that is completely dependent upon the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase A. Activation of proenkephalin transcription by JunD is dependent upon a previously characterized cAMP-, phorbol ester-, and Ca(2+)-inducible enhancer, and JunD is shown to bind the enhancer as a homodimer. Another component of the AP-1 transcription complex, JunB, is shown to inhibit activation mediated by JunD. As a homodimer JunB is unable to bind the enhancer; however in the presence of c-Fos, high-affinity binding is observed. Furthermore, JunD is shown to activate transcription of genes linked to both cAMP and phorbol ester response elements in a protein kinase A-dependent fashion, further blurring the distinction between these response elements. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional activity of an AP-1-related protein is regulated by the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dexamethasone attenuates kainate-induced AP-1 activation in rat brain. AU - Unlap, Tino. AU - Jope, Richard S.. PY - 1994/7. Y1 - 1994/7. N2 - The goal of this investigation was to determine if administration of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone modulates rat brain AP-1 DNA binding activity. Treatment with the selective excitatory amino acid agonist kainate was used to activate AP-1 formation. Kainate (12 mg/kg) administration induced a biphasic activation of AP-1 in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus with maximal levels observed at 1.5 h and 4.5 h and lower levels at 3 h and 6 h. Kainate also induced biphasic increases in the concentrations of some of the AP-1 constituent proteins (immediate early gene protein products), with initial increases of c-Jun, Fos, and Jun B occurring at 1.5 h and secondary larger increases at 4.5 h, but the level of Jun D was not altered by kainate treatment. Pretreatment with dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) reduced AP-1 activity at both 1.5 h and ...
immune Activator Protein-1 152044-53-6 supplier, Mouse monoclonal to CD152 Many research showed a potential anti-tumor role for cannabinoids, by modulating cell signaling pathways included in cancer cell proliferation, migration and chemo-resistance. mixture, had been capable to decrease cell viability by causing autophagic-dependent necrosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the CBD-THC mixture was capable to decrease Millimeter cells migration by down-regulating appearance of 152044-53-6 supplier the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and of the Compact disc147 plasma membrane layer glycoprotein. Furthermore, since the immuno-proteasome is definitely regarded as a fresh focus on in Millimeter and also since carfilzomib (CFZ) is definitely a fresh encouraging immuno-proteasome inhibitor that creates permanent adducts with the 5i subunit of immuno-proteasome, we examined the impact of CBD and THC in controlling the appearance of the 5i subunit and their impact in mixture with CFZ. Herein, we also ...
A variety of cellular proteins bind to cellular and viral enhancer elements. One such factor, known as AP-2, is a 52-kDa transcription factor identified by its interaction with the SV40 and metallothionein enhancers. In addition, it has been found that AP-2 binds to the SV40 T-antigen. AP-2 activity …
Complete information for SALL2 gene (Protein Coding), Spalt Like Transcription Factor 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Author: Medigeshi, G. R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2008-01; Title: AP-1 membrane-cytoplasm recycling regulated by μ1A-adaptin.
Expression of JUND (AP-1) in human tissue. Overview of the antibody staining with HPA063029 and CAB005268 in immunohistochemistry
All three transcription factors are needed to activate the transcription of interleukin-2(IL2) gene. NFAT activation depends on ... AP-1 then acts as transcription factor. Raf is activated via the second messenger DAG, SOS, and Ras. DAG recruits among other ... Transcription factors involved in T cell signalling pathway are the NFAT, NF-κB and AP1, a heterodimer of proteins Fos and Jun ... Upon binding to pMHC, the TCR initiates a signalling cascade, involving transcription factor activation and cytoskeletal ...
"Expression of the transcription factor deltaFosB in the brain controls sensitivity to cocaine". Nature. 401 (6750): 272-6. doi: ... Hope BT (May 1998). "Cocaine and the AP-1 transcription factor complex". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 844 (1): 1 ... The efficiency of absorption of orally administered cocaine is limited by two additional factors. First, the drug is partly ... Elevated levels of ΔFosB leads to increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which in turn increases the ...
"JUN - Transcription factor AP-1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - JUN gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2018-05-01. Serra RW, ... The presence of multiple y-box binding transcription factors and SRY transcription factor binding sites suggest that C18orf63 ... In the regulatory sequence missense mutations occur at two transcription factor binding sites. Transcription factors affected ... SRY testis determining factors, Y-box binding transcription factors, and glucocorticoid responsive elements. The JUN protein ...
"The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is required for efficient axonal regeneration." Neuron 43.1 (2004): 57-67. Raivich, ... "Inhibition of Posttraumatic Microglial Proliferation in a Genetic Model of Macrophage Colony‐Stimulating Factor Deficiency in ...
This adduct interferes with the binding of transcription factors to DNA which can trigger apoptosis or result in deletion ... AP endonuclease then cleaves the AP site, and the single-strand break is either processed by short-patch BER to replace a ... There are two broad causes of nucleic acid lesions, endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous factors, or endogeny, refer to ... transcription factor". Biochemistry. 41 (25): 8093-8102. doi:10.1021/bi012180a. ISSN 0006-2960. PMID 12069602. Esterbauer, H.; ...
"Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... Ubeda M, Vallejo M, Habener JF (November 1999). "CHOP enhancement of gene transcription by interactions with Jun/Fos AP-1 ... "Menin interacts with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and represses JunD-activated transcription". Cell. 96 (1): 143-52. doi: ... Transcription factor JunD is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUND gene. The protein encoded by this intronless gene ...
PKR is induced via the transcription factor AP-1 and activated independently of PACT. In this context, PKR has been shown to be ... Active PKR is also able to mediate the activation of the transcription factor NFkB, by phosphorylating its inhibitory subunit, ... eIF2a phosphorylation then induces activation of transcription factor 4 (ATF4), which induces apoptosis and nuclear ... "Nuclear factor 90 is a substrate and regulator of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase double-stranded RNA-activated ...
Basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like, also known as BATF, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BATF ... The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein that belongs to the AP-1/ATF superfamily of ... "Entrez Gene: BATF basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like". Schraml BU, Hildner K, Ise W, Lee WL, Smith WA, Solomon ... Hasegawa H, Utsunomiya Y, Kishimoto K, Tange Y, Yasukawa M, Fujita S (May 1996). "SFA-2, a novel bZIP transcription factor ...
Transcription factor jun-B is a transcription factor involved in regulating gene activity following the primary growth factor ... "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits transforming growth factor-beta /Smad signaling in human dermal fibroblasts via AP-1 ... Transcription factor jun-B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JUNB gene. ... Li B, Tournier C, Davis RJ, Flavell RA (1999). "Regulation of IL-4 expression by the transcription factor JunB during T helper ...
"Activation of Transcription Factors AP-1 and NF- B in Murine Chagasic Myocarditis". Infection and Immunity. 71 (5): 2859-67. ... It was found that within seven days the concentration of AP-1 was significantly higher in T. cruzi-infected mice when compared ... Huang, Huan; Petkova, Stefka B.; Cohen, Alex W.; Bouzahzah, Boumediene; Chan, John; Zhou, Jian-nian; Factor, Stephen M.; Weiss ... AP-1, and NF-κB. Also, the mitotic regulator for G1 progression, cyclin D1 was found to be activated. Although there was no ...
PLC activates 3 major transcription factors and their pathways: NFAT, NFkB and AP-1. After costimulation from CD28 the optimal ... It cooperates with other transcription factors including NFkB and Oct. NFkB is translocated to the nucleus after costimulation ... This phosphorylation recruits STAT transcription factors, predominantly STAT5, which dimerize and migrate to the cell nucleus ... The key factor was isolated from cultured mouse cells in 1979 and from cultured human cells in 1980. The gene for human IL-2 ...
... transcription factor consisting of cFOS and Cjun). This results in the activation of caspases as well. ROS also causes a ... JNK is phosphorylated, which leads to the phosphorylation of AP-1 ( ... When the mitochondrial membrane potential changes, apoptosis-inducing factors (AIFs) are also released. These trigger apoptosis ... 242 (1): 161-6. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(88)81007-x. PMID 2462511. S2CID 1400091. Adermann K, Raida M, Paul Y, Abu-Raya S, Bloch- ...
It is also known to be a coactivator that increases the specificity of JUN/AP1 transcription factors. COP9 constitutive ... November 2000). "Intracellular action of the cytokine MIF to modulate AP-1 activity and the cell cycle through Jab1". Nature. ... June 1999). "The Bcl-3 oncoprotein acts as a bridging factor between NF-kappaB/Rel and nuclear co-regulators". Oncogene. 18 (22 ... June 1999). "The Bcl-3 oncoprotein acts as a bridging factor between NF-kappaB/Rel and nuclear co-regulators". Oncogene. 18 (22 ...
"Phosphorylation of two eukaryotic transcription factors, Jun dimerization protein 2 and activation transcription factor 2, in ... Liu J, Han Q, Peng T, Peng M, Wei B, Li D, Wang X, Yu S, Yang J, Cao S, Huang K, Hutchins AP, Liu H, Kuang J, Zhou Z, Chen J, ... "The transcription factor T-box 3 regulates colony-stimulating factor 1-dependent Jun dimerization protein 2 expression and ... It was later identified by the yeast-two hybrid system to bind to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) to repress ATF- ...
Hu Y, Jin X, Snow ET (July 2002). "Effect of arsenic on transcription factor AP-1 and NF-κB DNA binding activity and related ... Cavigelli M, Li WW, Lin A, Su B, Yoshioka K, Karin M (November 1996). "The tumor promoter arsenite stimulates AP-1 activity by ... Kitchin (2001) proposed a model of altered growth factors which lead to cell proliferation and thus to carcinogenesis. From ... November 1996). "Arsenic induces overexpression of growth factors in human keratinocytes". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology ...
... its presence was detected in the cytoplasm and it was associated with activation of the AP-1 transcription factor. LYPD6B is ... 29 (1): 39-50. doi:10.1111/exd.14047. PMID 31602702. v t e. ...
The p38 pathway leads to the activation of AP-1 transcription factor c-Fos and the ERK1/2 pathway. The ERK1/2 pathway then ... As such, Candidalysin is a rare fungal example of a classical virulence factor. Hyphal morphogenesis in C. albicans is ... Examples of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can activate the p38 MAP Kinase include tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin-1, and ... MAPK phosphatase 1 is the founding member of the family of MAPK phosphatases which is a group of 11 phosphatases. The N- ...
2003). "Critical role of the transcription factor AP-1 for the constitutive and interferon-induced expression of IFI 16". J. ... Johnstone RW, Kerry JA, Trapani JA (1998). "The human interferon-inducible protein, IFI 16, is a repressor of transcription". J ... localization sequence of the interferon-induced nuclear factor IFI 16". Biochem. J. 353 (Pt 1): 69-77. doi:10.1042/0264-6021: ... 89 (1): 80-93. doi:10.1002/jcb.10475. PMID 12682910. S2CID 32678644. Xin H, Curry J, Johnstone RW, et al. (2003). "Role of IFI ...
PEMT gene expression is regulated by transcription factors including activator protein 1 (AP-1) and Sp1. Sp1 is a negative ... Estrogen has also been shown to be a positive regulator of hepatocyte PEMT transcription. Ablation of the estrogen binding site ... regulator of PEMT transcription, yet is it is a positive regulator of choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (CT) transcription ... 1348 (1-2): 142-50. doi:10.1016/s0005-2760(97)00108-2. PMID 9370326. Dong H, Wang J, Li C, Hirose A, Nozaki Y, Takahashi M, Ono ...
"Regulation of integrin alpha10 expression in chondrocytes by the transcription factors AP-2epsilon and Ets-1". Biochem. Biophys ... 345 (1): 495-501. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.04.123. PMID 16684505. ITGA10 Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway This ... The I-domain containing alpha 10 combines with the integrin beta 1 chain (ITGB1) to form a novel collagen type II-binding ...
The nuclear transcription factor activator protein, AP-1, which controls the transcription of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), ... Another transcription factor NF-κB, which is also activated by UV light, also increases the expression of MMP-9. The up- ... UV radiation activates the transcription factor, NF-κB, which is the first step in inflammation. NF-κB activation results in ... IL-6 vascular endothelial growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). This then attract neutrophils which lead to an ...
... a key transcription factor involved in inflammation. Retinoids also down-regulate expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, ... The retinoid-receptor complex competes for coactivator proteins of AP-1, ... Dictionary transcriptions also include /ˌtrɪˈtɪnoʊɪn/ (tri-TIN-oh-in) and /ˈtrɛtɪnɔɪn/. Tretinoin has been explored as a ... The epoxide is attacked by water to form diol in site 1. NADH, as a reduction agent, reduce the alcohol group to aldehydes. ...
This work led to identification of AP-1 transcription factors, later found to be composed of Jun and Fos prototo- oncoproteins ... thus providing an explanation to the surprising efficacy of PD-1 checkpoint inhibitory drugs in human non-viral HCC. 2005 - ...
Growth factors, such as Epidermal growth factor can also suppress miR-203 in epithelial cells... Multiple mechanisms can ... Another validated target of miR-203 is c-jun (AP-1), a potent proto-oncogene commonly deregulated in a wide range of cancers, ... In lung cancer cell lines, miR-203 has been shown to target DKK1, a secreted protein which acts as a survival factor in certain ... KRM1 is a Dependence Receptor and signals for cell death until such signalling is blocked by binding of its survival factor ...
Pospelov VA, Pospelova TV, Julien JP (February 1994). "AP-1 and Krox-24 transcription factors activate the neurofilament light ... 143 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1083/jcb.143.1.1. PMC 2132816. PMID 9763415. Beaudet L, Charron G, Julien JP (May 1992). "Origin of the ... 67 (1): 37-46. doi:10.1086/302962. PMC 1287099. PMID 10841809. De Jonghe P, Mersivanova I, Nelis E, Del Favero J, Martin JJ, ... 909 (1): 10-20. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(87)90041-8. hdl:1765/2408. PMID 3034332. Hurst J, Flavell D, Julien JP, Meijer D, ...
20 position and a recognition site for the AP-4 transcription factor at the -60 position. There are several AP-1 transcription ... Most studies have indicated that Tat is a transcription factor necessary for viral transcription from the LTRs. Tat contains ... Carruth LM, Hardwick JM, Morse BA, Clements JE (October 1994). "Visna virus Tat protein: a potent transcription factor with ... "Regulation of the visna virus long terminal repeat in macrophages involves cellular factors that bind sequences containing AP-1 ...
Fos/Jun dimers comprise the transcription factor complex AP-1 and activate delayed response genes, including the major G1 ... such as the transcription factor serum-response factor (SRF), resulting in expression of immediate early genes-notably the ... Overview As described above, signals from extracellular growth factors are transduced in a typical manner. Growth factor binds ... and inactivating phosphorylation of the transcription factor FOXO4 (which regulates p27 expression). Together, this ...
Activation of the IRAK/MAPK pathway leads to the stimulation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1. These ... transcription factors cause the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression ... Neiman, J. (Oct 1998). "Alcohol as a risk factor for brain damage: neurologic aspects". Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 22 (7 Suppl): ... 44 (1): 15-26. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2009.10.003. PMID 20113871. Blanco Am, V. S. S.; Vallés, S. L.; Pascual, M.; Guerri, C. ( ...
Most important in T cells is PKC-θ, critical for activating the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. IP3 is released from the ... NFAT is a transcription factor that activates the transcription of a pleiotropic set of genes, most notable, IL-2, a cytokine ... Both subsets require the expression of the transcription factor FOXP3 which can be used to identify the cells. Mutations of the ... Last known factors that can play a role in T cell exhaustion are regulatory cells. Treg cells can be a source of IL-10 and TGF- ...
... thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell ... transcription factor) GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000075426 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... Ng DC, Shafaee S, Lee D, Bikle DD (August 2000). "Requirement of an AP-1 site in the calcium response region of the involucrin ... Udalova IA, Kwiatkowski D (November 2001). "Interaction of AP-1 with a cluster of NF-kappa B binding elements in the human TNF ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA ... The homeobox genes encode a highly conserved family of transcription factors that play an important role in morphogenesis in ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at "Ebola virus ... proteins including interferon regulatory factor 3 and interferon regulatory factor 7 trigger a signalling cascade that leads to ... whose concentration in the host cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication of ... "AP News. Retrieved 17 July 2019.. *^ "Half of Ebola cases in DR Congo 'unidentified'". BBC News Online. 2 August 2019. ...
AP-4, CEBPB,[13] and epidermal growth factor. Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways ... Huskey SE, Dean BJ, Bakhtiar R, Sanchez RI, Tattersall FD, Rycroft W, Hargreaves R, Watt AP, Chicchi GG, Keohane C, Hora DF, ... Koon HW, Zhao D, Na X, Moyer MP, Pothoulakis C (Oct 2004). "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate ... the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and substance P". The British Journal of Dermatology. 157 (5): 922-5. doi:10.1111 ...
One group added a transcription factor for the production of anthocyanin from Arabidopsis thaliana[33] whereas another used ... Craig Freudenrich; Dora Barlaz; Jane Gardner (2009). AP Environmental Science. Kaplen inc. pp. 189-190. ISBN 978-1-4277-9816-9. ... A gene from rice (Osmyb4), which codes for a transcription factor, that was shown to increase cold and drought tolerance in ... "Enrichment of tomato fruit with health-promoting anthocyanins by expression of select transcription factors". Nature ...
transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • ATPase binding. • zinc ion binding. • transcriptional activator ... "The Angelman syndrome-associated protein, E6-AP, is a coactivator for the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily". Molecular and ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA binding. • identical protein binding. • ... RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA ...
Barker ME, Blumsohn A (November 2003). "Is vitamin A consumption a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture?". The Proceedings of ... Jorens PG, Michielsen PP, Pelckmans PA, Fevery J, Desmet VJ, Geubel AP, Rahier J, Van Maercke YM (December 1992). "Vitamin A ... members of the retinoic acid receptor or retinoid X receptor nuclear transcription family) which are found in every cell ( ... Nollevaux MC, Guiot Y, Horsmans Y, Leclercq I, Rahier J, Geubel AP, Sempoux C (March 2006). "Hypervitaminosis A-induced liver ...
Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P (Nov 2002). "Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and ... Base excision repair/AP site *DNA glycosylase. *Uracil-DNA glycosylase. *Poly ADP ribose polymerase ... 59 (1): 68-83. doi:10.1002/jemt.10178. PMID 12242698.. *^ a b Pellegrini L, Yu DS, Lo T, Anand S, Lee M, Blundell TL, ... 59 (1): 1-9. PMID 15902993.. *^ Galkin VE, Wu Y, Zhang XP, Qian X, He Y, Yu X, Heyer WD, Luo Y, Egelman EH (Jun 2006). "The ...
... gene transcription is controlled by multiple gene regulatory proteins such as transcription factors which bind to ... de Napoles M, Mermoud JE, Wakao R, Tang YA, Endoh M, Appanah R, Nesterova TB, Silva J, Otte AP, Vidal M, Koseki H, Brockdorff N ... is a transcription factor which activates histone gene transcription on chromosomes 1 and 6 of human cells. NPAT is also a ... SBF is a transcription factor that is activated in late G1 phase, when it dissociates from its repressor Whi5. This occurs when ...
A scaffolding protein that tethers JNK/p38MAPK signaling modules and transcription factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... Guan Z, Buckman SY, Pentland AP, et al. (1998). "Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by the activated MEKK1 --> SEK1/MKK4 --> p38 ... binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". Mol. Cell. Biol. UNITED STATES. 19 (11): ... 17 (1): 9-19. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80276-7. PMID 8755474. White RA, Hughes RT, Adkison LR, et al. (1996). "The gene ...
转录激活因子(英语:Activating transcription factor)(AATF(英语:Apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor)、1、2、3、4、5、6、7) · AP-1(c-Fos、 ... 0.5) AP-2/EREBP-related factors. Apetala 2 · EREBP(英语:Ethylene-responsive element binding protein) · B3 ... sequence-specific enhancer binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity. · transcription factor binding. · zinc ion ... Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor)(I、II)、Ear-2(英语:V-erbA-related gene)、HNF4(英语:Hepatocyte nuclear factor ...
Carninci P, Hayashizaki Y (April 2007). "Noncoding RNA transcription beyond annotated genes". Current Opinion in Genetics & ... AP (8 March 2013). "Gene transfer from bacteria and archaea facilitated evolution of an extremophilic eukaryote.". Science 339 ... "Recircularization and Autonomous Replication of a Sheared R-Factor DNA Segment in Escherichia coli Transformants - PNAS". Pnas. ... SciTable (Nature Publishing Group) 4 (2): 1. *↑ ೬೩.೦ ೬೩.೧ Guerzoni, D; McLysaght, A (November 2011). "De novo origins of human ...
Lüscher B (2001). "Function and regulation of the transcription factors of the Myc/Max/Mad network". Gene 277 (1-2): 1-14. PMID ... AP-1 (c-Fos, FOSB, FOSL1, FOSL2, c-Jun, JUNB, JUND) • BACH (1, 2) • BATF • BLZF1 • C/EBP (α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ) • CREB (1, 3, L1) ... ARX • CDX (1, 2) • CRX • CUTL1 • DBX (1, 2) • DLX (3, 4, 5) • EMX2 • EN (1, 2) • FHL (1, 2, 3) • HESX1 • HHEX • HLX • Homeobox ... HMGB (1, 2, 3) • HNF (1A, 1B) • LEF1 • SOX (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21) • SRY • SSRP1 • TCF (3, 4) ...
As some co-factors contain both nucleotide and amino-acid characteristics, it may be that amino acids, peptides and finally ... "AP News. Archived from the original on July 14, 2015. Retrieved August 31, 2012.. ... This change in structure can result in the formation or disruption of a terminator, truncating or permitting transcription ... 757 (1): L4. arXiv:1208.5498. Bibcode:2012ApJ...757L...4J. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/757/1/L4. Archived (PDF) from the original on ...
Degradation of Aux/IAA proteins derepresses transcription factors in the auxin-response factor (ARF) family and induces ARF- ... Arrigo AP, Tanaka, K, Goldberg F, Welch WJ (1988). "Identity of 19S prosome particle with the large multifunctional protease ... Accordingly, gene expression by degradation of transcription factors, such as p53, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB, c-Myc, HIF-1α, MATα2, ... Certain transcription factors regulating the expression of specific genes, including one component of the mammalian complex NF- ...
This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors which are essential during fetal development. It ... McGaughran JM, Oates A, Donnai D, Read AP, Tassabehji M (2003). "Mutations in PAX1 may be associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome ... 2001). "Homeodomain proteins Mox1 and Mox2 associate with Pax1 and Pax3 transcription factors". FEBS Lett. 499 (3): 274-8. doi: ... "Homeodomain proteins Mox1 and Mox2 associate with Pax1 and Pax3 transcription factors". FEBS Lett. 499 (3): 274-8. doi:10.1016/ ...
Contributes to Platelet-derived Growth Factor-induced Activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3". J. ... Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one among numerous growth factors that regulate cell growth and division. In ... Other growth factors in this family include vascular endothelial growth factors B and C (VEGF-B, VEGF-C)[16][17] which are ... "Vascular endothelial growth factor: A new member of the platelet-derived growth factor gene family". Biochemical and ...
... a neurotrophic factor important for long-term memory.[66] Expression of CREB, an activity-dependent transcription factor ... Bakulski KM, Dolinoy DC, Sartor MA, Paulson HL, Konen JR, Lieberman AP, Albin RL, Hu H, Rozek LS (2012). "Genome-wide DNA ... onto or around which transcription factors may bind and transcription can begin. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides and/or ... and transcription factor NF-κB, which is involved in immune signaling, has been shown to be hypomethylated and thus derepressed ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ... Genetic disorders relating to deficiencies of transcription factor or coregulators. (1) Basic domains. ... An in vitro assay of ERα-dependent gene transcription found that the EC50 for transactivation had been reduced by 240-fold ... 978-1-60913-345-0. .. *^ Mark Dennis; William Talbot Bowen; Lucy Cho (31 August 2016). Mechanisms of Clinical Signs - EPub3. ...
When this occurs, complexes like SWI/SNF and other transcriptional factors can bind to the DNA and allow transcription to occur ... Robertson KD, Wolffe AP (October 2000). "DNA methylation in health and disease". Nature Reviews Genetics. 1 (1): 11-9. PMID ... For these reasons, ΔFosB is considered a primary and causative transcription factor in creating new neural connections in the ... This depends on ΔFosB inhibiting G9a gene expression, i.e. H3K9me2 synthesis which in turn inhibits transcription factors for ...
The La antigen is a 48kDa transcription termination factor of RNA polymerase III, which associates with the Ro-RNP complex.[15] ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Table 6-2 in: Elizabeth D ... Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as antinuclear factor or ANF)[1] are autoantibodies that bind to contents of the cell ... For example, IgM-rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) have been shown to cross-react with ANA giving falsely positive immunofluorescence. ...
Single-cell analysis of the several transcription factors by scRNA-seq revealed heterogeneity across the population. These ... Gasch AP, Yu FB, Hose J, Escalante LE, Place M, Bacher R, et al. (December 2017). Balaban N (ed.). "Single-cell RNA sequencing ... Once reverse transcription is complete, the cDNAs from many cells can be mixed together for sequencing; transcripts from a ... In the amplification step, either PCR or in vitro transcription (IVT) is currently used to amplify cDNA. One of the advantages ...
AR, an androgen-activated transcription factor, belongs to the steroid nuclear receptor family. Development of the prostate is ... Hsing AW, Chokkalingam AP (2006). "Prostate cancer epidemiology". Frontiers in Bioscience. 11: 1388-413. doi:10.2741/1891. PMID ... Retrieved 1 July 2014.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter ... Risk factors. A complete understanding of the causes of prostate cancer remains elusive.[17] The primary risk factors are ...
Phosphorylation STATs form transcription factors and activate transcription of appropriate genes. The β chain of IL-15R ... Bamford RN, DeFilippis AP, Azimi N, Kurys G, Waldmann TA (May 1998). "The 5' untranslated region, signal peptide, and the ... It also activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and AKT signaling pathway and induce expression of transcription factors ... and STAT6 transcription factors are activated to elicit downstream signaling events. IL-15 and its receptor subunit alpha (IL- ...
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • regulation of tau-protein kinase activity. • ... Kochhar KS, Johnson ME, Volpert O, Iyer AP (1995). "Evidence for autocrine basis of transformation in NIH-3T3 cells transfected ... Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is ... "Entrez Gene: HGF hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)".. *^ Yang ZJ, Zhang YR, Chen B, Zhang SL, Jia EZ, ...
Transcription factor. ONCO. *AP-1 *c-Fos. *c-Jun. *c-Myc. TSP. *KLF6 ... transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter. • G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle. • cytokine-mediated ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator ... Gartel AL, Radhakrishnan SK (May 2005). "Lost in transcription: p21 repression, mechanisms, and consequences". Cancer Res. 65 ( ...
This allows the transcription factors in the nucleus to respond differently based in the phosphorylation state of Jacob.[57] ... Cao W, Shah HP, Glushakov AV, Mecca AP, Shi P, Sumners C, et al. (December 2009). "Efficacy of 3,5-dibromo-L-phenylalanine in ... Another factor that seems to affect NMDAR induced toxicity is the observed variation in subunit makeup. NMDA receptors are ... Neal AP, Stansfield KH, Worley PF, Thompson RE, Guilarte TR (July 2010). "Lead exposure during synaptogenesis alters vesicular ...
Møller AP; J. Erritzøe; L. Z. Garamszegi (2005). "Covariation between brain size and immunity in birds: implications for brain ... Audio Pitch Tracer Accurate transcription of clean recordings of bird vocalizations to midi ... This suggests that other factors, such as the activation of genes on the z chromosome, might also play a role in normal male ... 122 (1): 1-23. doi:10.1093/jrma/122.1.1.. *^ Clark, Suzannah (2001). Music Theory and Natural Order from the Renaissance to the ...
transcription factor binding. • protein domain specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence- ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma (HNF-3G), also known as forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3) or transcription factor 3G (TCF-3G) ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • sequence- ... transcription, DNA-templated. • spermatogenesis. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • ...
Ras guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • protein domain specific binding. • phospholipase binding. • structural ... Pospelov VA, Pospelova TV, Julien JP (February 1994). "AP-1 and Krox-24 transcription factors activate the neurofilament light ... 67 (1): 37-46. doi:10.1086/302962. PMC 1287099. PMID 10841809.. *. De Jonghe P, Mersivanova I, Nelis E, Del Favero J, Martin JJ ... 45 (1): 30-2. doi:10.1159/000132421. PMID 3036423.. *. Frappier T, Regnouf F, Pradel LA (December 1987). "Binding of brain ...
It is caused by the interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors.[124][125] These factors lead to ... Berger AM, Abernethy AP, Atkinson A, Barsevick AM, Breitbart WS, Cella D, Cimprich B, Cleeland C, Eisenberger MA, Escalante CP ... When the DNA double-strand helix is unwound, during DNA replication or transcription, for example, the adjacent unopened DNA ... The susceptibility of an individual to liver damage can be altered by other factors such as the cancer itself, viral hepatitis ...
Transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the enhancer heptamer motif 5-TGA[CG]TCA-3. Promotes activity of NR5A1 when ... DNA-binding transcription factor activity Source: MGI. *DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific ... Transcription factor AP-1Add BLAST. 334. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical view ... transcription factor binding Source: MGI. *transcription regulatory region DNA binding Source: MGIInferred from direct assayi* ...
Transcription+Factor+AP-1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... is a transcription factor composed of dimers of proteins belonging to the c-Fos, c-Jun, ATF and JDP families. AP-1 upregulates ... Hess J, Angel P, Schorpp-Kistner M (2004). "AP-1 subunits: quarrel and harmony among siblings". J. Cell. Sci. 117 (Pt 25): 5965 ... transcription of genes containing the TPA response element (TRE; 5-TGAG/CTCA-3).[1] ...
Crm1p mediates regulated nuclear export of a yeast AP-1-like transcription factor.. Yan C1, Lee LH, Davis LI. ... The yeast AP-1-like transcription factor, Yap1p, activates genes required for the response to oxidative stress. Yap1p is ... 1. W.M.Keck Institute for Cellular Visualization, Rosenstiel Center and Department of Biology, MS 029, Brandeis University, 415 ... We also show that a mutation in RanGAP (rna1-1) is synthetically lethal with crm1 mutants. Yap1p export is inhibited in both ...
The dimeric transcription factor complex Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) is a group of proteins involved in a wide array of cell ... In this review, we will attempt to unravel the roles of AP-1 in the regulation of anti-tumor immune responses, with a focus on ... transcription factors; Tregs AP-1; immune checkpoints; PD-1; CTLA-4; PD-L1; immunotherapy; targeted therapy; transcription ... The dimeric transcription factor complex Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) is a group of proteins involved in a wide array of cell ...
The role of AP-1 family transcription factor networks in regulating Th17 cell identity. Maria Ciofani and Tiffany Carr ... In this regard, we have identified the AP-1 family of transcription factors (TFs) as key regulators of Th17 cell identity. Our ... Such mechanistic insight is key to guiding future work aimed at exploiting the AP-1 balance in Th17 cells to divert damaging ... The role of AP-1 family transcription factor networks in regulating Th17 cell identity ...
The transcription factor family AP-1 is composed of homo- and heterodimeric complexes, which consist of Jun, Fos, activating ... Their polarization and activation are controlled by transcription factors such as NF-κB and the AP-1 transcription factor ... Suppression of vascular permeability and inflammation by targeting of the transcription factor c-Jun. Nat. Biotechnol. 24: 856- ... Molecular aspects of rheumatoid arthritis: role of transcription factors. FEBS J. 275: 4463-4470. ...
The transcription factor may be, e.g., NF-κB, RBP-Jκ, AP-1, NF IL-6, SP-1, GRE, SRE, mixtures thereof and the like. The ... The NF-κB transcription factor, in conjunction with other cellular transcription factors, plays a critical role in gene ... More particularly, the thioaptamers disclosed herein may be used to modulate the activity of a transcription factor (e.g., AP-1 ... The XBY-S2 thioaptamer efficiently eliminated transcription factor binding to the AP-1 oligonucleotide. In contrast, treatment ...
Abstract 190: Purinergic Control of Tissue Factor Transcription in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells: New AP-1 Site and ... Abstract 190: Purinergic Control of Tissue Factor Transcription in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells: New AP-1 Site and ... Abstract 190: Purinergic Control of Tissue Factor Transcription in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells: New AP-1 Site and ... Abstract 190: Purinergic Control of Tissue Factor Transcription in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells: New AP-1 Site and ...
The transcription factor Ets21C drives tumor growth by cooperating with AP-1 ... The transcription factor Ets21C drives tumor growth by cooperating with AP-1. Scientific Reports, 6:34725. ... targets of the JNK pathway and we demonstrate that their expression not only depends on the transcription factor AP-1, but also ... targets of the JNK pathway and we demonstrate that their expression not only depends on the transcription factor AP-1, but also ...
One of the central regulators of oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Yap1, a bZIP transcription factor of the AP-1 ... transcription factors.. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP-1-like transcription factor Yap1 is the best-characterized member of ... The Atf1 transcription factor is a target for the StyI stress-activated MAP kinase pathway in fission yeast. Genes Dev. 10:2289 ... The bZip transcription factor Cap1p is involved in multidrug resistance and oxidative stress response in Candida albicans. J. ...
c-Jun is a component of the heterodimeric AP-1 transcription factor, and c-Jun is highly expressed in response to neuronal ... c-Jun is a component of the heterodimeric AP-1 transcription factor, and c-Jun is highly expressed in response to neuronal ... The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is required for efficient axonal regeneration ... The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is required for efficient axonal regeneration. Neuron, 43(1):57-67. ...
EMSA was used to verify the activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. The binding of NFAT3 transcription factor to its cis- ... and dose-dependent activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. A dominant negative form of NFAT3 transcription factor inhibited H ... Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part ... Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine ...
Regulation of AP-1 and NFAT transcription factors during thymic selection of T cells.. M Rincon, R A Flavell ... Indeed AP-1 inducibility, just like the ability to express the interleukin-2 gene, is reacquired during the differentiation of ... We therefore propose that the inability of DP thymocytes to induce AP-1 and NFAT activities is one of the causes for the lack ... Here, we show that both AP-1 and NFAT transcriptional activities are not inducible in the majority of DP cells but that during ...
Regulation of retinoic acid-induced inhibition of AP-1 activity by orphan receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter- ... transcription factor ... chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor Title ... Regulation of retinoic acid-induced inhibition of AP-1 activity by orphan receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter- ... Regulation of retinoic acid-induced inhibition of AP-1 activity by orphan receptor ...
This activity is partly through the inhibition of transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 by the constituent withanolide. The ... The extract inhibited nuclear translocation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha ... Withania somnifera inhibits NF-kappaB and AP-1 transcription factors in human peripheral blood and synovial fluid mononuclear ... 1 Department of Immunology, Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, India. ...
... and on auxiliary factors involved in modulating activator ... Factors Modulating AP-1 Activity. WithJohan Auwerx, Paolo ... The FOS and JUN Families of Transcription Factors. DOI link for The FOS and JUN Families of Transcription Factors ... The FOS and JUN Families of Transcription Factors. DOI link for The FOS and JUN Families of Transcription Factors ... The tuning of AP-1 activity is necessary to allow a flexible regulation in response to different cellular stimuli. AP-1 ...
Hu, Y, Jin, XM and Snow, ET 2002 , Effect of arsenic on transcription factor AP-1 and NF-kappa B DNA binding activity and ... Effect of arsenic on transcription factor AP-1 and NF-kappa B DNA binding activity and related gene expression ... These results suggest that As(III) may alter AP-1 and NF-KB activity, in part, by up-regulating Trx and Ref-1. The different ... and activates both AP-1 and NF-kappaB binding. Chronic exposure to 0.1 or 0.5 muM As(III) decreased c-Jun, c-Fos and Ref-1 ...
Tissue Factor Expression in Vital Organs during Murine Traumatic Shock : Role of Transcription Factors AP-1 and NF-κB. ... Tissue Factor Expression in Vital Organs during Murine Traumatic Shock : Role of Transcription Factors AP-1 and NF-κB ... Tissue Factor Expression in Vital Organs during Murine Traumatic Shock : Role of Transcription Factors AP-1 and NF-κB ... We found significant increases in the binding of the transcription factors, AP-1 and NF-κB, from lung nuclear extracts of ...
The possible interaction of these transcription factors with the conserved AP-1 motifs present in MT promoters has been ... and bZIP type transcription factors might participate in the MT gene expression regulation. In this research work, we ... Transcription Factors as Potential Regulators of Metallothionein Gene Expression in Tetrahymena thermophila ... Transcription Factors as Potential Regulators of Metallothionein Gene Expression in Tetrahymena thermophila. Frontiers in ...
... and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in vitro and in vivo. The promoter region of the genes encoding these … ... Constitutive activation of transcription factors NF-(kappa)B, AP-1, and NF-IL6 in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma ... We concluded that the early transcription factors NF-kappaB, AP-1, and NF-IL6 are constitutively activated in human HNSCC cell ... The promoter region of the genes encoding these cytokines include binding sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor ( ...
This system is used to assay the transcriptional function and the interactions between various AP-1 factors. This article has ... Functional dissection of AP-1 transcription factors using the Gal4 adaptor assay. SE Smith and D Bohmann European Molecular ... Complex Functions of AP-1 Transcription Factors in Differentiation and Survival of PC12 Cells. Mol. Cell. Biol., July 1, 2001; ... Ternary complexes composed of the DNA binding site, the adaptor protein, and a leucine zipper factor can stimulate reporter ...
Stitzel, M. L. ; Durso, R. ; Reese, J. C. / The proteasome regulates the UV-induced activation of the AP-1-like transcription ... Stitzel, M. L., Durso, R., & Reese, J. C. (2001). The proteasome regulates the UV-induced activation of the AP-1-like ... The proteasome regulates the UV-induced activation of the AP-1-like transcription factor Gcn4. / Stitzel, M. L.; Durso, R.; ... The proteasome regulates the UV-induced activation of the AP-1-like transcription factor Gcn4. Genes and Development. 2001 Jan ...
... transcription factor, formed in response to oncogenic RAF-MAPK signaling which also triggers oxidative stress, binds the ...
AP-1s are heterodimeric transcription factors formed by dimerization of one member of the Fos protein (c-Fos, FosB, Fra1, or ... transcription factors become quickly up-regulated upon B cell activation. We demonstrate that Fra1, a Fos member of AP-1, ... Among them are transcription factors of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) family that, based on their induction and their capacity ... From these data, we conclude that Fra1 is a transcription factor that inhibits plasma cell differentiation of FO B cells in a ...
Activator protein Transcription factor Hess J, Angel P, Schorpp-Kistner M (December 2004). "AP-1 subunits: quarrel and harmony ... Lee W, Mitchell P, Tjian R (June 1987). "Purified transcription factor AP-1 interacts with TPA-inducible enhancer elements". ... activation of a predetermined enhancer landscape controlled by the pioneer transcription factor AP-1", which "defines the ... Ahn JD, Morishita R, Kaneda Y, Lee KU, Park JY, Jeon YJ, Song HS, Lee IK (June 2001). "Transcription factor decoy for activator ...
JUN transcription factors bind DNA as part of the AP-1 complex, regulate many cellular processes, and play a key role in ... JUN transcription factors bind DNA as part of the AP-1 complex, regulate many cellular processes, and play a key role in ... ERK signaling regulates opposing roles of JUN family transcription factors at ETS/AP-1 sites and in cell migration.. Selvaraj N ... This work provides a rationale for how transcription factors can have distinct roles depending on the signaling status and the ...
Their polarisation and activation are controlled by transcription factors, such as NF-κB and the AP-1 transcription factor ... 02.24 The ap-1 transcription factor c-jun promotes arthritis by regulating cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages. ... However, the role of the third JUN/AP-1 member, c-Jun, is still ill defined during macrophage activation in RA. ... together with ChIP analysis in macrophages unravelled direct activation of the pro-inflammatory factor cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2) ...
transcription factor binding 297 transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence- ... Transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the enhancer heptamer motif 5-TGA[CG]TCA-3. Promotes activity of NR5A1 when ... transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding 14 ... transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding 62 ...
Thus, we demonstrated that monkey 20α-HSD promoter activity is regulated by the transcription factor Ap-1 in CHO-K1 cells. ... Absence of the Ap-1 site in -273-Luc dramatically decreased the transcription levels to the control levels. When the reporter ... These findings were confirmed by EMSA examining the interactions of the protein Ap-1 in a nuclear extract from CHO-K1 cells and ... Our results indicate that the Ap-1 site (-281 → -274) (5′-TGTCTCAT-3′) plays a crucial role in the activation of the monkey 20α ...
... a transcription factor known to antagonize RORγt function.",. author = "Soh Yamazaki and Yoshihiko Tanaka and Hiromitsu Araki ... a transcription factor known to antagonize RORγt function.. AB - Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T helper (Th17) cells are ... a transcription factor known to antagonize RORγt function. ... a transcription factor known to antagonize RORγt function.. UR ... Yamazaki, S., Tanaka, Y., Araki, H., Kohda, A., Sanematsu, F., Arasaki, T., ... Sumimoto, H. (2017). The AP-1 transcription ...
  • The yeast AP-1-like transcription factor, Yap1p, activates genes required for the response to oxidative stress. (nih.gov)
  • These genes are known downstream targets of the JNK pathway and we demonstrate that their expression not only depends on the transcription factor AP-1, but also on Ets21C suggesting a cooperative transcriptional activation mechanism. (uzh.ch)
  • The NFAT3 binding site in the promoters of most genes contains a weak activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site adjacent to the core consensus NFAT binding sequence. (physiology.org)
  • A comparative qRT-PCR analysis of these AP-1 genes have been carried out in different T. thermophila strains (including metal-adapted, knockout and/or knockdown strains among others), and under different metal-stress conditions (1 or 24 h Cd2+, Cu2+, or Pb2+ treatments). (ucm.es)
  • For the first time, and based on our findings, a possible gene expression regulation model including both AP-1 transcription factors and MT genes from the ciliate T. thermophila has been elaborated. (ucm.es)
  • The promoter region of the genes encoding these cytokines include binding sites for the transcription factors nuclear factor (NF) kappaB/Rel A, activator protein-1 (AP-1), and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta, or NF-IL6), which have been reported to contribute to activation of these cytokine genes. (nih.gov)
  • Stitzel, ML, Durso, R & Reese, JC 2001, ' The proteasome regulates the UV-induced activation of the AP-1-like transcription factor Gcn4 ', Genes and Development , vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 128-133. (elsevier.com)
  • RNA sequencing reveals that opposing regulation by c-JUN and JUND defines a subset of AP-1 target genes with cell migration roles. (diagenode.com)
  • When the reporter constructs were co-transfected with Ap-1 (Jun) and specificity protein (Sp-1) genes, the transcription activities of the constructs increased with the exception of -273 and -70, while that of the double construct was reduced compared to that of Ap-1 alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • JunB appears to activate Th17 signature genes by forming a heterodimer with BATF, another AP-1 factor essential for Th17 differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanism whereby JunB controls Th17 cell development likely involves activation of the genes for the Th17 lineage-specifying orphan receptors RORγt and RORα and reduced expression of Foxp3, a transcription factor known to antagonize RORγt function. (elsevier.com)
  • AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). (abbexa.com)
  • The molecular mechanisms responsible for TPA-induced MMP-9 and IL-6 expression include binding of transcription factor AP-1 to its response element on the promoter regions of target genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. (genecards.org)
  • However, Fra-1 failed to substitute for c-Fos in inducing expression of target genes in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We are using these systems to identify novel Fos target genes by microarrays and with the help of bone-specific conditional alleles of c-Fos and Fra-1, we are studying the molecular mechanisms how Fos proteins govern bone cell development and differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 ], Nrf2 controls 1055 protein-coding genes in mice. (intechopen.com)
  • This raises a question: how does NRF2, being a well-known stand-by inducible transcription factor curbed in cytoplasm by KEAP1, fit into cellular context with so many target genes? (intechopen.com)
  • Although 645 of the 1055 Nrf2 target genes were found to have basal type of expression regulation by this factor [ 1 ], Nrf2 is still required to be present in the nucleus in significant amounts to drive their expression. (intechopen.com)
  • From these results it can be concluded that melatonin has no independent effects on expression of the AP-1 genes, rather its primary function is to inhibit cell activities through cyclic AMP-dependent routes of gene activation. (elsevier.com)
  • The CRE (cyclic AMP response element)transcription factor complex is a pleiotropic activator that participates in the induction of a wide variety of cellular and viral genes. (elsevier.com)
  • The long terminal repeat (LTR) of Mo-MuLV affects the regulation of a number of cellular genes, including collagenase IV, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and c-jun genes, all of which contain 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element consensus sites within their promoters. (elsevier.com)
  • Weng, H , Choi, SY & Faller, DV 1995, ' The Moloney leukemia retroviral long terminal repeat trans-activates AP-1-inducible genes and AP-1 transcription factor binding ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 270, no. 23, pp. 13637-13644. (elsevier.com)
  • This modulation occurs via activation of a complex network of signaling proteins and transcription factors, leading to changes in levels of key genes and proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [8] Therefore, approximately 10% of genes in the genome code for transcription factors, which makes this family the single largest family of human proteins. (wikiversity.org)
  • Furthermore, genes are often flanked by several binding sites for distinct transcription factors, and efficient expression of each of these genes requires the cooperative action of several different transcription factors (see, for example, hepatocyte nuclear factors). (wikiversity.org)
  • Moreover, a number of murine FOX genes, such as the induction of Foxa2 (HNF-3β) during floor plate development (15) , Foxd2 (Mf-2) during somitogenesis (16) , and Foxf1 (FREAC-1 or HFH-8) during lung and foregut organogenesis (17) , have been shown to be expressed within areas of active Shh signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) [1] is a cellular transcription factor that binds to certain DNA sequences called cAMP response elements (CRE), thereby increasing or decreasing the transcription of the genes. (wikiversity.org)
  • Expression of the genes, affected by nitrogen and carbon sources and pH, was also controlled by another transcription activator, CRG1, previously shown to regulate cercosporin production and resistance. (wiley.com)
  • [1] [2] The function of TFs is to regulate-turn on and off-genes in order to make sure that they are expressed in the right cell at the right time and in the right amount throughout the life of the cell and the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • TFs work alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator ), or blocking (as a repressor ) the recruitment of RNA polymerase (the enzyme that performs the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA) to specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factors bind to either enhancer or promoter regions of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 proteins play a role in the expression of many genes involved in the regulation of cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. (activemotif.com)
  • Under stress conditions, the activity of yAP-1 is increased, leading to the induced expression of a number of target genes encoding protective enzymes or molecules. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In molecular biology , Activator protein 1 , AP-1 , is a transcription factor composed of dimers of proteins belonging to the c-Fos , c-Jun , ATF and JDP families. (wikidoc.org)
  • The structure of AP-1 is a heterodimer composed of proteins belonging to the c-Fos, c-Jun, ATF and JDP families. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dimeric transcription factor complex Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) is a group of proteins involved in a wide array of cell processes and a critical regulator of nuclear gene expression during T-cell activation. (mdpi.com)
  • The transcription factor family AP-1 is composed of homo- and heterodimeric complexes, which consist of Jun, Fos, activating transcription factor, and musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma proteins. (jimmunol.org)
  • In macrophages, AP-1 proteins can regulate inflammatory processes through activation of cytokine production. (jimmunol.org)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the steps of identifying the protein by mass spectrometry is preceded by the steps of extracting and separating the proteins by liquid chromatography. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more thioaptamers bound to one or more proteins are isolated from a gel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more thioaptamers are attached to beads and the one or more proteins that have bound the one or more thioaptamers are labeled and the beads are sorted based on protein binding. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 10. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more thioaptamers are attached to beads and the step of selecting one or more beads to which one or more proteins has bound is defined further as being fluorescent sorting using a flow-cytometer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more proteins is further defined as being a cell extract. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Changing the composition of the dimers can result in AP-1 proteins with a dramatically different transactivation potential. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB, AP-1, and NF-IL6 DNA-binding proteins was detected. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the ETS/AP-1 sequence defines a unique gene expression program regulated by the relative level of JUN proteins and RAS/ERK signaling. (diagenode.com)
  • The biological activities of the intercalatorpeptides were then investigated using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), making use of cell nuclear extracts rich in AP-l and also c-Jun homodimer recombinant proteins. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • Since Fos proteins need Jun proteins to activate transcription, we investigated the function of c-Jun in bone cells using the cre/loxP system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alteration of gene transcription by inhibition of specific transcriptional regulatory proteins has important therapeutic potential. (elsevier.com)
  • While proteins related to the Yap1 and Pap1 basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors have been identified in a number of filamentous fungi, the components involved in the upstream regulation remain unclear. (massey.ac.nz)
  • Further, expression of c-Jun and c-Fos proteins and activator protein (AP-1) DNA binding activity were enhanced in a time-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • There are approximately 2600 proteins in the human genome that contain DNA-binding domains, and most of these are presumed to function as transcription factors, [7] though other studies indicate it to be a smaller number. (wikiversity.org)
  • Fos proteins dimerize with Jun proteins to form activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor complexes, which regulate target gene expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • NGF is initially in a 7S, 130- kDa complex of 3 proteins - Alpha-NGF, Beta-NGF, and Gamma-NGF (2:1:2 ratio) when expressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival occurs when recruited cytoplasmic adaptor proteins facilitate signal transduction through tumor necrosis factor receptor members such as TRAF6 , which results in the release of nuclear factor κB ( NF-κB ) transcription activator. (wikipedia.org)
  • We study (1) transport proteins through which metals enter or leave cells, (2) signal transduction and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that cells use to sense and respond to metals, and (3) proteins and cellular processes that are targeted by metals. (gu.se)
  • The transcription factor can either do this directly or recruit other proteins with this catalytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant c-Fos and Recombinant c-Jun proteins are available separately to generate an optional protein standard curve in the TransAM AP-1 Transcription Factor ELISA kits. (activemotif.com)
  • In addition to forming transcriptionally active homodimers with AP-1 members, Jun proteins can also bind to form transcriptionally active heterodimers with CREB/ATF members to bind the CRE element. (activemotif.com)
  • AP-1 controls a number of cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to have a hand in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These dimers are involved in different cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we show that both AP-1 and NFAT transcriptional activities are not inducible in the majority of DP cells but that during the differentiation of DP cells to the mature single-positive stage, thymocytes regain this inducibility. (asm.org)
  • Indeed AP-1 inducibility, just like the ability to express the interleukin-2 gene, is reacquired during the differentiation of DP TcRlow CD69low heat-stable antigen (HSA)high thymocytes to DP TcRhigh CD69high HSAhigh cells, which is considered to be the consequence of the first signal that initiates positive selection. (asm.org)
  • We therefore propose that the inability of DP thymocytes to induce AP-1 and NFAT activities is one of the causes for the lack of cytokine gene expression at this stage and that this inducibility is reacquired at the latest stage of DP differentiation as a consequence of positive selection. (asm.org)
  • We are interested to study how c-Fos and its related protein Fra-1, which is c-Fos inducible, control osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast differentiation (1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their differentiation is distinct to either the T H 1 or T H 2 cell lineage, but strongly influences development of adaptive responses, including autoimmunity. (hindawi.com)
  • High expression of Notch2, a transcription factor that induces marginal zone B-cell differentiation, is highly suggestive for a marginal zone B-cell origin of SMZL. (icr.ac.uk)
  • The AP-1 transcription factor Batf controls T(H)17 differentiation. (upenn.edu)
  • AP-1 transcription factor is assembled through the dimerization of a characteristic bZIP domain (basic region leucine zipper) in the Fos and Jun subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the central regulators of oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Yap1, a bZIP transcription factor of the AP-1 family. (asm.org)
  • One of the key regulators mediating an oxidative stress response is the AP-1 class of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae AP-1-like transcription factor Yap1 is the best-characterized member of the bZIP family of transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • These motifs show a consensus sequence very similar to AP-1 sites, and bZIP type transcription factors might participate in the MT gene expression regulation. (ucm.es)
  • Contains 1 bZIP (basic-leucine zipper) domain. (abcam.com)
  • The YAP1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a bZIP-containing transcription factor that is essential for the normal response of cells to oxidative stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In this review, we will attempt to unravel the roles of AP-1 in the regulation of anti-tumor immune responses, with a focus on the regulation of immune checkpoints and Tregs, seeking to extract useful insights for more efficacious immunotherapy. (mdpi.com)
  • Previously we reported that the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) is one of the predominant purinergic receptors expressed in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC), and that P2Y2R activation by ATP or UTP induces dramatic up-regulation of tissue factor (TF), key initiator of the coagulation cascade. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we report a role of a newly identified AP-1 consensus sequence along with its new binding components in P2Y2R regulation of TF transcription. (ahajournals.org)
  • In addition, loss-of-function studies using siRNAs confirmed a positive transactivation role of c-Jun and ATF-2, but unexpectedly revealed a strong negative role of Fra-1 in P2Y2R-induced TF up-regulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • These findings reveal the basis for P2Y purinergic receptor regulation of endothelial TF expression and indicate that targeting the P2Y2R-Fra-1-TF pathway may be an attractive new strategy in control of vascular thrombogenicity and/or inflammation associated with endothelial dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Regulation of AP-1 and NFAT transcription factors during thymic selection of T cells. (asm.org)
  • In an attempt to understand the molecular basis of this specific regulatin, we use AP-1-luciferase and newly generated NFAT-luciferase transgenic mice to analyze the transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of these two transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of cytokine gene expression. (asm.org)
  • The tuning of AP-1 activity is necessary to allow a flexible regulation in response to different cellular stimuli. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • 6-8 Transcriptional regulation in response to lipopolysaccharide has been localized to a 56-base pair (bp) element in the 5′-region of the human TF gene and requires the transcription factors AP-1 (c-Fos/c-Jun heterodimers) and NF-κB (p65/c-Rel heterodimers). (asahq.org)
  • Secondly, using gel-shift assays, we measured the binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB transcription factors in the lung during murine traumatic shock, which have been shown in vitro to play an important role in the regulation of TF promoter activity. (asahq.org)
  • Our analysis defines a novel function of the proteasome: regulation of the RAS- and AP-1 transcription factor-dependent UV resistance pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • Transcription factor AP-1 regulation by mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This work provides a comprehensive analysis of the role and regulation of the AP-1 transcription factor pathway in a filamentous fungal species. (massey.ac.nz)
  • The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), located in the brainstem, is critically involved in the regulation of blood pressure [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The absence of concordant high expression of the MAP kinases, the signaling cascade leading to AP-1 up-regulation, suggests autoregulation of the AP-1 transcription factors and an important role in SMZL oncogenesis. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Hence, the combinatorial use of a subset of the approximately 2000 human transcription factors easily accounts for the unique regulation of each gene in the human genome during development. (wikiversity.org)
  • In previous work, we and others have established that activation of Shh signaling, by mutational inactivation of the Shh receptor PTCH1 (9) , activating mutation of the PTCH1-binding G-protein-coupled receptor SMO (10) , or up-regulation of a Shh target transcription factor Gli1 (11 , 12 , 13 , 14) , plays a key role in the development of the common Caucasian skin cancer, BCC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nerve growth factor ( NGF ) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons . (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factors are essential for the regulation of gene expression and are, as a consequence, found in all living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transcription factors use a variety of mechanisms for the regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of yAP-1 nuclear localization in response to oxidative stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Peroxiredoxin-mediated redox regulation of the nuclear localization of Yap1, a transcription factor in budding yeast. (semanticscholar.org)
  • FOS:JUN (AP-1) transcription factor, formed in response to oncogenic RAF-MAPK signaling which also triggers oxidative stress, binds the promoter of IGFBP7 gene (Wajapeyee et al. (reactome.org)
  • AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). (abbexa.com)
  • Once the DNA double helix and its associated epigenome have been melted so that the template strand is available for binding, a transcription factor binds to a specific nucleotide sequence to biochemically influence gene transcription . (wikiversity.org)
  • a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the flow (or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to mRNA is called a transcription factor . (wikiversity.org)
  • When nuclear or whole-cell extract is added, activated transcription factor of interest binds the oligonucleotide at its consensus binding site and is quantified using the included antibody, which is specific for the bound, active form of the transcription factor being studied. (activemotif.com)
  • FOSB (FosB Proto-Oncogene, AP-1 Transcription Factor Subunit) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Their polarisation and activation are controlled by transcription factors, such as NF-κB and the AP-1 transcription factor members JunB or JunD. (ovid.com)
  • c-Jun is a member of the Jun Family containing c-Jun, JunB and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein-1). (abbexa.com)
  • The AP-1 transcription factors c-jun, junD, junB, and c-fos as well as Notch2 were found to be specifically up-regulated. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Menin interacts with the AP 1 transcription factor JunD and represses lunD-activated transcription. (springer.com)
  • Menin represses JunD-activated transcription by a histone deacetylase-dependent mechanism. (springer.com)
  • A family kit is also available with the ability to independently screen the members of the AP-1 family (c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, c-Jun, JunB & JunD) simultaneously. (activemotif.com)
  • The Fra-1 and JunB antibodies can be used with human extracts, while the c-Fos, FosB and JunD antibodies can be used with human, mouse and rat extracts. (activemotif.com)
  • The transcription factor AP-1 is composed of a mixture of heterodimeric protein complexes derived from the Fos and Jun families, including c-Fos , FosB , Fra-1 , c-Jun , JunB and JunD . (activemotif.com)
  • Nuclear extracts from K-562 cells stimulated with TPA were assayed for activity of AP-1 family members c-Jun, c-Fos, FosB, JunB, JunD and Fra-1. (activemotif.com)
  • Ternary complexes composed of the DNA binding site, the adaptor protein, and a leucine zipper factor can stimulate reporter gene activity, provided that the latter component possesses a transcriptional activation domain. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that the Th17-defining transcription factor basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like (BATF) was strongly regulated across human and mouse intestinal GVHD tissues. (jci.org)
  • Our previous work revealed the pioneering role of BATF in supporting global enhancer accessibility and flexibility in CD4 T cells, and here, we describe an antagonistic AP-1 TF, JunB, that limits Th17 plasticity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mechanistically, BATF controlled the formation of colon-infiltrating, IL-7 receptor-positive (IL-7R+), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-positive (GM-CSF+), donor T effector memory (Tem) cells. (jci.org)
  • Activator protein 1 (AP-1) is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, stress, and bacterial and viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-fos has also been shown to increase in expression in response to the introduction of growth factors in the cell, further supporting its suggested involvement in the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 transcription is deeply involved in the modulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 transcription factors have been described to orchestrate inflammatory responses in macrophages, in particular by the expression of inflammatory mediators ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part to the changes in gene expression associated with hypertrophy ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • The fact that components of the AP-1 transcription factor are involved as "third messengers" in several signal transduction pathways implies that their expression, DNA binding activity and transcriptional activity, is finely controlled. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • Short-term treatment with 0.1-5 muM As(III) up-regulates expression of c-Fos and c-Jun and the redox regulators, thioredoxin (Trx) and Redox factor-1 (Ref-1) and activates both AP-1 and NF-kappaB binding. (edu.au)
  • Chronic exposure to 0.1 or 0.5 muM As(III) decreased c-Jun, c-Fos and Ref-1 protein levels and AP-1 and NF-KB binding activity, but increased Trx expression. (edu.au)
  • The different effects of short- versus long-term As(III) treatment on acute-phase response to oxidative stress reflect changes in the expression of Ref-1, c-Fos and c-Jun, but not Trx. (edu.au)
  • We concluded that the early transcription factors NF-kappaB, AP-1, and NF-IL6 are constitutively activated in human HNSCC cell lines and that NF-kappaB and AP-1 promote expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine IL-8 in HNSCC. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, mutational analysis demonstrated that a putative Ap-1 site played an important role in the expression of the reporter gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings were confirmed by EMSA examining the interactions of the protein Ap-1 in a nuclear extract from CHO-K1 cells and the expression levels of the Ap-1 transcription factor in pre-parturition placenta and CHO-K1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dioxin induces expression of c-fos and c-jun proto-oncogenes and a large increase in transcription factor AP-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In ovine pars tuberalis cells which express high affinity Mel la melatonin receptors, the ability of melatonin to directly stimulate or inhibit AP-1 transcription factor gene expression was studied. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects of melatonin upon mRNA expression by forskolin, serum and IGF-1 were also investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Synthetic double-stranded phosphorothioate oligonucleotides with high affinity for a target transcription factor can be introduced into cells as decoy cis-elements to bind the factors and alter gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • We report here that Mo-MuLV stimulates the collagenase IV gene through transcription factor AP-1, and that the expression of a subgenomic portion of Mo-MuLV LTR alone is sufficient for this effect. (elsevier.com)
  • Transient or stable expression of the viral LTR increases cellular AP-1 DNA binding activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Transient or stable transfection of the viral LTR into cells stimulated c-jun gene expression, suggesting one mechanism whereby the viral LTR may induce cellular AP-1 activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, the Mo-MuLV LTR, through activation of the transcription factor AP-1, is capable of regulating cellular gene expression, including the induction of proto-oncogenes. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on the simulation and analysis results, we demonstrate that a dynamic balance among distinct dimers of the AP-1 family of transcription factors underlies the robust activation of neuronal gene expression in the NTS response to AT1R activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This process is driven by IL-12 through signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) activation and results in the expression of the transcription factor T-bet. (hindawi.com)
  • The authors reported previously that FN induces α5 expression in human corneal epithelial cells and rabbit corneal epithelial cells by altering the binding of the transcription factor (TF) Sp1 to a regulatory element from the α5 promoter that it is also flanked by binding sites for the TFs NFI and AP-1. (ulaval.ca)
  • Here, they assessed the function of NFI and AP-1 on α5 gene expression and evaluated the contribution of FN to their overall regulatory influence. (ulaval.ca)
  • Whereas both AP-1 and Sp1 activated expression directed by the α5 promoter, NFI functioned as a potent repressor of that gene. (ulaval.ca)
  • These results suggest that α5 gene expression is likely dictated by subtle alterations in the nuclear ratio of TFs that either repress (NFI) or activate (Sp1 and AP-1) α5 transcription in corneal epithelial cells. (ulaval.ca)
  • Here, we show that co-expression of the Gbetagamma dimer decreased phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated AP-1 gene reporter activity in HEK293 cells as well as the AP-1 dependent gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated human follicle-stimulating hormone beta reporter activity in LbetaT2 gonadotrope cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Radiation-induced apoptosis in developing rats and kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity in adult rats are associated with distinctive morphological and biochemical c-Jun/AP-1 (N) expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as found on western blots, is found in irradiated rats when compared with controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • c-Jun expression in kainic acid-treated rats, as revealed with the c-Jun/AP-1 (N) antibody, is found in the nuclei of a minority of cells in the same areas. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as revealed on western blots, is observed in kainic acid-treated rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Expression of the Shh target glioma transcription factor-1 (Gli1) in primary keratinocytes and other cell lines caused a significant elevation of FOXM1 mRNA level and transcriptional activity, indicating that FOXM1 is a downstream target of Gli1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because each of these lineage-negative (Lin - ) CD117 + (c-kit + ) Sca-1 + populations can be defined based on their relative expression of CD150, a signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member (Figure 1 and refs. (jci.org)
  • Isolation, genomic organization and expression analysis of Men 1, the murine homolog of the MEN1 gene. (springer.com)
  • Characterization of the mouse Men 1 gene and its expression during development. (springer.com)
  • Comparisons with gene expression sequences now and when on Earth have found that the gene expression for alpha-1-B glycoprotein is not normal. (wikiversity.org)
  • You have been tasked to examine her DNA to confirm, especially with the extended data between ZNF497 and A1BG, the presence or absence of CRE boxes regarding the possible expression of alpha-1-B glycoprotein. (wikiversity.org)
  • CREB (top) is a transcription factor capable of binding DNA (bottom) and regulating gene expression. (wikiversity.org)
  • In human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells, TNF-α mediates CD38 expression through mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-κB and AP-1. (nih.gov)
  • CD38 expression and activation of Akt, NF-κB, and AP-1 were determined. (nih.gov)
  • We use the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae to explore fundamental aspects of metal biology and also as a heterologous expression system to study tolerance factors from other organisms such as plants and mammals. (gu.se)
  • AP-1 expression is induced by multiple stimuli, including the presence of serum, growth factors, phorbol esters and oncogenes. (activemotif.com)
  • Protein expression is influenced by many factors that may vary between experiments or laboratories. (genscript.com)
  • Thus, c-Jun regulates the activation state of macrophages and promotes arthritis via differentially regulating cyclooxygenase-2 and arginase-1 levels. (jimmunol.org)
  • ERK signaling regulates opposing roles of JUN family transcription factors at ETS/AP-1 sites and in cell migration. (diagenode.com)
  • The transcription factor Ap-1 regulates monkey 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase promoter activity in CHO cells - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • The present study aims to understand molecular neuronal processes relevant to hypertension, involving angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling as it regulates production of Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). (biomedcentral.com)
  • [7] NF-κB regulates nuclear gene transcription to promote cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activated transcription factor c-Jun regulates nuclear transcription via AP-1 to increase pro-apoptotic gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that the AP-1 transcription factor JunB is required for Th17 cell development. (elsevier.com)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding . (genecards.org)
  • First, Tuerk and Gold [ 1 ] described an in vitro iterative process of RNA-T4 DNA polymerase binding experiments, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification between each round, to progress from a starting RNA library with an eight-nucleotide random region down to two highly enriched RNA sequences. (mdpi.com)
  • The growth factors TGF alpha, TGF beta, and IL2 have all been shown to stimulate c-Fos, and thereby stimulate cellular proliferation via AP-1 activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their polarization and activation are controlled by transcription factors such as NF-κB and the AP-1 transcription factor member c-Fos. (jimmunol.org)
  • Surprisingly, little is known about the role of the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun in macrophage activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • In vivo and in vitro gene profiling, together with chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of macrophages, revealed direct activation of the proinflammatory factor cyclooxygenase-2 and indirect inhibition of the anti-inflammatory factor arginase-1 by c-Jun. (jimmunol.org)
  • For instance, the activation of IL and TLR leads to the initiation of an MAPK signaling cascade through MyD88, resulting in the activation of AP-1 in macrophages ( 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Truncation, deletion, and mutation of this new distal AP-1 site all significantly supressed TF promoter activity in response to P2Y2R activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • EMSA and ChIP assays further confirmed that upon P2Y2R activation, c-Jun, ATF-2 and Fra-1, but not the typical c-Fos, bound to the new AP-1 site. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we found that P2Y2R activation promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation, leading to Fra-1 activation while JNK activated c-Jun and ATF-2. (ahajournals.org)
  • Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine inducers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy such as angiotensin II (ANG II) and serves as an important molecular regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (physiology.org)
  • H 2 O 2 induces a time- and dose-dependent activation of NFAT3 transcription factor. (physiology.org)
  • ERK inhibitor PD98059 was found previously to inhibit AP-1 activation by H 2 O 2 . (physiology.org)
  • NFAT3 promoter containing the core NFAT cis -element without AP-1 binding site failed to show activation by H 2 O 2 treatment. (physiology.org)
  • In the study presented here, we examined the activation, composition, and function of these transcription factors in HNSCC cell lines that express pro-inflammatory cytokines, by using electrophoretic mobility shift and reporter-gene assays. (nih.gov)
  • The demonstration of the activation of these transcription factors will be helpful in defining the identity and role of these and other early gene products that contribute to pathogenesis of the malignant phenotype in HNSCC and in defining potential targets for pharmacologic and molecular therapy of HNSCC. (nih.gov)
  • However, the role of the third JUN/AP-1 member, c-Jun, is still ill defined during macrophage activation in RA. (ovid.com)
  • Our results indicate that the Ap-1 site (-281 → -274) (5′-TGTCTCAT-3′) plays a crucial role in the activation of the monkey 20α-HSD gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deletions or mutations of this consensus site which abolished AP-1 binding also abolished trans-activation by the LTR. (elsevier.com)
  • Subsequently, the inhibitory effects on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages of all of these compounds were evaluated. (elsevier.com)
  • T H 1 cells release mainly IFN- γ and TNF- α that regulate cell-mediated immunity through activation of macrophages, NK cells, and CD8 + T cells. (hindawi.com)
  • ATP failed to stimulate the phosphorylation of ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and activation of AP-1 in the p56 lck -deficient isogenic T cell line JCaM1, suggesting a critical role for p56 lck kinase in downstream signaling. (elsevier.com)
  • TransAM ® Kits are DNA-binding ELISAs that facilitate the study of transcription factor activation in mammalian tissue and cell extracts. (activemotif.com)
  • Figure 1: AP-1 family profiling for DNA binding activation upon stimulation with TPA. (activemotif.com)
  • Soluble macrophage factors trigger apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Yap1p export is inhibited in both rna1-1 and prp20 (RanGNRF) mutant strains, but Yap1p rapidly accumulates at the nuclear periphery after shifting rna1-1, but not other mutant cells to the non-permissive temperature. (nih.gov)
  • Such mechanistic insight is key to guiding future work aimed at exploiting the AP-1 balance in Th17 cells to divert damaging inflammatory responses into favorable regulatory responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • The extract inhibited nuclear translocation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 and phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in normal and RA patients' mononuclear cells. (nih.gov)
  • The protein, termed IP-1, is present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells and reduces AP-1 complex formation with DNA in a rapid and phosphorylation-dependent fashion. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • Both acute (24 h) and chronic (10-20 week) exposure of human fibroblast cells to low dose sodium arsenite (As(III)) significantly affects activating protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) DNA binding activity. (edu.au)
  • 1-4 Although TF is expressed constitutively in nonvascular cells, monocytes and endothelial cells within the vascular compartment do not normally express TF constitutively. (asahq.org)
  • During stimulation by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), tumor necrosis factor, and other factors, cells initiate transcription of TF. (asahq.org)
  • Although mut-1 and mut-2 of Ap-1 bound with nuclear extracts from CHO-K1 cells, the transcriptional activity of mut-3 was almost completely suppressed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, we demonstrated that monkey 20α-HSD promoter activity is regulated by the transcription factor Ap-1 in CHO-K1 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study we focused on the manifestation of c-Fos, Fra-1, Fra-2, Fos-B, c-Jun, Jun-B and Jun-D in human being breast malignancy tumors and adjacent non-tumor cells with the aim to assay the potential of these molecules as novel biomarkers. (healthweblognews.info)
  • Table 1 Clinicopathological data Real-time PCR analysis RNA was extracted from new frozen cells using RNeasy plus Common Mini Kits (QIAGEN) according to the manufacturers instructions. (healthweblognews.info)
  • KeywordsMacaque monkey 20α-HSD Transcription factor Ap-1 Sp-1 CHO-K1 cells Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article doi:10.1186-1472-6750-14-71 contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (duhnnae.com)
  • In this report, we show that the first observable effects of TCDD in cultured murine hepatoma cells are a rapid, transient increase in Ca2+ influx and a minor but significant elevation of activated, membrane-bound protein kinase C. These changes are then followed by induction of the immediate early proto-oncogenes c-fos, jun-B, c-jun, and jun-D, and by large increases in AP-1 transcription factor activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Herein we report that the CRE- palindromic oligonucleotide can penetrate into cells, compete with CRE enhancers for binding transcription factors, and specifically interfere with CRE- and AP-1-directed transcription in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Since the initial classification of T H 1 and T H 2 cells by Coffman, Mosmann, and colleagues in 1986, much focus has attempted to elucidate the role of helper T cell populations. (hindawi.com)
  • These efforts have led to the identification of a distinct T helper population, called T H 17 cells [ 1 - 3 ], which challenges the long-standing T H 1/ T H 2 paradigm and has advanced our overall understanding of T helper cells in health and disease. (hindawi.com)
  • These studies found that T H 1 cells were not required for induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, as had been thought [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This subset of CD4+ memory effector T cells is functionally distinct from either the T H 1 or T H 2 cell lineage [ 6 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Regarding the biological significance of the ATP-induced signaling events we show that although extracellular ATP was able to stimulate proliferation of both Jurkat and JCaM1 cells, an increase in interleukin-2 transcription was observed only in Jurkat cells. (elsevier.com)
  • MyD88-Dependent Signaling Decreases the Antitumor Efficacy of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibition in Head and Neck Cancer Cells. (cancerindex.org)
  • In our continuing search for potential anti-HTLV-1 natural products, 15 extracts of Asclepiadaceae plants were further tested against MT-1 and MT-2 cells. (bireme.br)
  • Activity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of 6 phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids (including a new compound), and we examined their antiproliferative activity against MT-1 and MT-2 cells. (bireme.br)
  • Structure-activity relationship analyses suggested that a 14 -hydroxy moiety is essential for activity against HTLV-1-infected T cells. (bireme.br)
  • In contrast, the presence of a 2-methoxy moiety, a 7-methoxy moiety, or an N-oxide moiety appears to reduce the potency of the antiproliferative activity against HTLV-1-infected T cells. (bireme.br)
  • Strong c-Jun immunoreactivity, as revealed with the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) which is raised against the amino acids 91-105 mapping with the amino terminal domain of mouse c-Jun p39, is simultaneously observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of apoptotic cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results show that the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) recognizes three different forms of c-Jun-related immunoreactivity in normal and pathological states, which are associated with the different outcome of cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here, we report that the PDZ-LIM domain protein PDLIM2 inhibited T H 17 cell development and granulomatous responses by acting as a nuclear ubiquitin E3 ligase that targeted signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor critical for the commitment of naïve CD4 + T cells to the T H 17 lineage. (sciencemag.org)
  • T helper 17 (T H 17) cells are a newly identified helper CD4 + T cell subset that is distinct from T H 1 and T H 2 cells as defined by cytokine profile ( 4 , 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The AP-1 transcription factor has been shown to play numerous roles in cell growth and proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-jun has been shown to be essential for fibroblast proliferation, and levels of both AP-1 subunits have been shown to be expressed above basal levels during cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • Short term exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), a phorbol ester tumour promoter, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) also activates AP-1 and NF-kappaB binding. (edu.au)
  • As a dimer with JUN, activates LIF transcription. (genecards.org)
  • Activates CEBPB transcription in PGE2-activated osteoblasts. (genecards.org)
  • The calcineurin/NFAT3 pathway can be activated by classical hypertrophy inducers, including ANG II, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and catecholamines ( 27 , 49 ). (physiology.org)
  • TISSUE factor (TF) is a cell-surface glycoprotein responsible for initiating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation. (asahq.org)
  • Here, we identified the transcription factor Ets21C as a pivotal regulator of tumor growth and propose a new model of how Ets21C could affect this process. (uzh.ch)
  • Gbetagamma is a negative regulator of AP-1 mediated transcription. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The AP-1 subunit Jun was identified as a novel oncoprotein of avian sarcoma virus, and Fos-associated p39 protein was identified as the transcript of the cellular Jun gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP-1 activity also appears to be modulated by cellular translocation. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • JUN transcription factors bind DNA as part of the AP-1 complex, regulate many cellular processes, and play a key role in oncogenesis. (diagenode.com)
  • Immunohistochemical detection of activating transcription factor 3, a hub of the cellular adaptive-response network. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology , 123 (1), 71-80. (elsevier.com)
  • Anthrapyrazole cysteinyl peptides as inhibitors of AP-1 transcription factor binding. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • This activity is partly through the inhibition of transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 by the constituent withanolide. (nih.gov)
  • The number of transcription factors found within an organism increases with genome size, and larger genomes tend to have more transcription factors per gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Claret, F.X. AP-1 Transcription Factors as Regulators of Immune Responses in Cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • NFAT3 belongs to the NFAT family of transcription factors, discovered as important regulators of immune responses in mammals ( 8 , 25 , 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • Each antibody was tested with 5 µg/well of nuclear extract in the absence or presence of wild-type or mutated consensus binding oligonucleotides using the TransAM AP-1 Family Kit. (activemotif.com)
  • AP-1 activity is often regulated via post-translational modifications, DNA binding dimer composition, and interaction with various binding partners. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that As(III) may alter AP-1 and NF-KB activity, in part, by up-regulating Trx and Ref-1. (edu.au)
  • Mutational analysis of the NF-kappaB, AP-1, and NF-IL6 sites in the IL-8 promoter region showed that NF-kappaB and AP-1 sites contributed to constitutive IL-8 reporter activity in HNSCC. (nih.gov)
  • A reporter assay using constructs of various lengths of the 5′-flanking region (-890-Luc, -513-Luc, -306-Luc, -273-Luc, and -70-Luc) revealed that a region corresponding to the activator protein 1 (Ap-1) located between -281 and -274 bp was essential for the transcriptional activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background The activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor is believed to be important in tumorigenesis and altered AP-1 activity was associated with cell transformation. (healthweblognews.info)
  • A third lesion, substitution of the central C:G base pair of the AP-1 DNA binding domain with the pro-mutagenic U:G mispair, unexpectedly increases AP-1 binding, allowing the transcription factor to interfere with uracil DNA glycosylase activity. (utmb.edu)
  • Transcription factor involved in regulating gene activity following the primary growth factor response. (uniprot.org)
  • Rather, Gbetagamma co-localized with the AP-1 complex in the nucleus and recruited histone deacetylases (HDACs) to inhibit AP-1 transcriptional activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In previous studies, we screened 459 extracts from 344 plants to isolate components exhibiting antiproliferative activity against HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines (MT-1 and MT-2). (bireme.br)
  • The antioxidant activity of E. officinalis is attributed to the high content of ascorbic acid (4) , but it was reported that such effects may be due to the tannins, Emblicanin A and Emblicanin B (1) . (mskcc.org)
  • Phosphorylation of AP-1 family members by kinases is required for transactivation activity. (activemotif.com)
  • The concept that stress responses and the aging process share common mechanisms arose initially from studies in model organisms, where the identification of molecular pathways that regulate aging - insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF), sirtuins, target of rapamycin (TOR), AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) - highlighted that intrinsic induction of stress defense programs and the resulting adaptation can increase life expectancy ( Haigis and Yankner, 2010 ). (biologists.org)
  • In molecular biology , a transcription factor ( TF ) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor ) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA , by binding to a specific DNA sequence . (wikipedia.org)
  • We recently found that Fra-1 is an essential gene for mouse development (2) and transgenic mice overexpressing Fra-1 develop the bone disease osteosclerosis, which is due to increased bone formation (3). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Below are some of the other important functions and biological roles AP-1 transcription factors have been shown to be involved in. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work provides a rationale for how transcription factors can have distinct roles depending on the signaling status and the biological function in question. (diagenode.com)
  • Many of the paths through the combinatorial parameter space lead to a dynamic balance of AP-1 dimer forms, yielding a robust AP-1 response counteracting the biological variability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data suggest that hypertrophy inducers ANG II and H 2 O 2 may activate NFAT3 in cardiomyocyte through an AP-1 transcription factor-dependent mechanism. (physiology.org)
  • Cis-regulatory elements for only this subset of targets were enriched for ETS factor binding, indicating a specificity mechanism. (diagenode.com)
  • However, sensing of the redox signal (H 2 O 2 ) is mediated by the glutathione peroxidase Gpx3 (also known as Hyr1 [hydrogen peroxide resistance protein 1] or ORP1 [oxidant receptor peroxidase 1]) rather than by Yap1 itself, resulting in oxidation of a conserved Cys in Gpx3 to a sulfenic acid ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • This protein functions as an essential signal transducer in the interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. (cancerindex.org)
  • Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathways are major regulators during mammary gland development, function and tumorigenesis. (springer.com)
  • The present invention includes composition and methods for making and using a combinatorial library to identify modified thioaptamers that bind to, and affect the immune response of a host animal, transcription factors such as IL-6, NF-κB, AP-1 and the like. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • All members of this family can bind to activating protein-1 (AP-1) sites and to specific DNA sequences. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Coexpression of Sp1, NFI, and AP-1 was demonstrated in all cell types, and each TF was shown to bind efficiently to the α5 promoter. (ulaval.ca)
  • Nucleic acid aptamers are short segments of single-stranded DNA or RNA that mimic antibodies in their ability to specifically recognize and bind cognate target molecules with high affinities [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • BET polypeptides BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT harbor tandem bromodomain motifs that bind acetylated lysine residues in histones, thereby linking changes in chromatin structure with gene transcription. (rupress.org)
  • AP-1 heterodimers bind to DNA on a serum response element with the 5´-TGA(C/G)TCA-3´ sequence. (activemotif.com)
  • c-Jun is a component of the heterodimeric AP-1 transcription factor, and c-Jun is highly expressed in response to neuronal trauma. (uzh.ch)
  • Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. (abbexa.com)
  • In the absence of VHL, hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-alpha) accumulates, leading to production of several growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor. (kegg.jp)
  • [2] CREB was first described in 1987 as a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-responsive transcription factor regulating the somatostatin gene. (wikiversity.org)
  • AP-1 was first discovered as a TPA-activated transcription factor that bound to a cis-regulatory element of the human metallothionein IIa (hMTIIa) promoter and SV40. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since its discovery, AP-1 has been found to be associated with numerous regulatory and physiological processes, and new relationships are still investigated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crm1p mediates regulated nuclear export of a yeast AP-1-like transcription factor. (nih.gov)
  • Cadmium tolerance mediated by the yeast AP-1 protein requires the presence of an ATP-binding cassette transporter-encoding gene, YCF1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Decision-tree analysis indicated that while there may be a large combinatorial functional space feasible for neuronal states and parameters, the network behavior is constrained to a small set of AP-1 response profiles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each species' promoter contains a cAMP/response element (CRE) 1 consensus sequence ( [7] ) upstream of a TATA box. (wikiversity.org)
  • Upon imposition of oxidative stress, a small increase in the DNA-binding capacity of yAP-1 occurs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This work is concerned with the synthesis of DNA anchored cysteinyl peptides designed to be potentially nucleotide sequence specific with possible affinity for the AP-l transcription site. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • a substance that contains one or more DNA-binding domains that are nucleotide-sequence specific is called a transcription factor . (wikiversity.org)
  • It was shown that most of the intercalatorpeptides were capable of inhibiting AP-l (fos/jun) heterodimer protein from binding to the AP-l DNA consensus sequence. (dmu.ac.uk)
  • This chapter focuses on these modifications, which take place in the absence of protein synthesis, and on auxiliary factors involved in modulating activator protein (AP-1) function. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • In this regard, we have identified the AP-1 family of transcription factors (TFs) as key regulators of Th17 cell identity. (jimmunol.org)
  • We previously reported that human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) express the pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Further studies that investigate the factors affecting the biosynthesis of Tylophora alkaloids and other secondary metabolites need to be conducted using non-transformed as well as transformed cell and organ cultures. (bireme.br)
  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a malignancy of mature peripheral T lymphocytes caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). (bireme.br)
  • Donovan J, Slingerland J. Transforming growth factor-beta and breast cancer: cell cycle arrest by transforming growth factor-beta and its disruption in cancer. (springer.com)
  • Gallus gallus FOS like 2, AP-1 transcription factor subunit (FOSL2), mRNA. (genscript.com)
  • When the TCR engages with antigenic peptide and MHC (peptide/MHC), the T lymphocyte is activated through signal transduction, that is, a series of biochemical events mediated by associated enzymes, co-receptors, specialized adaptor molecules, and activated or released transcription factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a HD3 systemic evaluation of the manifestation of all AP-1 family members as potential biomarkers in breast cancer is still lacking. (healthweblognews.info)
  • Our simulations and analysis reveal a dynamic balance among distinct dimers of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)