Reproductive Isolation: Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Sympatry: In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Iris Plant: A plant genus of the family IRIDACEAE that contains IRIP, a type-1 ribosome-inactivating protein, and iridals (TRITERPENES).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mimulus: A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Costus: A plant genus of the family Costaceae (sometimes classified in Zingiberaceae), order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). It is a source of SAPONINS and furostanol glycosides.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Acaridae: Family of MITES, in the superfamily Acaroidea, order Astigmata. They are frequently found in cereal-based foodstuffs including GRAIN and FLOUR.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Chamaecrista: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Some species were reclassified from CASSIA and Senna.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Ilex: A plant genus of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. The common name of 'holly' usually refers to this genus but may sometimes refer to similar looking plants of the MAHONIA or QUERCUS genus.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Ecotype: Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mytilus edulis: A species of mussel in the genus MYTILUS, family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA, known as the common mussel. It has a bluish-black shell and is highly edible.Salmonidae: A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)Bufonidae: The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Cichlids: Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Sickle Cell Trait: The condition of being heterozygous for hemoglobin S.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.WingDrosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Neurospora: A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)MexicoDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
3.1 Expression of parental traits. *3.2 Mechanisms of reproductive isolation. *3.3 Speciation ... Mechanisms of reproductive isolation[edit]. Main article: Reproductive isolation. Interspecific hybrids are bred by mating ... Expression of parental traits[edit]. Hybrid between Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) and another species, ... Baker, H. G. (1959). "Reproductive methods as factors in speciation in flowering plants". Cold Spring Harb Symp quant Biol. 24 ...
... "magic trait" or a trait that is under ecological selection and in turn has a side effect on reproductive behavior. In a ... Via, S (1999). "Reproductive Isolation between sympatric races of Pea Aphids I. gene flow restriction and habitat choice". ... 2001). "Reproductive isolation caused by colour pattern mimicry". Letters to Nature. 411: 302-305. Kondrashov, A.S.; Kondrashov ... Usually complete reproductive isolation does not occur until many generations, but behavioral or morphological differences ...
Hodges SA; JB Whittall; M Fulton & JY Yang (2002). "Genetics of floral traits influencing reproductive isolation between ... These traits include flower shape, size, colour, odour, reward type and amount, nectar composition, timing of flowering, etc. ... And the floral traits affect efficiency of transfer: columbine flowers were experimentally altered and presented to hawkmoths, ... An analysis of flower traits and visitation in 49 species in the plant genus Penstemon found that it was possible to separate ...
"Genetics of Floral Traits Influencing Reproductive Isolation between Aquilegia formosa and Aquilegia pubescens". The American ... ensures reproductive isolation and can be a cause of speciation. Aquilegia petals show an enormous range of petal spur length ... ISBN 1-930723-25-3 HTML fulltext Fulton, M.; Hodges, S. A. (1999). "Floral isolation between Aquilegia formosa and Aquilegia ...
Genetics of floral traits influencing reproductive isolation between Aquilegia formosa and A. pubescens. American Naturalist ... Floral isolation between Aquilegia formosa and A. pubescens. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 266: 2247- ... Reproductive Biology. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 9 December 2014. [1] Archived July 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine ...
Species recognition traits play a central role in both the origin and maintenance of reproductive isolation. Furthermore, a ... because juvenile males raised in acoustic isolation and tutored with artificial recordings choose to learn only songs that ...
One of the strongest forms of reproductive isolation in nature is sexual isolation: traits in organisms involving mating. This ... changes after complete reproductive isolation (and further isolation thereafter) are a form of reproductive character ... Roger Butlin demarcated incomplete post-zygotic isolation from complete isolation, referring to incomplete isolation as ... Any traits that promote isolation may be subjected to reinforcement such as mating signals (e.g. courtship display), signal ...
One hypothesis is that a rapid change in plumage, in conjunction with some other traits, may have caused reproductive isolation ...
This is often the result of selection over traits which are genetically correlated to reproductive isolation, thus speciation ... natural selection pressures on the traits that directly or indirectly bring about the evolution of reproductive isolation". ... incipient reproductive isolation appeared as a result to adaptation to different ecological conditions between native and non- ... to test for reproductive isolation between "ecologically divergent pairs of populations than ecologically similar ones": a by- ...
This preference could result in reproductive isolation if two populations came into contact again. There is a similar trend ... Many phenotypic traits are thought to be selected for as they act as an indication of one of these three major traits. The ... Indicator traits are those that signal good overall quality of the individual. Traits that are perceived as attractive must ... Darwin proposed two explanations for the existence of such traits: these traits are useful in male-male combat or they are ...
These incompatibilities cause reproductive isolation, giving rise to-sometimes rapid-speciation events. Furthermore, two ... and that an isolated population's reproductive traits evolve enough as to prevent interbreeding upon potential secondary ... Eventually, a growth in population size paired with novel female mate preferences will give rise to reproductive isolation from ... Soc., 13: 31-34 J. N. Ahearn (1980), "Evolution of behavioral reproductive isolation in a laboratory stock of Drosophila ...
Adaptive significance refers to the expression of a trait that affects fitness, measured by an individual's reproductive ... which leads to reproductive isolation.[16] Sensory bias has been demonstrated in guppies, freshwater fish from Trinidad and ... Adaptive traits are those that produce more copies of the individual's genes in future generations. Maladaptive traits are ... Males' reproductive successes are often limited by access to mates, whereas females' reproductive successes are more often ...
... on fungal evolutionary genomics have shown pleiotropic traits that simultaneously affect adaptation and reproductive isolation ... while selection on only one trait would decrease the positive correlation between the two traits. Eventually, traits that ... Since a single toxin gene or virulence allele can grant the ability to colonize the host, adaptation and reproductive isolation ... Chickens exhibit various traits affected by pleiotropic genes. Some chickens exhibit frizzle feather trait, where their ...
The mechanisms of reproductive heritability and the origin of new traits remained a mystery. Towards this end, Darwin developed ... Indeed, chromosome doubling within a species may be a common cause of reproductive isolation, as half the doubled chromosomes ... Consequently, organisms with traits that give them an advantage over their competitors are more likely to pass on their traits ... These traits are said to be "selected for." Examples of traits that can increase fitness are enhanced survival and increased ...
... natural selection pressures on the traits that directly or indirectly bring about the evolution of reproductive isolation". ... Eventually, if reproductive isolation is achieved, it may lead to a separate species. However, reproductive isolation between ... Habitat differences may be more important in the development of reproductive isolation than the isolation time. Caucasian rock ... This validates the reproductive isolation mechanism, a key component of speciation. There is debate as to the rate at which ...
In 2015, a study looked at the genome sequences of pigs, and found that the assumption of reproductive isolation and strong ... The conclusion was that recurrent selection for domestic traits likely counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from ... and relied on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. Despite gene flow between domestic and wild pigs, the ... and are therefore expected to contain the genes responsible for reproductive isolation between species. In the following years ...
Increased prezygotic isolation, which is associated with reproductive character displacement, has been observed in cicadas of ... character displacement strengthens the reproductive barriers between sympatric species by encouraging the divergence of traits ... Such speciation may be a product of reproductive isolation - which prevents hybrid offspring from being viable or able to ... Thus, secondary contact does not always result in total reproductive isolation, as has often been predicted. The parasitic ...
The other process is speciation, in which new species arise, typically through reproductive isolation. A favourite example used ... 3. An adaptive trait is an aspect of the developmental pattern of the organism which enables or enhances the probability of ... where the question of reproductive isolation is complex. Adaptation is not always a simple matter where the ideal phenotype ... From this we see that adaptation is not just a matter of visible traits: in such parasites critical adaptations take place in ...
... and relied on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. The study found that the assumption of reproductive ... The study concluded that human selection for domestic traits likely counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild ... "Feral Hog Reproductive Biology". 16 May 2012.. *^ "G2312 Artificial Insemination in Swine: Breeding the Female , University of ... Reproductive Behavior in Farm and Laboratory Animals11th Annual Meeting of the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology. 52 (1 ...
Ernst Mayr recognised the key importance of reproductive isolation for speciation in his Systematics and the Origin of Species ... By effect on a trait[edit]. Selection has different effects on traits. Stabilizing selection acts to hold a trait at a stable ... If the traits that give these individuals a reproductive advantage are also heritable, that is, passed from parent to offspring ... Even if the reproductive advantage is very slight, over many generations any advantageous heritable trait becomes dominant in ...
Ernst Mayr recognised the key importance of reproductive isolation for speciation in his Systematics and the Origin of Species ... If the traits that give these individuals a reproductive advantage are also heritable, that is, passed from parent to offspring ... Even if the reproductive advantage is very slight, over many generations any advantageous heritable trait becomes dominant in ... Speciation requires a degree of reproductive isolation-that is, a reduction in gene flow. However, it is intrinsic to the ...
Wolbachia causes speciation through reproductive isolation. Some hosts evolve with a dependency on Wolbachia for reproductive ... This is one of the ways in which Wolbachia infections can lead to speciation, because females evolve traits that allow them to ... Over time, bacterial presence in a population can lead to complete reproductive isolation of that population from uninfected ... In addition, when prey availability increases, the Phytoseiidae kill more prey during reproductive cycles, and the ratio of ...
... has been suggested that sexual isolation caused by differences in mating behaviours is a precursor for reproductive isolation ( ... Many phenotypic traits are thought to be selected for as they act as an indication of one of these three major traits. The ... Indicator traits signal good overall quality of the individual. Traits perceived as attractive must reliably indicate broad ... Darwin proposed two explanations for the existence of such traits: these traits are useful in male-male combat or they are ...
The study found that the assumption of reproductive isolation with population bottlenecks was not supported. The study ... The study concluded that human selection for domestic traits likely counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild ... involved few individuals and relied on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. ... Believers in Chinese astrology associate each animal with certain personality traits (see: Pig (zodiac)). In Christianity the ...
... and relied on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms. The study found that the assumption of reproductive ... The study concluded that human selection for domestic traits likely counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild ... Female reproductive tract of a pig. Pig fetus. Colin P. Groves (1995). "On the nomenclature of domestic animals" (PDF). ... Reproductive Behavior in Farm and Laboratory Animals11th Annual Meeting of the Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology. 52 (1 ...
... on fungal evolutionary genomics have shown pleiotropic traits that simultaneously affect adaptation and reproductive isolation ... while selection on only one trait would decrease the positive correlation between the two traits. Eventually, traits that ... Chickens exhibit various traits affected by pleiotropic genes. Some chickens exhibit frizzle feather trait, where their ... Over time, that locus would affect two traits by interacting with a second locus. Directional selection for both traits during ...
... hybrid necrosis has practical implications in plant breeding as it prevents the combining of desirable traits from related ... The evolution of reproductive isolating barriers that prevent gene flow between species is essential to the process of ... One such barrier is intrinsic postzygotic isolation, which proceeds as hybrid sterility or inviability, and is commonly ...
Nevertheless, the detected differences were not significant, suggesting that reproductive isolation is not evolving among the ... It has been recognized that plasticity itself is a trait subject to natural selection and evolutionary change (Williams, 1966 ... suggesting that despite the reproductive isolation, host groups are not evolving. These results are discussed in the context of ... fraterculus have provided evidence of prezygotic reproductive isolation due in part to asynchronies in the daily patterns of ...
We analyse the effects of SVs on gene expression, quantitative traits and intrinsic reproductive isolation in the ye … ... Transient structural variations have strong effects on quantitative traits and reproductive isolation in fission yeast Nat ... We analyse the effects of SVs on gene expression, quantitative traits and intrinsic reproductive isolation in the yeast ... whereas rearrangements are strongly associated with reproductive isolation. Collectively, these findings have broad ...
However, some reproductive isolation traits hindered their normal hybridization and fructification, which was mainly caused by ... On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were ... On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were ... In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map ...
Genetic linkage of ecological specialization and reproductive isolation in pea aphids. Nature 412: 904-907. *CrossRef , ... Shared quantitative trait loci underlying the genetic correlation between continuous traits. Mol. Ecol. 16: 4195-4209. *Wiley ... Note that all traits are included in one analysis, treating the same trait measured in separate environments as two (possibly ... Thus, trait expression in the field (at least for the performance traits measured here) is strongly buffeted by the more ...
3.1 Expression of parental traits. *3.2 Mechanisms of reproductive isolation. *3.3 Speciation ... Mechanisms of reproductive isolation[edit]. Main article: Reproductive isolation. Interspecific hybrids are bred by mating ... Expression of parental traits[edit]. Hybrid between Lady Amhersts pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) and another species, ... Baker, H. G. (1959). "Reproductive methods as factors in speciation in flowering plants". Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 24 ...
1990 Microorganisms associated with chromosome destruction and reproductive isolation between two insect species. Nature 346: ... Cause of trait: We tested the hypothesis that the cause of this trait was bacterial through attempting to cure the trait by ... Our study found no effect of age on the penetrance of the trait, but a strong effect of temperature on this trait. This differs ... We therefore examined the male-killing trait of Drosophila bifasciata. The male-killing trait born by 5-7% of female D. ...
Selection on oviposition traits generates reproductive isolation between two pine sawflies. 29 ... Understanding The Impact of Directional Selection on the Evolution of Human Quantitative Traits. ...
Quantitative Trait Loci • Quantitative Trait, Heritable • Recombination, Genetic • Reproduction • Reproductive Isolation • ...
... "magic trait" or a trait that is under ecological selection and in turn has a side effect on reproductive behavior. In a ... Via, S (1999). "Reproductive Isolation between sympatric races of Pea Aphids I. gene flow restriction and habitat choice". ... 2001). "Reproductive isolation caused by colour pattern mimicry". Letters to Nature. 411: 302-305. Kondrashov, A.S.; Kondrashov ... Usually complete reproductive isolation does not occur until many generations, but behavioral or morphological differences ...
Each island is physically diverse, allowing for natural selection to occur, which can lead to reproductive isolation. This type ... Gradually, the variant trait will become dominant. Theoretically, this would happen with both of the newly isolated populations ... resulting in reproductive isolation.. *The geographic barrier ends. The two populations now have the opportunity to interbreed ... The newly isolated populations now go through a period of isolation. Some of the individuals within a population might exhibit ...
... reproductive isolation (Moyle and Nakazato 2010), and leaf traits (Holtan and Hake 2003; Chitwood et al. 2013). With these data ... 2001 Chromosomal inversions and the reproductive isolation of species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98(21): 12084-12088. ... Sample sizes for stomatal and trichome traits were: nSL = 48, nSP = 7, and . For all traits, two leaves per plant were ... Many traits in tomato and other species, including some traits in this study, are highly polygenic (Lippman et al. 2007), which ...
Transient structural variations have strong effects on quantitative traits and reproductive isolation in fission yeast. Nat. ... Cell culture and DNA isolation. The cancer cell lines (COLO-829 ATCC CRL-1974, COLO-829BL ATCC CRL-1980, HCC-1143 ATCC CRL-2321 ...
Transient structural variations have strong effects on quantitative traits and reproductive isolation in fission yeast. ... Direct isolation of poly(A)+ RNA from 4 M guanidine thiocyanate-lysed cell extracts using locked nucleic acid-oligo(T) capture. ...
Transient structural variations have strong effects on quantitative traits and reproductive isolation in fission yeast. ...
Additive traits lead to feeding advantage and reproductive isolation, promoting homoploid hybrid speciation. Molecular Biology ... Klauke, N., Masello, J.F., Quillfeldt, P. & Segelbacher, G. (2009) Isolation of tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the ... Gladbach, A., Gladbach, D.J., Kempenaers, B. & Quillfeldt, P. (2010) Female-specific colouration, carotenoids and reproductive ... Male achromatic wing colouration is related to body condition and female reproductive investment in a dichromatic species, the ...
Genetic differentiation between populations can cause reproductive isolation and ultimately lead to the generation of new ... life history traits in host-parasite interactions in rodents and nematodes. - Evolution of dispersal and of host specialization ... Diversification of host-parasite population structures via life history traits * Evolution of dispersal and host specialization ... Diversification of host-parasite population structures via life history traits * Evolution of dispersal and host specialization ...
Incomplete reproductive isolation in the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus) hybrid zone in the northwest Atlantic: ... These are considered species-specific taxonomic traits in the genus Mytilus (Popham, 1979; Crespo et al.. Diferencias en la ... which undergoes seasonal variations in biochemical composition and in its cellular structure in relation to the reproductive ...
Hodges SA; JB Whittall; M Fulton & JY Yang (2002). "Genetics of floral traits influencing reproductive isolation between ... These traits include flower shape, size, colour, odour, reward type and amount, nectar composition, timing of flowering, etc. ... And the floral traits affect efficiency of transfer: columbine flowers were experimentally altered and presented to hawkmoths, ... An analysis of flower traits and visitation in 49 species in the plant genus Penstemon found that it was possible to separate ...
Evolutionary changes in traits involved in both ecological divergence and mate choice may produce reproductive isolation and ... We suggest that ecologically influenced changes in the production of mbCHCs have contributed to reproductive isolation between ... such divergence could lead to rapid reproductive isolation and speciation. However, there are very few experimental ... Chung et al. (p. 1148, published online 13 February) now demonstrate that specific cuticular hydrocarbons are a dual trait that ...
Supergenes are clusters of several loci, each affecting a different morphological or behavioural trait; tight physical linkage ... eventually leading to reproductive isolation and speciation. Despite the panoply of complex polymorphisms presumably controlled ... Supergenes are clusters of several loci, each affecting a different morphological or behavioural trait; tight physical linkage ...
The evolution of reproductive isolation in spatially structured populations. Evolution 56:1859-1962. ... Among-population variation and correlations in sexually dimorphic traits in Silene latifolia. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. ... 2009 Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the white campion, Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae ...
Yeh, J., & Servedio, M. R. (2015). Reproductive isolation with a learned trait in a structured population. Evolution,69(7), ... Yeh, J. (2019). Assortative mating by an obliquely transmitted local cultural trait promotes genetic divergence: A model. The ...
a) Diversifying selection without facilitation, and reproductive isolation that eventually arises as a by-product of trait ... such as leaf traits, plant stature traits, and root traits, need to be considered as well (see [79]).. A key trait would be ... trait divergence and ultimately reproductive isolation between populations may be observed (Figure 1(a)). An alternative ... Dotted lines denote reproductive isolation. A common starting point is immigration of genotypes from the favorable part of the ...
Hydrocarbon divergence and reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13: 151.. ... Neutral and selection-driven decay of sexual traits in asexual stick insects. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological ... Does pheromone biology of Lambdina athasaria and Lambdina pellucidaria contribute to their reproductive isolation? Journal of ... An alternative reproductive tactic: a parasitoid wasp gathers and guards a harem by pheromone-tagging virgins. Behavioural ...
  • As well as being of interest in terms of evolution, hybrid necrosis has practical implications in plant breeding as it prevents the combining of desirable traits from related species in commercial cultivars. (bl.uk)
  • Considering the results from previous studies, the divergent lineages may be better explained by secondary contact after allopatric isolation because of Pleistocene climate changes, but other hypotheses cannot be definitively ruled out because of the lack of representative samples from the other distribution region and its relatives. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We trace the origin of this differentiation using demographic modelling and find the most likely scenario is that at least part of the genetic differentiation is older than the Baltic Sea and is a result of isolation of two lineages prior to the current contact over the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone. (gu.se)
  • After 5 years of adaptation in allopatry, prezygotic isolation evolved only among divergently selected lines. (ualberta.ca)
  • In this study, we discovered that a chromosomal inversion polymorphism is geographically widespread, and we test the extent to which it contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation under natural field conditions. (nih.gov)
  • 2013). Therefore, the extent to which 2 mechanisms, negative frequency dependence and microhabitat melanic traits are honest signals is unclear. (deepdyve.com)
  • Finally, genetic correlations between stomatal traits measured in this study and data on carbon isotope discrimination from the same ILs support a functional hypothesis that the distribution of stomata affects the resistance to CO 2 diffusion inside the leaf, a trait implicated in climatic adaptation in wild tomatoes. (genetics.org)
  • Although this hypothesis remains controversial, the involvement of imprinted genes in placentation suggests a role in reproductive isolation. (bioone.org)
  • Reinforcement can lead to a sympatric divergence (character displacement) in any trait that reduces the likelihood of mating or fertilisation between diverging taxa, including secondary sexual traits, mating behaviour and traits affecting enzymatic communication between egg and sperm. (els.net)