Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Pain during the period after surgery.
An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
A narcotic used as a pain medication. It appears to be an agonist at kappa opioid receptors and an antagonist or partial agonist at mu opioid receptors.
A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Pupillary constriction. This may result from congenital absence of the dilatator pupillary muscle, defective sympathetic innervation, or irritation of the CONJUNCTIVA or CORNEA.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The emission of SEMEN and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.
Excision of the uterus.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
A dibenzoxepin tricyclic compound. It displays a range of pharmacological actions including maintaining adrenergic innervation. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it appears to block reuptake of monoaminergic neurotransmitters into presynaptic terminals. It also possesses anticholinergic activity and modulates antagonism of histamine H(1)- and H(2)-receptors.
A severe intermittent and spasmodic pain in the lower back radiating to the groin, scrotum, and labia which is most commonly caused by a kidney stone (RENAL CALCULUS) passing through the URETER or by other urinary track blockage. It is often associated with nausea, vomiting, fever, restlessness, dull pain, frequent urination, and HEMATURIA.
A drug that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is the sodium sulfonate of AMINOPYRINE.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid THEBAINE that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than MORPHINE. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Symptom of overactive detrusor muscle of the URINARY BLADDER that contracts with abnormally high frequency and urgency. Overactive bladder is characterized by the frequent feeling of needing to urinate during the day, during the night, or both. URINARY INCONTINENCE may or may not be present.
Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.
A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A cyclooxygenase inhibiting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that is well established in treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and used for musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and postoperative pain. Its long half-life enables it to be administered once daily.
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.
A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.
Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
Separation of one or more kinds of cells from whole blood with the return of other blood cell constituents to the patient or donor. This is accomplished with an instrument that uses centrifugation to separate the cells into different layers based on the differences in cell density (displacement) or drag coefficients in a current (elutriation). The procedure is commonly used in adoptive transfer to isolate NK cells, lymphocytes, or monocytes.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.
Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Penetration of a PEPTIC ULCER through the wall of DUODENUM or STOMACH allowing the leakage of luminal contents into the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.

Postoperative analgesia and vomiting, with special reference to day-case surgery: a systematic review. (1/258)

BACKGROUND: Day-case surgery is of great value to patients and the health service. It enables many more patients to be treated properly, and faster than before. Newer, less invasive, operative techniques will allow many more procedures to be carried out. There are many elements to successful day-case surgery. Two key components are the effectiveness of the control of pain after the operation, and the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. OBJECTIVES: To enable those caring for patients undergoing day-case surgery to make the best choices for their patients and the health service, this review sought the highest quality evidence on: (1) the effectiveness of the control of pain after an operation; (2) the effectiveness of measures to minimise postoperative nausea and vomiting. METHODS: Full details of the search strategy are presented in the report. RESULTS - ANALGESIA: The systematic reviews of the literature explored whether different interventions work and, if they do work, how well they work. A number of conclusions can be drawn. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INEFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS: There is good evidence that some interventions are ineffective. They include: (1) transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in acute postoperative pain; (2) the use of local injections of opioids at sites other than the knee joint; (3) the use of dihydrocodeine, 30 mg, in acute postoperative pain (it is no better than placebo). RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF DOUBTFUL VALUE: Some interventions may be effective but the size of the effect or the complication of undertaking them confers no measurable benefit over conventional methods. Such interventions include: (1) injecting morphine into the knee joint after surgery: there is a small analgesic benefit which may last for up to 24 hours but there is no clear evidence that the size of the benefit is of any clinical value; (2) manoeuvres to try and anticipate pain by using pre-emptive analgesia; these are no more effective than standard methods; (3) administering non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by injection or per rectum in patients who can swallow; this appears to be no more effective than giving NSAIDs by mouth and, indeed, may do more harm than good; (4) administering codeine in single doses; this has poor analgesic efficacy. RESULTS-ANALGESIA, INTERVENTIONS OF PROVEN VALUE: These include a number of oral analgesics including (at standard doses): (1) dextropropoxyphene; (2) tramadol; (3) paracetamol; (4) ibuprofen; (5) diclofenac. Diclofenac and ibuprofen at standard doses give analgesia equivalent to that obtained with 10 mg of intramuscular morphine. Each will provide at least 50% pain relief from a single oral dose in patients with moderate or severe postoperative pain. Paracetamol and codeine combinations also appear to be highly effective, although there is little information on the standard doses used in the UK. The relative effectiveness of these analgesics is compared in an effectiveness 'ladder' which can inform prescribers making choices for individual patients, or planning day-case surgery. Dose-response relationships show that higher doses of ibuprofen may be particularly effective. Topical NSAIDs (applied to the skin) are effective in minor injuries and chronic pain but there is no obvious role for them in day-case surgery. RESULTS-POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING: The proportion of patients who may feel nauseated or vomit after surgery is very variable, despite similar operations and anaesthetic techniques. Systematic review can still lead to clear estimations of effectiveness of interventions. Whichever anti-emetic is used, the choice is often between prophylactic use (trying to prevent anyone vomiting) and treating those people who do feel nauseated or who may vomit. Systematic reviews of a number of different anti-emetics show clearly that none of the anti-emetics is sufficiently effective to be used for prophylaxis. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE  (+info)

Tramadol or morphine administered during operation: a study of immediate postoperative effects after abdominal hysterectomy. (2/258)

Tramadol may cause awareness and EEG activation during anaesthesia. We compared tramadol with morphine, administered during wound-closure, surmising that tramadol may cause earlier awakening, more rapid recovery, less respiratory depression and equivalent pain relief. Forty patients received nitrous oxide-enflurane for abdominal surgery. At wound closure, patients received tramadol 3 mg kg-1 or morphine 0.2 mg kg-1 and end-tidal enflurane concentrations were maintained at 0.5 kPa until skin closure, whereupon anaesthesia was discontinued. Times to spontaneous respiration, awakening and orientation were similar in the two groups, as were blood-gas tensions, ventilatory frequency, pain scores and incidence of nausea. Half of each group required supplementary analgesia during their 90-min stay in the recovery room. P-deletion counts improved more rapidly in the tramadol group. This study confirms previous reports that tramadol did not antagonize the hypnotic effects of volatile anaesthetics. Tramadol, administered during operation, was as effective as morphine in providing postoperative analgesia while permitting more rapid psychomotor recovery.  (+info)

Tramadol allows reduction of naproxen dose among patients with naproxen-responsive osteoarthritis pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (3/258)

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that in patients receiving naproxen for the pain of osteoarthritis (OA), the addition of tramadol will allow a reduction in the naproxen dosage without compromising pain relief. METHODS: This trial consisted of a 5-week open-label run-in and an 8-week double-blind phase. Patients with at least moderate pain (> or =40 mm on a 100-mm visual analog scale) of OA of the knee after a 1-week medication washout were treated with naproxen 500 mg/day for 1 week. Patients whose pain scores were reduced to <20 mm were discontinued. The remaining patients received naproxen 1,000 mg/day for 3 weeks. Tramadol 200 mg/day was added during the third week. Patients were then randomized in a double-blind manner to continue tramadol 200 mg/day or to begin placebo in addition to naproxen. Randomization was stratified based on response to naproxen 1,000 mg/day. During the double-blind phase, the naproxen dose was reduced by 250 mg every 2 weeks. The primary efficacy end point was the minimum effective naproxen dose (MEND). The MEND was defined as 250 mg above the naproxen daily dosage at which pain relief was no longer adequate. Patients discontinuing the double-blind phase of the study for reasons other than lack of efficacy were assigned a MEND equal to the last naproxen dose received. If the effect of treatment between the responder and nonresponder groups was statistically different, the difference in the MEND was assessed separately within the groups. RESULTS: Of 236 patients randomized (mean age 61 years; 147 females), 90 were stratified as naproxen responders and 146 as naproxen nonresponders. There was a significant difference (P = 0.040) in the treatment effect between the naproxen responders and nonresponders, thus demonstrating a difference in the way responders and nonresponders react to a decrease in naproxen dosage after the addition of tramadol. Among naproxen responders, the MEND was significantly lower in patients receiving tramadol (n = 36) than in patients receiving placebo (n = 54), 221 mg versus 407 mg, respectively (P = 0.021). For the naproxen nonresponders, the mean MEND was 419 mg in the tramadol group and 396 mg in the placebo group (P = 0.706). CONCLUSION: In patients with painful OA of the knee responding to naproxen 1,000 mg/day, the addition of tramadol 200 mg/day allows a significant reduction in the dosage of naproxen without compromising pain relief.  (+info)

Serum concentrations of tramadol enantiomers during patient-controlled analgesia. (4/258)

AIMS: Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic, is used as a racemate containing 50% of a (+)- and 50% of a (-)-enantiomer. This paper presents the pharmacokinetic results of postoperative patient-controlled analgesia using (+)-tramadol, (-)-tramadol or the racemate. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients recovering from major gynaecological surgery were treated in a randomised, double-blind study with (+)-tramadol, (-)-tramadol or the racemate. Following an i.v. bolus up to a maximum of 200 mg, patient-controlled analgesia with demand doses of 20 mg was made available for 24 h. Prior to each demand, the serum concentrations of the enantiomers of tramadol and its metabolite M1 were measured in 92 patients. RESULTS: The mean concentrations of tramadol during the postsurgery phase were 470+/-323 ng ml-1, 590+/-410 ng ml-1 and 771+/-451 ng ml-1 in the (+)-, racemate- and (-)-group, respectively ((+) vs (-), P<0.05); the mean concentrations of the metabolite M1 were 57+/-18 ng ml-1, 84+/-34 ng ml-1 and 96+/-41 ng ml-1 in the (+)-, racemate- and (-)-group, respectively ((+) vs (-) and (+) vs racemate, P<0.05). The mean concentrations of (+)-tramadol and (+)-M1 were lower in the racemate- than in the (+)-group (P<0.05), those of (-)-tramadol and (-)-M1 were lower in the racemate than in the (-)-group (P<0.05). In the racemate group, the mean serum concentrations of (+)-tramadol were higher than those of (-)-tramadol (P<0.05), whereas the mean serum concentrations of (-)-M1 were higher than those of (+)-M1 (P<0. 05). CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic serum concentration of tramadol and M1 showed a great variability. The lowest mean concentrations were measured in the (+)-group and the highest in (-)-group. This is in agreement with the clinical finding that (+)-tramadol is a more potent analgesic than (-)-tramadol.  (+info)

Drug dependence and abuse potential of tramadol. (5/258)

AIM: To assess the drug dependence and abuse liability of tramadol. METHODS: Subjects of opiate addicts with history of tramadol abuse were 219. Physical dependence of tramadol was assessed using opiate withdrawal scale (OWS), psychic dependence was assessed by association test of Addiction Research Center Inventory-Chinese Version (ARCI-CV); the degrees of craving experienced for tramadol was self-reported on visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: The scores of OWS of tramadol were 0.05-1.07; 3 scores on scales in particular being used the identify euphoric effects--MBG, sedative effects--PCAG, and psychotomimetic effects--LSD of ARCI were 7.3, 6.1, and 3.4, respectively (F = 38.1, P < 0.01); 57.1% of tramadol abuse subjects had craving for tramadol (chi 2 = 75.86, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Tramadol produced high abuse potential among opiate addicts.  (+info)

Effects of morphine and tramadol on somatic and visceral sensory function and gastrointestinal motility after abdominal surgery. (6/258)

BACKGROUND: Chronic nociceptive input induces sensitization and changes in regulatory reflexes in animal models. In humans, postoperative somatic and visceral sensitization and the secondary effects on reflex gut motility are unclear. METHODS: Somatic and visceral sensation and gastrointestinal motility were evaluated after abdominal hysterectomies in 50 patients who were randomized to receive double-blinded postoperative 48-h infusions of morphine or tramadol. Pain scores, rectal distension, skin electric sensation and pain tolerance thresholds, and gastrointestinal transit were assessed before and after operation, during and after analgesic infusions. RESULTS: Pain intensity scores decreased similarly with morphine and tramadol infusions (total doses, 66.8+/-20 mg and 732.4+/-152 mg [mean +/- SD], respectively). Skin pain tolerance thresholds in the incisional dermatome remained similar with morphine and tramadol throughout the study. During morphine infusions, pain tolerance thresholds on the shoulder increased (P<0.05) and then decreased after discontinuation on day 4 (P<0.02) compared with before operation. Rectal distension pain tolerance pressure thresholds increased after operation during morphine infusions (P<0.05). Similar but nonsignificant trends occurred with tramadol. Orocecal and colonic transit times increased after operation with both morphine and tramadol (P<0.005), but gastric emptying was prolonged only with morphine (P = 0.03). AU motility and sensory parameters had returned to preoperative levels by 1 month after operation. CONCLUSIONS: Pain control was equally effective with morphine and tramadol infusions. No somatic or visceral sensitization was evident during morphine and tramadol infusions, but pain tolerance thresholds as markers of antinociception were increased more during morphine infusions. The significant sensitization seen only after morphine discontinuation may be due to convergent visceral input. Gut motility was prolonged significantly by visceral surgery itself and also by morphine.  (+info)

Analgesia after intracranial surgery: a double-blind, prospective comparison of codeine and tramadol. (7/258)

We have compared codeine and tramadol in a prospective, double-blind study of postoperative analgesia in 75 patients after elective intracranial surgery. Twenty-five patients received codeine 60 mg, tramadol 50 mg or tramadol 75 mg i.m. Patients receiving codeine had significantly lower pain scores over the first 48 h after operation (P < 0.0001). Although there was no difference in visual analogue scale (VAS) scores between the three groups at 24 h, the codeine group had significantly lower scores at 48 h (P < 0.0001). The tramadol 75 mg group had significantly higher scores for both sedation and nausea and vomiting (P < 0.0001 for both scores). We conclude that codeine 60 mg i.m. provided better postoperative analgesia than tramadol after craniotomy and that tramadol 75 mg should be avoided because of its side effects of increased sedation and nausea and vomiting.  (+info)

Effects of tramadol on minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rats. (8/258)

It has been suggested previously that tramadol increases central nervous system activity and 'lightens' anaesthesia with volatile agents. We assessed the effects of tramadol on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in 56 Wistar rats, instrumented chronically with an arterial and central venous catheter. The MAC of isoflurane was determined using the tail clamp method under three conditions: (1) after injection of saline (control); (2) after administration of tramadol 10 mg kg-1 i.v.; and (3) after administration of morphine 1 mg kg-1 i.v. The studies were repeated after treatment with the antagonists naloxone or yohimbine. Tramadol and morphine both reduced the MAC of isoflurane from mean 1.38 (SEM 0.05)% to 1.22 (0.06)% and 1.17 (0.06)%, respectively (P < 0.05). Concomitant administration of yohimbine did not abolish this reduction in MAC. In contrast, after pretreatment with naloxone, tramadol (1.47 (0.04)%) or morphine (1.38 (0.07)%) did not cause a reduction in the MAC of isoflurane compared with controls (1.39 (0.06)%). We conclude that tramadol and morphine reduced the MAC of isoflurane to a small but significant extent. For both drugs, this effect was related to their action at opioid receptors.  (+info)

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LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of tramadol hydrochloride. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of tramadol hydrochloride or following a dose increase [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)] ACCIDENTAL INGESTION Accidental ingestion of tramadol hydrochloride, especially by children, can be fatal. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]. ULTRA-RAPID METABOLISM OF TRAMADOL AND OTHER RISK FACTORS FOR LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received tramadol. Some of the reported cases followed tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy; in at least one case, the child had evidence of being an ultra-rapid metabolizer of tramadol due to a CYP2D6 polymorphism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]. Tramadol hydrochloride is contraindicated in children younger than 12 years of age and in children younger than 18 ...
Food Effects After a single dose administration of 200 mg tramadol hydrochloride extended-release tablet with a high fat meal, the C max and AUC 0 to ∞ of tramadol decreased 28% and 16%, respectively, compared to fasting conditions. Mean T max was increased by 3 hr (from 14 hr under fasting conditions to 17 hr under fed conditions). While tramadol hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be taken without regard to food, it is recommended that it be taken in a consistent manner [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1)] . Distribution The volume of distribution of tramadol was 2.6 and 2.9 L/kg in male and female subjects, respectively, following a 100-mg intravenous dose. The binding of tramadol to human plasma proteins is approximately 20% and binding also appears to be independent of concentration up to10 mcg/mL. Saturation of plasma protein binding occurs only at concentrations outside the clinically relevant range.. Elimination Tramadol is eliminated primarily through metabolism by the liver ...
Tramadol hydrochloride can cause withdrawal symptoms if the medication is stopped suddenly. This eMedTV Web page lists withdrawal symptoms with tramadol hydrochloride and explains how to stop the drug slowly to avoid these problems.
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Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. All trademarks and applicant names are the property of their respective owners or licensors. Although great care is taken in the proper and correct provision of this service, thinkBiotech LLC does not accept any responsibility for possible consequences of errors or omissions in the provided data. The data presented herein is for information purposes only. There is no warranty that the data contained herein is error free. thinkBiotech performs no independent verifification of facts as provided by public sources nor are attempts made to provide legal or investing advice. Any reliance on data provided herein is done solely at the discretion of the user. Users of this service are advised to seek professional advice and independent confirmation before considering acting on any of the provided information. thinkBiotech LLC reserves the right to amend, extend or withdraw any part or all of the offered service without notice. ...
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The EMs and PMs of CYP2D6 treated with tramadol behaved differently in static and dynamic pupillometry. The reason for this could largely be explained with the aid of the metaboliser status and the pharmacokinetic properties of tramadol. In EMs, the pupillometric response was mainly driven by the (+ …
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This is a randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ULTRACET® (tramadol 37.5 mg and acetaminophen 325 mg) as add-on therapy in rheumatoid arthritis patients taking an NSAID or a COX-2 inhibitor. The patients will be randomized into 2 treatment groups: The first group will receive one ULTRACET® tablet 3 times per day for 7 days. The second group will receive one placebo tablet 3 times per day for 7 days. The primary efficacy measurement will be the patients average daily pain score. Safety will be monitored throughout the study. The study hypothesis is that ULTRACET® will be well tolerated and the average daily pain relief score for the ULTRACET® treatment group will be better than that of placebo group. Patients will take one ULTRACET® tablet or placebo by mouth 3 times per day, for 7 days ...
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This study is a randomized (study drug assigned by chance), multicenter (when more than 1 hospital or medical school team work on a medical research study), active-controlled, parallel group (each group of participants will be treated at the same time), double-blind (neither physician nor participant knows the treatment that the participant receives) study. The duration of the treatment will be 2 days and will be conducted in 4 periods: screening period (from 33 to 2 days before study drug administration to the first surgical incision), surgical period (to 1 day before study drug administration), qualification period (1 day) and double-blind treatment period (1 to 2 days). Participants will be randomly assigned to 2 groups: study drug treatment group (ER) and comparator treatment group (IR). Participants will be administered 2 tablets of ER tramadol HCl (75 milligram [mg])/acetaminophen (650 mg) along with 2 tablets of placebo matching to IR tramadol HCl/acetaminophen in study drug treatment ...
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O-Desmethyltramadol (O-DSMT) - Research Chemical Opioid & Metabolit von Tramadol O-Desmethyltramadol (O-DSMT) ist der psychoaktive Haupt-Metabolit von Tramadol, das ebenso wie Tramadol eine opioide Wirkung entfaltet. O-DSMT fand jedoch keine Anwendung in der Medizin und wurde bis zu seinem Erscheinen auf dem Legal Highs Markt nicht am Menschen getestet, außer natürlich als Metabolit von Tramadol. … weiterlesenO-Desmethyltramadol (O-DSMT) - Research Chemical Opioid & Tramadol Metabolit. ...
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Risk of discontinuation due to nausea or vomiting when titrated over 4 days, was measured at 1. Use of ultram er was studied in the clinical trials, tramadol administration may produce a constellation of symptoms (including dizziness, somnolence, dizziness aggravated psychiatric disorders: nervousness, anxiety, agitation, hallucinations, fever, shivering, tremor, paresthesia, seizure, slow/shallow breathing. what is ultram 50 mg compared to When this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist is concerned about an increased degree of antinociceptive tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions related to opioid analgesics alone. They could die from taking it. Ultram may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous tasks such as rifampin and st. Start at the low end of the risk of endocarditis and valvular heart injury. ultram pain medication narcotic Avoid alcoholic beverages before having surgery, tell your patients not to exceed 400 mg (100 mg q. Excretion tramadol metabolites are ...
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Tramadol. Tramadol hydrochloride (brand names Ultram, Tramal, and some others) is a drug prescribed by doctors who do not want to prescribe an effective, but possibly addictive, pain reliever. Tramadol is a synthetic copy of codeine and, like codeine, it binds to what is called a μ-opioid receptor. It sounds like it ought to work. It does not. Maybe that is because it only binds to one opioid receptor and other opiate agonists, which is what these compounds are called, bind to two receptors.. Whatever the reason for its inactivity, this drug is worthless. It has no effect on pain. Some Websites have user comments about various drugs. When you look at the first few comments about Tramadol, they are all raves. They call it a miracle and say it freed them from years of pain. Dig deeper, though, and you find one comment after another saying this drug had no effect whatsoever. It makes me wonder if the rave reviews were actually planted by the manufacturer. Neither I nor anyone else I know who has ...
The aim of this investigation was to assess the role that NO plays in the antinociceptive activity of tramadol using a rat model of neuropathic pain. Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into five equal groups. The neuropathic pain model used for the study was chronic constrictive injury (CCI) model. Three weeks after the surgical procedure, each rat was tested to assess mechanical threshold in grams using an electronic algometer. After CCI was induced, tramadol hydrochloride was administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in all groups, and N(omega) - nitro - L - arginine (L-NA) and L-arginine were administered i.p. or intrathecally (i.t.) depending on the group. Tramadol was administered in 10 mg/kg doses i.p., L-NA was given in 10 mg/kg doses i.p. and in 30 μg/kg doses i.t.. L-arginine was given in 10 mg/kg doses i. p. and in 50 μg/kg doses i.t.. The multiple agents were given 30 minutes apart from cach administration. Intraperitoneal administration of ...
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Tramadol is also known as tramadol hydrochloride and is an opioid derivative, very similar to such drugs as morphine and methadone. Tramadol is an analgesic which operates on a centralized basis, and it generally prescribed to treat pain in...
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According to labeling derived from its reference listed drug, Ultram, tramadol has been given in single oral doses of 50mg, 75mg and 100mg to patients with pain following surgical procedures and pain following oral surgery (extraction of impacted molars). In single-dose models of pain following oral surgery, pain relief was demonstrated in some patients at doses of 50mg and 75mg. A dose of 100mg tramadol tended to provide analgesia superior to codeine sulfate 60mg, but it was not as effective as the combination of aspirin 650mg with codeine phosphate 60mg. Tramadol has been studied in three long-term controlled trials involving a total of 820 patients, with 530 patients receiving tramadol. Patients with a variety of chronic painful conditions were studied in double-blind trials of one to three months duration. Average daily doses of approximately 250mg of tramadol in divided doses were generally comparable to five doses of acetaminophen 300mg with codeine phosphate 30mg daily, five doses of ...
Abdominal conditions: Tramadol - acetaminophen may make the diagnosis of abdominal conditions more difficult or it may worsen these conditions. If you have an abdominal condition such as inflammatory or obstructive bowel disease, acute cholecystitis, or pancreatitis, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.. Breathing: Tramadol - acetaminophen can suppress breathing. If you have asthma, or are otherwise at risk for breathing problems, discuss with your doctor how this medication may affect your medical condition, how your medical condition may affect the dosing and effectiveness of this medication, and whether any special monitoring is needed.. Dependence and withdrawal: Tramadol can cause physical dependence, psychological dependence, and addiction. If this medication is stopped suddenly, you may experience withdrawal ...
Background: Intra-articular administration of analgesics is performed to ensure good perioperative pain management avoiding undesirable systemic effects. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of intra-articular injection of tramadol on postoperative pain after arthroscopy in horses and to determine whether tramadol had a local effect. Before the in vivo study, an in vitro test was performed aiming to evaluate the viability of equine chondrocytes after exposure to various concentrations of tramadol. The concentration identified as most appropriate was used to treat the horses joints. Animals and methods: Twelve horses affected by osteochondrosis were randomly assigned to two groups that were treated intra-articularly at the end of surgery with tramadol (4 mg/mL) and saline, respectively. At predetermined time-points a Composite Pain Scale was applied and blood samples were collected in order to define the extent of tramadol absorption into the systemic circulation. The Mann-Whitney test was used ...
Inara was given Clindamycin and Tramadol on Wed. after the fight with Vesta...she got stitches, and was sedated for them. She was sent home with the two drugs, and I started them on Thursday morning. She had a few days of Tramadol, and has 10 days of the antibiotic. Shes been fine this past week...no issues at all. She didnt get Tramadol today, Saturday was the last day for that. So this morning, she got the clindamycin only...in a pill pocket. (as usual ...
Therapeutic follow-up of postoperative patients on tramadol in the intensive care unit a tertiary African hospital: a cohort study
Tramadol hydrochloride (HCL) is an oral prescription drug used to treat moderate to reasonably extreme ache in adults. If hydromorphone is used concurrently with a CNS depressant, a decreased dosage of hydromorphone and/or the CNS depressant is beneficial; begin with one-third to at least one-half of the estimated hydromorphone beginning dose when using hydromorphone prolonged-release tablets.. Literature survey revealed that various analytical methods like spectrophotometric three - 6 , HPLC 7 - 14 , GC 15 and HPTLC 16 - 19 have been reported for the determination of TMD, PCM and either individually or combination with another medication, but no HPTLC methodology was reported for simultaneous estimation of TMD and PCM and domperidol in mixed dosage types.. No carcinogenic impact of tramadol was noticed in p53(+/-)-heterozygous mice at oral doses as much as 150 mg/kg/day (approximately 2.4-fold maximum each day human dose MDHD of 300 mg/day for a 60 kg adult primarily based on physique surface ...
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1 It is important to differentiate nociceptive pain from neuropathic pain because certain medications are more effective for one type of pain than another.. 2 Analgesics are the most effective medications for nociceptive pain and include peripherally acting analgesics (e.g. acetaminophen, aspirin, NSAIDs) or centrally acting analgesics (e.g. opioids).. 3 The drugs of choice for neuropathic pain are anticonvulsants and noradrenergic antidepressants.. 4 Muscle relaxants are a class of medications that do not specifically relax tight muscles but instead exert a therapeutic effect through sedation and central depression of neuronal transmission.. 5 NSAIDs are extensively prescribed for spinal pain but have serious potential side effects related to the gastrointestinal tract, renal, and cardiovascular system.. Websites. 1. American Pain Society Clinical Practical Guidelines: http://www.ampainsoc.org/pub/cp_guidelines.htm. 2. Online educational resources: ...
This lot is a centrally acting analgesic, which is bad of opioid imodium for ibs symptoms patients. While oral suspension in the form of tablets, capsules, and effects is the imodium for ibs symptoms common condition system, Tramadol can also be prescribed intramuscular. A lancer by a imodium for ibs symptoms of University of Tucson researchers has shed new then on the potential habit-forming tears of the popular pain medication tramadol, in pregnancy funded by the National Institute on Hand Abuse. I have taken it on and off for migraines, only when the past warrants it though and am also not dependant on it. Yes there are side effects but when the pain is that bad sometimes you get a break from it. Dont certificate that when the chips are down all show medications can become habit forming and severe to. Ultram has stopped to be one of the most common-forming and addictive medications on the full. The UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence advises GPs to check for IBS if you experience ...
Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic and has received special attention due to its abuse potential and unexpected responses induced by CYP2D6 polymorphism. Oral fluid is an advantageous biofluid for drug analysis due to non-invasive sampling and high correlation of drug concentrations with plasma. However, few studies have been performed on distribution of tramadol and its metabolites in oral fluid. In the present study, a linear dual column HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of tramadol and its phase I [O-desmethyltramadol (ODMT), N-desmethyltramadol (NDMT) and N,O-didesmethyltramadol (NODMT)] and II metabolites in oral fluid ...
1. What is your companys lead product or technology?. Omnitram (O-desmethyltramadol) is a novel oral analgesic developed by Syntrix that alleviates pain via a dual mechanism involving mu-opioid receptor activation and inhibition of the reuptake of norepinephrine. Omnitram is in clinical development and has just completed a Phase 1b double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (N=40) in experimental pain.. 2. What sets your company apart from competitors?. Omnitram is a proprietary solution for pain relief that is thought to be less addictive than traditional opioids and capable of treating a wider spectrum of pain types than traditional opioids. Omnitram is active without requiring metabolic activation. Other available analgesics require metabolic activation and are ineffective in many patients due to genetics or drug-drug interactions. Omnitram exploits the active metabolite of an FDA approved analgesic and may offer a shortened and less costly regulatory path to approval.. 3. What has been ...
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Its very difficult to overdose or OD on tramadol. But even at lower doses, tramadol can cause serious health problems. More on how much amount of tramadol is
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The physical side effects of tramadol withdrawal may be similar to symptoms of the flu. They are likely to peak within a few days and taper off while the psychological withdrawal side effects may linger a little longer. Everyone will experience withdrawal differently, and certain factors may influence how long it will last and the potential severity of the symptoms.. The level of dependency to tramadol is a major contributor to the duration and severity of the withdrawal symptoms, as a brain that is significantly dependent on tramadol may need extra time to bounce back and repair circuitry that may have been damaged by long-term and chronic drug use. Therefore, individuals taking tramadol for a long time, and especially those taking large doses, may be more heavily dependent on the drug.. The manner in which a person takes tramadol is a factor in withdrawal and drug dependence as well. Someone taking the drug as directed, for example, is less likely to be as dependent as an individual who is ...
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Pozen and partner GlaxoSmithKline recently met with the FDA to discuss the companies future plan for fulfilling the agencys appeal for the information. Pozen provided the FDA with data from three non-clinical studies for its proposed migraine medication called Trexima.. In addition to the study results submission, the company also provided the FDA with a required routine safety update and revised product labeling. The FDA may take up to six months to review this submission, although the company has requested a 60-day review.. The company also said it will launch a clinical evaluation of the Treximas potential of having genotoxicity, any toxic change to DNAs structure or function.. Results of genotoxic testing will be available for submission to and review by the FDA, if required, during the first quarter of 2008.. Although we believe that our submission addresses FDAs concern regarding the genotoxic potential of Trexima, we feel it is prudent to conduct this clinical trial so that we can ...
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In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a birth defect. This is called her background risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to tramadol might increase the risk for birth defects over that background risk. This information should not take the place of medical care and advice from your health care provider.. What is tramadol?. Tramadol is a narcotic prescribed to treat pain. It is in a group of medications called opioids. Ultram® and Conzip® are some brand names for tramadol. Some forms of tramadol can also contain another medication, such as acetaminophen. An example is Ultracet®. For information on acetaminophen, please see https://mothertobaby.org/fact-sheets/acetaminophen-pregnancy/pdf/. These medications are taken by mouth.. I am taking tramadol, but I would like to stop taking it before becoming pregnant. How long does this medication stay in my body?. Always talk with your healthcare provider before making any changes to your medications. ...
I had 10 years. Therefore, for long-term pain relief, positives often advise tramadol, as it has a dentist opioid flu like symptoms with lipitor with little dependence potential. (Hairpieces are strong painkillers that are in during or after surgery to eat pain and have a flu like symptoms with lipitor needed calming effect in the procedure by changing the biochemical environment. Institute (1 of 2): Tramadol and animal do not mix. I would result at least 12 doses before drinking if youve started Tramadol, although the following factors might also be used to you:The harrowing youve takenWhether youve taken a slow-release psych or notWhat your diet is like How days after taking Tramadol can you high. The following symptoms are thought to be uncommon, but you should be aware of them if you start taking Lipitor. Contact your doctor or get emergency medical help right away if you experience any of these: abdominal pain; chest pain; dark-colored urine; difficulty swallowing or breathing; extreme ...
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I find it extremely hard to pass urine sometimes when I go to the toilet. Its not all the time and I know its there because I can feel it and if I sit there for a while and try to urinate by flexing the muscle or something down there it comes out in a really slow flow. Im not in any pain at all but Im wondering if its any cause for concern. Ive been on tramadol (600mg p/d) since september for a broken back and Ive been on the contraceptive injection since january. Im 19 years of age and besides the broken back aching which prevents extensive exercise, I still get about and am not disabled in any way ...
... is an opioid analgesic and the main active metabolite of tramadol. Tramadol is demethylated by the liver enzyme CYP2D6 in the ... For this reason, tramadol is always initiated at the lowest possible dose in clinical settings and then titrated to the lowest ... The inactive tramadol metabolite N-desmethyltramadol is metabolized into the active metabolite N,O-didesmethyltramadol by ... Driessen B, Reimann W, Giertz H (1993). "Effects of the central analgesic tramadol on the uptake and release of noradrenaline ...
Lee, SH; Cho, SY; Lee, HG; Choi, JI; Yoon, MH; Kim, WM (2013). "Tramadol induced paradoxical hyperalgesia". Pain Physician. 16 ...
Paracetamol and tramadol combination product. Dr Andrew Green, clinical policy lead on the British Medical Association general ...
Tramadol, which lacks the cardiotoxicity, has been recommended instead of propoxyphene as it is also indicated for mild to ... Ketobemidone Meperidine Methadone Tramadol Davis, MP; Glare, PA; Hardy, J (2009) [2005]. Opioids in Cancer Pain (2nd ed.). ... "Analgesic efficacy of tramadol/acetaminophen and propoxyphene/acetaminophen for relief of postoperative wound pain". Acta ...
Tramadol Chadds Ford (2011-06-30). "Endo Announces Topline Results From Phase 2 Study of Axomadol in Chronic Low Back Pain" ( ...
Duehmke, RM; Derry, S; Wiffen, PJ; Bell, RF; Aldington, D; Moore, RA (June 2017). "Tramadol for neuropathic pain in adults". ... Opioids such as tramadol, methadone, oxycodone, and morphine have not been well-studied for postherpetic neuralgia treatment. ...
The combination of tramadol and paracetemol has demonstrated efficacy, safety and tolerability (for up to two years in the ... The Canadian Pain Society in 2012 said that opioids, starting with a weak opioid like tramadol, can be tried but only for ... The European League Against Rheumatism in 2008 recommends tramadol and other weak opioids may be used for pain but not strong ... A 2015 review found fair evidence to support tramadol use if other medications do not work. Goldenberg et al suggest that ...
... κ-opioid receptor antagonist Tramadol (ETS6103; Viotra) - μ-opioid receptor agonist, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake ... "Tramadol controlled release - e-Therapeutics - AdisInsight". adisinsight.springer.com. Retrieved 7 May 2017. http://www. ...
... tramadol 50 mg one hour pre-coitally; and escitalopram 10 mg daily at bedtime for 3 months. The prevalence of POIS is unknown. ...
Tramadol-a dual weak opioid and SNRI. It was approved by the FDA in 1995, though it has been marketed in Germany since 1977. ... As such, as tramadol is related to venlafaxine, the same conditions apply. This is likely due to venlafaxine's relatively short ... There is also a significant risk when combining SNRIs with dextromethorphan, tramadol, cyclobenzaprine, meperidine/pethidine, ...
He has advocated for the use of Tramadol as a replacement of Suboxone. In September 2012, Radecki voluntarily surrendered his ... Brunk, Doug (Feb 2008). "Tramadol appears to stem abuse of opiates". Clinical Psychiatry News. Coronado, Calif. Retrieved 18 ...
De Witte JL, Kim JS, Sessler DI, Bastanmehr H, Björksten AR (1998). "Tramadol reduces the sweating, vasoconstriction, and ...
The prescription analgesic tramadol is also a racemate. In some cases (e.g., ibuprofen and thalidomide), the enantiomers ...
... is structurally and pharmacologically related to the atypical opioid analgesic tramadol, and more distantly to the ... Para-methoxy-N-methylamphetamine Tramadol "Venlafaxine international brands". Drugs.com. Retrieved 22 June 2017. "Apo- ... tramadol, tapentadol, pethidine (meperidine) and triptans and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (including MAOIs ... and coadministration with other drugs that lower the seizure threshold such as bupropion and tramadol should be done with ...
"ULTRAM® (tramadol hydrochloride) Tablets Full Prescribing Information" (PDF). US Food and Drug Administration. Ortho-McNeil ... The mean terminal plasma elimination half-lives of racemic tramadol and racemic M1 are 6.3 ± 1.4 and 7.4 ± 1.4 hours, ... The plasma elimination half-life of racemic tramadol increased from approximately six hours to seven hours upon multiple dosing ... the effect of tramadol increases after consecutive dosing due to the accumulation of its active metabolite and an increase of ...
He has been very critical of his fellow physicians' regular prescribing of dangerous opioids like Tramadol and fentanyl. In ... Kirkup, Kristy (26 February 2017). "Health Canada's position on opioid Tramadol is indefensible: doctor". The Globe and Mail. ...
BDPC Ciramadol Faxeladol Profadol Tapentadol Tramadol Liu, Z. H.; Jin, W. Q.; Dai, Q. Y.; Chen, X. J.; Zhang, H. P.; Chi, Z. Q ...
Avoid the concomitant use of chlorprothixene and tramadol (Ultram). Seizures may be encountered with this combination. Consider ...
Tramadol, an atypical oral analgesic, appears to be effective. Desensitizing topical medications like lidocaine that are ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Wong, BL; Malde, S (Jan 2013). "The use of tramadol "on-demand" for premature ...
Dextropropoxyphene Pethidine Methadone Tramadol Phenadoxone Dextromoramide Picenadol Ebert, B; Thorkildsen, C; Andersen, S; ...
Examples include morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, tramadol, hydrocodone, and methadone. Botulinum toxin solution ("Botox") is ...
All India Council of Human Rights, Liberties Tramadol & Social Justice. Retrieved 2017-01-30. "SOME DISTINGUISHED ALUMNI". ...
Examples of opioids include morphine, heroin, fentanyl, tramadol, and methadone. Symptoms include insufficient breathing, small ...
Certain combinations can cause lethal reactions, common examples including SSRIs, tricyclics, MDMA, meperidine, tramadol, and ... Phenylpiperidine derivative opioids: meperidine/pethidine, tramadol, methadone, fentanyl, dextropropoxyphene, propoxyphene. ...
Antagonists: ketamine, PCP, dextropropoxyphene, ketobemidone, tramadol, kynurenic acid (endogenous), etc. GABA receptors are ...
Mild sufferers may find sufficient pain relief with tramadol or amitriptyline. Sufferers of more severe and widespread EM ...
Blood tests tested positive for marijuana, cocaine and the painkiller Tramadol. Urine tests also showed the presence of ...
Tramadol; Ifenprodil (NR2B) site antagonists:. *Besonprodil. *Buphenine (nylidrin). *CO-101244 (PD-174494) ...
Tramadol. *Trazodone. *Tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline, nortriptyline). *Typical antipsychotics (e.g., ...
Tramadol-a dual weak opioid and SNRI. It was approved by the FDA in 1995, though it has been marketed in Germany since 1977. ... As such, as tramadol is related to venlafaxine, the same conditions apply.[56] This is likely due to venlafaxine's relatively ... tramadol, cyclobenzaprine, meperidine/pethidine, and propoxyphene. They should never be taken within 24-hours of any other ...
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Risks Specific to Abuse of Tramadol Hydrochloride Tramadol hydrochloride is intended for oral use only. Abuse of tramadol ... Tramadol hydrochloride tablets contain tramadol, a Schedule IV controlled substance. As an opioid, tramadol hydrochloride ... Tramadol has been shown to cross the placenta. The mean ratio of serum tramadol in the umbilical veins compared to maternal ... Tramadol is administered as a racemate and both the [-] and [+] forms of both tramadol and M1 are detected in the circulation. ...
Tramadol is an analgesic which operates on a centralized basis, and it generally prescribed to treat pain in... ... Tramadol is also known as tramadol hydrochloride and is an opioid derivative, very similar to such drugs as morphine and ... Tramadol is also known as tramadol hydrochloride and is an opioid derivative, very similar to such drugs as morphine and ... Tramadol is an analgesic which operates on a centralized basis, and it generally prescribed to treat pain in individuals which ...
... hydrochloride (brand names Ultram, Tramal, and some others) is a drug prescribed by doctors who do not want ... Tramadol is a synthetic copy of codeine and, like codeine, it binds to what is called a μ-opioid receptor. It sounds like it ... When you look at the first few comments about Tramadol, they are all raves. They call it a miracle and say it freed them from ... Tramadol is similar in molecular structure to Effexor, which is another worthless placebo being foisted on us as a pain ...
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Tramadol withdrawal: Tramadol is a habit-forming medicine that does cause withdrawal symptoms when you stop it or take less of ... Tramadol withdrawal: Tramadol is a habit-forming medicine that does cause withdrawal symptoms when you stop it or take less of ... Tramadol addiction: This is now recognized as a common addiction and many people in drug rehab are there for tramadol. This ... Why Tramadol?: For what condition do you take tramadol? That would be an important consideration. ...Read more ...
Tramadol Clinical Efficiency and Tolerance Correlated to O-desmethyltramadol/Tramadol Ratio (CLINCYTRAM) ... Tramadol Clinical Efficiency and Tolerance Correlated to O-desmethyltramadol/Tramadol Ratio (CLINCYTRAM) Brief description of ... Tramadol is a grade II analgesics as World Health Organization definition. It can both be an agonist on mu receptors, which ... Tramadol is metabolized by P450 2D6 cytochrome (CYP2D6) in O-desmethyltramadol (O-dt) which is the most active form on the ...
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Coskun HS, Ozbalci D, Sahin M.An unusual side-effect of tramadol: subcutaneous nodules. Journal of the European Academy of ... Tramadol. React. Wkly. 1129, 21 (2006). https://doi.org/10.2165/00128415-200611290-00073 ...
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I started tramadol yesterday because my pain mgmt dr told me he can do no more for me and I need to see a neurosurgeon. I ... Tramadol ALSO gave me the FIRST migraine I ever had. I had to stay in a dark room, with my eyes closed and a cold cloth on my ... Tramadol is the one and only thing so far that helps it does not take all my pain away but it sure does make my day bearable ... I started tramadol yesterday because my pain mgmt dr told me he can do no more for me and I need to see a neurosurgeon. I ...
Iv been taking 14 tramadol aday for the past 2yrs,I used 2 be on methadone and am 5yrs of it now,I started taking tramadol ... www.mdsdrugdetox.com since we often detox patients with tramadol addictions.I know that you already read my bog about tramadol ... I do think you should go on an SSRI antidepresant for at least a few months to cover the SSRI effects of the tramadol, But it ... Hello there Cud sumbody please help me with this question,Iv been taking 14 tramadol aday for the past 2yrs,I used 2 be on ...
Its 37.5mg tramadol and 325mg acetaminophen. Since the tramadol dose is relatively low in tramadol acet I would use this one ... Its 37.5mg tramadol and 325mg acetaminophen. Since the tramadol dose is relatively low in tramadol acet I would use this one ... Tramadol acet is even more logical for this case since its a lower dose of tramadol with a NSAID. Lyrica could have been ... Tramadol acet is even more logical for this case since its a lower dose of tramadol with a NSAID. Lyrica could have been ...
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Both codeine and tramadol are less potent, and therefore less addictive, than other opiate medications like morphine. Read more ... Tramadol and codeine are both opioids or opiates that are used to control pain. Codeine is also used as a cough medication. ... Tramadol and codeine are both opiates. Codeine is made from the poppy plant, just like morphine, heroin, and opium. Tramadol is ... Tramadol. *The recommended dose of tramadol is 50-100 mg (immediate release tablets) every 4-6 hours as needed for pain. ...
Tramadol and hydrocodone are opioid medications that doctors prescribe for pain. Here, learn their uses, possible risks, and ... Tramadol vs. hydrocodone. Share on Pinterest. Tramadol and hydrocodone are opioids for pain relief.. Tramadol and hydrocodone ... Who should take tramadol and hydrocodone?. People may take tramadol or hydrocodone following surgery, after a serious accident ... Heartburn can be a side effect of both tramadol and hydrocodone.. The side effects of tramadol and hydrocodone vary from person ...
Should tramadol and Tylenol 3 be taken together?. No. Tylenol 3 is Tylenol with codeine, and tramadol is a different type of ... Can Zoloft and tramadol be taken together?. No. Combining any SSRI (most of the newer anti-depressants) with tramadol can cause ... Can you take tramadol and diphenhydramine together?. i do not suggest the mixing of tramadol with substances other than ... What are the dangers of using tramadol?. Tramadol can cause seizures if too high a dose is taken, or if taken with other drugs ...
Tramadol is highly metabolized in the body. Some people change tramadol to a stronger product (O-desmethyltramadol) more ... If a nursing mother is an ultra-rapid metabolizer of tramadol, it could lead to an overdose in the nursing baby and cause very ... If you think you or someone else may have taken an overdose of tramadol, get emergency help at once. Signs of an overdose ... These symptoms may indicate that you are an "ultra-rapid metabolizer of tramadol." As a result, there is too much O- ...
The (+) enantiomer of tramadol inhibits serotonin uptake. Tramadol is metabolized to an active metabolite, M1, by the CYP2D6 ... Toxicologic analysis identified tramadol, venlafaxine, promethazine, and acetaminophen in the urine; tramadol (0.70 mg/L) and ... She was taking multiple medications, including tramadol and sertraline. The tramadol dosage had recently been increased, ... She was taking multiple medications, including tramadol and sertraline. The tramadol dosage had recently been increased, ...
... including who can and cant take tramadol, dosage and how to take it, possible side effects, if you can drink alcohol, if its ... Trusted information about taking tramadol, a strong opioid-type painkiller (sometimes called an opiate or narcotic) prescribed ... What is tramadol?. Tramadol is a strong opioid-type painkiller (sometimes called an opiate or narcotic) thats used to relieve ... What should I do if I miss a tramadol dose?. This depends on the form of tramadol youre taking and how late you are taking the ...
I have taken Tramadol in the past with no problems noted, however my doc called me in scrip yesterday for it because I was out ... I have taken Tramadol in the past with no problems noted, however my doc called me in scrip yesterday for it because I was out ... My husband hurt his back over the weekend and had to go to the ER and the doc there gave him some tramadol too, its horrible, I ... I dont know about the rest of the side effects, but whenever I take tramadol, I get nauseated. Nausea is acutally one of the ...
Tramadol can be highly addictive, and if you stop taking the drug abruptly it may cause withdrawal symptoms. Examples of side ... Tramadol (Ultram, Ultram ER, Conzip) is a drug used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. It works similar to morphine. ... effects of tramadol are upset stomach, constipation, and headache, but they usually are temporary. ... Tramadol may be addictive, even at the dosage your doctor has prescribed. Abuse or misuse of tramadol can lead to overdose and ...
Information about this tramadol-oral-route. Pregnancy Category. Explanation. All Trimesters. C. Animal studies have shown an ... Tramadol belongs to the group of medicines called opioid analgesics. It acts in the central nervous system (CNS) to relieve ... When tramadol is used for a long time, it may become habit-forming (causing mental or physical dependence). Physical dependence ... Tramadol is used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain, including pain after surgery. The extended-release or long- ...
Tramadol oral tablets come in both immediate-release and extended-release forms. Learn about side effects, warnings, dosage, ... Tramadol oral tablet is a prescription medication used to treat moderate to severe pain. Its available as a generic drug and ... Tramadol is used to treat moderate to severe pain.. Tramadol may be used as part of a combination therapy. This means you may ... If you use tramadol with certain drugs, you may have more side effects. This is because the amount of tramadol in your body may ...
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I was prescribed Ryzolt, a tramadol 24 time-release, about 10 months ago, and it was a miracle... ... Ive been reading the discussions of tramadol with some interest. ... Didnt take tramadol the day before(but i have skipped a day or two of Tramadol before with no down side or symptoms). Woke at ... Tramadol is well known to cause it by itself. Tramadol interacts with lots of drugs.. I dont know what some of those other ...
  • Tramadol hydrochloride is an opioid agonist indicated in adults for the management of pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate. (nih.gov)
  • Tramadol is an analgesic which operates on a centralized basis, and it generally prescribed to treat pain in individuals which can range from moderate to severe, and is usually given to patients for acute and chronic pain. (hubpages.com)
  • Tramadol is metabolized by P450 2D6 cytochrome (CYP2D6) in O-desmethyltramadol (O-dt) which is the most active form on the pharmacologic side (analgesic effect 2 to 4 times more powerful than tramadol itself). (centerwatch.com)
  • The next step is to know if this blood ratio is linked to an analgesic efficiency and a good tolerance for tramadol. (centerwatch.com)
  • Therefore, phenotype detection, thank to blood ratio, could allow to switch quickly tramadol to another analgesic treatment for "poor metabolizer phenotype" patients. (centerwatch.com)
  • The main objective of the study is to forge a link between O-dT/tramadol ratio and analgesic efficiency. (centerwatch.com)
  • Tramadol HCl is a mild opioid analgesic, a reuptake inhibitor of norepinephrine, and a serotonin releaser. (storesea.net)
  • Tramadol belongs to the family of medications called as analgesic drugs. (storesea.net)
  • Tramadol is a medication that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. (wealthformyhealth.com)
  • Tramadol medication should accompany a Medication Guide. (onlinemedscare.com)
  • Likewise, the number of dosages you take every day, the time permitted among doses, and the time allotment you take the medication to rely upon the clinical issue for which you are using tramadol. (onlinemedscare.com)
  • Tramadol hydrochloride is a medication used to treat mild to moderately severe levels of pain. (storesea.net)
  • Tramadol HCl medication may cause back down reactions, particularly if it has been used frequently in high doses or for a long time. (storesea.net)
  • Although some refer to it as non- narcotic because of its chemical structure, tramadol is a narcotic due to its effect on the brain and nervous system. (healthtap.com)
  • Tramadol has a place with a group of medicines called narcotic analgesics. (onlinemedscare.com)
  • Tramadol HCl is same as the other narcotic analgesics. (storesea.net)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • See full prescribing information for TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE TABLETS. (nih.gov)
  • In the formulation containing paracetamol, it contains 37.5 mg of tramadol and 325 mg of paracetamol, and is intended for oral administration with a recommended dosage of one or two tablets every four to six hours. (hubpages.com)
  • Tramadol hcl 50 mg imitrex and xanax tablet tramadol opioid tramadol hydrochloride. (northrimbenefits.com)
  • Tramadol can slow or stop your breathing, this is especially true when you first start taking the drug or the initial dosage is increased. (wealthformyhealth.com)
  • Long-term use of tramadol may be associated with physical dependence and a withdrawal syndrome, consisting of typical opiate-like withdrawal symptoms as well as atypical withdrawal symptoms including seizures. (healthtap.com)
  • Tramadol hydrochloride exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. (nih.gov)
  • Accidental ingestion of tramadol hydrochloride, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of tramadol. (nih.gov)
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  • The drug brand named Zamudol LP contains generic salt - Tramadol Hydrochloride and is manufactured by Meda.Zamudol LP is mainly associated with symptoms and indications - The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) - N02AX02 - Tramadol. (drug-info.in)
  • There are a number of surgical and diagnostic procedures which are exceptionally painful and in which Tramadol can be one of the preferred painkiller drugs to prescribe. (hubpages.com)
  • After CCI was induced, tramadol hydrochloride was administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in all groups, and N(omega) - nitro - L - arginine (L-NA) and L-arginine were administered i.p. or intrathecally (i.t.) depending on the group. (agridergisi.com)
  • Patients who have been prescribed tramadol for the treatment of pain along with other agents, have reported bouts of uncontrollable nervous tremors similar to those of withdrawal from more conventional natural opioids if the interruption of treatment occurs too abruptly. (hubpages.com)
  • The FDA has stated that there have been 912 reported cases of addiction to tramadol between March 1995 and June 2001. (hubpages.com)
  • The U.K. Committee on the Safety of Medicine reports that tramadol has the capability to lead into addiction or withdrawal syndromes about 1 patient in 6000. (hubpages.com)
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  • Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received tramadol. (nih.gov)
  • Tramadol is a synthetic opioid which was created and manufactured by the pharmaceutical company Grunenthal GmbH, based in Stolberg-am-Rhein, Germany. (hubpages.com)
  • Tramadol is a synthetic opioid. (healthtap.com)
  • Tramadol is has different brand names in different countries such as Ultram in the US, Ralivia in Canada, etc. (storesea.net)
  • Do you know if there are tramadol withdrawal symptoms? (healthtap.com)
  • Withdrawal symptoms after discontinuing use of tramadol . (healthtap.com)
  • As you can see there are many uses for Tramadol and Xanax, but there are some dangerous side effects that can be experienced, if the drugs are not administered properly. (wealthformyhealth.com)
  • Ask your pharmacist or doctor if you are not clear with using Tramadol 100mg HCl safely and effectively with other drugs. (storesea.net)
  • The aim of this investigation was to assess the role that NO plays in the antinociceptive activity of tramadol using a rat model of neuropathic pain. (agridergisi.com)
  • The results of this study support the involvement of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in the antinociceptive effect of tramadol in a rat model of neuropathic pain. (agridergisi.com)
  • Secondary objectives investigate side effects and frequency related to O-dT/tramadol ratio and pain relief, and also impact of CYP2D6 - inhibitor treatments on the blood ratio. (centerwatch.com)
  • Prolonged use of tramadol hydrochloride, during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life threatening if not recognized and treated. (nih.gov)