UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.
Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.
A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
An enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of proline residues within proteins. EC 5.2.1.8.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Trans-acting protein that combines with host factors to induce immediate early gene transcription in herpes simplex virus.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
A DNA-directed RNA polymerase found in BACTERIA. It is a holoenzyme that consists of multiple subunits including sigma factor 54.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A family of transcription factors containing SH2 DOMAINS that are involved in CYTOKINE-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. STAT transcription factors are recruited to the cytoplasmic region of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and are activated via PHOSPHORYLATION. Once activated they dimerize and translocate into the CELL NUCLEUS where they influence GENE expression. They play a role in regulating CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. STAT transcription factors are inhibited by SUPPRESSOR OF CYTOKINE SIGNALING PROTEINS and PROTEIN INHIBITORS OF ACTIVATED STAT.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The major protein constituents of milk are CASEINS and whey proteins such as LACTALBUMIN and LACTOGLOBULINS. IMMUNOGLOBULINS occur in high concentrations in COLOSTRUM and in relatively lower concentrations in milk. (Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p554)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
A large protein complex which acts as a signaling adaptor protein that allows communication between the various regulatory and functional components of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION including DNA POLYMERASE II; GENERAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are bound to upstream ENHANCER ELEMENTS. The mediator complex was originally studied in YEAST where at least 21 subunits were identified. Many of the yeast subunits are homologs to proteins in higher organisms that are found associated with specific nuclear receptors such as THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A class of nongenotoxic CARCINOGENS that induce the production of hepatic PEROXISOMES and induce hepatic neoplasms after long-term administration.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Large collections of small molecules (molecular weight about 600 or less), of similar or diverse nature which are used for high-throughput screening analysis of the gene function, protein interaction, cellular processing, biochemical pathways, or other chemical interactions.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A non-peptide, kappa-opioid receptor agonist which has also been found to stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropin (ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE) via the release of hypothalamic arginine vasopressin (ARGININE VASOPRESSIN) and CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;280(1):416-21)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A family of structurally related proteins that are induced by CYTOKINES and negatively regulate cytokine-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. SOCS proteins contain a central SH2 DOMAIN and a C-terminal region of homology known as the SOCS box.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A fibric acid derivative used in the treatment of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III and severe HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p986)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
An antilipemic agent which reduces both CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An imidazole derivative which is a metabolite of the antineoplastic agents BIC and DIC. By itself, or as the ribonucleotide, it is used as a condensation agent in the preparation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Compounded with orotic acid, it is used to treat liver diseases.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Diseases of the bones related to hyperfunction or hypofunction of the endocrine glands.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from a broad variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (1/23571)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (2/23571)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

A Drosophila doublesex-related gene, terra, is involved in somitogenesis in vertebrates. (3/23571)

The Drosophila doublesex (dsx) gene encodes a transcription factor that mediates sex determination. We describe the characterization of a novel zebrafish zinc-finger gene, terra, which contains a DNA binding domain similar to that of the Drosophila dsx gene. However, unlike dsx, terra is transiently expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and newly formed somites. Expression of terra in presomitic mesoderm is restricted to cells that lack expression of MyoD. In vivo, terra expression is reduced by hedgehog but enhanced by BMP signals. Overexpression of terra induces rapid apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that a tight regulation of terra expression is required during embryogenesis. Terra has both human and mouse homologs and is specifically expressed in mouse somites. Taken together, our findings suggest that terra is a highly conserved protein that plays specific roles in early somitogenesis of vertebrates.  (+info)

Membrane-tethered Drosophila Armadillo cannot transduce Wingless signal on its own. (4/23571)

Drosophila Armadillo and its vertebrate homolog beta-catenin are key effectors of Wingless/Wnt signaling. In the current model, Wingless/Wnt signal stabilizes Armadillo/beta-catenin, which then accumulates in nuclei and binds TCF/LEF family proteins, forming bipartite transcription factors which activate transcription of Wingless/Wnt responsive genes. This model was recently challenged. Overexpression in Xenopus of membrane-tethered beta-catenin or its paralog plakoglobin activates Wnt signaling, suggesting that nuclear localization of Armadillo/beta-catenin is not essential for signaling. Tethered plakoglobin or beta-catenin might signal on their own or might act indirectly by elevating levels of endogenous beta-catenin. We tested these hypotheses in Drosophila by removing endogenous Armadillo. We generated a series of mutant Armadillo proteins with altered intracellular localizations, and expressed these in wild-type and armadillo mutant backgrounds. We found that membrane-tethered Armadillo cannot signal on its own; however it can function in adherens junctions. We also created mutant forms of Armadillo carrying heterologous nuclear localization or nuclear export signals. Although these signals alter the subcellular localization of Arm when overexpressed in Xenopus, in Drosophila they have little effect on localization and only subtle effects on signaling. This supports a model in which Armadillo's nuclear localization is key for signaling, but in which Armadillo intracellular localization is controlled by the availability and affinity of its binding partners.  (+info)

Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex. (5/23571)

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

Identification of sonic hedgehog as a candidate gene responsible for the polydactylous mouse mutant Sasquatch. (6/23571)

The mouse mutants of the hemimelia-luxate group (lx, lu, lst, Dh, Xt, and the more recently identified Hx, Xpl and Rim4; [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]) have in common preaxial polydactyly and longbone abnormalities. Associated with the duplication of digits are changes in the regulation of development of the anterior limb bud resulting in ectopic expression of signalling components such as Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (Fgf4), but little is known about the molecular causes of this misregulation. We generated, by a transgene insertion event, a new member of this group of mutants, Sasquatch (Ssq), which disrupted aspects of both anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) patterning. The mutant displayed preaxial polydactyly in the hindlimbs of heterozygous embryos, and in both hindlimbs and forelimbs of homozygotes. The Shh, Fgf4, Fgf8, Hoxd12 and Hoxd13 genes were all ectopically expressed in the anterior region of affected limb buds. The insertion site was found to lie close to the Shh locus. Furthermore, expression from the transgene reporter has come under the control of a regulatory element that directs a pattern mirroring the endogenous expression pattern of Shh in limbs. In abnormal limbs, both Shh and the reporter were ectopically induced in the anterior region, whereas in normal limbs the reporter and Shh were restricted to the zone of polarising activity (ZPA). These data strongly suggest that Ssq is caused by direct interference with the cis regulation of the Shh gene.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (7/23571)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through SP1-binding sites. (8/23571)

B-MYB is an ubiquitous protein required for mammalian cell growth. In this report we show that B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through a 120 bp segment proximal to the transcription start site. The B-MYB-responsive element does not contain myb-binding sites and gel-shift analysis shows that SP1, but not B-MYB, protein contained in SAOS2 cell extracts binds to the 120 bp B-myb promoter fragment. B-MYB-dependent transactivation is cooperatively increased in the presence of SP1, but not SP3 overexpression. When the SP1 elements of the B-myb promoter are transferred in front of a heterologous promoter, an increased response to B-MYB results. In contrast, c-MYB, the prototype member of the Myb family, is not able to activate the luciferase construct containing the SP1 elements. With the use of an SP1-GAL4 fusion protein, we have determined that the cooperative activation occurs through the domain A of SP1. These observations suggest that B-MYB functions as a coactivator of SP1, and that diverse combinations of myb and SP1 sites may dictate the responsiveness of myb-target genes to the various members of the myb family.  (+info)

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex trait in which alleles at or near the class II loci HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 contribute significantly to genetic risk. The MHC class II transactivator (MHC2TA) is the master controller of expression of class II genes, and methylation of the promoter of this gene has been previously been shown to alter its function. In this study we sought to assess whether or not methylation of the MHC2TA promoter pIV could contribute to MS disease aetiology. METHODS: In DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a sample of 50 monozygotic disease discordant MS twins the MHC2TA promoter IV was sequenced and analysed by methylation specific PCR. RESULTS: No methylation or sequence variation of the MHC2TA promoter pIV was found. CONCLUSION: The results of this study cannot support the notion that methylation of the pIV promoter of MHC2TA contributes to MS disease risk, although tissue and timing specific epigenetic modifications cannot be ruled out.
STAT3 antibody (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor)) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-STAT3 pAb (GTX50709) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
STAT5A (phospho Tyr694) antibody [5F6.F1] (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A) for ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-STAT5A (phospho Tyr694) mAb (GTX48647) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Lapin STAT1 Polyclonal anticorps pTyr701 pour ELISA, WB. Publier en 3 références Pubmed. Order anti-STAT1 anticorps ABIN539531.
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-STAT6 antibody (ab88540) : Western blot protocols, Immunocytochemistry & immunofluorescence protocols
anti-STAT2, pAb is a polyclonal antibody that crossreacts with human protein. Works in WB. Important for Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, ROS, Immunology research.
Anti-STAT3 (phospho Y705) antibody [EP2147Y] (ab76315) has been cited in 56 publications. References for Human, Mouse, Rat in IHC, IHC-Fr, IHC-P, WB
引用Abcams Anti-STAT1 (phospho S727)抗体(ab4742)的参考文献列表。为您列举引用本产品的发表文章,并提供信息包括论文文献数据库中的检索编号以便您搜寻文章
优异的STAT3兔单抗(ab76315)经WB, IP, IHC-P, ICC实验严格验证,可用于小鼠, 大鼠和人。被多篇文献引用并有多个独立的用户反馈。中国75%以上现货。
Polyclonal antibody for STAT1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. STAT1 information: Molecular Weight: 87335 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cytoplasm . Nucleus . Translocated into the nucleus upon tyr
Polyclonal antibody for STAT2 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. STAT2 information: Molecular Weight: 97916 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Translocated into the nucleus upon activ
Monoklonale und polyklonale STAT5B Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für STAT5B Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
Mouse monoclonal STAT1 antibody [SM1] validated for WB, IP, IHC, Flow Cyt and tested in Human and Mouse. Referenced in 5 publications and 3 independent…
高い抗原親和性、特異性と安定した品質を兼ね備えたアブカムのウサギ・モノクローナル抗体 RabMAb® ab109320 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,IP,IHC-P,ICC,Flow Cyt
Looking for online definition of haematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 in the Medical Dictionary? haematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 explanation free. What is haematopoietic transcription factor PU.1? Meaning of haematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 medical term. What does haematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 mean?
Hepatitis B virus X protein targets the Bcl-2 protein CED-9 to induce intracellular Ca2+ increase and cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans Journal Article ...
The mammalian hepadnaviruses encode an HBx protein that may function as a weak transactivator of a variety of viral and cellular promoter and enhancer elements. In addition, the ability of HBx to alter signaling pathways involved in cellular growth and differentiation as well as apoptosis has led to the hypothesis that continuous low-level HBx expression due to persistent viral infection of the liver may contribute to the development of HCC. However, the biologic function(s) of HBx during natural HBV infection is not known. The HBx protein structure does not contain a defined DNA binding motif, nuclear localization signal, or any other protein domains that yield clues to its cellular localization or function in virus-infected hepatocytes. Studies of the molecular mechanism(s) by which HBx functions with respect to modulation of viral replication have been hindered by the fact that HBx expression occurs at very low levels in naturally HBV infected hepatocytes as well as in HCC cells transfected ...
Class II transactivator (CIITA) is a global transcriptional coactivator of human leukocyte antigen-D (HLA-D) genes. CIITA contains motifs similar to guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins. This report shows that CIITA binds GTP, and mutations in these motifs decrease its GTP-binding and transactivation activity. Substitution of these motifs with analogous sequences from Ras restores CIITA function. CIITA exhibits little GTPase activity, yet mutations in CIITA that confer GTPase activity reduce transcriptional activity. GTP binding by CIITA correlates with nuclear import. Thus, unlike other GTP-binding proteins, CIITA is involved in transcriptional activation that uses GTP binding to facilitate its own nuclear import. ...
insulin promoter factor 1: PDX-1/IPF1/STF-1/IDX-1/IUF-1 is a homeodomain containing transcription factor; found in pancreatic beta-cells; RIPE3b1 was cloned and identified as the mammalian homologue of an avian regulator of cellular differentiation MafA/L-Maf; amino acid sequence in first source; RerSeq NM_008814 (mouse), NM_013311 (human), NM_022852
Please help populate SUNScholar with the full text of SU research output. Also - should you need this item urgently, please snd us the details and we will try to get hold of the full text as quick possible. E-mail to [email protected] Thank you.. ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Stat4 (phospho Tyr693) antibody (STJ90753). From Abcams OEM supplier St Johns Laboratory, validated in WB, IHC, ELISA. AntibodyPlus provides trial size antibody samples for antibody validation. Replacement to Abcam, Santa Cruz, Sigma and CST antibody.
The transcription factor PU.1 is often impaired in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we used AML cells that already had low PU.1 levels and further inhibited PU.1 using either RNA interference or, to our knowledge, first-in-class small-molecule inhibitors of PU.1 that we developed specifically to allosterically interfere with PU.1-chromatin binding through interaction with the DNA minor groove that flanks PU.1-binding motifs. These small molecules of the heterocyclic diamidine family disrupted the interaction of PU.1 with target gene promoters and led to downregulation of canonical PU.1 transcriptional targets. shRNA or small-molecule inhibition of PU.1 in AML cells from either PU.1lo mutant mice or human patients with AML-inhibited cell growth and clonogenicity and induced apoptosis. In murine and human AML (xeno)transplantation models, treatment with our PU.1 inhibitors decreased tumor burden and resulted in increased survival. Thus, our study provides proof of concept that ...
Abstract. Abstract 2333The gene locus BX648577 (FLJ27352/hypothetical LOC145788) was recently identified as part of a gene fusion with Class II Transactivator (
RBMS1 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of R binding motif, single stranded interacting protein 1 (RBMS1), transcript variant 2
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - MHC class II transactivator represses human IL-4 gene transcription by interruption of promoter binding with CBP/p300, STAT6 and NFAT1 via histone hypoacetylation. AU - Zhou, Xiaorong. AU - Jiang, Yang. AU - Lu, Liming. AU - Ding, Qing. AU - Jiao, Zhijun. AU - Zhou, Yun. AU - Xin, Lijun. AU - Chou, Kuang Yen. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - In addition to its property of enhancing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, the class II transactivator (CIITA) was recently demonstrated to be involved in T helper type 1/type 2 (Th1/Th2) differentiation by regulating interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene transcription. There was however, controversy regarding whether CIITA promotes or suppresses IL-4 expression in the experiments with transgenic mice. To clarify the discrepancy by using simpler experimental systems, human Jurkat T cells that express IL-4 but not interferon-γ, even if stimulated with phorbol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein (Pdx-1) interacts with histone deacetylases Hdac-1 and Hdac-2 on low levels of glucose. AU - Mosley, Amber L.. AU - Özcan, Sabire. PY - 2004/12/24. Y1 - 2004/12/24. N2 - We have previously demonstrated that high concentrations of glucose stimulate insulin gene expression by causing hyperacetylation of histone H4 at the insulin gene promoter. Furthermore, we have shown that the glucose-mediated hyperacetylation of histone H4 depends on the recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase p300 by the beta cell-specific transcription factor Pdx-1. In this study, we demonstrate that the histone deacetylases Hdac-1 and Hdac-2 are rapidly recruited to the insulin promoter in the mouse insulinoma cell line MIN6 when cells are switched from high to low glucose media. Moreover, we demonstrate that the beta cell-specific homeodomain protein Pdx-1 interacts with histone deacetylases Hdac-1 and Hdac-2 at low levels of glucose. In vitro studies indicate ...
The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) in the regulation of HBV replication remains controversial. In the present study, the role of HBx in regulating HBV replication was initially investigated in both HepG2 and Huh7 in vitro cell lines with a transient transfection system. Next, the regions of HBx responsible for transcriptional transactivation and promotion of HBV replication were mapped in an HBV replication mouse model by in vivo transfection of a series of HBx expression plasmids. In an in vitro setting, HBx deficiency had little effect on HBV replication in Huh7 cells, but impaired HBV replication in HepG2 cells. In an in vivo setting, HBx had a strong enhancing effect on HBV transcription and replication. For the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein (amino acids [aa] 51 to 154) was required for this function of HBx, and the regions spanning aa 52 to 72 and 88 to 154 were found to be important for the stimulatory function of HBx on HBV replication. In conclusion, the role of HBx in
The role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) in the regulation of HBV replication remains controversial. In the present study, the role of HBx in regulating HBV replication was initially investigated in both HepG2 and Huh7 in vitro cell lines with a transient transfection system. Next, the regions of HBx responsible for transcriptional transactivation and promotion of HBV replication were mapped in an HBV replication mouse model by in vivo transfection of a series of HBx expression plasmids. In an in vitro setting, HBx deficiency had little effect on HBV replication in Huh7 cells, but impaired HBV replication in HepG2 cells. In an in vivo setting, HBx had a strong enhancing effect on HBV transcription and replication. For the C-terminal two-thirds of the protein (amino acids [aa] 51 to 154) was required for this function of HBx, and the regions spanning aa 52 to 72 and 88 to 154 were found to be important for the stimulatory function of HBx on HBV replication. In conclusion, the role of HBx in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of distinct Stat5b binding sites that mediate growth hormone-stimulated IGF-I gene transcription. AU - Chia, Dennis J.. AU - Ono, Mitsuru. AU - Woelfle, Joachim. AU - Schlesinger-Massart, Mylynda. AU - Jiang, Honglin. AU - Rotwein, Peter. PY - 2006/2/10. Y1 - 2006/2/10. N2 - A key agent in the anabolic actions of growth hormone (GH) is insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a 70-amino acid secreted protein with direct effects on somatic growth and tissue maintenance and repair. GH rapidly and potently stimulates IGF-I gene transcription by mechanisms independent of new protein synthesis, and recent studies have linked the transcription factor Stat5b to a regulatory network connecting the activated GH receptor on the cell membrane to the IGF-I gene in the nucleus. Here we analyze two distinct conserved GH response elements in the rat IGF-I locus that contain paired Stat5b sites. Each response element binds Stat5b in vivo in a GH-dependent way, as assessed by ...
The JAK (Janus kinase)/STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, a recently discovered signaling pathway utilized by many cytokines and growth factors, was first elucidated in the context of interferon (IFN) signaling (11). It was later discovered that a large number of cytokines and growth factors, including most if not all of those that act through the cytokine receptor superfamily, activate overlapping sets of STAT family members, often in addition to activating other signaling pathways (11). IFN-γ signaling remains, however, a canonical example (2, 56). IFN-γ binding mediates IFN-γ receptor chain aggregation, which activates two cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases belonging to the JAK family, Jak1 and Jak2, that associate with the cytoplasmic face of the IFN-γ receptor chains. Upon receptor oligomerization, the JAKs phosphorylate each other and Tyr440 of the IFN-γ receptor α chain. Then Stat1, a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor that is a member of the STAT gene ...
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are latent, cytoplasmic transcription factors. Janus kinases (JAKs) and activated CDC42-associated kinase-1 (ACK1/TNK2) catalyse the phosphorylation of STAT1 and the expression of its target genes. Here we demonstrate that catalytically active ACK1 promotes the phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of STAT1 in transformed kidney cells. These processes are associated with STAT1-dependent gene expression and an interaction between endogenous STAT? and ACK1. Moreover, the E3 ubiquitin ligase seven-in-absentia homolog-2 (SIAH2), which targets ACK1 through valine-909 for proteasomal degradation, attenuates the ACK1-STAT1 signalling node. We further show that ACK1 promotes the phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation of STAT3 in cultured cells and that the levels of ACK1 correlate positively with the levels of tyrosine phosphorylated STAT3 in primary lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) cells. Global analysis of ACK1 interaction partners validated the ...
Background: A number of clinical trials using stem/progenitor cell transplantation in ischemic heart diseases are now on-going, however, aging-induced cell dysfunction may impair therapeutic efficacy. We tested the hypothesis that genetic modification of EPCs by sonic hedgehog (Shh), one of the embryonic morphogens, may ameliorate the loss of function in aged EPCs.. Methods and Results: Cultured EPCs were isolated from 3m.o. and 24m.o. mice and cell functions, including cytokine expression, were evaluated by real-time PCR. Proliferation, migration and adhesion activity were significantly decreased and apoptosis was increased in the 24m.o.-EPCs vs. 3m.o.-EPCs. The reduced expression of VEGF, eNOS, and IGF-1 were also observed in the 24m.o.-EPCs. We then evaluated the effect of Shh gene transfer to the 24m.o.-EPCs. Shh gene transfer significantly improved proliferation and anti-apoptosis activities in 24m.o.-EPCs vs. empty vector transfected (EV) 24m.o.-EPCs, up to a similar level of EV ...
Mouse Anti-STAT5B Monoclonal Antibody (1H5) - This product is mouse monoclonal antibody recognizes STAT5B of human. The antibody 1H5 immunoassay techniques such as: IP, MA, WB.
Complete information for CIITA gene (Protein Coding), Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex Transactivator, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
J:117226 Wei K, Che N, Chen F, Myocardin-related transcription factor B is required for normal mouse vascular development and smooth muscle gene expression. Dev Dyn. 2007 Feb;236(2):416-25 ...
[ Hcc Chemistry Lab Manual ] - Boiling And Melting Points Study Questions Lab 3 Bioling And,Full Text Mir 663 Overexpression Induced By Endoplasmic Reticulum,Nuclear Expression Of Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Is Associated
Clone REA272 recognizes the N-terminus of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-α/β (STAT1) antigen, regardless of phosphorylation status. STAT1 is expressed in two alternatively spliced isoforms (91 kDa STAT1α and 84 kDa STAT1β) and clone REA272 recognizes both isoforms. STAT1 expression is found ubiquitously. It is involved in upregulating genes due to a signal by either type I, type II, or type III interferons. In response to interferon γ (IFN-γ) stimulation, the STAT1 subunits become tyrosine-phosphorylated at Y701, and the complex is translocated to the nucleus. STAT1 forms homodimers or heterodimers with STAT3 that bind to the IFN-γ activated sequence promoter element. In response to either IFN-α or IFN-β stimulation, STAT1 forms a heterodimer with STAT2 that can bind the interferon stimulated response promoter element. In either case, binding of the promoter element leads to an increased expression of interferon stimulated genes. Additional information: Clone REA272
The Ets-Related Gene (ERG) belongs to the Ets family of transcription factors and is critically important for maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell population. A chromosomal translocation observed in the majority of human prostate cancers leads to the aberrant overexpression of ERG. We have identified regions flanking the ERG Ets domain responsible for autoinhibition of DNA binding and solved crystal structures of uninhibited, autoinhibited, and DNA-bound ERG. NMR-based measurements of backbone dynamics show that uninhibited ERG undergoes substantial dynamics on the millisecond-to-microsecond timescale but autoinhibited and DNA-bound ERG do not. We propose a mechanism whereby the allosteric basis of ERG autoinhibition is mediated predominantly by the regulation of Ets-domain dynamics with only modest structural changes. Structural and dynamic studies of the transcription factor ERG reveal DNA binding is allosterically autoinhibited.,Regan MC, Horanyi PS, Pryor EE Jr, Sarver JL, Cafiso DS, ...
Targeting of the tetracycline transactivator gene to the BF1 locus. The targeting construct was made by replacing thelacZ sequence in the BF1 targeting vector previously described (Xuan et al., 1995) with the sequence encoding the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) from pUHD 15-1 (Gossen and Bujard, 1992). The SalI site in the tTA sequence was eliminated by mutagenesis. The tTA sequence was inserted between aSalI-ApaI fragment containing the BF1promoter and an EcoRI-KpnI fragment containing an SV40 intron and poly(A) sequence (Hebert and McConnell, 2000). TheSalI-BamHI fragment was then inserted into theSalI-BamHI sites in the pHBL3 plasmid. Linearized targeting vector was electroporated into W9.5 embryonic stem (ES) cells. Targeted ES clones were identified by PCR and Southern blot as previously described. Three correctly targeted clones were injected into blastocysts to generate chimeric mice that were bred with C57/BL6 mice.. Generation and screening of tetO transgenic lines.IRES3lacZ was ...
PTCH1 [ENSP00000332353]. Protein patched homolog 1; Acts as a receptor for sonic hedgehog (SHH), indian hedgehog (IHH) and desert hedgehog (DHH). Associates with the smoothened protein (SMO) to transduce the hedgehogs proteins signal. Seems to have a tumor suppressor function, as inactivation of this protein is probably a necessary, if not sufficient step for tumorigenesis; Belongs to the patched family.. Synonyms: PTCH1, PTCH1p, hPTCH1, A3KBF6, F8VPA3 .... Linkouts: STRING Pharos UniProt OMIM ...
Following the publication of this article [1], the authors found that the primers listed for CREB-binding protein were not correct. This mistake occurred during assembly of the primer table and the authors apologize for this error. This correction does not change the data included in the paper, their interpretation nor the conclusions drawn.
Desert Hedgehog (Dhh) belongs to the highly conserved Hedgehog family of proteins which are involved in multiple developmental processes. Hedgehogs…
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Components of the signaling pathways that lie downstream of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and are required for signaling by the TGF beta superfamily have been poorly defined. The Drosophila gene Mothers against dpp (MAD) and the C. elegans sma genes are implicated in these signaling pathways. We show tha …
Regulation of gene transcription Ub conjugation affects gene transcription because many transcription factors become conjugated to Ub, and transcription activators are degraded by the proteasome [16 ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Signaling.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
cdna chromosome:GRCm38:10:23104763:23349887:-1 gene:ENSMUSG00000010461 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Eya4 description:EYA transcriptional coactivator and phosphatase 4 [Source:MGI Symbol;Acc:MGI:1337104 ...
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Tat stands for "Trans-Activator of Transcription". The protein consists of between 86 and 101 amino acids depending on the ... "Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus tat trans-activator protein". Cell. 55 (6 ... Tat acts by binding to an RNA stem-loop structure, the trans-activating response element (TAR), found at the 5′ ends of nascent ... The basic region is involved in RNA (TAR, trans-activation response element) binding and Tat proteins thus belong to the family ...
Sodroski, JG; Goh WC; Rosen CA; Dayton AI; Terwilliger E; Haseltine WA (1986). "A Second post-Transcriptional Trans-activator ... region of bovine leukemia virus genome encodes a trans-activator protein" (PDF). The EMBO Journal. 5 (10): 2585-2589. doi: ... They named the transactivator tat and the second protein art; the latter was renamed rev. He predicted that drugs that target ... Sodroski, JG; Patarca R; Rosen CR; Wong-Staal F; Haseltine WA (1985). "Location of the Trans-activating Region on the Genome of ...
1996). "The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr transactivator: cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and ... 1996). "Trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein requires the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II". Proc ... Wu-Baer F, Sigman D, Gaynor RB (1995). "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans- ... Marcello A, Zoppé M, Giacca M (2002). "Multiple modes of transcriptional regulation by the HIV-1 Tat transactivator". IUBMB ...
"The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr transactivator: cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and binding to ... Wu-Baer F, Sigman D, Gaynor RB (1995). "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans- ... Okamoto H, Sheline CT, Corden JL, Jones KA, Peterlin BM (1996). "Trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein ... Marcello A, Zoppé M, Giacca M (2002). "Multiple modes of transcriptional regulation by the HIV-1 Tat transactivator". IUBMB ...
"Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 ( ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 regulates the class II transactivator". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (14): 9031-9. doi:10.1074/ ... interacts with signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5a". Mol. Endocrinol. 13 (4): 555-65. doi:10.1210/mend. ...
SREBP1c is a basic helix-loop-helix zipper (bHLHZ) transactivator. This class of transactivators bind to the "E box" sequence ... Filipski KJ, Pfefferkorn JA (August 2014). "A patent review of glucokinase activators and disruptors of the glucokinase-- ... The latter may operate via the FOXO1 transactivator. However, as would be expected given its antagonistic effect on glycogen ... Upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1) is another basic helix-loop-helix zipper (bHLHZ) transactivator. Hepatic nuclear factor 6 ...
"The trans-activator gene of HTLV-III is essential for virus replication". Nature. 320 (6060): 367-371. Bibcode:1986Natur.320.. ... that at the time was presumed to be a transcriptional activator.[citation needed] Fisher's group showed that Ikaros proteins ... Fisher showed that the transactivator gene tat was essential for virus replication, that truncation of the 3' open reading ...
CIITA is a non-DNA-binding co-activator whose expression is tightly controlled by a regulatory region containing three ... "Regulation of MHC class II gene expression by the class II transactivator". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 5 (10): 793-806. doi: ... profile exhibited by MHC class II molecules is a single master regulatory factor known as the class II transactivator (CIITA). ...
"Entrez Gene: RFC2 replication factor C (activator 1) 2, 40kDa". Maruyama T, Farina A, Dey A, Cheong J, Bermudez VP, Tamura T, ... Cujec TP, Cho H, Maldonado E, Meyer J, Reinberg D, Peterlin BM (Apr 1997). "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat ... Chen M, Pan ZQ, Hurwitz J (Apr 1992). "Sequence and expression in Escherichia coli of the 40-kDa subunit of activator 1 ( ... Pan ZQ, Chen M, Hurwitz J (Jan 1993). "The subunits of activator 1 (replication factor C) carry out multiple functions ...
"Entrez Gene: RFC3 replication factor C (activator 1) 3, 38kDa". Maruyama T, Farina A, Dey A, Cheong J, Bermudez VP, Tamura T, ... Cujec TP, Cho H, Maldonado E, Meyer J, Reinberg D, Peterlin BM (Apr 1997). "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat ... also named activator 1, is a protein complex consisting of five distinct subunits of 140, 40, 38, 37, and 36 kDa. This gene ...
The protein acts as an activator of DNA polymerases, binds to the 3' end of primers, and promotes coordinated synthesis of both ... Cujec TP, Cho H, Maldonado E, Meyer J, Reinberg D, Peterlin BM (April 1997). "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator ... "Entrez Gene: RFC1 replication factor C (activator 1) 1, 145kDa". Maruyama T, Farina A, Dey A, Cheong J, Bermudez VP, Tamura T, ...
Cujec TP, Cho H, Maldonado E, Meyer J, Reinberg D, Peterlin BM (1997). "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat ... Liang G, Hai T (1997). "Characterization of human activating transcription factor 4, a transcriptional activator that interacts ... Rowlands JC, McEwan IJ, Gustafsson JA (1996). "Trans-activation by the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon ...
"Entrez Gene: RFC5 replication factor C (activator 1) 5, 36.5kDa". Maruyama T, Farina A, Dey A, Cheong J, Bermudez VP, Tamura T ... Cujec TP, Cho H, Maldonado E, Meyer J, Reinberg D, Peterlin BM (Apr 1997). "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat ... also named activator 1, is a protein complex consisting of five distinct subunits of 140, 40, 38, 37, and 36 kD. This gene ...
Tat acts as a trans-activator during transcription to enhance initiation and elongation. The Rev responsive element acts post- ... Gene regulatory proteins: Tat: main trans-activator Rev: important for synthesis of major viral proteins Accessory proteins: ...
"The type 1 human immunodeficiency virus Tat binding protein is a transcriptional activator belonging to an additional family of ... "A cDNA for a protein that interacts with the human immunodeficiency virus Tat transactivator". Science. 248 (4963): 1650-3. ...
... and characterization of a PA700-dependent activator of the proteasome". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (6): 3112-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.6. ... "A cDNA for a protein that interacts with the human immunodeficiency virus Tat transactivator". Science. 248 (4963): 1650-3. ... "The type 1 human immunodeficiency virus Tat binding protein is a transcriptional activator belonging to an additional family of ...
It also binds to activators and other transcriptional regulators, and these interactions affect the rate of transcription ... "Direct interaction of human TFIID with the HIV-1 transactivator tat". Nature. 367 (6460): 295-9. doi:10.1038/367295a0. PMID ... "The cell cycle regulatory factor TAF1 stimulates ribosomal DNA transcription by binding to the activator UBF". Curr. Biol. 12 ( ...
This gene has also been identified as a co-activator of HIF1A (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha), and, thus, plays a role in ... Marcello A, Zoppé M, Giacca M (2002). "Multiple modes of transcriptional regulation by the HIV-1 Tat transactivator". IUBMB ... This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. EP300 is closely related to ... "Human CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail (CITED) 4, a new member of the CITED family, ...
This particular subunit interacts with the largest TFIID subunit, as well as multiple transcription activators. The protein is ... Rowlands JC, McEwan IJ, Gustafsson JA (September 1996). "Trans-activation by the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl ... "Direct interaction of human TFIID with the HIV-1 transactivator tat". Nature. 367 (6460): 295-9. doi:10.1038/367295a0. PMID ... "Cloning of an intrinsic human TFIID subunit that interacts with multiple transcriptional activators". Science. 267 (5197): 531- ...
"Trans-Activator of Transcription". The protein consists of between 86 and 101 amino acids depending on the subtype.[3] Tat ... "Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus tat trans-activator protein". Cell. 55 (6 ... Selby MJ, Peterlin BM (August 1990). "Trans-activation by HIV-1 Tat via a heterologous RNA binding protein". Cell. 62 (4): 769- ... The basic region is involved in RNA (TAR, trans-activation response element) binding and Tat proteins thus belong to the family ...
Taatjes DJ, Näär AM, Andel F, Nogales E, Tjian R (Feb 2002). "Structure, function, and activator-induced conformations of the ... "The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme". Molecular and Cellular ... "The activator-recruited cofactor/Mediator coactivator subunit ARC92 is a functionally important target of the VP16 ... transcriptional activator". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 101 (8): 2339-44. ...
"The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr transactivator: cooperation with promoter-bound activator domains and binding to ... "Trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein requires the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II". Proc. Natl. ... "Multiple modes of transcriptional regulation by the HIV-1 Tat transactivator". IUBMB Life. 51 (3): 175-81. 2002. doi:10.1080/ ... "Specific binding of RNA polymerase II to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activating region RNA is regulated by cellular ...
1997). „Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ... 2008). „Mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2 regulates the class II transactivator". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 283 (14 ... 1999). „Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) interacts with signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5a ...
transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding. • ربط بروتيني. • RNA binding. ... "Functional interaction between the HIV transactivator Tat and the transcriptional coactivator PC4 in T cells". The Journal of ... transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific binding. • sequence- ... "Yeast SUB1 is a suppressor of TFIIB mutations and has homology to the human co-activator PC4". The EMBO Journal. 15 (8): 1933- ...
... alternative splicing of pre-mRNA transcripts is regulated by a system of trans-acting proteins (activators and repressors) that ... Trans-splicing is a form of splicing that joins two exons that are not within the same RNA transcript.[17] ... For example, a splicing factor that serves as a splicing activator when bound to an intronic enhancer element may serve as a ... "Cis- and trans-splicing of mRNAs mediated by tRNA sequences in eukaryotic cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
... when it was found that the trans-activating transcriptional activator (TAT) from human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) could ...
a b c US patent 6,060,511, Gainer J, "Trans-sodium crocetinate, methods of making and methods of use thereof", issued 2000-05- ... A combination therapy study with tissue plasminogen activator". Brain Research. 1309: 136-145. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2009.10. ... 2006). "Trans sodium crocetinate and diffusion enhancement". The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 110 (37): 18078-18080. doi: ... Trans-crocetin has been found to act as an NMDA receptor antagonist with high affinity, and has been implicated in the ...
8 nm nanocrystalline silver particles were modified by the addition of trans-activating transcriptional activator (TAT), ...
Six half transporters with ATP binding sites on the N terminus and trans-membrane domains at the C terminus make up the ABCG ... SUR is also the binding site for drugs such as sulfonylureas and potassium-channel openers activators such as diazoxide. The ... but these genes do not encode for trans-membrane domains. ABCE consists of only one member, OABP or ABCE1, which is known to ... These domains consist of two trans-membrane (T) domains and two cytosolic (A) domains. The two T domains alternate between an ...
This reagent has led to the development of immobilised catalyst/activator species; where the catalyst/activator is immobilised ... Dalton Trans. 2009, 3129.doi:10.1039/B819621D ... boron is used as an activator or cocatalyst: (C6F5)3B + (C5H5)2 ...
Trans. 22 (2): 427-31. doi:10.1042/bst0220427. PMID 7958339.. *. Zhao Y, Meng XM, Wei YJ, et al. (2003). "Cloning and ...
Kamp, J. V. D.; Mosettig, E. (1936). "Trans- and Cis-As-Octahydrophenanthrene". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 58 (6 ... suffers from the disadvantage that the product is more nucleophilic than the reactant because alkyl groups are activators for ...
"Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke". The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA ... "Penggunaan Trans Cranial Doppler untuk Deteksi Perubahan Hemodinamik Serebral pada Pasien Kritis". Diakses tanggal 3 April 2015 ... Pendarahan yang terjadi kemudian direspon tubuh dengan memproduksi urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Ekspresi MMP-9 ... "Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator alters adhesion molecule expression in the ischemic rat brain". Department of ...
Figure 3. The main mechanism of IL-15 signaling is trans-presentation which is mediated by membrane-bound complex IL-15/IL-15Rα ... which leads to phosphorylation and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and STAT5.[16] Due ... The main mechanism of IL-15 signaling is trans-presentation which is mediated by membrane-bound complex IL-15/IL-15Rα (Figure 3 ... Schluns KS, Stoklasek T, Lefrançois L (August 2005). "The roles of interleukin-15 receptor alpha: trans-presentation, receptor ...
Activators: 3-Methyl-GABA. See also. Receptor/signaling modulators GABA receptor modulators GABAA receptor positive modulators ...
Trans. 31 (Pt 6): 1095-105. doi:10.1042/BST0311095. PMID 14641005.. *^ a b c Lodish, H, Berk A, Matsudaira P, Kaiser CA, ... "Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase and a divalent metal activator". BMC ...
Signaling pathways and trans-autophosphorylation[edit]. Among a number of various molecules, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs ) ... Mutations in the genes encoding them or their potential activators or repressors can affect any number of functions within an ... 3 Signaling pathways and trans-autophosphorylation *3.1 Examples of RTKs which undergo autophosphorylation *3.1.1 Epidermal ... trans autophosphorylation). The latter often occurs when kinase molecules dimerize.[3] In general, the phosphate groups ...
Penemuan penislin selalu dikaitkan dengan ilmuwan Skotlandia, Alexander Fleming pada 1929, walaupun sebenarnya banyak ilmuwan lain yang telah mencatat efek antibakteri sebelum Fleming.[2]. Fleming, dalam laboratoriumnya di Rumah Sakit Santa Maria (kini merupakan salah satu rumah sakit pendidikan di London), mencatat adanya lingkaran hambatan (zona bening) pada pertumbuhan bakteri di piringan kultur Staphylococcus. Fleming menyimpulkan bahwa hambatan itu dikarenakan sebuah subtansi penghambat pertumbuhan dan menghancurkan bakteri. Ia kemudian menumbuhkan sebuah kultur murni dan menemukan Penicillium yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Penicillium chrysogenum. Fleming memberikan istilah "penisilin" untuk menggambarkan hasil filtrasi dari kultur mikrobiologis Penicillium.[2]. Walaupun di tahapan awal ini, penisilin ditemukan efektif melawan bakteri Gram positif dan tidak efektif pada Gram negatif dan jamur. Fleming optimis bahwa penisilin akan menjadi disinfektan yang sangat berguna, berpotensi tinggi ...
The values given in the nutritional labels for total fat, saturated fat, and trans fat do not include those present in mono- ... IP3 stimulates the release of calcium ions from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, whereas DAG is a physiological activator of ... an activator of a subfamily of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) cation channels, TRPC3/6/7. ...
Trans-cycloalkenes (usually cyclooctenes) and other strained alkenes such as oxanorbornadiene react in click reactions with a ... "Direct nitric oxide signal transduction via nitrosylation of iron-sulfur centers in the SoxR transcription activator". Proc. ... A Tetrazine-Alkene reaction between a generalized tetrazine and a strained, trans-cyclooctene ... Like the other reactions of the trans-cyclooctene, ring strain release is a driving force for this reaction. Thus, three- ...
Cytokines produced during innate immune responses are among the activators of adaptive immune responses.[26] Antibodies exert ... "Trans-generational immune priming in honeybees". Proceedings. Biological Sciences. 281 (1785): 20140454. doi:10.1098/rspb. ...
trans-Golgi network. • extracellular region. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • cortical actin cytoskeleton. • Golgi ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ...
Guzey M, Takayama S, Reed JC (December 2000). "BAG1L enhances trans-activation function of the vitamin D receptor". J. Biol. ... between TRAP and SMCC complexes indicates novel pathways for the function of nuclear receptors and diverse mammalian activators ... O receptor pertence á familia dos factores reguladores transcricionais que actúan en trans e mostran unha similitude de ...
Two other naturally occurring 13-HODEs that may accompany the production of 13(S)-HODE are its cis-trans (i.e., 9E,11E) isomers ... far weaker GPR132 activators than 9(S)-HpODE or 9(S)-HODE.[42][43] GPR132 was initially described as a pH sensing receptor; the ... Michael reaction or a glutathione transferase-dependent reaction to form 13-oxo-ODE products containing an 11 trans double ...
trans-Golgi network. • جهاز غولجي. • موصل خلوي. • نظام غشائي داخلي. • peroxisomal membrane. • cell leading edge. • إسقاط عصبون ... phospholipase D activator activity. • nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • ربط أيون المغنسيوم. • GTPase activity. • GDP binding ... "Characterization of the human gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor 1, a guanine nucleotide-binding activator of cholera toxin ... two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (16): 6101-5. 1989. doi:10.1073 ...
Activators of soluble guanylate cyclase[edit]. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the intracellular receptor for NO. As of ... April 2009[update], the sGC activators cinaciguat and riociguat were undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of PAH.[81] ...
Trans. 34 (Pt 5): 633-45. doi:10.1042/BST0340633. PMID 17052168.. *^ a b c d e f Wang Q, Zhang H, Guerrette S, Chen J, Mazurek ... "Collaboration of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and BRCA1 in differential regulation of IFN-gamma ... Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 359 (1441): 123-8. doi:10.1098/rstb.2003.1371. PMC 1693294. PMID 15065664.. ...
Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 355 (1399): 993-1002. doi:10.1098/rstb.2000.0635. PMC 1692797. PMID 11128993.. ... transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activator activity. • neurotrophin TRKA receptor binding. • ephrin receptor ...
Trans. 32 (Pt 2): 326-9. doi:10.1042/BST0320326. PMID 15046600.. *. Hendriks RW, Kersseboom R (2006). "Involvement of SLP-65 ...
Activators. *BKCa-specific: Flufenamic acid. *Meclofenamic acid. *Niflumic acid. *Nimesulide. *Rottlerin (mallotoxin) ... trans-3-ACPBPA. *ZAPA. *Negative modulators: 5α-Dihydroprogesterone. *Bilobalide. *Loreclezole. *Picrotoxin (picrotin, ...
Isomerization of 11-cis-retinal into all-trans-retinal by light induces a conformational change in the protein that activates ...
Transcranial ultrasound is being tested for use in aiding tissue plasminogen activator treatment in stroke sufferers in the ... This includes HIFU, lithotripsy, targeted ultrasound drug delivery, trans-dermal ultrasound drug delivery, ultrasound ...
Regulation of GS only occurs in prokaryotes.[24] GS is subject to reversible covalent modification. Tyr397 of all 12 subunits can undergo adenylylation or deadenylylation by adenylyl transferase (AT), a bifunctional regulatory enzyme.[24] Adenylylation is a post-translational modification involving the covalent attachment of AMP to a protein side chain. Each adenylylation requires an ATP and complete inhibition of GS requires 12 ATP. Deadenylylation by AT involves phosphorolytic removal of the Tyr-linked adenylyl groups as ADP. AT activity is influenced by the regulatory protein that is associated with it: PII, a 44-kD trimer.[24] PII also undergoes post-translational modification by uridylyl transferase, thus PII has two forms. The state of PII dictates the activity of adenylyl transferase. If PII is not uridylylated, then it will take on the PIIA form. The AT:PIIA complex will deactivate GS by adenylylation. If PII is uridylylated, then it will take on the PIID form. The AT:PIID complex will ...
Rhodopsin, for example, uses the conversion of 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal for this purpose. ... The cAMP produced is a second messenger in cellular metabolism and is an allosteric activator of protein kinase A. ... termed activators of G-protein signalling (AGS). Both the ubiquity of these interactions and the importance of Gα vs. Gβγ ...
Sirtuin activators mimic caloric restriction and delay ageing in metazoans». Nature, 430, 7000, 2004, pàg. 686-9. DOI: 10.1038/ ... Trans., 31, Pt 6, 2003, pàg. 1095-105. DOI: 10.1042/BST0311095. PMID: 14641005. ... Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan». Nature, 425, 6954, 2003, pàg. 191-6. DOI: ...
Trans-Activators/metabolism*. *Transcription Factors/genetics. *Transcription Factors/metabolism*. *Tumor Suppressor Proteins/ ... PML promotes MHC class II gene expression by stabilizing the class II transactivator.. Ulbricht T1, Alzrigat M, Horch A, Reuter ... PML promotes MHC class II gene expression by stabilizing the class II transactivator ... PML promotes MHC class II gene expression by stabilizing the class II transactivator ...
2002) Modified GFAP promoter auto-regulates tet-activator expression for increased transactivation and reduced tTA-associated ... The tet-transactivators offer unparalleled control over the onset and duration of transgene expression, but require thorough ... 2006) Expression of the reverse tetracycline-transactivator gene causes emphysema-like changes in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol ... The utility of this system lies in the assumption that the tetracycline transactivator (TTA) acts as an inert control element ...
Trans-Activators/chemistry. *Trans-Activators/genetics. *Trans-Activators/metabolism*. *Transcriptional Activation. *Viral ... nuclear export signal mediates CRM1-independent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the human cytomegalovirus transactivator protein ... nuclear export signal mediates CRM1-independent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the human cytomegalovirus transactivator protein ... nuclear export signal mediates CRM1-independent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the human cytomegalovirus transactivator protein ...
... class II transactivator , MHC class II transactivator-like , MHC class II transactivator , MHC class II transactivator type III ... MHC class II transactivator (LOC710761) Antikörper * class II, major histocompatibility complex, transactivator (ciita) ... MHC class II transactivator (LOC100736732) Antikörper * class II, major histocompatibility complex, transactivator (Ciita) ... class II, major histocompatibility complex, transactivator , class II transactivator-like , ...
Trans-Activators / immunology* * Viral Proteins* Substances * Antibodies, Viral * Antigens, Viral * BZLF1 protein, Herpesvirus ... Among the EBV transactivators, the ZEBRA protein plays a crucial role in switching the virus from a latent to a productive mode ... Detection of anti-Epstein-Barr-virus transactivator (ZEBRA) antibodies in sera from patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma Int ...
"Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 trans-activator specifically binds to a consensus AP-1 site and is related to c-fos.". Farrel P.J., ... sp,P03206,BZLF1_EBVB9 Trans-activator protein BZLF1 OS=Epstein-Barr virus (strain B95-8) OX=10377 GN=BZLF1 PE=1 SV=2 ... "The PKC targeting protein RACK1 interacts with the Epstein-Barr virus activator protein BZLF1.". Baumann M., Gires O., Kolch W. ... "The PKC targeting protein RACK1 interacts with the Epstein-Barr virus activator protein BZLF1.". Baumann M., Gires O., Kolch W. ...
HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ... HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ... HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ... HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene ...
The HTLV-I trans-activator protein Tax can activate the expression of its own long terminal repeat (LTR) and many cellular and ... HTLV-I trans-activator protein, tax, is a trans-repressor of the human beta-polymerase gene Science. 1990 Mar 2;247(4946):1082- ... The HTLV-I trans-activator protein Tax can activate the expression of its own long terminal repeat (LTR) and many cellular and ...
NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA). Microbes Infect. 2012 Jun; 14(6):477-84. ...
Cloning and characterization of a gene whose product is a trans-activator of anthrax toxin synthesis.. I Uchida, J M Hornung, C ... Cloning and characterization of a gene whose product is a trans-activator of anthrax toxin synthesis. ... Cloning and characterization of a gene whose product is a trans-activator of anthrax toxin synthesis. ... Cloning and characterization of a gene whose product is a trans-activator of anthrax toxin synthesis. ...
The Rap1 transactivator was used here as a model to study the architecture of a DNA-bound activator-TFIID-TFIIA complex9. Rap1 ... TFIIA and the transactivator Rap1 cooperate to commit TFIID for transcription initiation. Gabor Papai,1 Manish K. Tripathi,2 ... 3b). Interactions between activators and TFIIA have been described25-28 and in one case TFIIA was shown to be required to ... Direct transactivator-TFIID contacts drive yeast ribosomal protein gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2010;285 in press. [PMC ...
HIV-1 Trans-Activator of Transcription Substitutes for Oxidative Signaling in Activation-Induced T Cell Death. Karsten Gülow, ... HIV-1 Trans-Activator of Transcription Substitutes for Oxidative Signaling in Activation-Induced T Cell Death ... We and others have previously shown that HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) sensitizes T cells toward CD95- ... HIV-1 Trans-Activator of Transcription Substitutes for Oxidative Signaling in Activation-Induced T Cell Death ...
We speculate that the yeast Taf4/Taf12 heterodimer, with at least two independent activator-binding sites (for Rap1 and ... Direct Transactivator-Transcription Factor IID (TFIID) Contacts Drive Yeast Ribosomal Protein Gene Transcription*. Justin H. ... Transactivators are minimally composed of distinct DNA binding domains (DBDs) and activation domains (ADs). Classical studies ... The presence of multiple functional RBDs within TFIID (Taf4, -5, and -12) is reminiscent of activator interactions with SWI/SNF ...
Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain, 4), Authors: Miguel Torres-Martin, Juan Antonio ... functions as a co-activator for transcription factor AP-2.. ... CITED4 (Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp-rich ... Human CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail (CITED) 4, a new member of the CITED family, ... CITED4 163732 Cbp/p300 interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp rich carboxy-terminal domain 4. ...
Trans-Activators, Transcription, Genetic, Transcriptional Activation, Transfection, Tumor Cells, Cultured. Proc. Natl. Acad. ... Specific complex formation between the type II bare lymphocyte syndrome-associated transactivators CIITA and RFX5.. Scholl T, ...
A hierarchy of trans-acting factors modulates translation of an activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces ... A hierarchy of trans-acting factors modulates translation of an activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces ... A hierarchy of trans-acting factors modulates translation of an activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces ... A hierarchy of trans-acting factors modulates translation of an activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces ...
Trans Activator Of Transcription (Tat) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Trans Activator Of ... Home / Trans Activator Of Transcription (Tat) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016. Trans Activator Of Transcription (Tat) - Pipeline ... Trans Activator Of Transcription (Tat) - Products under Development by Stage of Development 7. Trans Activator Of Transcription ... Trans Activator Of Transcription (Tat) - Products under Development by Indication 9. Trans Activator Of Transcription (Tat) - ...
A trans-activator-like structure in RCNMV RNA1 evokes the origin of the trans-activator in RNA2 English version ... A trans-activator-like structure in RCNMV RNA1 evokes the origin of the trans-activator in RNA2 ... Vyšlo v časopise: A trans-activator-like structure in RCNMV RNA1 evokes the origin of the trans-activator in RNA2. PLoS Pathog ... Tatsuta M, Mizumoto H, Kaido M, Mise K, Okuno T. The red clover necrotic mosaic virus RNA2 trans-activator is also a cis-acting ...
Trans-activator of Transcription-mediated Delivery of NEP1-40 Protein into Brain Has a Neuroprotective Effect against Focal ... Trans-activator of Transcription-mediated Delivery of NEP1-40 Protein into Brain Has a Neuroprotective Effect against Focal ... Trans-activator of Transcription-mediated Delivery of NEP1-40 Protein into Brain Has a Neuroprotective Effect against Focal ... Qiang Wang, Xingchun Gou, Lize Xiong, Weilin Jin, Shaoyang Chen, Lichao Hou, Lixian Xu; Trans-activator of Transcription- ...
... function at both cellular and viral promoters and demonstrate that they also can be recruited by an RNA-targeted activator. ... HIV-1 tat transactivator recruits p300 and CREB-binding protein histone acetyltransferases to the viral promoter.. @article{ ... Marzio1998HIV1TT, title={HIV-1 tat transactivator recruits p300 and CREB-binding protein histone acetyltransferases to the ...
Identification of proteins encoded by Epstein-Barr virus trans-activator genes. Journal of virology 63 (2), S. 938-942. ... Specific antisera were generated to characterize Epstein-Barr virus proteins reported to have trans-activating properties. Open ... Specific antisera were generated to characterize Epstein-Barr virus proteins reported to have trans-activating properties. Open ...
Full trans-activation by Dif requires the C-terminal part of the protein. The morphogen dorsal (dl) can also activate the ... We now present evidence that the Dif gene product trans-activates the Drosophila Cecropin A1 gene in co-transfection assays. ... This study establishes that Dif is a sequence-specific transcription factor and is probably a key activator of the immune ... The dorsal-related immunity factor, Dif, is a sequence-specific trans-activator of Drosophila Cecropin gene expression.. @ ...
Trans-activator protein BZLF1 Recombinant Protein-YP_401673.1 (MBS1146552) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant ... Trans-activator protein BZLF1, Recombinant Protein. ★Popular Item★ Also Known As Recombinant Epstein-Barr virus Trans-activator ... BZLF1 recombinant protein :: Trans-activator protein BZLF1 Recombinant Protein. Catalog #. MBS1146552 .mycenter { display: ... 61:3120-3132(1987) Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 trans-activator specifically binds to a consensus AP-1 site and is related to c-fos ...
Trans-Activators/*genetics National Category Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Identifiers. URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva ... Polymorphism in MHC class II transactivator gene is not associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Swedish patients ...
Tat stands for "Trans-Activator of Transcription". The protein consists of between 86 and 101 amino acids depending on the ... "Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus tat trans-activator protein". Cell. 55 (6 ... Tat acts by binding to an RNA stem-loop structure, the trans-activating response element (TAR), found at the 5′ ends of nascent ... The basic region is involved in RNA (TAR, trans-activation response element) binding and Tat proteins thus belong to the family ...
  • Knockdown experiments show that PML is required for efficient IFN-γ-induced MHC II gene transcription through regulation of the class II transactivator (CIITA). (nih.gov)
  • Specific complex formation between the type II bare lymphocyte syndrome-associated transactivators CIITA and RFX5. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in MHC2TA, the gene encoding the MHC class II transactivator (CIITA). (cdc.gov)
  • The MHC class II transactivator (CIITA) is the master regulator for HLA-D (DP, DQ, DR) gene expression. (cdc.gov)
  • In this review, we discuss the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator (CIITA), which is the master regulator of MHC class II gene expression. (cdc.gov)
  • We examined the effect of class II transactivator (CIITA) down-modulation on allograft rejection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genomic mapping of the MHC transactivator CIITA using an integrated ChIP-seq and genetical genomics approach. (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: The master transactivator CIITA is essential to the regulation of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)class II genes and an effective immune response. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Were solve differentially expressed genes associated in trans with a CIITA intronic sequence variant, integrate with CIITA recruitment and show how this is mediated by allele-specific recruitment of NF-kB. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The HTLV-I trans-activator protein Tax can activate the expression of its own long terminal repeat (LTR) and many cellular and viral genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rap1 is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in gene transcription and telomere length regulation, acts both as a repressor or activator on different genes 10 , drives transcription of over 40% of Pol II transcription in yeast, and is essential for transcription of the ribosomal protein genes used here as a model 9 , 11 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Transcription of yeast ribosomal protein genes requires TFIID and the DNA-binding transactivator Rap1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A hierarchy of trans-acting factors modulates translation of an activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (asm.org)
  • Upon infection, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) transcriptional activator VP16 directs the formation of a multiprotein-DNA complex-the VP16-induced complex-with two cellular proteins, the host cell factor HCF-1 and the POU domain transcription factor Oct-1, on TAATGARAT-containing sequences found in the promoters of HSV immediate-early genes. (cshl.edu)
  • The MHC class II transactivator (MHC2TA) is the master controller of expression of class II genes, and methylation of the promoter of this gene has been previously been shown to alter its function. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Activator protein-2 (AP-2) has been implicated as a transactivator of the human and ovine placental lactogen (oPL) genes. (elsevier.com)
  • 61:3120-3132(1987) Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 trans-activator specifically binds to a consensus AP-1 site and is related to c-fos.Farrel P.J., Rowe D.T., Rooney C.M., Kouzarides T.EMBO J. 8:127-132(1989) Structure and function of the Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 protein.Packham G., Economou A., Rooney C.M., Rowe D.T., Farrel P.J.J. Virol. (mybiosource.com)
  • The BZLF1 or zta immediate-early gene of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes a 33-kilodalton phosphorylated nuclear protein that is a specific transcriptional activator of the EBV lytic cycle when introduced into latently infected B lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • The structures of yeast and human TFIID in isolation and in complex with DNA, a subset of general transcription factors, or with activators have been determined using electron microscopy (EM) methods ( 10 , - 17 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MHC2TA functions as a non-DNA-binding co-activator that coordinates multiple events that are required for the activation of transcription including the recruitment of transcription factors and phosphorylation of RNA Polymerase II [ 11 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The system is based on an artificial fusion protein called the tetracycline transactivator (TTA), which combines the DNA- and tetracycline-binding domains of the Escherichia coli Tn10 tetracycline repressor with the transcriptional activation domain of the herpes simplex virion protein 16 (VP16) ( Gossen and Bujard, 1992 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • This gene encodes a calcium-responsive transactivator which is an essential subunit of a neuron-specific chromatin-remodeling complex. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in calcium-responsive transactivator (CREST) encoding gene have been recently linked to ALS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, using exome sequencing in sporadic ALS trios Chesi and co-workers [ 4 ] have identified two mutations in the SS18L1 gene which encodes calcium-responsive transactivator (CREST) protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail (CITED) 4, a new member of the CITED family, functions as a co-activator for transcription factor AP-2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Members of the CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail (CITED) family bind CREB-binding protein and p300 with high affinity and regulate gene transcription. (ox.ac.uk)
  • MHC class II molecule expression is regulated primarily through a transcriptional co-activator termed MHC2TA [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like other lentiviruses , HIV-1 encodes a trans-activating regulatory protein (Tat), which is essential for efficient transcription of the viral genome . (wikipedia.org)
  • The homeo domain of the Oct-1 transcription factor directs formation of a multiprotein-DNA complex containing Oct-1, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) trans-activator VP16, and a second host cell factor (HCF). (cshl.edu)
  • We now present evidence that the Dif gene product trans-activates the Drosophila Cecropin A1 gene in co-transfection assays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transcriptional up-regulation of the plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 (PAI-2) gene is a major response to cellular stress. (edu.au)
  • IL-6 trans-signaling induces plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 from vascular endothelial cells in cytokine release syndrome. (wroc.pl)
  • HIV-1 tat transactivator recruits p300 and CREB-binding protein histone acetyltransferases to the viral promoter. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The viral transactivator Rev is essential for HIV replication, since it allows the nuclear export of unspliced and partially spliced viral mRNAs that encode the structural proteins. (essaydocs.org)
  • The viral transactivator Rev allows this transition into the late cycle (5, 6), and is therefore essential for viral replication. (essaydocs.org)
  • Using a pag-lacZ transcriptional construct to measure pag promoter activity, we cloned in Bacillus subtilis a gene (atxA) whose product acts in trans to stimulate anthrax toxin expression. (asm.org)
  • In TFIID-dependent activation pathways, this TATA box Binding Protein (TBP)-containing GTF is first recruited on the promoter through interaction with activators 1 - 3 and cooperates with TFIIA to form a committed PIC 4 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here we used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the architecture of nucleoprotein complexes composed of TFIID, TFIIA, the transcriptional activator Rap1 and yeast enhancer-promoter DNA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A large Rap1-dependent DNA loop forms between the activator binding site and the proximal promoter region, and this loop is topologically locked by a TFIIA-Rap1 protein bridge that folds over the DNA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • TFIID, a complex composed of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and 14 evolutionarily conserved Taf subunits ( 4 , - 6 ), is an attractive candidate target for transactivator regulatory interactions within the PIC, both because TFIID promoter binding appears to be rate-limiting in vivo ( 7 ) and because transactivators have been shown to bind directly to TFIID subunits ( 8 , 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Component of the CREST-BRG1 complex, a multiprotein complex that regulates promoter activation by orchestrating a calcium-dependent release of a repressor complex and a recruitment of an activator complex. (nih.gov)
  • Foamy viruses (FVs) harbour a transcriptional transactivator (Tas) and two Tas-responsive promoter regions, one in the 5′ long terminal repeat (LTR) and the other an internal promoter (IP) in the envelope gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Methylation of class II transactivator gene promoter IV is not associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We previously reported that the human SERPINB2 gene promoter is controlled by three major transcription regulatory domains: an inducible proximal promoter, an upstream silencer (PAUSE-1), and a distal transactivator region between -5100 and -3300, which appears to overcome inhibition mediated by the silencer. (edu.au)
  • In keeping with this, CITED4 functions as a transactivator when artificially targeted to a promoter element. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Polymorphism in MHC class II transactivator gene is not associated with susceptibility to colorectal cancer in Swedish patients. (diva-portal.org)
  • A novel transferable nuclear export signal mediates CRM1-independent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the human cytomegalovirus transactivator protei. (nih.gov)
  • RNA2 contains a multifunctional RNA structure known as the trans -activator (TA) that (i) promotes subgenomic mRNA transcription from RNA1, (ii) facilitates replication of RNA2, and (iii) mediates particle assembly and copackaging of genome segments. (prolekare.cz)
  • Zusätzlich bieten wir Ihnen Class II, Major Histocompatibility Complex, Transactivator Proteine (3) und viele weitere Produktgruppen zu diesem Protein an. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Among the EBV transactivators, the ZEBRA protein plays a crucial role in switching the virus from a latent to a productive mode. (nih.gov)
  • Both act as non-DNA-binding activators through multiple protein-protein interactions with an MHC enhanceosome complex that binds cooperatively to a highly conserved combinatorial cis-acting module. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the precise mechanisms and outcomes of transactivator-TFIID interaction remain unclear. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Gene therapy approaches, including the expression of trans-dominant mutants and RNA decoys, as well as antisense therapies and small molecule inhibitors of Rev-RRE binding or Rev interaction with the cellular machinery will be discussed. (essaydocs.org)
  • The Rap1 transactivator was used here as a model to study the architecture of a DNA-bound activator-TFIID-TFIIA complex 9 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The addition of the Hr3 enhancer to expression cassettes and concomitant expression of the IE1 trans activator gene product is a potential method for increasing the level of transgene expression in insect systems. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transcription factor IID (TFIID) plays a key role in regulating eukaryotic gene expression by directly binding promoters and enhancer-bound transactivator proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Hr3/IE1 enhancer- trans activator in combination with each of the constitutive heterologous promoters tested increased reporter gene expression significantly in transiently transfected Aedes albopictus C7-10 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is therefore concluded that FFV Tas is a DNA-binding transactivator that interacts with at least two regions in the virus LTR. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Global Trans Activator Of Transcription Market Report Renders deep perception of the Market Segment by Regions market status of the Trans Activator Of Transcription on a global level that primarily aims the core regions which comprises of continents like North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, India and top manufacturer. (algosonline.com)
  • A "no-hybrids" screen for functional antagonizers of human p53 transactivator function: dominant negativity in fission yeast. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have developed a functional "no-hybrids" screen in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe based on the transcription transactivator activity of human p53. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Transactivators are minimally composed of distinct DNA binding domains (DBDs) and activation domains (ADs). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The basic region is involved in RNA (TAR, trans-activation response element) binding and Tat proteins thus belong to the family of arginine-rich motif (ARM) RNA binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • PML promotes MHC class II gene expression by stabilizing the class II transactivator. (nih.gov)
  • NLRC5: a newly discovered MHC class I transactivator (CITA). (harvard.edu)
  • These results suggest that CITED4 may function as a co-activator for TFAP2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The repressed transactivator (RTA) Y2H system was created to identify interactions that involve transcriptional activator proteins genetically. (news-medical.net)
  • Comparative functional characterization of the feline foamy virus transactivator reveals its species specificity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Although FosB is likely to be involved in transactivator-mediated derepression of PAI-2 transcription in macrophage-like cells, as exemplified by the U937 cell line, c-Jun may be functional in other cell types. (edu.au)
  • Cloning and characterization of a gene whose product is a trans-activator of anthrax toxin synthesis. (asm.org)
  • We and others have previously shown that HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) sensitizes T cells toward CD95-mediated apoptosis and up-regulates CD95L expression by affecting the cellular redox balance. (jimmunol.org)
  • The dorsal-related immunity factor, Dif, is a sequence-specific trans-activator of Drosophila Cecropin gene expression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Petersen1995TheDI, title={The dorsal-related immunity factor, Dif, is a sequence-specific trans-activator of Drosophila Cecropin gene expression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The distal transactivator region is inducible by the phorbol ester PMA, a potent activator of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway that is a powerful inducer of PAI-2 gene expression in monocytes, macrophages, and myelomonocytic cells as well as in epidermal keratinocytes. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, the study is a comprehensive collection of essential data with respect to the competitive spectrum of this industry as well as the myriad geographies where the Trans Activator Of Transcription market has profitably established its presence. (algosonline.com)
  • Here we show that a 21-bp region (-4952/-4932), containing an AP-1 element, is both necessary and sufficient for PMA-induced transactivator activity in PAI-2-expressing U937 cells. (edu.au)
  • Cotransfection with zta also trans activated a target reporter gene containing inserted wild-type 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate response element oligonucleotides. (elsevier.com)
  • However, subsequent work has shown that the ADs of transactivators can also directly bind chromatin-directed coactivators to modulate transcription ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'Trans Activator Of Transcription (Tat) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016', provides in depth analysis on Trans Activator Of Transcription (Tat) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (globalmarketsdirect.com)
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the Trans Activator Of Transcription (Tat), targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (globalmarketsdirect.com)
  • The research report on the Trans Activator Of Transcription market is an in-depth analysis of the industry in question, in conjunction with the precise gist of its segmentation. (algosonline.com)
  • The utility of this system lies in the assumption that the tetracycline transactivator (TTA) acts as an inert control element and does not contribute to phenotypes under study. (jneurosci.org)
  • [7] [8] Tat acts by binding to an RNA stem-loop structure, the trans-activating response element (TAR), found at the 5′ ends of nascent HIV-1 transcripts. (wikipedia.org)

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