A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
The hairs which project from the edges of the EYELIDS.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, the transparent membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye, resulting in symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, burning, discharge, and increased sensitivity to light.
Eyelid diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the function, structure, or appearance of the eyelids, including inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, congenital, and traumatic disorders, which can impact vision, comfort, and overall ocular health.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
The turning inward (inversion) of the edge of the eyelid, with the tarsal cartilage turned inward toward the eyeball. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An infection of the eyes characterized by the presence in conjunctival epithelial cells of inclusion bodies indistinguishable from those of trachoma. It is acquired by infants during birth and by adults from swimming pools. The etiological agent is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS whose natural habitat appears to be the genito-urinary tract. Inclusion conjunctivitis is a less severe disease than trachoma and usually clears up spontaneously.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nepal" is not a medical term that has a definition in the field of medicine. It is actually the name of a country located in South Asia, known officially as the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
Conjunctival diseases refer to a broad range of disorders that affect the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane covering the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer layer of the eyeball, causing symptoms such as redness, itching, irritation, discharge, and/or inflammation.
Subacute inflammation of the inguinal lymph glands caused by certain immunotypes of CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. It is a sexually transmitted disease in the U.S. but is more widespread in developing countries. It is distinguished from granuloma venereum (see GRANULOMA INGUINALE), which is caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.
Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE. This is the source of the familiar cashew nuts, which are heat treated to remove the irritant toxin. Cashew nut shell liquid (frequently abbreviated as CNSL) is a major source of alkenyl phenolic compounds, especially ANACARDIC ACIDS, cardol, and cardanol.
Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.

Current trends in trachoma in a previously hyperendemic area. The Trachoma Study Group. (1/426)

In response to reports of an excessive number of cases of trachoma at the end of 1995 from the western parts of the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, 837 children in the age-group 1-10 years were examined in three villages from where the maximum number of cases hailed. Clinically, the prevalence of trachoma was found to be 8.5% (71). The prevalence was significantly higher in males as compared to females (p < 0.05); and was observed to increase with age. 85.9% (61) of the clinically diagnosed children were active infective cases. 54.9% (39) of the clinically diagnosed cases showed the presence of antigen in the upper tarsal conjunctival scraping from the affected eye, using the Chlamydia trachomatis direct specimen kit (Syva MicroTrak, UK). It was concluded that ophthalmologists must be reoriented to the clinical diagnosis of trachoma to prevent overdiagnosis.  (+info)

Trachoma: can trichiasis be treated with a sticking-plaster? A randomized clinical trial in China. (2/426)

Trachoma is the most frequent cause of preventable blindness in the world. At the trichiasis/entropion stage, lid surgery is recommended, but many patients only use epilation, which does not prevent loss of vision. We developed a new treatment that should be more accessible than lid surgery and more effective than epilation: a sticking plaster that forces eyelashes back to their correct position. The first randomized controlled trial was conducted in Shanghai with 57 patients to compare the plaster method with epilation. After 3 months of follow-up, with no attrition, 67% of those treated by the new method presented a good clinical status, vs none of those treated by epilation (P < 0.001). The new treatment was well tolerated and lid function remained normal. Although our results show overwhelming benefit of this new, simple treatment for trachoma at the trichiasis stage, more research is needed at the primary health care level and in other settings to determine the potential use of the new method on a large scale and by nonspecialists.  (+info)

Reliability of clinical diagnosis in identifying infectious trachoma in a low-prevalence area of Nepal. (3/426)

The WHO Alliance for Global Elimination of Trachoma by 2020 has increased the need to identify ocular chlamydial infections by clinical examination in areas of both high and low prevalence. The relationship between clinically active trachoma (as defined by clinical examination) and chlamydial infection is known for areas with hyperendemic trachoma, but not for areas with a low prevalence of the clinical disease. In the present study, we examined, photographed, and DNA tested the conjunctivae of children in the Surkhet district of mid-western Nepal, an area known to have a low prevalence of clinically active trachoma. Although 6% of the children aged 10 years and under were found to have clinically active trachoma, none were found to have chlamydia infection by the most sensitive DNA amplification tests available. A very low prevalence of clinically active trachoma is not necessarily evidence of the presence of chlamydial infection. Therefore, the WHO policy of not recommending an intensive trachoma control effort when the prevalence of clinically active trachoma is less than 10% in children is appropriate for this area of Nepal.  (+info)

Alterations in the conjunctival bacterial flora following a single dose of azithromycin in a trachoma endemic area. (4/426)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The World Health Organisation has recommended repeated mass treatment of children in trachoma endemic areas with oral azithromycin. While chlamydia, the causative agent of trachoma, remains universally sensitive to azithromycin, there is concern that large scale programmes may alter the bacterial flora and induce resistance in streptococcal species. In this study the effect of a single dose of azithromcyin on the prevalence, species distribution, and resistance of conjunctival bacterial flora was determined. METHODS: Baseline and 14 day follow up bacterial cultures were taken from the conjunctivae of 121 children who reside in a trachoma endemic area of Nepal. 91 children were treated with azithromycin at baseline and 31 children received deferred treatment at the 14 day follow up. RESULTS: Although the prevalence of bacterial pathogens decreased significantly with azithromycin treatment, a significant change in the distribution of specific bacterial pathogens could not be demonstrated. Streptococcal resistance to azithromycin was found significantly more frequently after treatment. No change in the prevalence, distribution, or resistance pattern was found in the untreated control group. CONCLUSION: Repeated mass treatment of trachoma endemic areas with oral azithromycin will have an effect on bacterial flora. However, further work needs to be done to determine if this will have any clinical relevance.  (+info)

Expression of gelatinase B in trachomatous conjunctivitis. (5/426)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gelatinase B is a matrix metalloproteinase involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) breakdown often associated with scarring and other pathological disorders. It was investigated whether gelatinase B is involved in the pathogenesis of ECM degradation associated with trachomatous conjunctivitis. METHODS: Conjunctival biopsy specimens obtained from six patients with active trachoma, six patients with active vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), and seven control subjects were studied. Immunohistochemical techniques and a specific monoclonal antibody against human gelatinase B were used, and a monoclonal antibody against macrophage CD68 to identify mononuclear cells with gelatinase B immunoreactivity. In addition, quantitative zymography was used to compare the activity of gelatinase B in conjunctival biopsy specimens from seven patients with active trachoma and seven control subjects. RESULTS: Gelatinase B was detected by immunohistochemistry only in polymorphonuclear cells located in the vascular lumens in three normal conjunctival biopsy specimens. In all trachoma specimens and in five VKC specimens, gelatinase B was localised in monocyte/macrophage cells, positive for the CD68 marker, and in polymorphonuclear cells. The majority of the latter cell type was located in intravascular spaces. Compared with VKC specimens, trachoma specimens showed significantly more immunoreactive gelatinase B monocyte/macrophage cells (52.3 (21.9) v 8.2 (6.4); p <0.001) and polymorphonuclear cells (23.2 (14.2) v 6.3 (5.4); p = 0. 013). Activated macrophages with giant cell morphology clearly stained with the gelatinase B specific monoclonal antibody were observed in trachoma specimens. Zymography revealed that gelatinase B levels in trachoma specimens were significantly higher than the levels found in normal conjunctiva (1739.6 (1078.3) v 609.3 (395.9) scanning units; p = 0.0127). CONCLUSIONS: The increased activity of gelatinase B and numbers of inflammatory cells containing gelatinase B in trachoma specimens suggest that this enzyme plays a part in the pathogenesis of conjunctival scarring in trachoma.  (+info)

Incidence of trichiasis in a cohort of women with and without scarring. (6/426)

BACKGROUND: Blindness from trachoma is a significant problem for many underdeveloped countries. While active trachoma is common in children, trichiasis, the potentially blinding sequella, develops in adulthood and affects mainly women. Little is known about factors associated with the development of trichiasis. METHODS: The 7-year incidence of trichiasis and its association with ocular chlamydia infection was examined in a cohort of women from a hyperendemic area. A total of 4,932 women 18 years and older, living in 11 villages in Central Tanzania, were examined in 1989. A follow-up examination in 1996 was performed on all women with scars living in six of the 11 villages and on a random sample of women without scars from the same villages. Trachoma was graded clinically, chlamydia infection was ascertained at follow-up using polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA). RESULTS: A total 523 of the women with scars and 503 of the women without scars were re-examined. Forty-eight of the women with scars (incidence, 9.2%) and three of the women without scars (0.6%) developed trichiasis in the 7-year period. Prevalence of chlamydia infection was significantly higher in the group with scars (11.7% versus 7.1%). Trichiasis cases were more likely to be older, and to have chlamydia infection at follow-up odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 2.5 (1.1-5.7). CONCLUSION: The 7-year incidence rate in the population with scars was high, over 1% per year. Ocular chlamydia infection was more common in the group with scars at baseline and was also associated with being a trichiasis case, suggesting the importance of potentially long-term chlamydia infection in the progression to trichiasis. Antibiotic distribution programmes for trachoma control should include women with scars.  (+info)

Preventing trachoma through environmental sanitation: a review of the evidence base. (7/426)

A review of the available evidence for the associations between environmental sanitation and transmission of trachoma was undertaken with a view to identifying preventive interventions. The WHO Global Alliance for the Elimination of Trachoma by the Year 2020 (GET2020) has adopted the "SAFE" strategy, consisting of four components: Surgery, Antibiotic treatment, promotion of Facial cleanliness and initiation of Environmental changes. This review of 19 studies selected from the 39 conducted in different parts of the world shows that there is clear evidence to support the recommendation of facial cleanliness and environmental improvements (i.e. the F and E components of the SAFE strategy) to prevent trachoma. Person-to-person contact and flies appear to constitute the major transmission pathways. Improvement of personal and community hygiene has great potential for a sustainable reduction in trachoma transmission. Controlled clinical trials are needed to estimate the relative contribution of various elements to the risk of transmission of trachoma and the effectiveness of different interventions. These could show the relative attributable risks and effectiveness of interventions to achieve improvement of personal hygiene and fly control by environmental improvements, alone or in combination, and with or without antibiotic treatment.  (+info)

Blinding and non-blinding trachoma: assessment of intensity of upper tarsal inflammatory disease and disabling lesions. (8/426)

A simplified method of evaluating both the intensity of active inflammatory disease and the visually disabling lesions of trachoma is presented. Evaluation of the active disease is based on the scoring of clinical signs, lymphoid follicles, and papillary hypertrophy. The irreversible lesions of trachoma are classified as conjunctival scarring, trichiasis and/or entropion, and corneal scarring.  (+info)

Trachoma is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It primarily affects the eyes, causing repeated infections that lead to scarring of the inner eyelid and eyelashes turning inward (trichiasis), which can result in damage to the cornea and blindness if left untreated.

The disease is spread through direct contact with eye or nose discharge from infected individuals, often through contaminated fingers, shared towels, or flies that have come into contact with the discharge. Trachoma is prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water, making it a significant public health issue in many developing countries.

Preventive measures include improving personal hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, promoting facial cleanliness, and providing safe water and sanitation facilities. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection and surgery for advanced cases with trichiasis or corneal damage.

Azithromycin is a widely used antibiotic drug that belongs to the class of macrolides. It works by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, which leads to the death of susceptible bacteria. This medication is active against a broad range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, atypical bacteria, and some parasites.

Azithromycin is commonly prescribed to treat various bacterial infections, such as:

1. Respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis
2. Skin and soft tissue infections
3. Sexually transmitted diseases, like chlamydia
4. Otitis media (middle ear infection)
5. Traveler's diarrhea

The drug is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, suspension, and intravenous solutions. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 250 mg to 500 mg per day, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

Like other antibiotics, azithromycin should be used judiciously to prevent antibiotic resistance. It is essential to complete the full course of treatment as prescribed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before finishing the medication.

'Chlamydia trachomatis' is a species of bacterium that is the causative agent of several infectious diseases in humans. It is an obligate intracellular pathogen, meaning it can only survive and reproduce inside host cells. The bacteria are transmitted through sexual contact, and can cause a range of genital tract infections, including urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and epididymitis. In women, chlamydial infection can also lead to serious complications such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

In addition to genital infections, 'Chlamydia trachomatis' is also responsible for two other diseases: trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, affecting mostly children in developing countries. It is spread through contact with contaminated hands, clothing, or eye secretions. LGV is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause inflammation of the lymph nodes, rectum, and genitals.

'Chlamydia trachomatis' infections are often asymptomatic, making them difficult to diagnose and treat. However, they can be detected through laboratory tests such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture. Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline. Prevention measures include safe sex practices, regular screening for STIs, and good hygiene.

Eyelashes are defined in medical terms as the slender, hair-like growths that originate from the edges of the eyelids. They are made up of keratin and follicles, and their primary function is to protect the eyes from debris, sweat, and other irritants by acting as a physical barrier. Additionally, they play a role in enhancing the aesthetic appeal of the eyes and can also serve as a sensory organ, helping to detect potential threats near the eye area.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gambia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in West Africa, officially known as the Republic of The Gambia. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sudan" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Northeast Africa, known as the Sudan or Sudan proper, and the southern region that seceded to become South Sudan in 2011. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Blindness is a condition of complete or near-complete vision loss. It can be caused by various factors such as eye diseases, injuries, or birth defects. Total blindness means that a person cannot see anything at all, while near-complete blindness refers to having only light perception or the ability to perceive the direction of light, but not able to discern shapes or forms. Legal blindness is a term used to define a certain level of visual impairment that qualifies an individual for government assistance and benefits; it usually means best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse in the better eye, or a visual field no greater than 20 degrees in diameter.

'Toilet facilities' refer to the designated area or room that contains fixtures and equipment for the purpose of personal hygiene and sanitation, including toilets (water closets), urinals, sinks (wash basins), and sometimes bathing facilities. They are essential in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, healthcare facilities, schools, workplaces, and public places to maintain cleanliness, promote health, and ensure dignity and comfort for individuals. Accessible and well-maintained toilet facilities are crucial for infection control, prevention of diseases, and ensuring the safety and convenience of users, especially those with special needs or disabilities.

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva, a thin, clear membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. The condition can cause redness, itching, burning, tearing, discomfort, and a gritty feeling in the eyes. It can also result in a discharge that can be clear, yellow, or greenish.

Conjunctivitis can have various causes, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, irritants (such as smoke, chlorine, or contact lens solutions), and underlying medical conditions (like dry eye or autoimmune disorders). Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include antibiotics, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory medications, or warm compresses.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices, like washing hands frequently and avoiding touching or rubbing the eyes, to prevent spreading conjunctivitis to others. If you suspect you have conjunctivitis, it's recommended that you consult an eye care professional for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

Eyelid diseases refer to a variety of medical conditions that affect the function and/or appearance of the eyelids. These can include structural abnormalities, such as entropion (inward turning of the eyelid) or ectropion (outward turning of the eyelid), as well as functional issues like ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid). Other common eyelid diseases include blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelid margin), chalazion (a blocked oil gland in the eyelid), and cancerous or benign growths on the eyelid. Symptoms of eyelid diseases can vary widely, but often include redness, swelling, pain, itching, tearing, and sensitivity to light. Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific diagnosis and may range from self-care measures and medications to surgical intervention.

The conjunctiva is the mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and covers the front part of the eye, also known as the sclera. It helps to keep the eye moist and protected from irritants. The conjunctiva can become inflamed or infected, leading to conditions such as conjunctivitis (pink eye).

Chlamydia is a bacterial infection caused by the species Chlamydia trachomatis. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) worldwide. The bacteria can infect the genital tract, urinary tract, eyes, and rectum. In women, it can also infect the reproductive organs and cause serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy.

Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, especially in women, which makes it easy to spread unknowingly. When symptoms do occur, they may include abnormal vaginal or penile discharge, burning sensation during urination, pain during sexual intercourse, and painful testicular swelling in men. Chlamydia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including urine tests and swab samples from the infected site.

The infection is easily treated with antibiotics, but if left untreated, it can lead to serious health complications. It's important to get tested regularly for STIs, especially if you are sexually active with multiple partners or have unprotected sex. Prevention methods include using condoms during sexual activity and practicing good personal hygiene.

An endemic disease is a type of disease that is regularly found among particular people or in a certain population, and is spread easily from person to person. The rate of infection is consistently high in these populations, but it is relatively stable and does not change dramatically over time. Endemic diseases are contrasted with epidemic diseases, which suddenly increase in incidence and spread rapidly through a large population.

Endemic diseases are often associated with poverty, poor sanitation, and limited access to healthcare. They can also be influenced by environmental factors such as climate, water quality, and exposure to vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Examples of endemic diseases include malaria in some tropical countries, tuberculosis (TB) in many parts of the world, and HIV/AIDS in certain populations.

Effective prevention and control measures for endemic diseases typically involve improving access to healthcare, promoting good hygiene and sanitation practices, providing vaccinations when available, and implementing vector control strategies. By addressing the underlying social and environmental factors that contribute to the spread of these diseases, it is possible to reduce their impact on affected populations and improve overall health outcomes.

Entropion is a medical condition in which the eyelid, particularly the lower eyelid, turns inward or rolls in toward the eye. This can cause the eyelashes or skin to rub against the cornea, which can lead to discomfort, irritation, and potentially damage the front surface of the eye. Entropion can be caused by various factors such as aging, eye inflammation, injury, or congenital defects. Treatment typically involves surgical correction to tighten or reposition the eyelid. If left untreated, entropion may result in corneal abrasions, infections, and vision loss.

Inclusion conjunctivitis is a type of bacterial conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva) that is caused by specific types of bacteria, most commonly Chlamydia trachomatis. It is also known as trachoma, which is a leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. The infection leads to the formation of small, inclusion-containing intracytoplasmic inclusions in the conjunctival epithelial cells, hence the name "inclusion conjunctivitis."

The symptoms of inclusion conjunctivitis include redness, irritation, and discharge from the eyes. It can also cause swelling of the lymph nodes near the ears. In severe cases, it can lead to scarring and damage to the cornea, potentially resulting in vision loss. The infection is typically spread through direct contact with eye or nose discharge from an infected person, and it can also be sexually transmitted.

Treatment for inclusion conjunctivitis usually involves antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline, to eliminate the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure that the infection is fully cleared and to prevent recurrence. In addition, good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding sharing personal items like towels and washcloths, can help prevent the spread of the infection.

I must clarify that "Ethiopia" is not a medical term or condition. Ethiopia is a country located in the Horn of Africa, known for its rich history and cultural heritage. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with diverse ethnic groups, languages, and religious practices.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please feel free to ask! I'm here to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nepal" is not a medical term. It is a country located in South Asia, between China and India. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tanzania" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of infectious diseases that primarily affect people living in poverty, in tropical and subtropical areas. These diseases are called "neglected" because they have been largely ignored by medical research and drug development, as well as by global health agencies and pharmaceutical companies.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified 20 diseases as NTDs, including:

1. Buruli ulcer
2. Chagas disease
3. Dengue and chikungunya
4. Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease)
5. Echinococcosis
6. Endemic treponematoses
7. Foodborne trematodiases
8. Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
9. Leishmaniasis
10. Leprosy (Hansen's disease)
11. Lymphatic filariasis
12. Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
13. Rabies
14. Schistosomiasis
15. Soil-transmitted helminthiases
16. Snakebite envenoming
17. Taeniasis/Cysticercosis
18. Trachoma
19. Mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and other deep mycoses
20. Yaws (Endemic treponematoses)

These diseases can lead to severe disfigurement, disability, and even death if left untreated. They affect more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in low-income countries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. NTDs also have significant social and economic impacts, contributing to poverty, stigma, discrimination, and exclusion.

Efforts are underway to raise awareness and increase funding for research, prevention, and treatment of NTDs. The WHO has set targets for controlling or eliminating several NTDs by 2030, including dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and human African trypanosomiasis.

Conjunctival diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the conjunctiva, which is the thin, clear mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye (known as the sclera). The conjunctiva helps to keep the eye moist and protected from irritants.

Conjunctival diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, itching, burning, discharge, grittiness, and pain. Some common conjunctival diseases include:

1. Conjunctivitis (pink eye): This is an inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or allergies. Symptoms may include redness, itching, discharge, and watery eyes.
2. Pinguecula: This is a yellowish, raised bump that forms on the conjunctiva, usually near the corner of the eye. It is caused by an overgrowth of connective tissue and may be related to sun exposure or dry eye.
3. Pterygium: This is a fleshy growth that extends from the conjunctiva onto the cornea (the clear front part of the eye). It can cause redness, irritation, and vision problems if it grows large enough to cover the pupil.
4. Allergic conjunctivitis: This is an inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. Symptoms may include redness, itching, watery eyes, and swelling.
5. Chemical conjunctivitis: This is an irritation or inflammation of the conjunctiva caused by exposure to chemicals such as chlorine, smoke, or fumes. Symptoms may include redness, burning, and tearing.
6. Giant papillary conjunctivitis (GPC): This is a type of allergic reaction that occurs in response to the presence of a foreign body in the eye, such as a contact lens. Symptoms may include itching, mucus discharge, and a gritty feeling in the eye.

Treatment for conjunctival diseases depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, over-the-counter medications or home remedies may be sufficient to relieve symptoms. However, more severe cases may require prescription medication or medical intervention. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience persistent or worsening symptoms of conjunctival disease.

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by certain strains of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It primarily affects the lymphatic system, leading to inflammation and swelling of the lymph nodes, particularly in the genital area.

The progression of LGV typically occurs in three stages:
1. Primary stage: A small painless papule or ulcer forms at the site of infection, usually on the genitals, within 3-30 days after exposure. This stage is often asymptomatic and resolves on its own within a few weeks.
2. Secondary stage: Within a few weeks to months after the initial infection, patients may develop painful inguinal or femoral lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes) in the groin area, which can sometimes break open and drain. Other possible symptoms include fever, chills, malaise, headache, and joint pain.
3. Tertiary stage: If left untreated, LGV can lead to chronic complications such as fibrosis (scarring) and strictures of the lymphatic vessels, genital elephantiasis (severe swelling of the genitals), and rectovaginal fistulas (abnormal connections between the rectum and vagina).

LGV is more common in tropical and subtropical regions but has been increasingly reported in industrialized countries, particularly among men who have sex with men. Diagnosis typically involves laboratory testing of fluid from an infected lymph node or a sample from the genital ulcer. Treatment consists of antibiotics such as doxycycline, azithromycin, or erythromycin, which can effectively cure the infection if administered promptly.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mali" is not a medical term or condition in English. Mali is the name of a country located in West Africa, and its capital city is Bamako. If you have any questions about Mali or anything else, please let me know!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Niger" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in West Africa, officially known as the Republic of Niger. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more details and I would be happy to help.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Bacterial conjunctivitis is a type of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the conjunctiva) that is caused by bacterial infection. The most common bacteria responsible for this condition are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae.

The symptoms of bacterial conjunctivitis include redness, swelling, and pain in the eye, along with a thick, sticky discharge that can cause the eyelids to stick together, especially upon waking up. Other symptoms may include tearing, itching, and sensitivity to light. Bacterial conjunctivitis is highly contagious and can spread easily through contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects such as towels, handkerchiefs, or makeup.

Treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis typically involves the use of antibiotic eye drops or ointments to eliminate the infection. In some cases, oral antibiotics may also be prescribed. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have bacterial conjunctivitis, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications such as corneal ulcers and vision loss.

Hair diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions affecting the hair shaft, follicle, or scalp. These conditions can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Hair shaft abnormalities: These are conditions that affect the structure and growth of the hair shaft. Examples include trichorrhexis nodosa, where the hair becomes weak and breaks easily, and pili torti, where the hair shaft is twisted and appears sparse and fragile.
2. Hair follicle disorders: These are conditions that affect the hair follicles, leading to hair loss or abnormal growth patterns. Examples include alopecia areata, an autoimmune disorder that causes patchy hair loss, and androgenetic alopecia, a genetic condition that leads to pattern baldness in both men and women.
3. Scalp disorders: These are conditions that affect the scalp, leading to symptoms such as itching, redness, scaling, or pain. Examples include seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, and tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp).
4. Hair cycle abnormalities: These are conditions that affect the normal growth cycle of the hair, leading to excessive shedding or thinning. Examples include telogen effluvium, where a large number of hairs enter the resting phase and fall out, and anagen effluvium, which is typically caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
5. Infectious diseases: Hair follicles can become infected with various bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to conditions such as folliculitis, furunculosis, and kerion.
6. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders can affect the hair, such as Menkes syndrome, which is a rare inherited disorder that affects copper metabolism and leads to kinky, sparse, and brittle hair.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of hair diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, often a dermatologist or a trichologist who specializes in hair and scalp disorders.

Sanitation is the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human feces and urine, and the cleaning of homes, workplaces, streets, and other spaces where people live and work. This includes the collection, transport, treatment, and disposal or reuse of human waste, as well as the maintenance of hygienic conditions in these areas to prevent the spread of diseases.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines sanitation as "the use of toilets or latrines that safely dispose of human waste, as well as the safe management of human waste at the household, community, and national levels." Sanitation is an essential component of public health and is critical for preventing the spread of infectious diseases such as cholera, typhoid, hepatitis A, and polio.

Poor sanitation can have serious consequences for individuals and communities, including increased risk of disease and death, decreased productivity, reduced economic growth, and negative impacts on social and mental well-being. Providing access to safe sanitation is a key target of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with a goal to ensure that everyone has access to adequate and equitable sanitation by 2030.

A cicatrix is a medical term that refers to a scar or the process of scar formation. It is the result of the healing process following damage to body tissues, such as from an injury, wound, or surgery. During the healing process, specialized cells called fibroblasts produce collagen, which helps to reconnect and strengthen the damaged tissue. The resulting scar tissue may have a different texture, color, or appearance compared to the surrounding healthy tissue.

Cicatrix formation is a natural part of the body's healing response, but excessive scarring can sometimes cause functional impairment, pain, or cosmetic concerns. In such cases, various treatments may be used to minimize or improve the appearance of scars, including topical creams, steroid injections, laser therapy, and surgical revision.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Maps as Topic" is not a recognized medical term or concept in the field of medicine. The term "maps" can be used in a medical context to refer to visual representations of data, such as anatomical diagrams or genetic maps. However, without further context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition of "Maps as Topic" in a medical sense.

If you could provide more information about the context in which this term is being used, I may be able to give a more specific and accurate answer.

'Anacardium' is the medical term for a genus of trees and shrubs that belong to the family Anacardiaceae. The most well-known species in this genus is Anacardium occidentale, which is commonly known as the cashew nut tree.

The cashew nut grows outside of a fruit called the cashew apple, which is also edible and has various uses in different cultures. The tree's bark, leaves, and sap have been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including skin diseases, diarrhea, and fever. However, it's important to note that some parts of the cashew tree, particularly the raw nuts and the sap, contain a caustic resin called urushiol, which can cause an allergic reaction in susceptible individuals.

In addition to its medicinal uses, Anacardium occidentale is also commercially important as a source of cashew nuts, cashew apple juice, and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), which has various industrial applications.

A dental hygienist is a licensed healthcare professional who works as part of the dental team, providing educational, clinical, and therapeutic services to prevent and control oral diseases. They are trained and authorized to perform various duties such as:

1. Cleaning and polishing teeth (prophylaxis) to remove plaque, calculus, and stains.
2. Applying fluoride and sealants to protect tooth surfaces from decay.
3. Taking dental radiographs (x-rays) to help diagnose dental issues.
4. Providing oral health education, including proper brushing, flossing techniques, and nutrition counseling.
5. Performing screenings for oral cancer and other diseases.
6. Documenting patient care and treatment plans in medical records.
7. Collaborating with dentists to develop individualized treatment plans for patients.
8. Managing infection control protocols and maintaining a safe, clean dental environment.
9. Providing supportive services, such as applying anesthetics or administering nitrous oxide, under the direct supervision of a dentist (depending on state regulations).

Dental hygienists typically work in private dental offices but can also be found in hospitals, clinics, public health settings, educational institutions, and research facilities. They must complete an accredited dental hygiene program and pass written and clinical exams to obtain licensure in their state of practice. Continuing education is required to maintain licensure and stay current with advancements in the field.

The New York Times Photographs of trachoma patients Trachoma Atlas International Trachoma Initiative (CS1 maint: multiple names ... Most transmission of trachoma occurs within the family. McCallan in 1908 divided the clinical course of trachoma into four ... As of June 2022, 125 million individuals live in trachoma endemic areas and are at risk of trachoma-related blindness, and the ... Australia is the only developed country that has trachoma. In 2008, trachoma was found in half of Australia's very remote ...
2014) Trachoma celebicum (Schltr.) Garay (1972) Trachoma coarctatum (King & Pantl.) Garay (1972) Trachoma gamma (P.O'Byrne & J. ... 2014) Trachoma guamense (Ames) Garay, (1972) Trachoma latriniformis (P.O'Byrne & J.J.Verm.) Kocyan & Schuit. (2014) Trachoma ... 2014) Trachoma rhopalorrhachis (Rchb.f.) Garay (1972) Trachoma rumphii (J.J.Sm.) Kocyan & Schuit. (2014) Trachoma ... Trachoma binchinae (P.O'Byrne & J.J.Verm.) Kocyan & Schuit. (2014) Trachoma brevirhachis (L.O.Williams) Garay (1972) Trachoma ...
Wikispecies has information related to Trachoma speciosum. "Trachoma speciosum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families ( ... Trachoma speciosum was first formally described in 1989 by David Jones, Bruce Gray, Mark Clements and Jeffrey Wood and the ... Trachoma speciosum, commonly known as the showy spectral orchid, is an epiphytic or lithophytic orchid that forms clumps with ... Trachoma speciosum is an epiphytic or lithophytic herb that forms clumps with many thick roots supporting thick stems 50-100 ...
Wikispecies has information related to Trachoma stellatum. "Trachoma stellatum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families ( ... Trachoma stellatum was first formally described in 1989 by David Jones, Bruce Gray, Mark Clements and Jeffrey Wood and the ... Trachoma stellatum, commonly known as the starry spectral orchid, is an epiphytic or lithophytic clump-forming orchid with many ... Trachoma stellatum is an epiphytic or lithophytic herb that forms clumps with many thick roots supporting sometimes branching ...
Trachoma is an infectious disease Trachoma may also refer to: Trachoma (moth), a genus of moths in the family Ypsolophidae ... a genus of plants in the family Orchidaceae This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Trachoma. If an ...
"Trachoma papuanum". Orchids of New Guinea. Retrieved 9 January 2019. "Trachoma papuanum". Cook Islands Biodiversity & Natural ... Wikispecies has information related to Trachoma papuanum. "Trachoma papuanum". World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (WCSP ... Trachoma papuanum is an epiphytic or lithophytic herb that forms clumps with a few thin roots and branching stems 30-60 ... Trachoma papuanum, commonly known as the yellow spectral orchid, is an epiphytic or lithophytic clump-forming orchid with a ...
Trachoma is the primary source of infectious blindness in some parts of rural Africa and Asia and is a neglected tropical ... In the ancient world, it was known as the blinding disease trachoma. The disease may have been closely linked with humans and ... "Trachoma". Prevention of Blindness and Visual Impairment. World Health Organization. Archived from the original on January 28, ... Tang FF, Chang HL, Huang YT, Wang KC (June 1957). "Studies on the etiology of trachoma with special reference to isolation of ...
Trachoma is a purulent infection. Traditional treatments included scraping off the inside of the eyelids, roughening by ... John Vetch MD (1783-1835) was a Scottish army surgeon, now known for his early work on trachoma. The variant spelling Veitch of ... ISBN 0443010668.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Taylor, H. F. Lechmere (1913). "Trachoma". The ... but its scope in severe cases is recognised as modern medicine's trachoma. Stewart Duke-Elder considered that further pathogens ...
"International Trachoma Initiative ,". Trachoma.org. Retrieved 2016-12-17. "Home , Mectizan Donation Program". Mectizan.org. ... International Trachoma Initiative, Mectizan Donation Program, Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Public Health ... organization is a major partner in the global effort to eliminate three neglected tropical diseases by 2025-blinding trachoma, ...
"IMA World Health". Trachoma Coalition. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013. (Health charities in ...
The following chalk markings were used: B=back; C= conjunctivitis; CT= trachoma; E= eyes; F= face; Ft= feet; G= goiter; H= ...
Worldwide, trachoma results in the visual impairment of over 2 million people and the blindness of 1.2 million and is the main ... "Excreta, Flies and Trachoma". WELL Factsheet. Retrieved 27 September 2017. Emerson, P.M.; Bailey, R.L.; Mahdi, O.S.; Walraven, ... Emerson, P.M.; Bailey, R.L.; Walraven, G.E.; Lindsay, S.W. (2001). "Human and other faeces as breeding media of the trachoma ... It breeds in excreta, especially human faeces, and is the main insect vector of trachoma, a major cause of blindness. Bazaar ...
Trachoma is prevalent in places that lack the tools for basic hygiene, clean water, and adequate sanitation. The Center follows ... The Trachoma Control Program is working to improve sanitation in those communities by building latrines, providing corrective ... Center health workers also prevent transmission of trachoma - a bacterial infection that is the leading cause of preventable ... Paul M. Emerson, Matthew Burton, Anthony W. Solomon, Robin Bailey, & David Mabey, "The SAFE strategy for trachoma control: ...
Amies, C; Murray, N.L.; Scott, J.G.; Warren, R.S. (1953). "Trachoma in the South African Bantu; a survey in Sekukuniland". ... International Review of Trachoma. 30 (3): 405-10. PMID 13135066. Longmore, L. (1952). "Death and burial customs of the Bapedi ...
trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum. Trachoma can cause an asymptomatic proctitis, but the symptoms of lymphogranuloma ...
In 1976, Fred Hollows and teams of health workers set out on the National Trachoma and Eye Health Program with the aim to ... "The National Trachoma Program , Fred Hollows". The Fred Hollows Foundation. Retrieved 29 July 2020. "National Business ... eliminate trachoma and other eye conditions on rural and remote communities, and to record the status of eye health in rural ...
Trachoma due to C. trachomatis Uncomplicated skin infections due to S. aureus, S. pyogenes, or S. agalactiae Urethritis and ... Burton M, Habtamu E, Ho D, Gower EW (November 2015). "Interventions for trachoma trichiasis". The Cochrane Database of ...
"Trachoma guamense (Ames) Garay , Plants of the World Online , Kew Science". Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 2023-03-19. " ...
"Diagnosis and Assessment of Trachoma". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 17 (4): 982-1011. doi:10.1128/CMR.17.4.982-1011.2004. ...
Lewis went blind from trachoma. He was destitute and relied on his wife and acquaintances to survive. He died in Oklahoma on ...
Taylor, Hugh R. (25 September 2001). "eMJA: Taylor, Trachoma in Australia". Medical Journal of Australia. 175 (7): 371-372. doi ... Alcohol abuse continued to be a major issue in Aboriginal communities and third-world diseases like trachoma could be seen in ...
"Mapping trachoma to eliminate blindness". SciDev.Net. Retrieved 2016-02-23. SciDev.Net. "The hidden digital divide". SciDev.Net ... Mapping trachoma to eliminate blindness The hidden digital divide (nominated for the Kantar Information is Beautiful Awards ...
Many suffered from trachoma and conjunctivitis. Their parents, whose lives had been disrupted by colonialism, warfare, forcible ...
Sometimes referred to as trachoma glands. "Bruch's membrane": Innermost layer of the choroid. Bibliotheca zoologica Verzeichnis ...
Rivista Italiana de Trachoma e di Patologia Oculare virale ed esotica - Catania, Italy. Ophthalmic Literature - London, England ... International Journal for Trachoma - Marseille, France. L'Ophtalmologica - Basle, Switzerland L'Aggiornimenti di Terapia ... He was a pioneer in research into trachoma, congenital cataracts, modern extracapsular cataract extraction, corneal ...
Trachoma Garay Trichoglottis Blume Tuberolabium Yaman. Uncifera Lindl. Vanda R.Br. Vandopsis Pfitzer However, this ...
"What is trachoma". Archived from the original on September 22, 2016. JHubert H Fam (2019-11-21). "Onchocerciasis (African River ... In the RAAB (Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness) survey (2006-2007) Corneal opacity including Trachoma was mentioned as ... Ocular trauma Corneal ulceration Xerophthalmia, caused by Vitamin A deficiency Trachoma Onchocerciasis Mucous membrane ...
Agaba, Grace (17 October 2006). "Kids To Get Free Trachoma Treatment". New Vision (Kampala). Archived from the original on 18 ...
Tang, F. F.; Chang, H. L.; Huang, Y. T.; Wang, K. C. (June 1957). "Studies on the etiology of trachoma with special reference ... Tang, F. F.; Huang, Y. T.; Chang, H. L.; Wong, K. C. (1957). "Isolation of trachoma virus in chick embryo". Journal of Hygiene ...
He carried out extensive research on trachoma. His work on Molluscum Contagiosum was acknowledged in the famous Ophthalmology ...
However, trachoma causes more vision loss and blindness than any other infection in the world. ... Trachoma, caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, is rare in the United States. ... Antibiotics (A). Pfizer donates the antibiotic Zithromax™ to trachoma programs, and the International Trachoma Initiative ... 136 million people lived in trachoma-endemic areas and were at risk of trachoma blindness.2 ...
The New York Times Photographs of trachoma patients Trachoma Atlas International Trachoma Initiative (CS1 maint: multiple names ... Most transmission of trachoma occurs within the family. McCallan in 1908 divided the clinical course of trachoma into four ... As of June 2022, 125 million individuals live in trachoma endemic areas and are at risk of trachoma-related blindness, and the ... Australia is the only developed country that has trachoma. In 2008, trachoma was found in half of Australias very remote ...
Trachoma is an infection of the eye caused by bacteria called chlamydia. ... Trachoma is caused by infection with the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. The condition occurs around the world. It is most ... The bacteria that cause trachoma are spread through direct contact with infected eye, nose, or throat fluids. They can also be ... Contact your provider if you or your child recently visited an area where trachoma is common and you notice symptoms of ...
Trachoma. In this section:. *Status of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem ... facial cleanliness and environmental improvement for elimination of trachoma as a public health problem ...
Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of ocular morbidity. This disease is a chronic keratoconjunctivitis caused by the ... encoded search term (Trachoma) and Trachoma What to Read Next on Medscape ... Disclosure: Received grant/research funds from International Trachoma Initiative for researcher; Received member of trachoma ... Trachoma is caused by serovars A, B, Ba, and C of C trachomatis. Different serovars predominate in different families and in ...
Home Health Programs Trachoma Control Program Health Education Materials Library Trachoma Health Education Materials Library ... 4. Identify behaviors that would help control trachoma in this population.. 5. Determine what will influence your target ... Consider behaviors that lead to the transmission of trachoma. ...
The World Health Organization declared a major milestone after eliminating trachoma, a debilitating disease that causes ... The World Health Organization declared a major milestone after eliminating trachoma, a debilitating disease that causes ...
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by the Society for Science, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education (EIN 53-0196483).. ...
... blinding trachoma from those with non-blinding trachoma. In view of these developments and the importance of trachoma ... Approximately 6-9 million* people are blind from trachoma, and many more have suffered partial loss of vision.. Trachoma can be ... Prevention of Blindness: Trachoma Control MMWR 31(41);561-2 Publication date: 10/22/1982. Table of Contents. Article. ... Guide to trachoma control. Geneva: World Health Organization 1981.. POINT OF CONTACT FOR THIS DOCUMENT:. To request a copy of ...
... trachoma - Raising our voices to improve health around the world. ...
Trachoma is one of the oldest infectious diseases known to mankind. ... Trachoma is one of the oldest infectious diseases known to mankind. It is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis - a microorganism ... Trachoma was once endemic in most countries and affects about 21.4 million people of whom about 2.2 million are visually ... In spite of this, trachoma continues to be hyperendemic in many of the poorest and most remote poor rural areas. ...
The prevalence of trachoma has fallen dramatically, but improvement has plateaued and more work is urgently needed on hygiene ... A key to preventing trachoma is encouraging children to keep their faces clean, and Professor Taylor said a more orchestrated ... Australia remains the only developed country with endemic trachoma. Indigenous communities are the only place the disease is ... We need more timely reporting of data [about trachoma] to allow more intense targeted intervention in hot spots, Professor ...
Trichiasis is the painful, advanced stage of trachoma. Scarring from repeated infections cause the eyelashes to turn inward and ...
Trachoma infection can lead to vision impairment and blindness. The Program: Implementing a combination program known as the ... Track record: Theres strong evidence that surgery reduces trachoma trichiasis (the stage of trachoma that leads directly to ... "A global initiative to eliminate trachoma as a blinding disease, entitled GET 2020 (Global Elimination of Trachoma), was ... to control trachoma.1 Trachoma is an infection that can lead to vision impairment and blindness as well as pain (see our ...
Malawi has become the first country in southern Africa to eliminate the infectious eye disease trachoma, as confirmed by the ... Trachoma is the worlds leading infectious cause of blindness. In the past 20 years, the number of people at risk of trachoma ... Sightsavers began working in Malawi in the 1950s and helped to launch the Malawi Trachoma Elimination Programme in 2014. On 21 ... Malawi has become the first country in southern Africa to eliminate the infectious eye disease trachoma, as confirmed by the ...
Endemic trachoma continues to exist in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. The National Trachoma Surveillance and ... were found to have no cases of active trachoma and 55% were found to have endemic levels of trachoma. Treatment coverage of ... analysis and reporting of trachoma prevalence data and the documentation of trachoma control strategies in Australia. Data were ... Australian trachoma surveillance annual report, 2010.. Cowling CS, Povovic G, Liu BC, Ward JS, Snelling TL, Kaldor JM, Wilson ...
Trachoma is still the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide but there can now be little doubt that the target set in ... On 20 April, the WHO announced that The Gambia had met the targets for the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. ... Since 1998 more than 900 million doses have been donated, the number of people at risk of trachoma has been reduced from 1.5 ... In 1986 the treatment for trachoma recommended by the WHO was tetracycline ointment, to be applied to both eyes twice daily for ...
ITI is a program of The Task Force for Global Health. ...
Global Trachoma Mapping Project. 100 Million Worldwide at Risk for Blindness from Trachoma. ... The Global Trachoma Mapping Project is the largest ever project undertaken to track the prevalence of trachoma, the most common ...
Trachoma control includes mass drug administration (MDA) with antibiotics targeting coverage of at least 80%. Coverage is ... 2009). Estimation of population coverage for antibiotic distribution for trachoma control: A comparison of methods. ... Estimation of population coverage for antibiotic distribution for trachoma control: A comparison of methods ... Estimation of population coverage for antibiotic distribution for trachoma control: A comparison of methods. ...
The prevalence of trachoma ranged from 0 to 50% across wards with certain communities at much higher risk for trachoma than ... CONCLUSIONS: Although follicular trachoma is prevalent, intense inflammatory trachoma is relatively rare and scarring was not ... The prevalence of active trachoma was 23.6% (21.9% follicular and 1.7% intense inflammatory). Cicatricial trachoma was not seen ... Lower rates of trachoma were seen in families who lived in cement houses, had fewer people per room, more servants, more ...
The decision, after several rounds, that MDA is no longer needed is currently based on clinical signs of trachoma, but these ... which is recommended yearly for districts in which a trachoma problem has been found to exist. ... Author Summary Trachoma, caused by infection with a bacterium (chlamydia) is controlled by mass drug administration (MDA), ...
Trachoma is the worlds leading cause of infectious blindness.. Photo on top: Dr Bo Wiafe examining trachoma/ Credit: Operation ... Vanuatu eliminates trachoma as a public health problem. Vanuatu has been validated by the World Health Organization (WHO) for ... As a result of the meeting, Mali and Senegal, which are close to eliminating trachoma are now planning to share their knowledge ... One of the goals of this initial meeting of francophone countries was to get countries with well-developed trachoma elimination ...
Helen Keller International Trachoma, the worlds leading infectious cause of blindness, affects over 300 million people ... The Trachoma Update series is kindly sponsored by the International Trachoma Initiative, www.trachoma.org ... In the late 1990s, the prevalence of active trachoma - also known as follicular trachoma (TF) - was found to range from 23.1% ... Mali: achieving success along the path to trachoma elimination. Programme National de Lutte contre la Cécité. Bamako, Mali.. ...
Impact of mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma elimination on prevalence and azithromycin resistance of ... Impact of mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma elimination on prevalence and azithromycin resistance of ...
Impact of mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma elimination on prevalence and azithromycin resistance of ... Impact of mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma elimination on prevalence and azithromycin resistance of ... Impact of mass drug administration of azithromycin for trachoma elimination on prevalence and azithromycin resistance of ...
... and the burden of trachoma on women. Currently, systematic reviews on perceptions and practices relating to trachoma are ... INTRODUCTION: Trachoma is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, and Africa is the worst-affected continent. Synthesized ... Participants were people either with or without trachoma. A total of 90 findings were extracted, from which 10 categories were ... INCLUSION CRITERIA: Qualitative studies on the perceptions and practices relating to trachoma in both health care and community ...
Trachoma - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Symptoms of Trachoma Trachoma usually affects both eyes. The conjunctivae (the membranes that line the eyelid and cover the ... Doctors suspect trachoma based on the appearance of the eyes and on the duration of symptoms. The diagnosis of trachoma can be ... Prevention of Trachoma Because trachoma is contagious, reinfection commonly occurs. Access to water that is suitable for ...
  • The conjunctival inflammation is called "active trachoma" and is usually seen in children, especially those in preschool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Active trachoma can often be irritating and have a watery discharge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most commonly, children with active trachoma do not present with symptoms, as the low-grade irritation and ocular discharge is just accepted as normal, but further symptoms may include:[citation needed] Eye discharge Swollen eyelids Trichiasis (misaligned eyelashes) Swelling of lymph nodes in front of the ears Sensitivity to bright lights Increased heart rate Further ear, nose, and throat complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repeated episodes of reinfection within the family cause chronic follicular or intense conjunctival inflammation (active trachoma), which leads to tarsal conjunctival scarring. (medscape.com)
  • In 1 of 5 families, most children have active trachoma (as opposed to 1 in 5 children in most families). (medscape.com)
  • Thus 50 households with 1 member treated for active trachoma in the last 6 months were evaluated for active trachoma and for water and sanitation facilities. (who.int)
  • the rate of active trachoma was 3.5% in the children. (who.int)
  • However, improvements in the socioeco- cates antibiotics for active trachoma treat- nomic situation, although visible, have not ment. (who.int)
  • Oman was a trachoma-endemic coun- the situation of active trachoma in children try in the past. (who.int)
  • A Cochrane review evaluated 15 high-quality studies, which in total included 8,678 participants, and concluded that "there is some evidence that antibiotics reduce active trachoma but results are not consistent. (givewell.org)
  • support a beneficial effect of face washing alone or in combination with topical tetracycline in reducing active trachoma. (givewell.org)
  • Of the communities screened, 36% were found to have no cases of active trachoma and 55% were found to have endemic levels of trachoma. (edu.au)
  • The prevalence of active trachoma was 23.6% (21.9% follicular and 1.7% intense inflammatory). (bmj.com)
  • The primary treatment for active trachoma infection is the antibiotic azithromycin, which is effective in clearing the infection. (who.int)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) and their partners endorse the surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement (SAFE) strategy for trachoma control. (medscape.com)
  • The World Health Organization declared a major milestone after eliminating trachoma, a debilitating disease that causes blindness in sufferers, in seven countries, and making significant inroads in others. (theonion.com)
  • In 1975, the Twenty-Eighth World Health Assembly, in a resolution on the prevention of blindness, requested the Director General of the World Health Organization 'to encourage member countries to develop national programmes for the prevention of blindness, especially aimed at the control of trachoma, xerophthalmia, onchocerciasis, and other causes, and to introduce adequate measures for the early detection and treatment for other potentially blinding conditions such as cataract and glaucoma. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Health Organization recommends the SAFE Strategy (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental changes) to control trachoma. (givewell.org)
  • Malawi has become the first country in southern Africa to eliminate the infectious eye disease trachoma, as confirmed by the World Health Organization. (sightsavers.org)
  • Aboriginal children aged 1-14 years were screened using the World Health Organization grading criteria to diagnose and classify individual cases of trachoma. (edu.au)
  • Vanuatu has been validated by the World Health Organization (WHO) for eliminating trachoma as a public health problem. (iapb.org)
  • The World Health Organization has endorsed the implementation of the SAFE Strategy, which is a combination of activities designed to eliminate blinding trachoma. (cehjournal.org)
  • Unpublished studies were searched in MedNar, Index to Thesis, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global, World Health Organization, and individual governments' commissioned trachoma reports. (edu.au)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO), which has resolved to eliminate the disease by 2020, has developed a proven method to treat and prevent trachoma - the SAFE strategy - that is already being used in many countries. (hollows.org)
  • The activity was the result of global collaboration between the Yemen Ministry of Health, World Health Organization (WHO) and International Coalition of Trachoma Control members Sightsavers, The Fred Hollows Foundation, the International Trachoma Initiative and CBM. (hollows.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the SAFE strategy for trachoma control: Surgery for trichiasis, Antibiotics to clear infection, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvement to reduce transmission. (who.int)
  • Trachoma, the world's leading infectious cause of blindness, is one of 20 diseases classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a neglected tropical disease (NTD). (trachomacoalition.org)
  • The scarring distorts the upper tarsal plate and, in some individuals, leads to entropion and trichiasis (cicatricial trachoma). (medscape.com)
  • Trichiasis is the painful, advanced stage of trachoma. (changingthepresent.org)
  • There's strong evidence that surgery reduces trachoma trichiasis (the stage of trachoma that leads directly to blindness) and reasonably strong evidence that antibiotics distribution reduces infection rates. (givewell.org)
  • Synthesized evidence relating to the disease has focused on various aspects including epidemiology, control, health education, facial cleanliness, interventions for trachomatous trichiasis, and the burden of trachoma on women. (edu.au)
  • The estimated number of individuals with trachomatous trichiasis, the stage of trachoma that can cause blindness, reduced by 78% from 7.6 million in 2002 to 1.5 million in 2023. (trachomacoalition.org)
  • These clinical indicators include trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), which is an indication of ongoing transmission, and trachomatous trichiasis (TT), which occurs following repeated trachoma infections, causing eyelashes to point inwards and scratch the cornea. (trachomacoalition.org)
  • to evaluate the position of the upper eyelid margin and eye surface status in cicatricial trachoma without trichiasis (TS). (bvsalud.org)
  • Different degrees of upper lid entropion are already present in cicatricial trachoma even in the absence of trichiasis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Antibiotics (A). Pfizer donates the antibiotic Zithromax™ to trachoma programs, and the International Trachoma Initiative manages distribution. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibiotics are given annually to entire districts affected by trachoma. (cdc.gov)
  • SAFE refers to Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, ed directly from conjunctival samples from 101 trachoma pa- and Environmental improvements, specifically, surgery tients in Nepal. (cdc.gov)
  • Implementing a combination program known as the SAFE Strategy -- surgery, antibiotics distribution, facial cleaning (i.e., hygiene education), and environmental improvements (i.e., latrine building) -- to control trachoma and blindness. (givewell.org)
  • Doctors often give antibiotics to entire neighborhoods where there are many people with trachoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Thousands of people living in remote corners of war-torn Yemen have for the first time received antibiotics to treat trachoma, the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. (hollows.org)
  • Trachoma can be treated quickly and easily with antibiotics. (deadlyvibe.com.au)
  • Yes, trachoma is curable with appropriate treatment, usually antibiotics. (antibioticsforsale.com)
  • Trachoma is usually treated with antibiotics, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct complications. (antibioticsforsale.com)
  • This classification has been instrumental in mobilizing resources to better understand the epidemiology of trachoma and to scale up the WHO-endorsed SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, environmental improvement) for trachoma elimination. (trachomacoalition.org)
  • Mali, a land-locked country with 16.8 million people in West Africa, has historically been a country with a heavy burden of trachoma. (cehjournal.org)
  • Research from Ethiopia, which accounts for 52% of the global burden of trachoma , identified four key areas as affecting the successful transition of trachoma interventions into the national health system. (trachomacoalition.org)
  • Trachoma causes more vision loss and blindness than any other infection in the world. (cdc.gov)
  • Trachoma is an infection of the eye caused by bacteria called chlamydia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Trachoma is caused by infection with the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ocular immune responses, chlamydia trachomatis infection and clinical signs of trachoma before and after azithromycin mass drug administration in a treatment naïve trachoma-endemic Tanzanian community. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It summarizes present knowledge on the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of the disease, explains the most commonly used approach of large-scale trachoma treatment through control of infection transmission, and describes the more intensive treatment of individual cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Trachoma infection can lead to vision impairment and blindness. (givewell.org)
  • 1 Trachoma is an infection that can lead to vision impairment and blindness as well as pain (see our writeup on trachoma ). (givewell.org)
  • Trachoma , caused by a bacterial infection, remains a significant threat in the developing world and is already confirmed as being endemic in 53 countries. (hollows.org)
  • Trachoma is caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, and is spread through personal contact (such as through hands, clothes or bedding), and by flies that have been in contact with discharge from the eyes or nose of an infected person, according to the WHO. (voaafrica.com)
  • Trachoma - A chronic inflammatory eye disease due to infection with a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis. (en-academic.com)
  • Issues around trachoma infection and treatment were conveyed through a story telling session. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When a person suffers from the trachoma eye infection, their eyelashes painfully scratch their eye with each blink. (givehopeandhealing.org)
  • Trachoma is a contagious bacterial infection of the eye, leading to inflammation and scarring of the inner surface of the eyelids. (antibioticsforsale.com)
  • At the Proctor Foundation we use simple mathematical models to help us understand infection transmission rates as well as the most appropriate treatment plans for trachoma, the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. (ucsf.edu)
  • ABSTRACT Trachoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide with approximately 150 million people having active ocular infection and at least 5.5 million blind due to corneal scaring. (afribary.com)
  • Trachoma is a public health problem in 42 countries across Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Central and South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • French-speaking countries in West Africa are joining forces to eliminate trachoma under a new initiative spearheaded by The Task Force's International Trachoma Initiative (ITI). (iapb.org)
  • In September, ITI convened the first meeting of representatives of the ministries of health from 13 francophone countries in West Africa to discuss funding, logistics, and supply-chain management issues around the mass drug administration of antibiotic for eliminating trachoma as a public health problem. (iapb.org)
  • With support from a multitude of partners, the PNLC has become a leader in trachoma elimination across sub-Saharan Africa. (cehjournal.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to synthesize the perceptions and practices of community members relating to trachoma in Africa. (edu.au)
  • INTRODUCTION: Trachoma is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, and Africa is the worst-affected continent. (edu.au)
  • INCLUSION CRITERIA: Qualitative studies on the perceptions and practices relating to trachoma in both health care and community settings in Africa were considered for inclusion. (edu.au)
  • CONCLUSION: Various perceptions and practices relating to trachoma exist among community members in Africa. (edu.au)
  • Malawi has become the first country in southern Africa to eliminate trachoma, an eye disease responsible for blinding or visually impairing nearly two million people worldwide, a global charity said Thursday. (voaafrica.com)
  • Malawi is now ranked fifth in Africa after Ghana, Morocco, The Gambia and Togo to 'eliminate trachoma as a public health problem', Sightsavers, an NGO helping to put an end to avoidable blindness, said in a statement. (voaafrica.com)
  • One of the oldest diseases known to man, trachoma is present in most areas of the world and is especially prevalent in Asia and North Africa. (en-academic.com)
  • Trachoma is predominantly found in impoverished rural areas of Africa, Asia, and Central and South America. (who.int)
  • Our Trachoma Initiative in Africa worked at a large scale with numerous coordinating and implementing partners. (iapb.org)
  • Blinding endemic trachoma results from multiple episodes of reinfection that maintains the intense inflammation in the conjunctiva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blinding endemic trachoma occurs in areas with poor personal and family hygiene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health Organization developed the SAFE program with the We investigated whether a commercial Micro-ArrayTube goal of eliminating blinding trachoma by the year 2020. (cdc.gov)
  • This new information has led to a clearer definition of risk for the individual and for the community and has made it possible to distinguish communities with 'blinding trachoma' from those with 'non-blinding trachoma. (cdc.gov)
  • This new field guide presents simple and effective methods suitable for widespread implementation in underserved communities with blinding trachoma. (cdc.gov)
  • It stresses the importance of maximum participation of the people themselves in promotion of health care for the prevention and cure of blinding trachoma. (cdc.gov)
  • Blinding trachoma is addressed through the Surgery, Antibiotic (with azithromycin), Facial cleanliness and Environmental changes (SAFE) approach. (who.int)
  • ABSTRACT Oman aims to eliminate blinding trachoma by 2010. (who.int)
  • The blinding disease affects more than 21 million people, but it is estimated that an additional 180 million people worldwide live in areas where trachoma is highly prevalent and are at risk of going blind. (hollows.org)
  • Blinding trachoma has a devastating personal and economic impact on people living in some of the world's poorest countries. (hollows.org)
  • The country's first mass drug administration to protect people from blinding trachoma is a rare moment of positive news in Yemen, a country which has been ravaged by several years of civil war and where many face an inadequate water supply and poor sanitation - conditions that help trachoma thrive. (hollows.org)
  • Trachoma is a blinding disease caused by particular strains of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis . (who.int)
  • Blinding trachoma is targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2030, and whilst great progress has been made, hard-to-reach, under-served and marginalized communities can still suffer from high prevalence and resurgence of trachoma infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Blinding trachoma : a disease of poverty" by Khabir Ahmed, Pashtoon M. Kasi et al. (aku.edu)
  • Sightsavers said the achievement was the result of different actions including the wide distribution of antibiotic treatments, training local surgeons to manage more than 6,000 advanced cases of trachoma, and by promoting better hygiene in school campaigns. (voaafrica.com)
  • There were 6,030 cases of trachoma detected, resulting in a prevalence of 5.0% (95%CI 4.5;5.4). (scielo.br)
  • Background: Mass drug treatment with azithromycin (MDA) is part of the WHO-endorsed 'SAFE' strategy for trachoma control in endemic communities. (cdc.gov)
  • Research done in The Gambia in the early 1990s showed that a single oral dose of the antibiotic azithromycin was equally, if not more effective and, as a result of that study the manufacturer of azithromycin, Pfizer, agreed to donate it for the global elimination of trachoma for as long as it was needed. (rstmh.org)
  • ITI manages Pfizer's donation of antibiotic for trachoma elimination and is working with partners to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020. (iapb.org)
  • Treatment of trachoma consists of an antibiotic (such as azithromycin , doxycycline , or tetracycline ) taken by mouth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For instance, in some settings TT services are managed by eye health or medical units within the Ministry of Health, whereas other trachoma interventions such as antibiotic distribution are managed by public health units. (trachomacoalition.org)
  • Some 136 million people live in trachoma-endemic areas and are at risk. (voaafrica.com)
  • Untreated, repeated trachoma infections can result in a form of permanent blindness when the eyelids turn inward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Untreated, repeated trachoma infections result in entropion (the inward turning of the eyelids), which may result in blindness due to damage to the cornea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Batteiger BE, Tan M. Chlamydia trachomatis (trachoma and urogenital infections). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The species C trachomatis causes trachoma and also genital infections (serovars D-K) and lymphogranuloma venereum (serovars L1-L3). (medscape.com)
  • To eliminate infections with species trachoma was spread from the Middle East to Europe during other than C. trachomatis, longer treatment intervals might the Crusades and was a major cause of blindness during the be required ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The need for blindness prevention has led to a renewed interest in trachoma and associated infections, which are still the most important causes of preventable blindness in the world. (cdc.gov)
  • Trachoma results from infections with certain nonsexually transmitted strains of Chlamydia trachomatis . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Trachoma occurs especially under conditions of poverty, overpopulation, or poor sanitation and is often complicated by other eye infections of bacterial origin. (en-academic.com)
  • MDA has been associated with reduced trachoma prevalence and short-term reductions in other bacterial infections, but can also lead to increased circulation of macrolide-resistant bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Supported by the UK government, a consortium of the International Trachoma Initiative, other NGOs and academic institutions, led by Sightsavers, will carry out the mapping in more than 30 of the world's poorest countries, including over one third of African countries, in the next three years. (hollows.org)
  • Dr Danny Haddad, Director of the International Trachoma Initiative (ITI) who, together with The Fred Hollows Foundation, are supporting Ethiopia's Ministry of Health to deliver the program in Ethiopia commented: "It is exciting to be beginning this global survey in Ethiopia. (hollows.org)
  • Poor sanitation, crowded living conditions, and insufficient clean water and toilets can also increase the spread of trachoma. (medscape.com)
  • Trachoma is preventable through good hygiene practices and access to clean water and sanitation. (antibioticsforsale.com)
  • In many trachoma endemic areas factors like lack of water, lack of facial cleanliness among children, overcrowding in a household (especially of children) and poor environmental sanitation contribute to the transmission of the disease. (afribary.com)
  • This success in eliminating trachoma - the world's leading cause of infectious blindness - coming so soon after our country celebrated the elimination of elephantiasis in 2020, shows the fight against NTDs can be won. (sightsavers.org)
  • Trachoma - (Ancient Greek: rough eye ) is an infectious eye disease, and the leading [ [http://gnntdc.sabin.org/what/aboutntds.html About Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs)] ] cause of the world s infectious blindness. (en-academic.com)
  • The National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit, established in 2006, is responsible for the collation, analysis and reporting of trachoma prevalence data and the documentation of trachoma control strategies in Australia. (edu.au)
  • The intervention consisted of a workshop which included photovoice training, participants disseminating knowledge from the workshop within their villages, documentation of trachoma control in the community through photography and ending with a group discussion of the participants' photos. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Local health officials drove through conflict zones and past road blocks to the communities in rural Al Hodeidah and Ibb regions where trachoma - a painful but preventable eye disease - remains prevalent. (hollows.org)
  • Trachoma is a preventable condition that is almost entirely a disease of undeveloped countries. (deadlyvibe.com.au)
  • Is trachoma preventable? (antibioticsforsale.com)
  • Prevalence and risk factors for trachoma in Sarlahi district, Nepal. (bmj.com)
  • Hence, less access to water, crowding and lower socioeconomic status were risk factors for trachoma. (bmj.com)
  • Risk Factors For Trachoma: A Case Control Study. (afribary.com)
  • A case control survey to determine the risk factors for trachoma in the Yaala subdistrict was conducted among children aged 1-9 years and their mothers/caregivers using clinical examinations, observation studies and questionnaire administration. (afribary.com)
  • The selected schoolchildren underwent an external ocular examination, with a magnifying glass (2.5X), to detect clinical signs of trachoma according to the WHO criteria. (scielo.br)
  • These countries that share a common language can also share the resources and best practices needed to eliminate trachoma," said ITI Director Paul Emerson, PhD. "When countries work together, they better understand each others' needs for resources and technical support and where those should be directed. (iapb.org)
  • Affected communities can also help control trachoma by separating animal living quarters from human living space. (cdc.gov)
  • 4. Identify behaviors that would help control trachoma in this population. (cartercenter.org)
  • It is widely recognized that safeguarding the progress made towards trachoma elimination requires programs and health ministries to proactively implement strategies that will strengthen health systems and facilitate the integration of trachoma interventions into routine public services, and where available, national eye health services. (trachomacoalition.org)
  • Twelve-year longitudinal trends in trachoma prevalence among children aged 1-9 years in Amhara, Ethiopia, 2007-2019. (medlineplus.gov)
  • From 2014 to 2020, the Trachoma Initiative programme, supported by The Queen Elizabeth Diamond Jubilee Trust, worked to eliminate the disease by working with Malawi's Ministry of Health and partners to implement the WHO-endorsed SAFE strategy . (sightsavers.org)
  • Since its inception, the PNLC has made significant progress towards the goal of eliminating trachoma as a cause of blindness by 2015, ahead of the global elimination date of 2020. (cehjournal.org)
  • The survey provides a baseline for evaluating planned interventions aimed at achieving the goal of global certification of elimination of trachoma as a cause of blindness in Brazil by 2020. (scielo.br)
  • Sightsavers began working in Malawi in the 1950s and helped to launch the Malawi Trachoma Elimination Programme in 2014. (sightsavers.org)
  • Thanks to hard work, commitment and collaboration between government, health workers, volunteers and organisations like Sightsavers, 9.5 million people are no longer at risk of losing their sight to trachoma. (sightsavers.org)
  • Facial cleanliness (F) . Since trachoma is spread through close personal contact, it typically infects children and their caretakers. (cdc.gov)
  • As a part of a study to review the health institution approach of trachoma surveillance, "F" (facial cleanliness) and "E" (environmental improvement) components of the SAFE trachoma control strategy were assessed in a high-risk population in Nizwa wilayat . (who.int)
  • During the past few decades, rates of trachoma have ness. (cdc.gov)
  • Lower rates of trachoma were seen in families who lived in cement houses, had fewer people per room, more servants, more household goods, animals, and land. (bmj.com)
  • 3 Good hygiene practices such as washing hands with soap, and washing faces with water to remove discharge from eyes and nose help reduce the spread of trachoma. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, trachoma is rare, occurring occasionally among American Indians and among immigrants from areas where trachoma is common. (msdmanuals.com)
  • She said some Indigenous communities still have no reliable supply of potable water, which is crucial in the fight against trachoma. (abc.net.au)
  • Now, a simple innovation has the potential to have a big impact on the global fight against trachoma, an NTD that can cause significant pain and lead to blindness. (acteast.org)
  • In 1986 the treatment for trachoma recommended by the WHO was tetracycline ointment, to be applied to both eyes twice daily for six weeks. (rstmh.org)
  • A cocktail to remember when "Here's mud in your eye" meant a treatment for trachoma and a lengthy delay to your immigration plans. (slklassen.com)
  • Prevention of trachoma-related blindness requires a number of interventions. (medscape.com)
  • The workshop covered basic information on causes and pathology, transmission, signs and symptoms, as well as treatment and prevention of trachoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On 20 April, the WHO announced that The Gambia had met the targets for the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. (rstmh.org)
  • This is because the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem does not rid a country of the disease. (trachomacoalition.org)
  • Consider behaviors that lead to the transmission of trachoma. (cartercenter.org)
  • Simultaneously, MDA to reduce transmission of trachoma will continue in communities where the prevalence remains high. (cehjournal.org)
  • All districts in Oromia will be mapped in the coming months and results uploaded to the Global Atlas of Trachoma website, an open-access resource on the geographical distribution of trachoma. (hollows.org)
  • To estimate the prevalence and describe the distribution of trachoma among schoolchildren in Brazilian municipalities. (scielo.br)
  • Increased carriage of macrolide-resistant fecal E. coli following mass distribution of azithromycin for trachoma control. (cdc.gov)
  • At a recent meeting of the International Coalition for Trachoma Control (ICTC) in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania in September 2023, global stakeholders discussed some of the nuances in developing strategies to ensure the sustainability of interventions. (trachomacoalition.org)
  • Trachoma is an infectious eye disease that can lead to blindness if left untreated. (who.int)
  • Can trachoma lead to blindness? (antibioticsforsale.com)
  • Trachoma is the world's leading infectious cause of blindness. (medscape.com)
  • Trachoma, the world's leading infectious cause of blindness, affects over 300 million people globally. (cehjournal.org)
  • Trachoma, one of the world's oldest diseases, is an infectious condition spread by flies and human touch. (hollows.org)
  • Malawi's President Lazarus Chakwera said in the same statement the 'success in eliminating trachoma - the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. (voaafrica.com)
  • Trachoma is caused by a bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis, which affects the eye and causes scarring, in-turned eyelashes and blindness if left untreated. (deadlyvibe.com.au)
  • Professor Taylor found that up to half of all children in some communities have trachoma and that one in 12 adults have in-turned eyelashes from having trachoma as a child. (deadlyvibe.com.au)
  • We know if we are going to eliminate trachoma we cannot leave communities in areas of conflict and crisis behind. (hollows.org)
  • Trachoma is a target of global health initiatives aiming to eliminate it as a public health problem. (who.int)
  • Since 2014, USAID has supported the mapping of almost half of DRC's health zones for trachoma, which provided the information needed to help the country quickly scale up mass treatment to eliminate the disease. (acteast.org)
  • East program are being done to confirm whether unmapped areas are endemic for trachoma-a key fact-finding mission on DRC's journey to eliminate the disease. (acteast.org)
  • Trachoma is an infectious disease caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, serotypes (serovars) A, B, and C. It is spread by direct contact with eye, nose, and throat secretions from affected individuals, or contact with fomites (inanimate objects that carry infectious agents), such as towels and/or washcloths, that have had similar contact with these secretions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trachoma is caused by certain serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterium that infects the conjunctiva of the eye. (who.int)
  • The bacteria that cause trachoma are spread through direct contact with infected eye, nose, or throat fluids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We cannot use suppliers to add recycled materials to reduce costs, This can cause trachoma. (machining-custom.com)
  • The Foundation is leading Australia's contribution to eliminating the most common infectious cause of blindness in the world, with mapping of the disease trachoma beginning in Ethiopia. (hollows.org)
  • He hopes that the survey will encourage the Federal Government to fund a national trachoma prevention program. (deadlyvibe.com.au)
  • In 2018, ICTC published a series of toolkits across the entire SAFE strategy to support national trachoma programs and implementing partners to transition interventions from disease-specific elimination efforts to routine public services. (trachomacoalition.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although follicular trachoma is prevalent, intense inflammatory trachoma is relatively rare and scarring was not observed in this preschool population. (bmj.com)
  • Cicatricial trachoma was not seen in this age group. (bmj.com)
  • Trachoma is still the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide but there can now be little doubt that the target set in the new WHO Roadmap for Neglected Tropical Diseases will be met, and trachoma will have been eliminated as a public health problem globally by 2030. (rstmh.org)
  • Trachoma is contagious in its early stages and may be transmitted by eye-hand contact, by flies, or by sharing contaminated articles, such as towels, handkerchiefs, and eye makeup. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Because trachoma is contagious, reinfection commonly occurs. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Is trachoma contagious? (antibioticsforsale.com)
  • Trachoma is highly contagious as the bacteria can be easily spread through direct or indirect contact. (antibioticsforsale.com)
  • In 1986, when I was working in The Gambia, a national eye health survey found that 17% of blindness in the country was due to trachoma, so this is a remarkable achievement and a great credit to all those involved with the national eye care programme. (rstmh.org)
  • This evidence led to the implementation of a trachoma control programme through the National Blindness Prevention Programme (PNLC) in 1998. (cehjournal.org)
  • The prevalence of active disease has decreased to levels below the threshold recommendation for district-level mass drug administration (MDA), and so the programme has been able to stop this activity in 84 % of the districts where trachoma is present (Figures 1 and 2). (cehjournal.org)
  • The Wa District Health Administration has initiated a Trachoma Control Programme in the district with the aim of controlling the disease. (afribary.com)
  • To facilitate the implementation of the programme, the DHMT needs to know the specific risk factors that are associated with trachoma in the district so as to prioritise the strategies of the control programme. (afribary.com)
  • Globally, almost 1.9 million people have vision loss because of trachoma, and it causes 1.4% of all blindness worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • Impaired vision or blindness occurs in about 5% of people with trachoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Trachoma still occurs in some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. (health.gov.au)
  • In recent years, knowledge about the causative agent of trachoma and about the epidemiologic patterns that determine the intensity of inflammation and the gravity of disease has increased substantially. (cdc.gov)
  • Four trachoma endemic communities were conveniently selected (based on the data from the trachoma rapid assessment that was carried out in the sub-district) and the eyes of 245 children aged 1-9 years were examined. (afribary.com)
  • These mass drug administration programs continue until trachoma levels drop below levels recommended by WHO. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, communities with uncontrolled trachoma should be identified so that appropriate control measures can be implemented. (cdc.gov)
  • Trachoma-control programs must be aimed primarily at those severely affected communities where the disease leads to blindness. (cdc.gov)
  • In view of these developments and the importance of trachoma control in the prevention of blindness, a revised guide to trachoma control has been prepared (1). (cdc.gov)
  • The guide also outlines basic principles for the organization of trachoma-control programs. (cdc.gov)
  • The basic methods described can be suitably adapted to local conditions and should allow the swift and effective implementation of trachoma-control programs. (cdc.gov)
  • Guide to trachoma control. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus fa- the SAFE trachoma control strategy in na- cilities for addressing `A' and `S' compo- tional health programmes [ 3 ]. (who.int)
  • S" indicates nents of trachoma control are adequate. (who.int)
  • Reliable com- surveillance, the assessment of "F" and "E" munity-based information on these issues components of the trachoma initiative was is needed so that control of many water- undertaken in Nizwa. (who.int)
  • 15 years, their "F" face washing status provement and implementation of SAFE and "E" environmental improvement status trachoma control strategies have resulted in of the houses in the study area. (who.int)
  • A recent study looked at experiences and perspectives by the Maasai communities of Trachoma control programmes, and highlighted important social, economic and environmental barriers that hamper the effectiveness of these control programmes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Women were given disposable cameras to document their efforts as educators on trachoma and the challenges raised around trachoma control. (biomedcentral.com)