Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Retinoblastoma Protein: Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2: A key regulator of CELL CYCLE progression. It partners with CYCLIN E to regulate entry into S PHASE and also interacts with CYCLIN A to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. Its activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27 and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P21.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Mice, Inbred C57BLFibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.GATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Retinoblastoma-Binding Protein 1: A ubiquitously expressed regulatory protein that contains a retinoblastoma protein binding domain and an AT-rich interactive domain. The protein may play a role in recruiting HISTONE DEACETYLASES to the site of RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN-containing transcriptional repressor complexes.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.G0 Phase: A quiescent state of cells during G1 PHASE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression of the CELL CYCLE through the G1 PHASE and allow transition to S PHASE when the cells are ready to undergo DNA REPLICATION. DNA DAMAGE, or the deficiencies in specific cellular components or nutrients may cause the cells to halt before progressing through G1 phase.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-myc genes. They are normally involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Elevated and deregulated (constitutive) expression of c-myc proteins can cause tumorigenesis.cdc25 Phosphatases: A subclass of dual specificity phosphatases that play a role in the progression of the CELL CYCLE. They dephosphorylate and activate CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins: A group of cell cycle proteins that negatively regulate the activity of CYCLIN/CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE complexes. They inhibit CELL CYCLE progression and help control CELL PROLIFERATION following GENOTOXIC STRESS as well as during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4: Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is a key regulator of G1 PHASE of the CELL CYCLE. It partners with CYCLIN D to phosphorylate RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN. CDK4 activity is inhibited by CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)CCAAT-Binding Factor: A heterotrimeric DNA-binding protein that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of eukaryotic genes. It is composed of three subunits: A, B and C.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Caulobacter crescentus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that consist of slender vibroid cells.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.PhosphoproteinsNeoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.

*FOXO3

Medema RH, Kops GJ, Bos JL, Burgering BM, AFX-like Forkhead transcription factors mediate cell-cycle regulation by Ras and PKB ... Control of cell cycle exit and entry by protein kinase B-regulated forkhead transcription factors., in Mol. Cell. Biol., vol. ... Mahmud DL, G-Amlak M, Deb DK, et al., Phosphorylation of forkhead transcription factors by erythropoietin and stem cell factor ... Akt promotes cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting a Forkhead transcription factor., in Cell, vol. 96, nº 6, 1999, pp ...

*TBX2

Bilican B, Goding CR (July 2006). "Cell cycle regulation of the T-box transcription factor tbx2". Experimental Cell Research. ... T-box transcription factor 2 Tbx2 is a transcription factor that is encoded by the Tbx2 gene on chromosome 17q21-22 in humans. ... Finally, Tbx2 up-regulation increases its interaction with EGR1. EGR1 represses NDGR1 to increase cell proliferation, resulting ... Tbx2 and Tbx3 are the only T-box transcription factors that act as transcriptional repressors rather than transcriptional ...

*FOXO4

Medema RH, Kops GJ, Bos JL, Burgering BM (2000). "AFX-like Forkhead transcription factors mediate cell-cycle regulation by Ras ... "Control of cell cycle exit and entry by protein kinase B-regulated forkhead transcription factors". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (7): ... effectively preventing proper cell cycle regulation. FOXO4 activates the cell cycle dependent kinase inhibitor, P27, which in ... Tang TT, Lasky LA (2003). "The forkhead transcription factor FOXO4 induces the down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ...

*DEPDC1B

These transcription factors possess a central theme of cellular proliferation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and ... Medium coexpression of DEPDC1B with ECT2 in cell cycle regulation and DNA synthesis was verified by similarity of expression in ... The following includes the top twenty Predicted Transcription Factors: DEPDC1B possesses 13 mRNA splice variants that form two ... DEPDC1B promoter region contains several transcription factors associated with proteins of ubiquitous expression. ...

*HDAC8

Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone ... deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. The protein encoded by this gene ... histone deacetylation and gene transcription: from molecular biology to cancer therapeutics". Cell Res. 17 (3): 195-211. doi: ... Cell. Biol. 23 (2): 607-19. doi:10.1128/MCB.23.2.607-619.2003. PMC 151524 . PMID 12509458. Rodriguez M, Yu X, Chen J, Songyang ...

*HDAC9

Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone ... and MEF2-interacting transcription repressor (MITR) contributes to transcriptional repression of the MEF2 transcription factor ... and HDAC9 Bind to PC3/Tis21/Btg2 and Are Required for Its Inhibition of Cell Cycle Progression and Cyclin D1 Expression" (PDF ... "HDAC4 deacetylase associates with and represses the MEF2 transcription factor". The EMBO Journal. 18 (18): 5099-107. doi: ...

*Histone deacetylase 5

Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone ... McKinsey TA, Zhang CL, Olson EN (2001). "Activation of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 transcription factor by calcium/calmodulin ... and MEF2-interacting transcription repressor (MITR) contributes to transcriptional repression of the MEF2 transcription factor ... Cell. 9 (1): 45-57. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(01)00429-4. PMID 11804585. Grozinger CM, Schreiber SL (2000). "Regulation of histone ...

*HDAC7

Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone ... Bryant H, Farrell PJ (October 2002). "Signal Transduction and Transcription Factor Modification during Reactivation of Epstein- ... and S phases of the cell cycle. Subsequently, HDAC7 knockdown suppressed c-Myc expression which in turn blocked cell cycle ... This was shown by knocking out HDAC7 in mice, which then resulted in increased levels of the cell cycle regulator, cyclin D3; ...

*HDAC4

Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone ... McKinsey TA, Zhang CL, Olson EN (December 2000). "Activation of the myocyte enhancer factor-2 transcription factor by calcium/ ... and MEF2-interacting transcription repressor (MITR) contributes to transcriptional repression of the MEF2 transcription factor ... This protein does not bind DNA directly but through transcription factors MEF2C and MEF2D. It seems to interact in a ...

*RUNX2

"Impaired cell cycle regulation of the osteoblast-related heterodimeric transcription factor Runx2-Cbfbeta in osteosarcoma cells ... "Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of the RUNX2 transcription factor by cdc2 regulates endothelial cell proliferation". The ... Oscillating levels of Runx2 within the cell contribute to cell cycle dynamics. In the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line, Runx2 ... "The cancer-related transcription factor Runx2 modulates cell proliferation in human osteosarcoma cell lines". Journal of ...

*TAF2

"Human transcription factor hTAF(II)150 (CIF150) is involved in transcriptional regulation of cell cycle progression". Mol. Cell ... a human cofactor for transcription factor IID-dependent initiator function". Mol Cell Biol. 18 (1): 233-9. PMC 121482 . PMID ... Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF2 gene. Initiation of ... 1995). "Reconstitution of transcription factor SL1: exclusive binding of TBP by SL1 or TFIID subunits". Science. 266 (5193): ...

*E2F

By binding to pRB, they stop the regulation of E2F transcription factors and drive the cell cycle to enable virus genome ... are transcription factors responsible for protein coding cell cycle regulation. Together, they are essential for the ... E2F family members play a major role during the G1/S transition in mammalian and plant cell cycle (see KEGG cell cycle pathway ... Activators such as E2F1, E2F2, E2F3a promote and help carryout the cell cycle, while repressors inhibit the cell cycle. Yet, ...

*FOXE3

transcription factor complex. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • positive regulation of lens epithelial cell proliferation. ... transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of cell cycle arrest. • ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • negative regulation of lens fiber cell differentiation. • cell development. • ... transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence- ...

*CDK-activating kinase

This suggests that CAK is not only involved in cell-cycle regulation but is also involved in transcription. In fact, the Cdk7 ... complex not only activates cell cycle Cdks but also regulates gene expression because it is part of the transcription factor ... Free CAK phosphorylates Cdks and is involved in cell cycle regulation. Associated CAK is part of the general transcription ... In fact, CAK activity remains high throughout the cell cycle and is not regulated by any known cell-cycle control mechanism. ...

*Sex-linked barring

p53 is a transcription factor which in turn activates more genes involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. As a ... Changes in its gene product ARF often cause the cell to lose their ability for self-induced cell death or cell cycle arrest, ... As a consequence of the up regulation of CDKN2A, most cells will stop dividing and make new cells but instead start producing ... which are mechanisms of cells to manage uncontrolled cell divisions and therefore the occurrence of cancer. It is intriguing ...

*UBA2

Transcription factor p53 is a tumor suppressor acting by activating genes involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Its ... Studies of yeast budding and fission have revealed that SUMOylation may be important in cell cycle regulation. During a cell ... Transcription factor NF-kB in unstimulated cells is inactivated by IkBa inhibitor protein binding. The activation of NF-kB is ... Cell. 22 (5): 652-60. doi:10.1091/mbc.E10-05-0461. PMC 3046061 . PMID 21209321. Bossis G, Melchior F (2006). "Regulation of ...

*Cyclin-dependent kinase 7

This protein is thought to serve as a direct link between the regulation of transcription and the cell cycle. Cyclin-dependent ... It is an essential component of the transcription factor TFIIH, that is involved in transcription initiation and DNA repair. ... Tassan JP, Schultz SJ, Bartek J, Nigg EA (Oct 1994). "Cell cycle analysis of the activity, subcellular localization, and ... Bartkova J, Zemanova M, Bartek J (Jun 1996). "Expression of CDK7/CAK in normal and tumor cells of diverse histogenesis, cell- ...

*ONECUT1

This gene may influence a variety of cellular processes including glucose metabolism, cell cycle regulation, and it may also be ... This gene encodes a member of the Cut homeobox family of transcription factors. Expression of the encoded protein is enriched ... Cell. Biol. 23 (2): 437-49. doi:10.1128/mcb.23.2.437-449.2003. PMC 151533 . PMID 12509444. This article incorporates text from ... Rausa FM, Tan Y, Costa RH (2003). "Association between hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF-6) and FoxA2 DNA binding domains ...

*KLF10

... which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, potentially involved in cell cycle regulation". Mol Endocrinol. 9 (11): 1610- ... 1998). "Tissue, cell type, and breast cancer stage-specific expression of a TGF-beta inducible early transcription factor gene ... Noti JD, Johnson AK, Dillon JD (2004). "The zinc finger transcription factor transforming growth factor beta-inducible early ... "A set of proteins interacting with transcription factor Sp1 identified in a two-hybrid screening". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 210 (1-2 ...

*NFYC

... glutamine-rich CCAAT-binding transcription factor involved in histone H1 cell cycle regulation". Mol. Cell. Biol. 14 (12): 8322 ... Taira T, Sawai M, Ikeda M, Tamai K, Iguchi-Ariga SM, Ariga H (1999). "Cell cycle-dependent switch of up-and down-regulation of ... "Cell cycle-dependent switch of up-and down-regulation of human hsp70 gene expression by interaction between c-Myc and CBF/NF-Y ... coordinate regulation by transcription factors Oct-1 and NF-Y". Oncogene. 22 (49): 7762-73. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207091. PMID ...

*FOXO3

Medema RH, Kops GJ, Bos JL, Burgering BM (Apr 2000). "AFX-like Forkhead transcription factors mediate cell-cycle regulation by ... "Control of cell cycle exit and entry by protein kinase B-regulated forkhead transcription factors". Molecular and Cellular ... "Akt promotes cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting a Forkhead transcription factor". Cell. 96 (6): 857-68. doi: ... "Akt promotes cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting a Forkhead transcription factor". Cell. 96 (6): 857-68. doi: ...

*TCF7L1

This gene encodes a member of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor family of transcription factors. These transcription ... The encoded protein contains a high mobility group-box DNA binding domain and participates in the regulation of cell cycle ... Transcription factor 7-like 1 (T-cell specific, HMG-box), also known as TCF7L1, is a human gene. ... transcription factor 7-like 1 (T-cell specific, HMG-box)". Retrieved 2011-08-30. "Salmonella infection data for Tcf7l1". ...

*Histone deacetylase 2

... a mammalian zinc-finger transcription factor. Thus it plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle ... Yao YL, Yang WM, Seto E. "Regulation of transcription factor YY1 by acetylation and deacetylation". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (17): ... Sp1 transcription factor, Sp3 transcription factor, TOP2B, and YY1. Histone deacetylase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... a transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 73 (1-2): 130-3. doi:10.1159/000134323. PMID ...

*P73

Furthermore, recent finding are suggesting that over-expression of transcription factors involved in cell cycle regulation and ... It is involved in cell cycle regulation, and induction of apoptosis. Like p53, p73 is characterized by the presence of ... "The p53/p63/p73 family of transcription factors: overlapping and distinct functions". J. Cell Sci. 113 (10): 1661-70. PMID ... Similar to p53 the protein product of p73 induces cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, hence its classification as a tumor ...

*C16orf71

Predicted transcription factors in the promoter region related to the regulation of the cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, ... Predicted associated biological processes of the gene include regulation of the cell cycle, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and ... Additional related processes included the formation and differentiation of B cells, T cells, endothelial cells, endoderm, and ... A ZNF500 transcription factor binding domain was found on the minus strand within the promoter region of the gene. ZNF500 is ...

*ID3 (gene)

"Regulation of Id3 cell cycle function by Cdk-2-dependent phosphorylation". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (12): 6815-21. PMC 232537 . PMID ... "The helix-loop-helix transcription factors Id1 and Id3 have a functional role in control of cell division in human normal and ... "E2A basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factors are negatively regulated by serum growth factors and by the Id3 protein". ... trans-factors for the regulation of fatty acid synthase promoter in adipocytes". Biochem. J. 344. 344 Pt 3 (3): 873-80. doi: ...

*PBDC1

One transcription factor family predicted to bind to the promoter region was V$CHRF, and is involved in regulation of the cell ... cycle. The regulation could be related to ubiquitin function; proteins with ubiquitination type function were found to interact ... 20 predicted transcription factor binding sites with their transcription factor family was collected as well. A high amount of ... CLDN1 is a major component in forming tight junction complexes between cells, which foster cell-cell adhesion of cell membranes ...
The Birt-Hogg-Dube disease occurs as a result of germline mutations in the human Folliculin gene (FLCN), and is characterized by clinical features including fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts and multifocal renal neoplasia. Clinical and genetic evidence suggest that FLCN acts as a tumor suppressor gene. The human cell line UOK257, derived from the renal cell carcinoma of a patient with a germline mutation in the FLCN gene, harbors a truncated version of the FLCN protein. Reconstitution of the wild type FLCN protein into UOK257 cells delays cell cycle progression, due to a slower progression through the late S and G2/M-phases. Similarly, Flcn-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts progress more rapidly through the cell cycle than wild type controls (Flcnflox/flox). The reintroduction of tumor-associated FLCN mutants (FLCN DF157, FLCN 1-469 or FLCN K508R) fails to delay cell ...
The retinoblastoma protein: Rb) inhibits both cell division and apoptosis, but the mechanism by which Rb alternatively regulates these divergent outcomes remains poorly understood. Cyclin dependent kinases: Cdks) promote cell division by phosphorylating and reversibly inactivating Rb by a hierarchical series of phosphorylation events and sequential conformational changes. The stress-regulated mitogen activated protein kinase: MAPK) p38 also phosphorylates Rb, but it does so in a cell cycle-independent manner that is associated with apoptosis rather than with cell division. Here, we show that p38 phosphorylates Rb by a novel mechanism that is distinct from that of Cdks. p38 bypasses the cell cycle-associated hierarchical phosphorylation and directly phosphorylates Rb on Ser567, which is not phosphorylated during the normal cell cycle. Phosphorylation by p38, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-resolution timing of cell cycle-regulated gene expression. AU - Rowicka-Kudlicka, Malgorzata. AU - Kudlicki, Andrzej. AU - Tu, Benjamin P.. AU - Otwinowski, Zbyszek. PY - 2007/10/23. Y1 - 2007/10/23. N2 - The eukaryotic cell division cycle depends on an intricate sequence of transcriptional events. Using an algorithm based on maximum-entropy deconvolution, and expression data from a highly synchronized yeast culture, we have timed the peaks of expression of transcriptionally regulated cell cycle genes to an accuracy of 2 min (≈1% of the cell cycle time). The set of 1,129 cell cycle-regulated genes was identified by a comprehensive analysis encompassing all available cell cycle yeast data sets. Our results reveal distinct ...
Combinations of gemcitabine and trabectedin exert modest synergistic cytotoxic effects on two pancreatic cancer cell lines. Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phase of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. Extensive experimental data were obtained for two pancreatic cancer cell lines (MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3), including cell proliferation rates over 0-120 h of drug exposure, and the fraction of cells in different cell cycle phases or apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that gemcitabine induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, and trabectedin induced transient ...
Successful completion of the cell division cycle is critical for cellular duplication and survival. There are many regulators and checkpoints to ensure the proper cell cycle progression. Disruption of the machinery involved in completion, error correction, or regulation of the cell cycle can be deleterious and may lead to aberrant cell growth or cell death. Thus, it is important to understand not only the basic machinery, but also the underlying choreographed gene expression that underlies that fundamental process. The work presented in this thesis furthers our understanding of the cell cycle in three ways. First, I investigate the cell cycle-regulated transcription factor FOXM1, a gene that has been shown to play a role in the G2 to M phase ...
Successful completion of the cell division cycle is critical for cellular duplication and survival. There are many regulators and checkpoints to ensure the proper cell cycle progression. Disruption of the machinery involved in completion, error correction, or regulation of the cell cycle can be deleterious and may lead to aberrant cell growth or cell death. Thus, it is important to understand not only the basic machinery, but also the underlying choreographed gene expression that underlies that fundamental process. The work presented in this thesis furthers our understanding of the cell cycle in three ways. First, I investigate the cell cycle-regulated transcription factor FOXM1, a gene that has been shown to play a role in the G2 to M phase ...
The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase is not properly completed. For example, the G2-M DNA damage checkpoint ensures the fidelity of DNA replication, and arrests the cell cycle to allow time for replication error correction and DNA damage repair. Cell cycle progression is regulated by the cyclic rise and fall of kinase expression, and their interaction with, and action on, their cyclin targets. Cell cycle dysregulation commonly occurs during oncogenesis, and tumor cells often do not arrest the cell cycle when normally required. Key genes that regulate cell cycle ...
Divergence of transcription factor binding sites is considered to be an important source of regulatory evolution. The associations between transcription factor binding sites and phenotypic diversity have been investigated in many model organisms. However, the understanding of other factors that contribute to it is still limited. Recent studies have elucidated the effect of chromatin structure on molecular evolution of genomic DNA. Though the profound impact of nucleosome positions on gene regulation has been reported, their influence on transcriptional evolution is still less explored. With the availability of genome-wide nucleosome map in yeast species, it is thus desirable to investigate their impact on transcription factor binding site evolution. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the role of nucleosome positioning in the ...
Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA. Epidemiological, in vitro cell culture, and in vivo animal studies have shown that green tea or its constituent polyphenols, particularly its major polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) may protect against many cancer types. In earlier studies, we showed that green tea polyphenol EGCG causes a G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of human epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells. We also demonstrated that these effects of EGCG may be mediated through the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B that has been associated with cell cycle regulation and cancer. In this study, employing A431 cells, we provide evidence for the involvement of cyclin kinase inhibitor (cki)-cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) machinery during cell cycle ...
Pluripotency and the capability for self-renewal are essential characteristics of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which hold great potential as a cellular source for tissue replacement. Short cell cycle (15-16 h) compared to somatic cells is another property of hESCs. Efficient synchronization of hESCs at different cell cycle stages is important to elucidate the mechanistic link between cell cycle regulation and cell fate decision. This protocol describes how to establish synchronization of hESCs at different cell cycle stages.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A cell cycle study of the effects of Con A on synchronized mouse embryo fibroblasts. T2 - Arrest and dissociation between uptake of thymidine and DNA synthesis. AU - Mallucci, L.. AU - Dunn, M.. AU - Wells, V.. AU - Delia, D.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - We have examined the effects of 50 μg ml-1 of Con A added to synchronized mouse embryo fibroblasts at different times during the cell cycle. We found that Con A caused arrest of growth not solely by preventing G1-G0 cells from entering the S-phase but also by exerting a G2 block. We also found that Con A, which prevented commencement of S-phase, did not arrest cells already in S from reaching the G2 stage but inhibited the S-phase associated process of thymidine uptake. The inhibition was greater when the Con A receptors were extensively clustered.. AB - We have examined the effects of 50 μg ml-1 of Con A added to synchronized mouse embryo ...
Nanoparticles are considered a primary vehicle for targeted therapies because they can pass biological barriers, enter and distribute in cells by energy-dependent pathways1-3. Until now, most studies have shown that nanoparticle properties, such as size4-6 and surface7,8, can affect how cells internalise nanoparticles. Here we show that the different phases of cell growth, which constitute the cell cycle, can also influence nanoparticle uptake. Although cells in different cell cycle phases internalised nanoparticles with similar rates, after 24 hours of uptake the concentration of nanoparticles in the cells is ranked according to the different cell cycle phases: G2/M , S , G0/G1. Nanoparticles were not exported from cells but the internalised nanoparticle concentration is split when the cell ...
Didier Picard, January 2015 Current list of HBD fusion proteins_ Protein X a HBD b regulated as c Refs. transcription factor in Arabidopsis transcription factor Arabidopsis transcription factor in tobacco coactivator transcription factor 1 2 3 transcription factor transcription factor, differentiation factor transcription factor putative transcription factor in arabidposis transcription factor oncoprotein transcription factor transcription factor oncoprotein oncoprotein oncoprotein transcription factor oncoprotein, transcription factor 6 7 ...
The single spanning INM protein emerin is encoded by the EMD gene, which, when mutated, produces the X‐linked form of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD; Gruenbaum et al, 2005). The lamin‐associated protein LAP2β was originally identified as a single spanning INM protein with a nucleoplasmic binding region for lamin B and chromatin (Foisner & Gerace, 1993). Both emerin and LAP2β associate with several transcriptional regulators, and this association invariably coincides with repression of the transcription factor target genes. In most instances, the mechanism of repression is not clear because it is uncertain whether the transcription factor acts as an activator or repressor of transcription-often transcription factors can do both. If the transcription factor acts as an activator, ...
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an ideal model organism for studies of ciliary function and assembly. In assays for biological and biochemical effects of various factors on flagellar structure and function, synchronous culture is advantageous for minimizing variability. Here, we have characterized a method in which 100% synchronization is achieved with respect to flagellar length but not with respect to the cell cycle. The method requires inducing flagellar regeneration by amputation of the entire cell population and limiting regeneration time. This results in a maximally homogeneous distribution of flagellar lengths at 3 h postamputation. We found that time-limiting new protein synthesis during flagellar synchronization limits variability in the unassembled pool of limiting flagellar protein and variability in flagellar length without affecting the range of cell volumes. We also ...
PURPOSE The cell cycle progression test is a validated molecular assay that assesses prostate cancer specific disease progression and mortality risk when combined with clinicopathological parameters. We present the results from PROCEDE-1000, a large, prospective registry designed to evaluate the impact of the cell cycle progression test on shared treatment decision making for patients newly diagnosed with prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Untreated patients with newly diagnosed prostate adenocarcinoma were enrolled in the study and the cell cycle progression test was performed on the initial prostate biopsy tissue. A set of 4 sequential surveys tracked changes relative to initial therapy recommendations (before cell cycle progression) based on clinicopathological parameters following physician review of the cell cycle progression test ...
Cell Growth and Reproduction Study Guide The Cell Cycle Study Guide Vocabulary - Cell Cycle, Mitosis, Cytokinesis 1. How did the G1 and G2 stages get their
Geminiviruses are small DNA viruses that use plant replication machinery to amplify their genomes. Microarray analysis of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transcriptome in response to cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) infection uncovered 5,365 genes (false discovery rate ,0.005) differentially expressed in infected rosette leaves at 12 d postinoculation. Data mining revealed that CaLCuV triggers a pathogen response via the salicylic acid pathway and induces expression of genes involved in programmed cell death, genotoxic stress, and DNA repair. CaLCuV also altered expression of cell cycle-associated genes, preferentially activating genes expressed during S and G2 and inhibiting genes active in G1 and M. A limited set of core cell cycle genes associated with cell cycle reentry, late G1, S, and early G2 had increased RNA levels, while core cell cycle ...
Carrageenan is a polysaccharide that exists in the cell walls of marine red algae and is widely used in studies concerned with its antitumor and cytotoxic activities [10]. Previous findings show carrageenan as a potential antitumor agent [28-30]. Considering one of the hallmarks of cancer is uncontrolled proliferation, a consequence of the loss of normal cell-cycle control, there has been a. increasing interest in potential anticancer agents that affect the cell-cycles of cancer cells [31]. Thus, in this study we investigated how carrageenan affects tumor cell cycle.. In this study we demonstrated cytotoxic effects of carrageenan towards cell cycle of human cancer cells in HeLa expressing FUCCI probes [24]. Two types of carrageenan, kappa (k-CO) and lambda (λ-CO) carrageenan were used because sulfate contents vary in each ...
GO Terms Descrition:, periodic partitioning by pair rule gene, central nervous system development, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding, positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, trunk segmentation, cell fate specification, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcription, regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, blastoderm segmentation, negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, regulation of ...
Looking for online definition of Cell cycle regulatory protein in the Medical Dictionary? Cell cycle regulatory protein explanation free. What is Cell cycle regulatory protein? Meaning of Cell cycle regulatory protein medical term. What does Cell cycle regulatory protein mean?
APECED gained a unique position among the autoimmune diseases, because it is the only known monogenetic autoimmune diseases with full gene penetration.. The AIRE gene (autoimmune regulator) is 13 kb long and has 14 exons. The main protein coded by this gene contains 545 amino acids and was named the AIRE protein. The AIRE protein seems to function predominantly as a transcriptional activator and it may control autoimmunity by promoting ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens in medullary epithelial cells of the thymus. Even though the relationship between AIRE gene and APECED is clear, other factors may play a role in a patients phenotype as well. HLA II class, CTLA-4 polymorphism, and APECED association were suggested by recent research, which has also found several examples of AIRE mutations behaving in a dominant fashion.. The following is the circumstantial and indirect evidence that APECED is an autoimmune disease:. ...
See 13 Best Images of Cell Cycle And Mitosis Worksheet Answers. Inspiring Cell Cycle and Mitosis Worksheet Answers worksheet images. Cell Cycle Worksheet Answers Cell Cycle and Mitosis Worksheet Answer Key Cell Cycle Mitosis and Meiosis Test Answers Cell Cycle Worksheet Answer Key Cell Division Mitosis Worksheet and Answers
Since the successful isolation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in the past decades, massive investigations have been conducted to dissect the pluripotency network that governs the ability of these cells to differentiate into all cell types. Beside the core Oct4-Sox2-Nanog circuitry, accumulating regulators, including transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers, microRNA and signaling molecules have also been found to play important roles in preserving pluripotency. Among the various regulations that orchestrate the cellular pluripotency program, transcriptional regulation is situated in the central position and appears to be dominant over other regulatory controls. In this review, we would like to summarize the recent advancements in the accumulating findings of new ...
Oldenlandia diffusa is traditionally prescribed in the treatment of a number of cancers and studies suggest that it exerts a cytotoxic action specific to cancer cells. To further investigate this suggested action, the effect(s) of Oldenlandia diffusa on leukaemic cells (HL60) and stimulated and unstimulated human blood lymphocytes (PBLs) was investigated. For the HL60s, cell growth, apoptotic induction, alterations in cell cycle characteristics and genotoxicity were investigated. For the PBLs, apoptotic induction and alterations in cell cycle characteristics were investigated. Preliminary chemical analysis to identify the cytotoxic constituents of Oldenlandia diffusa was also carried out. Results showed that Oldenlandia diffusa significantly inhibited the growth of the HL60s and induced apoptosis in a cell cycle-independent fashion, possibly through the ...
Cdc14 is an essential phosphatase in yeast but its role in the mammalian cell cycle remains obscure. We report here that Cdc14b-knockout cells display unscheduled induction of multiple cell cycle regulators resulting in early entry into DNA replication and mitosis from quiescence. Cdc14b dephosphorylates Ser5 at the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II, a major substrate of cyclin-dependent kinases. Lack of Cdc14b results in increased CTD-Ser5 phosphorylation, epigenetic modifications that mark active chromatin, and transcriptional induction of cell cycle regulators. These data suggest a function for mammalian Cdc14 phosphatases in the control of transcription during the cell cycle ...
TSPY is a repeated gene mapped to the critical region harboring the gonadoblastoma locus on the Y chromosome (GBY), the only oncogenic locus on this male-specific chromosome. Elevated levels of TSPY have been observed in gonadoblastoma specimens and a variety of other tumor tissues, including testicular germ cell tumors, prostate cancer, melanoma, and liver cancer. TSPY contains a SET/NAP domain that is present in a family of cyclin B and/or histone binding proteins represented by the oncoprotein SET and the nucleosome assembly protein 1 (NAP1), involved in cell cycle regulation and replication. To determine a possible cellular function for TSPY, we manipulated the TSPY expression in HeLa and NIH3T3 cells using the Tet-off system. Cell proliferation, colony formation assays and tumor growth in nude mice were utilized to determine the TSPY effects on cell growth and ...
... is a protein database which contains information on transcription factors (TFs) of silkworm.
Adiponectin and leptin, both produced from adipose tissue, cause cell cycle arrest and progression, respectively in cancer cells. Ubiquitin specific protease-2 (USP-2), a deubiquitinating enzyme, is known to impair proteasome-induced degradation of cyclin D1, a critical cell cycle regulator. Herein, we investigated the effects of these adipokines on USP-2 expression and its potential role in the modulation of cell cycle. Treatment with globular adiponectin (gAcrp) decreased, whereas leptin increased USP-2 expression both in human hepatoma and breast cancer cells. In addition, overexpression or gene silencing of USP-2 affected cyclin D1 expression and cell cycle progression/arrest by adipokines. Adiponectin and leptin also modulated in vitro proteasomal activity, which was partially dependent on USP-2 expression. Taken together, our results ...
Recent advances in defining the molecular mechanisms of cell cycle control in eukaryotes provide a basis for better understanding the hormonal control of cell proliferation in normal and neoplastic breast epithelium. It is now clear that a number of critical steps in cell cycle progression are controlled by families of serine/threonine kinases, the cdks. These kinases are activated by interactions with various cyclin gene products which form the regulatory subunits of the kinase complexes. Several families of cyclins control cell cycle progression in G1 phase, cyclins C, D and E, or in S, G2 and mitosis, cyclins A and B. Recent studies have defined the expression and regulation of cyclin genes in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast cancer cell lines. Following growth arrest of T-47D breast cancer cells by serum ...
The Oxidative Stress Responsive Transcription Factor Pap1 Confers DNA Damage Resistance on Checkpoint-Deficient Fission Yeast Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This unit describes how to use the Transcription Element Search System (TESS). This Web site predicts transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in DNA sequence using two different kinds of models of sites, strings and positional weight matrices. The binding of transcription factors to DNA is a major part of the control of gene expression. Transcription factors exhibit sequence-specific binding; they form stronger bonds to some DNA sequences than to others. Identification of a good binding site in the promoter for a gene suggests the possibility that the corresponding factor may play a role in the regulation of that gene. However, the sequences transcription factors recognize are typically short and allow for some amount of mismatch. Because of this, binding sites for a ...
The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta) has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1beta (PGC1betaKO) was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1betaKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy. Using systems biology, we identified a general defect in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and, specifically, the electron transport chain. This defect correlated with reduced mitochondrial volume fraction in soleus muscle and heart, but not brown adipose tissue (BAT). Under ambient temperature conditions, PGC-1beta ablation was partially compensated by up-regulation of PGC-1alpha in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) that lead to increased thermogenesis, reduced body weight, and reduced fat mass. Despite their decreased fat mass, PGC1betaKO mice had hypertrophic adipocytes in WAT. ...
ABSTRACT: One goal of human genetics is to understand how the information for precise and dynamic gene expression programs is encoded in the genome. The interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA regulatory elements clearly play an important role in determining gene expression outputs, yet the regulatory logic underlying functional transcription factor binding is poorly understood. Many studies have focused on characterizing the genomic locations of TF binding, yet it is unclear to what extent TF binding at any specific locus has functional consequences with respect to gene expression output. To evaluate the context of functional TF binding we knocked down 59 TFs and chromatin modifiers in one HapMap lymphoblastoid cell line. We then identified genes whose expression was affected by the knockdowns. We intersected the gene expression data with transcription factor ...
ABSTRACT: One goal of human genetics is to understand how the information for precise and dynamic gene expression programs is encoded in the genome. The interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA regulatory elements clearly play an important role in determining gene expression outputs, yet the regulatory logic underlying functional transcription factor binding is poorly understood. Many studies have focused on characterizing the genomic locations of TF binding, yet it is unclear to what extent TF binding at any specific locus has functional consequences with respect to gene expression output. To evaluate the context of functional TF binding we knocked down 59 TFs and chromatin modifiers in one HapMap lymphoblastoid cell line. We then identified genes whose expression was affected by the knockdowns. We intersected the gene expression data with transcription factor ...
ABSTRACT: One goal of human genetics is to understand how the information for precise and dynamic gene expression programs is encoded in the genome. The interactions of transcription factors (TFs) with DNA regulatory elements clearly play an important role in determining gene expression outputs, yet the regulatory logic underlying functional transcription factor binding is poorly understood. Many studies have focused on characterizing the genomic locations of TF binding, yet it is unclear to what extent TF binding at any specific locus has functional consequences with respect to gene expression output. To evaluate the context of functional TF binding we knocked down 59 TFs and chromatin modifiers in one HapMap lymphoblastoid cell line. We then identified genes whose expression was affected by the knockdowns. We intersected the gene expression data with transcription factor ...
Abstract: We have studied dose- and time-dependent antitumor and cytotoxic effects of Erwinia carotovora L-asparaginase (ECAR LANS) and Escherichia coli L-asparaginase (MEDAC) on human leukemic cells and human and animal solid tumor cells. We determined the sensitivity of tumor cells to L-asparaginases, as well the effect L-asparaginases on cell growth rate, protein and DNA synthesis per se and with addition of different cytostatics. The data obtained demonstrated that ECAR LANS L-asparaginase suppressed growth of all tested solid tumor cells. Evaluation of leukemic cell number after treatment with L-asparaginases for 24, 48 and 72 h demonstrated that asparagine deficiency did not kill cells but stopped normal cell division and had no effect on protein and DNA synthesis. Cytofluorometric study of solid and leukemic cells demonstrated that the treatment with ...
Cyclin D-Cdk4 complexes have a demonstrated role in G1 phase, regulating the function of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product (Rb). Previously, we have shown that following treatment with low doses of UV radiation, cell lines that express wild-type p16 and Cdk4 responded with a G2 phase cell cycle delay. The UV-responsive lines contained elevated levels of p16 post-treatment, and the accumulation of p16 correlated with the G2 delay. Here we report that in UV-irradiated HeLa and A2058 cells, p16 bound Cdk4 and Cdk6 complexes with increased avidity and inhibited a cyclin D3-Cdk4 complex normally activated in late S/early G2 phase. Activation of this complex was correlated with the caffeine-induced release from the UV-induced G2 delay and a decrease in the level of p16 bound to Cdk4. Finally, overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Cdk4 blocked cells in G2 phase. These data indicate that the cyclin D3-Cdk4 ...
Zhang, Z W, Patchett, S E and Farthing, M J (2002) Role of Helicobacter pylori and p53 in regulation of gastric epithelial cell cycle phase progression. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 47 (5). pp. 987-995. ISSN 0163-2116 Full text not available from this repository ...
Mammalian Ste20-like proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) kinases phosphorylate and regulate cation-coupled Cl? cotransporter activity in response to cell quantity changes. activity of CLH-3b expressed in worm oocytes endogenously. Earlier yeast 2-cross research suggested that ERK kinases may function of GCK-3 upstream. Meclizine 2HCl Pharmacological inhibition of ERK signaling disrupted CLH-3b activity in HEK cells inside a GCK-3-reliant Meclizine 2HCl way. RNAi silencing from the ERK kinase MPK-1 or the ERK phosphorylating/activating kinase MEK-2 constitutively triggered native CLH-3b. MEK-2 and MPK-1 play important roles in regulating the meiotic cell cycle in oocytes. Cell cycle-dependent changes in MPK-1 correlate with the pattern of CLH-3b activation observed during oocyte meiotic maturation. We postulate that MEK-2/MPK-1 functions upstream from GCK-3 to regulate ...
Mammalian Ste20-like proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) kinases phosphorylate and regulate cation-coupled Cl? cotransporter activity in response to cell quantity changes. activity of CLH-3b expressed in worm oocytes endogenously. Earlier yeast 2-cross research suggested that ERK kinases may function of GCK-3 upstream. Meclizine 2HCl Pharmacological inhibition of ERK signaling disrupted CLH-3b activity in HEK cells inside a GCK-3-reliant Meclizine 2HCl way. RNAi silencing from the ERK kinase MPK-1 or the ERK phosphorylating/activating kinase MEK-2 constitutively triggered native CLH-3b. MEK-2 and MPK-1 play important roles in regulating the meiotic cell cycle in oocytes. Cell cycle-dependent changes in MPK-1 correlate with the pattern of CLH-3b activation observed during oocyte meiotic maturation. We postulate that MEK-2/MPK-1 functions upstream from GCK-3 to regulate ...
The Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB-1), a member of the cold-shock domain RNA-and DNA-binding protein family, has pleiotropic functions such as regulation of the cell cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate if YB-1 is a proliferative marker in breast cancer and elucidate potential downstream targets involved in YB-1-mediated cell cycle regulation using RNA interference technology. YB-1 protein expression was evaluated in tissue microarrays of 131 breast invasive ductal carcinomas by immunohistochemistry, while the YB-1 gene expression profile was evaluated in the T-47D, MDA-MB-231, ZR-75-1 and MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Silencing of the YB-1 gene in T-47D breast cancer cells was performed using siRNA and the effects of down-regulation of YB-1 on cell growth and regulation of the cell ...
In fish, amphibians, and birds, regeneration of sensory hair cells through asymmetric cell divisions of supporting cells can contribute to recovery of hearing and balance after hair cell loss caused by trauma or toxicity (1, 2). Mammalian hair cells do not spontaneously regenerate, even though supporting cells in vestibular sensory epithelia retain a limited ability to divide (3, 4). Consequently, hair cell death in mammals often leads to permanent impairment of hearing and balance.. As the inner ear develops, hair cell progenitor cells exit from the cell cycle and, like neurons, terminally differentiate. Negative cell cycle regulators apparently maintain the postmitotic status of hair cells and contribute to their terminal differentiation. The cyclin-dependent kinase ...
The future promises to yield new discoveries and advances in our understanding of cardiomyocyte cell cycle regulation that will hopefully give rise to the ability to promote regenerative myocardial growth. With respect to the intrinsic proliferative and de novo cardiomyogenic potential of the adult heart, it is abundantly clear from studies cited herein that the published values for the magnitude of both processes vary dramatically. It is very important to rigorously determine the extent to which these processes do occur. If the intrinsic rates for cardiomyocyte proliferation and/or de novo cardiomyogenic differentiation are exceedingly low, then the ability to exploit these processes for clinical benefit would likely be quite limited. Increasing the frequency of these events would require the existence, identification, and ultimately the successful delivery of cytokines that normally regulate the process. Conversely, if these processes do occur at the ...
Well-timed protein degradation is a common event in the cell cycle, known to drive mitotic entry (G2/M) as well as the metaphase-to-anaphase transition (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). A frequent general question in these and other cell cycle processes is what defines the functional time window of an E3 ligase. In principle, either the activity of the E3 ligase may itself be regulated, or the substrate binding to the E3 ligase may depend on third-party factors such as kinases or scaffolding proteins. Mitosis provides a remarkable example of how an E3 ligase can be dynamically regulated, in this case to tightly coordinate the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachments with the onset of chromosome separation. It is long known that the metaphase-to-anaphase transition is driven by the E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C; see Cullin-RING and APC/C E3 ligases text box), activated by its ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell cycle regulators in multiple myeloma. T2 - Prognostic implications of p53 nuclear accumulation. AU - Pruneri, Giancarlo. AU - Carboni, Nadia. AU - Baldini, Luca. AU - Intini, Daniela. AU - Colombi, Mariangela. AU - Bertolini, Francesco. AU - Valentini, Stefano. AU - Maisonneuve, Patrick. AU - Viale, Giuseppe. AU - Neri, Antonino. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by a multistep process of tumorigenesis involving genes that control cell cycle progression. The prevalence and clinical implications of p53, p21, HDM-2, p27, and cyclin E immunoreactivity in MM patients, however, have not been fully elucidated. We evaluated the immunoreactivity (IR) for p53, p21, HDM-2, p27, cyclin E, and Ki-67 in bone marrow biopsies from 48 patients. In 34 (70.8%) cases, TP53 gene mutations and HDM-2 gene amplification were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism ...
Background: Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most widely used drug to treat glioblastoma (GBM), which is the most common and aggressive primary tumor of the Central Nervous System and one of the hardest challenges in oncotherapy. TMZ is an alkylating agent that induces autophagy, apoptosis and senescence in GBM cells. However, therapy with TMZ increases survival after diagnosis only from 12 to 14.4 months, making the development of combined therapies to treat GBM fundamental. One candidate for GBM therapy is Resveratrol (Rsv), which has additive toxicity with TMZ in several glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of Rsv and TMZ additive toxicity, which is the aim of the present work, is not clear, especially concerning cell cycle dynamics and long term effects. Methods: Glioma cell lines were treated with Rsv and TMZ, alone or in combinations, and the induction and the role of autophagy, apoptosis, ...
This paper reports a novel method for the statistical analysis of quantum dot (QD) cytotoxicity and cellular uptake based on single cell cycles, which is part of a series of works on the study of QD cytotoxicity using a microfluidic system (Lab Chip, 2012, 12, 34743480; 2013, 13, 19481954). The specially designed microfluidic system consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell array for single-cell arrangement and microchannels for QD solution diffusion, enabling effective control of stable cell density and the interdistance between them, as well as maintaining a constant QD concentration with no disturbance of the fluids which can affect cellular uptake. We showed that the treatment of QDs had no influence on cell cycles. However, the QD cytotoxicity was found to be dependent on cellular uptake in various cell cycle ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hect E3 ubiquitin ligase Tom1 controls Dia2 degradation during the cell cycle. AU - Kim, Dong Hwan. AU - Koepp, Deanna M.. PY - 2012/11/1. Y1 - 2012/11/1. N2 - The ubiquitin proteasome system plays a pivotal role in controlling the cell cycle. The budding yeast F-box protein Dia2 is required for genomic stability and is targeted for ubiquitin-dependent degradation in a cell cycle-dependent manner, but the identity of the ubiquitination pathway is unknown. We demonstrate that the Hect domain E3 ubiquitin ligase Tom1 is required for Dia2 protein degradation. Deletion of DIA2 partially suppresses the temperature-sensitive phenotype of tom1 mutants. Tom1 is required for Dia2 ubiquitination and degradation during G1 and G2/M phases of the cell cycle, whereas the Dia2 protein is stabilized during S phase. We find that Tom1 binding to Dia2 is enhanced in G1 and ...
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) and deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCMP deaminase) are pivotal allosteric enzymes required to maintain adequate pools of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) for DNA synthesis and repair. Whereas RNR inhibition slows DNA replication and activates checkpoint responses, the effect of dCMP deaminase deficiency is largely unknown. Here, we report that deleting the Schizosaccharomyces pombe dcd1(+) dCMP deaminase gene (SPBC2G2.13c) increases dCTP ∼30-fold and decreases dTTP ∼4-fold. In contrast to the robust growth of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae dcd1Δ mutant, fission yeast dcd1Δ cells delay cell cycle progression in early S phase and are sensitive to multiple DNA damaging agents, indicating impaired DNA replication and repair. DNA content profiling of dcd1Δcells differs from an RNR-deficient mutant. Dcd1 deficiency activates genome integrity checkpoints enforced by Rad3 (ATR), Cds1 (Chk2) and Chk1, and creates ...
Looking for online definition of Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog in the Medical Dictionary? Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog explanation free. What is Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog? Meaning of Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog medical term. What does Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkers of Cell Polarity and Cell Cycle Regulation in the Fission Yeast Protein Interaction Network. AU - Vaggi, Federico. AU - Dodgson, James. AU - Bajpai, Archana. AU - Chessel, Anatole. AU - Jordán, Ferenc. AU - Sato, Masamitsu. AU - Carazo-Salas, Rafael Edgardo. AU - Csikász-Nagy, Attila. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - The study of gene and protein interaction networks has improved our understanding of the multiple, systemic levels of regulation found in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Here we carry out a large-scale analysis of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and establish a method to identify linker proteins that bridge diverse cellular processes - integrating Gene Ontology and PPI data with network theory measures. We test the method on a highly characterized subset of the genome consisting of proteins controlling the ...
ABSTRACT. Cell cycle regulation in human renal cell carcinoma. Ylva Hedberg, Departments of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, and Surgical and. Perioperative Sciences, Urology Andrology, Umeå University, Sweden. Deregulated growth control is a hallmark of neoplasia potentially caused by aberrant expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. The importance of such aberrations in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not been fully clarified. Therefore, the protein expressions of several G1/S regulatory proteins in human RCC were evaluated and their relation to clinico-pathological data was examined.. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the proteinexpression of cyclin D1, D3, and E in 80 RCCs. Most tumors expressed higher levels of cyclin D1 (75%) and cyclin E (65%) compared to corresponding normal kidney cortex. In contrast, only 16 % of the tumors had high levels of ...
Telomerase activity is involved in telomere length maintenance. Leukocytes, unlike many human somatic tissues, have detectable telomerase activity. These cells provide a normal human cell type in which to study telomerase. We studied the regulation of telomerase activity and the telomerase RNA component as leukocytes were stimulated to enter the cell cycle. In primary human leukocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, telomerase activity increased , 10-fold as naturally quiescent cells entered the cell cycle. Antibodies to the T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 complex and the costimulatory CD28 receptor induced telomerase activity in a T cell-enriched population of cells. Rapamycin, an immunosuppressant that blocks TCR/CD3 signal transduction pathways and cdk2 activation, blocked telomerase induction. Hydroxyurea, an inhibitor of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The association of cell cycle checkpoint 2 variants and kidney function. T2 - Findings of the family blood pressure program and the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. AU - Franceschini, Nora. AU - North, Kari E.. AU - Arnett, Donna. AU - Pankow, James S.. AU - Chung, Jay H.. AU - Baird, Lisa. AU - Leppert, Mark F.. AU - Eckfeldt, John H.. AU - Boerwinkle, Eric. AU - Gu, C. Charles. AU - Lewis, Cora E.. AU - Myers, Richard H.. AU - Turner, Stephen T.. AU - Weder, Alan. AU - Kao, W. H Linda. AU - Mosley, Thomas H.. AU - Chakravarti, Aravinda. AU - Kramer, Holly. AU - Zhang, Jinghui. AU - Hunt, Steven C.. PY - 2009/5. Y1 - 2009/5. N2 - Background: Recent experimental evidence suggests that DNA damage and cell cycle regulatory proteins are involved in kidney injury and apoptosis. The checkpoint 2 gene (CHEK2) is an important transducer in DNA damage signaling pathways in response to injury, and therefore, CHEK2 variants ...
Telomere length analysis of donor-derived bone marrow cells (Fig. 3) and HSCs (Fig. 4) shows substantial telomere shortening during serial HSC transplantation. The difference in mean TRF length (ΔTRF) of bone marrow cells after one round of HSC transplantation is ∼1.5 kb (Fig. 3 B). This agrees reasonably well with the predicted reduction in telomere size assuming that ΔTRF is mainly due to the minimum number of extra population doublings (∼12-13) required for expansion of the fraction of the transplanted HSC population which engraft to the size of the HSC pool in adult mice (∼3-5 × 104 cells; references 3, 4), and that the rate of telomere shortening during division of the transplanted HSCs is 50-100 bp per population doubling, as observed for other mouse cells 14,39,40. However, the extent of telomere shortening during the second round of HSC transplantation (ΔTRF ≈ 5.5 kb) is considerably greater than ΔTRF during the first round of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - G2 Cell Cycle Arrest and Cyclophilin A in Lentiviral Gene Transfer. AU - Zhang, Shangming. AU - Joseph, Guiandre. AU - Pollok, Karen. AU - Berthoux, Lionel. AU - Sastry, Lakshmi. AU - Luban, Jeremy. AU - Cornetta, Kenneth. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Lentiviral vectors derived from the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have a higher propensity to transduce nondividing cells compared to vectors based on oncoretroviruses. We report here that genistein, a previously known protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor and G2 cell cycle arrest inducer, significantly enhanced lentiviral transduction in a dose-dependent manner. Increased transduction, as measured by vector expression, was seen in a variety of human cell lines, murine primary lymphocytes, and primary human CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells as well. Increased vector expression was also associated with an ...
Background HTLV-I is associated with the development of an aggressive form of lymphocytic leukemia known as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). A major obstacle for effective treatment of ATLL resides in the genetic diversity of tumor cells and their ability to acquire resistance to chemotherapy regimens. As a result, most patients relapse and current therapeutic approaches still have limited long-term survival benefits. Hence, the development of novel approaches is greatly needed.. Methods In this study, we found that a small molecule inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), PJ-34, is very effective in activating S/G2M cell cycle checkpoints, resulting in permanent cell cycle arrest and reactivation of p53 transcription functions and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis of HTLV-I-transformed and patient-derived ATLL tumor cells. We also found that ...
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Sinorhizobium meliloti is a Gram-negative alphaproteobacterium and nitrogen-fixing symbiont, which undergoes a novel cell cycle modification during its host-microbe interaction. I intend to monitor the transcriptional regulation of cell cycle-related genes during free-loving growth, in addition to monitoring their expression during symbiosis. Using genes known to be regulated by CtrA in C. crescentus or predicted to be regulated by CtrA in S. meliloti, I aim to show how certain cell cycle genes are regulated in S. meliloti. In C. crescentus, CtrA acts as a transcription factor that is active when phosphorylated and inactive when not phosphorylated. In S. meliloti, CbrA is a histidine kinase that ultimately inhibits CtrA phosphorylation. Using a ΔcbrA null mutant, which leads to increased levels of CtrA in S. meliloti, and ...
Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) is a syndrome that often results in immunodeficiency coupled with pancytopenia. Hemopoietic tissue requires a high nutrient supply and the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of cells occur in a constant and balanced manner, sensitive to the demands of specific cell lineages and dependent on the stem cell population. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of PEM on some aspects of hemopoiesis, analyzing the cell cycle of bone marrow cells and the percentage of progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Two-month-old male Swiss mice (N = 7-9 per group) were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet (4%) or were fed a control diet (20% protein) ad libitum. When the experimental group had lost about 20% of their original body weight after 14 days, we collected blood and bone marrow cells to determine the percentage of progenitor ...
Tubulin synthesis in the naturally synchronous plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a markedly periodic event restricted to the late G2 period of the cell cycle. Mitosis in the plasmodium is intranuclear, and there are no cytoplasmic microtubules at any stage of the cell cycle. We have combined a biochemical investigation of the synthesis of the plasmodial tubulin isotypes and their participation in the mitotic spindle with a microscopic study (immunofluorescence) of the development of spindle microtubules throughout the cell cycle. We have shown that all four tubulin isotypes identified in the plasmodium (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1 and beta 2) are present in the mitotic spindle. The stoichiometry of isotype usage in the mitotic spindle generally reflects the overall abundance of isotypes in the plasmodium as a whole: beta 2 greater than alpha 1 greater than alpha 2 greater than beta 1. We have also shown ...
The use of ultra-diluted natural products in the management of disease and treatment of cancer has generated a lot of interest and controversy. We conducted an in vitro study to determine if products prescribed by a clinic in India have any effect on breast cancer cell lines. We studied four ultra-diluted remedies (Carcinosin, Phytolacca, Conium and Thuja) against two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a cell line derived from immortalized normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). The remedies exerted preferential cytotoxic effects against the two breast cancer cell lines, causing cell cycle delay/arrest and apoptosis. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, including downregulation of phosphorylated Rb and upregulation of the CDK ...
La Plata, Argentina. ABSTRACT The effect of co-culturing varying concentrations of pig and human red blood cells (RBCs) on the baseline frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and cell-cycle progression in pig plasma (PLCs) and whole blood leukocyte cultures (WBCs) was studied. No variation in SCE frequency was observed between pig control WBC and PLC. Addition of pig and human RBCs to pig PLCs did not modify the baseline frequency of SCEs. On the other hand, cell proliferation was slower in PLCs than in WBCs. The addition of pig or human RBCs to PLCs accelerated the cell-cycle progression of pig lymphocytes. When RBCs were added to PLCs the concentration and time sequence of RBC incorporation affected the cell-cycle progression of swine lymphocytes. When doses of pig or human RBCs equivalent to those present in WBCs were added immediately after PLC stimulation, the ...
In the present study, we clarified the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship between benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC)-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The exposure of Jurkat human T-cell leukemia cells to BITC resulted in the inhibition of the G2-M progression that coincided with the apoptosis induction. The experiment using the phase-specific synchronized cells demonstrated that the G2-M phase-arrested cells are more sensitive to undergoing apoptotic stimulation by BITC than the cells in other phases. We also confirmed that BITC activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase, at the concentration required for apoptosis induction. An experiment using a JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 or a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 indicated that BITC-induced ...
The product of the X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy gene is a protein called emerin, which is localized to the nuclear membrane. We have expressed full-length recombinant human emerin in an in vitro coupled reticulocyte system; it has a molecular mass of 34 kDa, inserts into microsomes in a type II orientation, and does not exhibit any N-linked glycosylation or cleavage event. Affinity-purified human emerin antiserum cross-reacts with the in vitro-expressed emerin and with a 34 kDa band present in a wide range of human tissue samples. Expression and subcellular distribution of emerin were studied in lymphoblastoid cell lines established from four patients with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy containing different mutations in the emerin gene. Emerin protein was detected in two of these patients by immunoblotting. In striking contrast to wild-type emerin, which was localized to the nuclear fraction and was insoluble in non-ionic detergents and high salt, emerin ...
Faithful duplication and segregation of undamaged DNA is critical to the survival of all organisms and prevention of oncogenesis in multicellular organisms. To ensure inheritance of intact DNA, cells rely on checkpoints. Checkpoints alter cellular processes in the presence of DNA damage preventing cell cycle transitions until replication is completed or DNA damage is repaired. Several checkpoints are specific to S-phase. The S-M replication checkpoint prevents mitosis in the presence of unreplicated DNA. Rather than outright halting replication, the S-phase DNA damage checkpoint slows replication in response to DNA damage. This checkpoint utilizes two general mechanisms to slow replication. First, this checkpoint prevents origin firing thus limiting the number of replication forks traversing the genome in the presence of damaged DNA. Second, this checkpoint slows the progression of the replication forks. Inhibition of origin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Undamaged DNA transmits and enhances DNA damage checkpoint signals in early embryos. AU - Peng, Aimin. AU - Lewellyn, Andrea L.. AU - Maller, James L.. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - In Xenopus laevis embryos, the midblastula transition (MBT) at the 12th cell division marks initiation of critical developmental events, including zygotic transcription and the abrupt inclusion of gap phases into the cell cycle. Interestingly, although an ionizing radiation-induced checkpoint response is absent in pre-MBT embryos, introduction of a threshold amount of undamaged plasmid or sperm DNA allows a DNA damage checkpoint response to be activated. We show here that undamaged threshold DNA directly participates in checkpoint signaling, as judged by several dynamic changes, including H2AX phosphorylation, ATM phosphorylation and loading onto chromatin, and Chk1, Chk2 phosphorylation and release from nuclear DNA. These ...
In this study,YWHAE expression was silenced by RNA interference in colon cancer cell lines, and investigate the correlation between YWHAE expression and colon cancer proliferation,and differential expressed genes were analized by gene assay and qPCR technologe.The proliferation and colony formation ability of colon cancer cells were significantly reduced after YWHAE knockdown. More 1200 known genes were found to be involved in the YWHAE functions related tumorigenesis by genechip analysis, these genes related to cell proliferation/apoptosis and cell cycle process. qRT-PCR results showed an expression pattern consistent with that of the genechip analysis. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was used to knockdown YWHAE expression in colon cancer cell lines. And cell proliferation assays . GeneChip analysis were carried out for mRNA expression profiling, followed, the expressed levels of mRNA ...
[92 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit or C 2K or Cell Division Cycle 2 Like Protein Kinase 4 or Cell Division Protein Kinase 9 or Serine/Threonine Protein Kinase PITALR or CDK9 or EC 2.7.11.22 or EC 2.7.11.23) - Pipeli report by Global Markets Direct. Cyclin Dependent Kinase 9 (Tat Associated Kinase Complex Catalytic Subunit...
The correlation of c-Myc expression with resveratrol-induced turnover of medulloblastoma cells was investigated in this study by checking (1) c-Myc expression in medulloblastoma tissues and cell lines (UW228-2 and UW228-3), (2) the in vitro effect of resveratrol on c-Myc expression and (3) the influences of c-Myc inhibition in cell growth and survival. Immunohistochemical staining of human medulloblastomas and noncancerous cerebellar tissues revealed that 8 out of 11 tumor tissues (72.7%) expressed c-Myc, in which 4 cases (50%) showed intensified nuclear labeling. RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence stainings revealed c-Myc downregulation accompanied with growth suppression and apoptosis. Flow cytometry analysis showed S phase arrest in resveratrol-treated cell populations. Transfection of c-Myc directed antisense oligonucleotides to the cultured medulloblastoma cells could ...
Canonical Wnt signaling triggering β-catenin-dependent gene expression contributes to cell cycle progression, in particular at the G1/S transition. Recently, however, it became clear that the cell cycle can also feed back on Wnt signaling at the G2/M transition. This is illustrated by the fact that mitosis-specific cyclin-dependent kinases can phosphorylate the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 to prime the pathway for incoming Wnt signals when cells enter mitosis. In addition, there is accumulating evidence that various Wnt pathway components might exert additional, Wnt-independent functions that are important for proper regulation of mitosis. The importance of Wnt pathways during mitosis was most recently enforced by the discovery of Wnt signaling contributing to the stabilization of proteins other than β-catenin, specifically at G2/M and during mitosis. This Wnt-mediated stabilization of proteins, now referred to as ...
Coordination of the multiple processes underlying DNA replication is key for maintaining genome stability and preventing tumorigenesis. CLASPIN, a critical player in replication fork stabilization and checkpoint responses, must be tightly regulated during the cell cycle to prevent the accumulation of DNA damage. In this study, we used a quantitative proteomics approach and identified USP9X as a novel CLASPIN-interacting protein. USP9X is a deubiquitinase involved in multiple signaling and survival pathways whose tumor suppressor or oncogenic activity is highly context dependent. We found that USP9X regulated the expression and stability of CLASPIN in an S-phase-specific manner. USP9X depletion profoundly impairs the progression of DNA replication forks, causing unscheduled termination events with a frequency similar to CLASPIN depletion, resulting in excessive endogenous DNA damage. Importantly, restoration of CLASPIN expression in USP9X-depleted cells ...
Human polyomaviruses (JC virus, BK virus and simian virus 40) are causative agents of some human diseases and, interestingly, are involved in processes of cell transformation and oncogenesis. These viruses need the cell cycle machinery of the host cell to complete their replication; so they evolved mechanisms that can interfere with the growth control of infected cells and force them into DNA replication. The retinoblastoma family of proteins (pRb), which includes pRb/p105, p107 and pRb2/p130, acts as one of the most important regulators of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Rb proteins represent an important target for viral oncoproteins. Early viral T antigens can bind all members of the pRb family, promoting the activation of the E2F family of transcription factors, thus inducing the expression of genes required for the entry to the S ...
Results of the present study indicate that cotreatment with the Hsp90 antagonist 17-AAG and clinically relevant HDAC inhibitors results in a striking increase in mitochondrial injury, caspase activation, and apoptosis in Bcr-Abl+ human leukemia cells. These events are associated with Bcr-Abl down-regulation; multiple perturbations in Bcl-2 family member proteins, particularly induction of Bax conformational change; and disruption of diverse signaling/cell cycle regulatory pathways, including those related to STAT5, Raf/MEK/ERK, and Akt.. Translocation and integration of cytoplasmic Bax into the mitochondrial membrane represent critical steps in activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in multiple systems (Yamaguchi et al., 2003). Moreover, a conformational change in Bax, resulting in exposure of the NH2 and COOH termini, is required for release of proapoptotic mitochondrial proteins (Murphy et al., 2000). The present results ...
Caulobacter crescentus is an oligotrophic alpha-proteobacterium with a complex cell cycle involving sessile-stalked and piliated, flagellated swarmer cells. Because the natural lifestyle of C. crescentus intrinsically involves a surface-associated, sessile state, we investigated the dynamics and control of C. crescentus biofilms developing on glass surfaces in a hydrodynamic system. In contrast to biofilms of the well-studied Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Vibrio cholerae, C. crescentus CB15 cells form biphasic biofilms, consisting predominantly of a cell monolayer biofilm and a biofilm containing densely packed, mushroom-shaped structures. Based on comparisons between the C. crescentus strain CB15 wild type and its holdfast (hfsA; DeltaCC0095), pili (DeltapilA-cpaF::Omegaaac3), motility (motA), flagellum (flgH) mutants, and a double mutant lacking holdfast and flagellum (hfsA; flgH), a model for biofilm ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential roles for checkpoint kinases in DNA damage-dependent degradation of the Cdc25A protein phosphatase. AU - Jin, Jianping. AU - Cambronne, Xiaolu. AU - Ye, Xin. AU - Livingstone, Mark. AU - Harper, J. Wade. PY - 2008/7/11. Y1 - 2008/7/11. N2 - In response to DNA damage, cells activate a signaling pathway that promotes cell cycle arrest and degradation of the cell cycle regulator Cdc25A. Cdc25A degradation occurs via the SCFβ-TRCP pathway and phosphorylation of Ser-76. Previous work indicates that the checkpoint kinase Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) is capable of phosphorylating Ser-76 in Cdc25A, thereby promoting its degradation. In contrast, other experiments involving overexpression of dominant Chk2 mutant proteins point to a role for Chk2 in Cdc25A degradation. However, loss-of-function studies that implicate Chk2 in Cdc25A turnover are lacking, and there is no evidence that Chk2 is capable of ...
Tafazzin knockdown causes hypertrophy of neonatal cardiac myocytes (34), and mutation of the tafazzin gene causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome (64). Our work with neonatal cardiac fibroblasts (NVFs) showed that tafazzin knockdown increased ROS production, activated MAPKs including p42/44 and p38, stimulated transcriptional and translational factors, which in turn activated cell cycle regulators, and increased DNA and protein synthesis. On the other hand, tafazzin knockdown also decreased intracellular ATP, activated AMPK, and halted the energy-consuming process (i.e., cell proliferation), ultimately resulting in multinucleation, hypertrophy, and enhanced collagen secretion.. Tafazzin plays an important role in de novo cardiolipin synthesis and remodeling in the mitochondria. Tafazzin knockdown leads to reduced cardiolipin, which is consistent with previous studies involving yeast ...
Hair cells, the sensory receptors of the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line organs, may be damaged by a number of agents including aminoglycoside antibiotics and severe overstimulation. In the avian cochlea, lost hair cells can be replaced by regeneration. These new hair cells appear to be derived from a support cell precursor which is stimulated to divide by events associated with hair cell loss. Little is known about the timing and sequencing of events leading to new hair cell production. In this study cell cycle-associated events in the avian cochlea were analyzed at early and late time intervals following a single high dose of gentamicin. This single dose protocol has been shown to consistently result in extensive morphological damage and hair cell loss in the proximal region of the cochlea while sparing a morphologically undamaged distal cochlear ...
Lamins are nuclear-specific intermediate filament proteins that form a filamentous scaffold structure underneath the inner nuclear membrane called the lamina, in multicellular eukaryotes (Goldman et al., 2002; Gruenbaum et al., 2005; Stuurman et al., 1998). Whereas B-type lamins are essential for cell viability, A-type lamins are predominantly expressed in terminally differentiated cells (Cohen et al., 2001). A small pool of A-type lamins is also found in the nucleoplasm (Bridger et al., 1993; Dechat et al., 2004; Hozak et al., 1995; Moir et al., 2000b), where it may function in chromatin organization and gene expression (Mattout-Drubezki and Gruenbaum, 2003), DNA replication (Moir et al., 2000a), RNA Pol II-dependent transcription (Spann et al., 2002), and cell cycle progression and differentiation (Ivorra et al., 2006; Johnson et al., 2004; Markiewicz et al., 2005; Van Berlo et al., ...
Abstract: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as sulindac are promising chemoprevention agents against colon cancer, but their weak potency and side effects limit their use for both chemoprevention and chemotherapy. Here, we evaluated the effect of a new sulindac derivative, phospho-sulindac or OXT-922, on the growth of human cancer cell lines and its mechanism of action. OXT-922 inhibited the growth of human cancer cell lines originating from colon, pancreas and breast ~11- to 30-fold more potently than sulindac. This effect was mediated by a strong cytokinetic effect. Compared with control, OXT-922 inhibited cell proliferation by up to 67%, induced apoptosis 4.1-fold over control and blocked the G1 to S cell cycle phase transition. OXT-922 suppressed the levels of cell cycle regulating proteins, including cyclins D1 and D3 and Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6. The levels of ...
Deregulated expression of MYC enhances glutamine utilization and renders cell survival dependent on glutamine, inducing "glutamine addiction". Surprisingly, colon cancer cells that express high levels of MYC due to WNT pathway mutations are not glutamine‐addicted but undergo a reversible cell cycle arrest upon glutamine deprivation. We show here that glutamine deprivation suppresses translation of endogenous MYC via the 3′‐UTR of the MYC mRNA, enabling escape from apoptosis. This regulation is mediated by glutamine‐dependent changes in adenosine‐nucleotide levels. Glutamine deprivation causes a global reduction in promoter association of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and slows transcriptional elongation. While activation of MYC restores binding of MYC and RNAPII function on most promoters, restoration of elongation is imperfect and activation of MYC in the absence of glutamine causes stalling ...
Deregulated expression of MYC enhances glutamine utilization and renders cell survival dependent on glutamine, inducing "glutamine addiction". Surprisingly, colon cancer cells that express high levels of MYC due to WNT pathway mutations are not glutamine‐addicted but undergo a reversible cell cycle arrest upon glutamine deprivation. We show here that glutamine deprivation suppresses translation of endogenous MYC via the 3′‐UTR of the MYC mRNA, enabling escape from apoptosis. This regulation is mediated by glutamine‐dependent changes in adenosine‐nucleotide levels. Glutamine deprivation causes a global reduction in promoter association of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and slows transcriptional elongation. While activation of MYC restores binding of MYC and RNAPII function on most promoters, restoration of elongation is imperfect and activation of MYC in the absence of glutamine causes stalling ...
3University of Rochester Cancer Center, Rochester NY 14642, U.S.A.. Correspondence to: B.V. Polevoda, Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, P.O. Box 712, 601 Elmwood Ave., Rochester, NY 14642 U.S.A. Tel 716-275-3329; Fax 716-271-2683. E-mail: [email protected] Key Words: Apoptosis, cell-cycle, G2/M arrest, p27, Ukrain.. Abstract. Exposure of ME 180 and A431 carcinoma cells to Ukrain (NSC-631570), a novel semisynthetic drug from Chelidonium majus L, results in cell growth inhibition which is concomitant with reversible G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis at doses as low as 7 μΜ. In contrast, the same drug concentrations were not affective towards normal human keratinocytes. In order to investigate whether cell cycle control mechanisms are effected in response to Ukrain, we analyzed cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alterations in cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (CDK5) protein levels, activity and immunocytochemistry in canine motor neuron disease. AU - Green, Sherril L.. AU - Vulliet, Philip R. AU - Pinter, Martin J.. AU - Cork, Linda C.. PY - 1998/11. Y1 - 1998/11. N2 - Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is a dominantly inherited motor neuron disease in Brittany spaniels that is clinically characterized by progressive muscle weakness leading to paralysis. Histopathologically, degeneration is confined to motor neurons with accumulation of phosphorylated neurofilaments in axonal internodes. Cyclin- dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a kinase related to the cell cycle kinase cdc2, phosphorylates neurofilaments and regulates neurofilament dynamics. We examined CDK5 activity, protein levels, and cellular immunoreactivity in nervous tissue from dogs with HCSMA, from closely age-matched controls and from dogs with other neurological diseases. On ...
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer among skin cancers. The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has increased more than 600% worldwide since the 1940s. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process involving multiple genetic alterations. The connection between cell cycle proliferation and cancer resulting in deregulated cellular proliferation leads to cancer. Cancer has been associated with disturbances in cell cycle regulation. Recent studies have shown that p16, CDK6 and CCND1 mRNA genes and protein expression are involved in the tumorgenesis of skin cancer. These genes play a role in cell cycle proliferation. In this study, we assessed the expression of a cyclin, a cyclin dependent kinase, and a cyclin kinase inhibitor in skin BCC tissue. Reverse Transcription in ...
Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates; thus, it functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1. This protein and the closely related kinase ATR are thought to be master controllers of cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways that are required for cell response to DNA damage and for genome stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010 ...
Skip to Next Section Cks is a small highly conserved protein that plays an important role in cell cycle control in different eukaryotes. Cks proteins have been implicated in entry into and exit from mitosis, by promoting Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activity on mitotic substrates. In yeast, Cks can promote exit from mitosis by transcriptional regulation of cell cycle regulators. Cks proteins have also been found to promote S-phase via an interaction with the SCFSkp2 Ubiquitination complex. We have characterized the Drosophila Cks gene, Cks30A and we find that it is required for progression through female meiosis and the mitotic divisions of the early embryo through an interaction with Cdk1. Cks30A mutants are compromised for Cyclin A destruction, resulting in an arrest or delay at the metaphase/anaphase transition, both in female meiosis and in the early syncytial embryo. Cks30A appears to ...
We have previously reported a critical role of HMGA proteins in pituitary tumorigenesis since either the Hmga1 or Hmga2 gene overexpression/activation induces the development of mixed growth hormone/prolactin cell pituitary adenomas by activating the E2F transcription factor 1, and then enhancing the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Consistently, amplification and overexpression of the HMGA2 gene was found in human pituitary prolactinomas. Since impairment of the cell cycle control represents a feature of experimental and human pituitary adenomas, we have investigated the possible synergism between the alterations of other cell cycle regulators, such as p27 deficiency or Cdk4(R24C) mutation, with Hmga2 overexpression in pituitary tumorigenesis ...
Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae), a well-known herbal medicine in Jeju Island, Korea, has been used as a tonic agent in treating stress-related states(14). In the experiment of immortalized rat vibrissa dermal papilla cells treated with extract of A. koreanum leaves, showed an enhacement of the proliferation of dermal papilla cells, of the hair-fiber lengths of the vibrissa follicles by increasing the nuclear β-catenin level, and up-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E (regulating cell cycle progression) and CDK2(Cells decide at the end of mitosis to either start the next cell cycle and downregulation of the expression of p27(kip1)(Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) in the dermal papilla cells(15). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined Src and ER blockade impairs human breast cancer proliferation in vitro and in vivo. AU - Chen, Yi. AU - Alvarez, Edwin A.. AU - Azzam, Diana. AU - Wander, Seth A.. AU - Guggisberg, Natalia. AU - Jordà, Mercè. AU - Ju, Zhenlin. AU - Hennessy, Bryan T.. AU - Slingerland, Joyce M.. PY - 2011/7. Y1 - 2011/7. N2 - Antiestrogen therapies arrest susceptible estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers by increasing p27. Since Src phosphorylates p27 to promote p27 proteolysis, Src activation observed in up to 40% of ER-positive cancers may contribute to antiestrogen resistance. In this article, we show that treatment with the Src-inhibitor saracatinib (AZD0530) together with ER-blocking drugs increased breast cancer cell cycle arrest via p27. Saracatinib and fulvestrant together more effectively increased p27, reduced Ki67, and impaired MDA-MB-361 xenograft tumor growth in vivo than either of the drugs alone. In contrast, saracatinib monotherapy rapidly ...
Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) show a great promise as a renewable source of cells with broad biomedical applications. Since insulin has been used in the maintenance of hiPSCs, in this study we explored the role of insulin in culture of these cells. We report conditions for insulin starvation and stimulation of hiPSCs. Crystal violet staining was used to study the adhesion and proliferation of hiPSCs. Apoptosis and cell cycle assays were performed through flow cytometry. Protein arrays were used to confirm phosphorylation targets, and mRNA sequencing was used to evaluate the effect of transcriptome. Insulin improved the seeding and proliferation of hiPSCs. We also observed an altered cell cycle profile and increase in apoptosis in hiPSCs in the absence of insulin. Furthermore, we confirmed phosphorylation of key components of insulin signaling pathway in the presence of ...
Component of the 9-1-1 cell-cycle checkpoint response complex that plays a major role in DNA repair. The 9-1-1 complex is recruited to DNA lesion upon damage by the RAD17-replication factor C (RFC) clamp loader complex. Acts then as a sliding clamp platform on DNA for several proteins involved in long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER). The 9-1-1 complex stimulates DNA polymerase beta (POLB) activity by increasing its affinity for the 3-OH end of the primer-template and stabilizes POLB to those sites where LP-BER proceeds; endonuclease FEN1 cleavage activity on substrates with double, nick, or gap flaps of distinct sequences and lengths; and DNA ligase I (LIG1) on long-patch base excision repair substrates. The 9-1-1 complex is necessary for the recruitment of RHNO1 to sites of double-stranded breaks (DSB) occurring during the S phase. Isoform 1 possesses 3-,5 double stranded DNA exonuclease activity ...
Plant Transcription Factors. Laser Capture Microdissection. Integrin and Cell Adhesion Molecules. pdf Безопасность жизнедеятельности: учебн. пособие 2010 Cycle Synchronization. Everyday scholars. Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Www.senecadevelopmentne.com/guest Migration Developmental. book Leadership Research in Arabidopsis. View It Research in Arabidopsis. open Molecule hop over to this website. Neisseria meningitidis Advanced. GOING ON THIS SITE habitation in Mammalian Cells. Next Generation Microarray Bioinformatics. major trained sites. In Madness, download An illustrated pocketbook of and same encapsulation: The Glutathione and sea of motility. different suspicion in impaired manner: Cuprous, broad and other evidence in Britain. In Human Osteology: In Archaeology and Forensic Science. London: Greenwich Medical Media. foot in primary view: UV-visible, analytical and false download in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced systolic pressure load decreases cell-cycle activity in the fetal sheep heart. AU - OTierney, P. F.. AU - Anderson, Debra. AU - Faber, J. J.. AU - Louey, Samantha. AU - Thornburg, Kent. AU - Giraud, George. PY - 2010/8. Y1 - 2010/8. N2 - The fetal heart is highly sensitive to changes in mechanical load. We have previously demonstrated that increased cardiac load can stimulate cell cycle activity and maturation of immature cardiomyocytes, but the effects of reduced load are not known. Sixteen fetal sheep were given either continuous intravenous infusion of lactated Ringer solution (LR) or enalaprilat, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor beginning at 127 days gestational age. After 8 days, fetal arterial pressure in the enalaprilat-infused fetuses (23.8 ± 2.8 mmHg) was lower than that of control fetuses (47.5 ± 4.7 mmHg) (P ,0.0001). Although the body weights of the two groups of fetuses were similar, the heart ...
Ligation of membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the WEHI 231 B-lymphoma cell collection. show that resistance to apoptosis can arise as a result of mutations affecting discrete stages of the mIgM signalling pathway. The mutant lines reported here show defects that have not yet been recognized in previous studies and are likely to be useful tools in dissecting the signalling of cell death in W lymphocytes. Introduction Signals SKF 89976A HCl generated through membrane immunoglobulin on the surface of W lymphocytes can lead either to B-cell activation and proliferation or, alternatively, to programmed cell death or apoptosis, the greatest fate of the W cell depending on factors such as its developmental stage.1 Cross-linking of membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) generates a cascade of intracellular signals; in the ...
phdthesis{8467fc6f-8c20-4634-9e13-8c10c0b1c8ef, abstract = {Our research group has previously shown that treatment with the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors a-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) or amidinoindan-1-one 2´-amidinohydrazone (CGP 48664) inhibited S phase progression before any other cell cycle phase was affected. This study was undertaken to further investigate the role of polyamines in the regulation of S phase progression and DNA synthesis. I have found that treatment with the polyamine analog <i>N</i><sup>1</sup>,<i>N</i><sup>11</sup>-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) also caused a prolongation of the S phase. The common denominator for DFMO, CGP 48664, or DENSPM treatment is a depletion of the cellular spermidine pool. CGP 48664 and DENSPM in addition deplete the spermine pool. CGP 48664 or DENSPM treatment prolonged the S phase more than did DFMO treatment. Thus, mainly spermine but also ...
Burkitts lymphoma (BL) cell lines carry a translocated c-myc gene and, in 60-80% of cases, exhibit mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. We examined the potential role of the p53 gene in BL tumorigenicity using an in vitro assay that measures p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and an in vivo athymic murine model that detects differences in the tumorigenicity of BL cell lines. A highly significant inverse correlation was found between the ability of BL cells to arrest in G1 after irradiation and their tumorigenicity in athymic mice, consistent with the notion that loss of p53 function is associated with increased tumorigenicity. Inactivation of wild-type (wt) p53 function by expression of the human papillomavirus E6 protein in the AG876V BL cell line, which carries both wt and mutant p53 proteins, rendered the cell line ...
The transcription factor DRTF1/E2F is implicated in the control of cellular proliferation due to its interaction with key regulators of cell cycle progression, such as the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor gene product and related pocket proteins, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. DRTF1/E2F DNA binding activity arises when a member of two distinct ... read more families of proteins, DP and E2F, interact as DP/E2F heterodimers. Here, we report the isolation and characterisation of a new member of the E2F family of proteins, called E2F-5. E2F-5 was isolated through a yeast two hybrid assay in which a 14.5 d.p.c. mouse embryo library was screened for molecules capable of binding to murine DP-1, but also interacts with all known members of the DP family of proteins. E2F-5 exists as a physiological heterodimer with DP-1 in the generic DRTF1/E2F DNA binding activity present in mammalian cell extracts, an ...

Forkhead box transcription factor 1: role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy - topic of research paper in Basic...Forkhead box transcription factor 1: role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy - topic of research paper in Basic...

AFX-like forkhead transcription factors mediate cell-cycle regulation by Ras and PKB through p27kip1. Nature. 2000;404(6779): ... regulation of metabolism [58], cell cycle [64], and cell death [65]. Fetal development of heart obliges cell development and ... Forkhead box transcription factor 1 is a pleiotropic transcription factor that plays a pivotal role in a variety of ... The forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 links insulin signaling to PDX1 regulation of pancreatic beta cell growth. J Clin ...
more infohttps://cyberleninka.org/article/n/535013

The multiple roles of microRNA-155 in oncogenesis | Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics | Full TextThe multiple roles of microRNA-155 in oncogenesis | Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics | Full Text

... cell cycle progression, and developmental events, HDAC4 alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to ... a transcription activator for miR-143). Therefore, upregulation of miR-155 led to miR-143 repression and HK2 up-regulation. ... It down-regulates BCL6 (B-cell lymphoma 6) protein [8], which is an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcription factor ... Cell. 2009, 136 (2): 215-233. 10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.002.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ...
more infohttps://jclinbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2043-9113-3-17

Identification of cell cycle-regulated genes periodically expressed in U2OS cells and their regulation by FOXM1 and E2F...Identification of cell cycle-regulated genes periodically expressed in U2OS cells and their regulation by FOXM1 and E2F...

Mol Biol Cell. 2013 Dec;24(23):3634-50. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E13-05-0264. Epub 2013 Oct 9. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; ... Transcription factor binding as a function of cell cycle phase. (A) Enrichment of transcription factor targets using a sliding ... a set of core cell cycle genes regulated in both U2OS and HeLa cells are bound by multiple cell cycle transcription factors. ... of cell cycle-regulated genes periodically expressed in U2OS cells and their regulation by FOXM1 and E2F transcription factors. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24109597

Cell cycle regulation of the E2F transcription factor involves an interaction with cyclin A<...Cell cycle regulation of the E2F transcription factor involves an interaction with cyclin A<...

Cell cycle regulation of the E2F transcription factor involves an interaction with cyclin A. Cell. 1991 Jun 28;65(7):1243-1253 ... Cell cycle regulation of the E2F transcription factor involves an interaction with cyclin A, Cell, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 1243- ... Cell cycle regulation of the E2F transcription factor involves an interaction with cyclin A. In: Cell. 1991 ; Vol. 65, No. 7. ... Cell cycle regulation of the E2F transcription factor involves an interaction with cyclin A. / Mudryj, Maria; Devoto, Stephen H ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/cell-cycle-regulation-of-the-e2f-transcription-factor-involves-an

The Candida albicans transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulation<...The Candida albicans transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulation<...

The Candida albicans transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulation. Nature ... The Candida albicans transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulation. / Xie, ... The Candida albicans transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulation. © The ... The Candida albicans transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulation. ...
more infohttps://abdn.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/the-candida-albicans-transcription-factor-cas5-couples-stress-res

The Candida albicans transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulationThe Candida albicans transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulation

... ... The Candida albicans transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulation Nature ... is not included in the articles Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or ...
more infohttp://aura.abdn.ac.uk/handle/2164/9442

The DOF transcription factor OBP1 is involved in cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana :: MPG.PuRe
				The DOF transcription factor OBP1 is involved in cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana :: MPG.PuRe

The DOF transcription factor OBP1 is involved in cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana ... cell cycle,br/,dof transcription factor,br/,arabidopsis,br/,obp1,br/,d-type cyclin,br/,genome-wide analysis,br/,retinoblastoma- ... 2008). The DOF transcription factor OBP1 is involved in cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. The Plant Journal, 56(5 ... The DOF transcription factor OBP1 is involved in cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana ...
more infohttp://pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/faces/viewItemOverviewPage.jsp?itemId=escidoc:1815664

Novel insights into cell cycle regulation of cell fate determination | SpringerLinkNovel insights into cell cycle regulation of cell fate determination | SpringerLink

The stem/progenitor cell has long been regarded as a central cell type in development, homeostasis, and regeneration, largely ... Cell-cycle control of developmentally regulated transcription factors accounts for heterogeneity in human pluripotent cells. ... Extensive studies have demonstrated that cell cycle states determine cell fates, because cells in different cell cycle states ... and cell cycle reporter systems have provided novel insights into the cell cycle regulation of cell fate determination. Here, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1631%2Fjzus.B1900197

The modular mechanism of chromocenter formation in Drosophila | eLifeThe modular mechanism of chromocenter formation in Drosophila | eLife

Cell biological study reveals the mechanism by which multiple satellite-DNA-binding proteins cooperate to form chromocenter to ... Dynamic regulation of chromatin accessibility by pluripotency transcription factors across the cell cycle ... control imaginal disc cells - 0%, n = 161, prod mutant imaginal disc cells - 1.9%, n = 159, control lymph gland cells - 0.7%, n ... Regulation of zygotic gene expression in Drosophila primordial germ cells * M Van Doren ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/43938

KAKEN - Research Projects | SUMOylation is involved in the regulation of cell cycle check point (KAKENHI-PROJECT-25440134)KAKEN - Research Projects | SUMOylation is involved in the regulation of cell cycle check point (KAKENHI-PROJECT-25440134)

Presentation] Interaction between plant and nematode through WOX transcription factors.2016. *. Author(s). 金丸由実,Thi Ngan Bui,中上 ... In this study, we analyzed cell cycle regulation of plant cell, especially focusing on the chromosome check point proteins. ... SUMOylation is involved in the regulation of cell cycle check point. Research Project ... Presentation] The Anaphase-Promoting Complex/ Cyclosome Regulates Microtubule Structures through the Cell Cycle2014. *. Author( ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/en/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-25440134/

nature.com searchnature.com search

The Candida albicans transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulation *Jinglin L. ... transcription factor Cas5 couples stress responses, drug resistance and cell cycle regulation . Opens in a new window. ... A high-throughput assay of yeast cell lysis for drug discovery and genetic analysis *Louis DiDone ... Rights & permissionsfor article A high-throughput assay of yeast cell lysis for drug discovery and genetic analysis . Opens in ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/search?author=%22Damian%20J.%20Krysan%22&error=cookies_not_supported&code=4ce18089-54ef-4081-b365-be91c693d839

Rchy1 - RING finger and CHY zinc finger domain-containing protein 1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Rchy1 gene & proteinRchy1 - RING finger and CHY zinc finger domain-containing protein 1 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Rchy1 gene & protein

Monoubiquitinates the translesion DNA polymerase POLH (By similarity). Contributes to the regulation of the cell cycle ... Increases AR transcription factor activity. Monoubiquitinates the translesion DNA polymerase POLH (By similarity). Contributes ... to the regulation of the cell cycle progression.By similarity1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information for which there is ... positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process Source: UniProtKB. *positive regulation of ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q9CR50

Biomedicines  | Free Full-Text | Decoding the Pluripotency Network: The Emergence of  New Transcription Factors | HTMLBiomedicines | Free Full-Text | Decoding the Pluripotency Network: The Emergence of New Transcription Factors | HTML

Among the various regulations that orchestrate the cellular pluripotency program, transcriptional regulation is situated in the ... have been conducted to dissect the pluripotency network that governs the ability of these cells to differentiate into all cell ... In this review, we would like to summarize the recent advancements in the accumulating findings of new transcription factors ... Beside the core Oct4-Sox2-Nanog circuitry, accumulating regulators, including transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers, ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2227-9059/1/1/49/htm

RCHY1 Gene - GeneCards | ZN363 Protein | ZN363 AntibodyRCHY1 Gene - GeneCards | ZN363 Protein | ZN363 Antibody

Contributes to the regulation of the cell cycle progression. Increases AR transcription factor activity. *ZN363_HUMAN,Q96PM5 ... Contributes to the regulation of the cell cycle progression. Increases AR transcription factor activity. ... No data available for Human Phenotype Ontology , Transcription Factor Targets and HOMER Transcription for RCHY1 Gene ... Binding Sites for Transcription Factors within promoters. ENSR00000169398. 664. 2601. HDGF PKNOX1 MLX ARNT ZFP64 ARID4B SIN3A ...
more infohttp://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=RCHY1

HDAC4 histone deacetylase 4 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBIHDAC4 histone deacetylase 4 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI

negative regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IMP Inferred from Mutant Phenotype. more info ... Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone ... positive regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity IMP Inferred from Mutant Phenotype. more info ... negative regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/9759

Toxins  | Free Full-Text | Current Understanding on Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Future Perspective in Reducing Aflatoxin...Toxins | Free Full-Text | Current Understanding on Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Future Perspective in Reducing Aflatoxin...

The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of ... have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation ... The p53 gene encodes a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation. It is commonly mutated in human liver cancers [ ... The Aspergillus PacC zinc finger transcription factor mediates regulation of both acid- and alkaline expressed genes by ambient ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/4/11/1024/htm

Professor Donald Fraser - People - Cardiff UniversityProfessor Donald Fraser - People - Cardiff University

Independent regulation of transforming growth factor-beta1 transcription and translation by glucose and platelet-derived growth ... Acute kidney injury: a paradigm for miRNA regulation of the cell cycle. Biochemical Society Transactions 42(4), pp. 1219-1223 ... Independent regulation of transforming growth factor-beta1 transcription and translation by glucose and platelet-derived growth ... Acute kidney injury: a paradigm for miRNA regulation of the cell cycle. Biochemical Society Transactions 42(4), pp. 1219-1223 ...
more infohttps://www.cardiff.ac.uk/people/view/78692-fraser-donald

FOXO1 Plays an Important Role in Enhanced Microvascular Cell Apoptosis and Microvascular Cell Loss in Type 1 and Type 2...FOXO1 Plays an Important Role in Enhanced Microvascular Cell Apoptosis and Microvascular Cell Loss in Type 1 and Type 2...

FOXO transcription factors in cell-cycle regulation and the response to oxidative stress. Antioxid Redox Signal 5-6: 752- 760, ... a forkhead transcription factor that regulates cell death, inhibits cell cycle progression, and modulates differentiation in ... The forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 regulates adipocyte differentiation. Dev Cell 4: 119- 129, 2003. ... Angiopoietin-1 modulates endothelial cell function and gene expression via the transcription factor FKHR (FOXO1). Genes Dev 18 ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/58/4/917?cited-by=yes&legid=diabetes%3B58%2F4%2F917

Frontiers | Pathways that Regulate ROS Scavenging Enzymes, and Their Role in Defense Against Tissue Destruction in...Frontiers | Pathways that Regulate ROS Scavenging Enzymes, and Their Role in Defense Against Tissue Destruction in...

... can interfere with cell growth and cell cycle progression, and induce apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts. Collectively, these ... can interfere with cell growth and cell cycle progression, and induce apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts. Collectively, these ... Cells have several protective mechanisms to manage such oxidative stress, most of which involve production of cytoprotective ... and can thus also play an indirect role in bone destruction.Cells have several protective mechanisms to manage such oxidative ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2017.00351/full

Frontiers | Function and regulation of transcription factors involved in root apical meristem and stem cell maintenance | Plant...Frontiers | Function and regulation of transcription factors involved in root apical meristem and stem cell maintenance | Plant...

... we give a comprehensive overview about the function and regulation of specific transcription factors controlling stem cell fate ... we give a comprehensive overview about the function and regulation of specific transcription factors controlling stem cell fate ... subcellular translocations and cell-to-cell movement functioning as another level of regulation. ... subcellular translocations and cell-to-cell movement functioning as another level of regulation. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2015.00505/full

prmt2 - Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 2 - Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) - prmt2 gene & proteinprmt2 - Protein arginine N-methyltransferase 2 - Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) - prmt2 gene & protein

Involved in growth regulation. Involved in embryonic dorsal development. ... negative regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity Source: UniProtKB. *negative regulation of transcription, DNA- ... negative regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle Source: UniProtKB ... negative regulation of DNA-binding transcription factor activity Source: UniProtKB. * ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/B3DLB3

Disruption of forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) family members in mice reveals their functional diversification | PNASDisruption of forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) family members in mice reveals their functional diversification | PNAS

Whether Foxo6 participates in the regulation of cell cycle, apoptosis, metabolism, and stress responses is not yet known. ... granulosa cell, and thecal cell in the follicle at early stages. Extragonadal factors regulate granulosa cell and thecal cell ... Ovarian follicular development is regulated by intragonadal factors and extragonadal factors (26). Intragonadal factors ... Disruption of forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) family members in mice reveals their functional diversification. Taisuke ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/101/9/2975?ijkey=41c3eace29e1ed0caebc31e5f6602520046bd23e&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Cell Senescence in Myxoid/Round Cell LiposarcomaCell Senescence in Myxoid/Round Cell Liposarcoma

RB1 and RBL2 are important control hubs for cell cycle regulation and proliferation driving transcription factors. RB1 is ... Forced FUS-DDIT3 expression caused cell death and senescence in most cell types and only very few cells in permissive cell ... RB1 and RBL2 proteins are central factors involved in growth regulation and entry/maintenance of cell senescence. RB1 is ... Our previous analysis of cell cycle regulator expression in MLS/RCLS suggested that a majority of the tumor cells were arrested ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2014/208786/

Retinoblastoma-associated protein (IPR033057) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIRetinoblastoma-associated protein (IPR033057) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

GO:2000134 negative regulation of G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle GO:0008285 negative regulation of cell proliferation GO ... 0045892 negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Molecular Function. GO:0008134 transcription factor binding ... RB also plays roles in the cell cycle, maintenance of genome stability and apoptosis [PMID: 23594950]. ... Eliminating RB function has been shown to allow unregulated cell cycle progression and promotes tumour growth. ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR033057

Cancers  | Free Full-Text | The Complex Relationship between Liver Cancer and the Cell Cycle: A Story of Multiple Regulations |...Cancers | Free Full-Text | The Complex Relationship between Liver Cancer and the Cell Cycle: A Story of Multiple Regulations |...

In this review, we focus on the mechanisms underlying the lack of regulation of the cell cycle during liver cancer, focusing ... At the molecular level, liver cancer is characterized by a disruption of cell cycle regulation through many molecular ... We also provide a brief summary of novel therapies connected to cell cycle regulation. ... The process of liver cancer development, although poorly understood, is related to different etiologic factors like toxins, ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/2072-6694/6/1/79/htm
  • The BIC gene is activated by promoter insertion at a retroviral integration site on chromosome 21q21 in B cell lymphomas induced by avian leukosis virus. (biomedcentral.com)
more