The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Tracheal neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the trachea, which can be benign or malignant, and have the potential to obstruct the airway and impair respiratory function.
Tracheal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, and integrity of the trachea, including inflammation, infection, trauma, tumors, and congenital abnormalities, which can lead to symptoms such as cough, wheezing, difficulty breathing, and stridor.
Tracheal stenosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal narrowing or constriction of the lumen of the trachea, which can lead to respiratory distress and other related symptoms.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Surgical incision of the trachea.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Tracheitis is an inflammation of the trachea, often caused by viral or bacterial infections, characterized by symptoms such as cough, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
'Bronchial diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that affect the bronchial tubes, including inflammation, infection, obstruction or narrowing, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.
Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Abnormal passage between the ESOPHAGUS and the TRACHEA, acquired or congenital, often associated with ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA.
Branches of the VAGUS NERVE. The superior laryngeal nerves originate near the nodose ganglion and separate into external branches, which supply motor fibers to the cricothyroid muscles, and internal branches, which carry sensory fibers. The RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE originates more caudally and carries efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid. The laryngeal nerves and their various branches also carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Congenital abnormality characterized by the lack of full development of the ESOPHAGUS that commonly occurs with TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA. Symptoms include excessive SALIVATION; GAGGING; CYANOSIS; and DYSPNEA.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An abnormal anatomical passage that connects the VAGINA to other organs, such as the bladder (VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA) or the rectum (RECTOVAGINAL FISTULA).
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.

Diverse developing mouse lineages exhibit high-level c-Myb expression in immature cells and loss of expression upon differentiation. (1/4621)

The c-myb gene encodes a sequence specific transactivator that is required for fetal hematopoiesis, but its potential role in other tissues is less clear because of the early fetal demise of mice with targeted deletions of the c-myb gene and incomplete of knowledge about c-myb's expression pattern. In the hematopoietic system, c-Myb protein acts on target genes whose expression is restricted to individual lineages, despite Myb's presence and role in multiple immature lineages. This suggests that c-Myb actions within different cell type-specific contexts are strongly affected by combinatorial interactions. To consider the possibility of similar c-Myb actions could extend into non-hematopoietic systems in other cell and tissue compartments, we characterized c-myb expression in developing and adult mice using in situ hybridization and correlated this with stage-specific differentiation and mitotic activity. Diverse tissues exhibited strong c-myb expression during development, notably tooth buds, the thyroid primordium, developing trachea and proximal branching airway epithelium, hair follicles, hematopoietic cells, and gastrointestinal crypt epithelial cells. The latter three of these all maintained high expression into adulthood, but with characteristic restriction to immature cell lineages prior to their terminal differentiation. In all sites, during fetal and adult stages, loss of c-Myb expression correlated strikingly with the initiation of terminal differentiation, but not the loss of mitotic activity. Based on these data, we hypothesize that c-Myb's function during cellular differentiation is both an activator of immature gene expression and a suppressor of terminal differentiation in diverse lineages.  (+info)

Role of retinoid receptors in the regulation of mucin gene expression by retinoic acid in human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. (2/4621)

To investigate which retinoid receptors are critical in the regulation by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) of the mucin genes MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B in cultured normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells, we used pan-RAR-, pan-RXR- and RAR- isotype (alpha, beta and gamma)-selective agonists and RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective antagonists (RAR is RA receptor and RXR is retinoid X receptor). RAR-, RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective agonists strongly induced mucin mRNAs in a dose-dependent manner, while the RARbeta-selective retinoid only weakly induced mucin gene expression at very high concentrations (1 microM). The pan-RXR-selective agonist by itself did not induce mucin gene expression, but acted synergistically with suboptimal concentrations of the pan-RAR agonist. A retinoid with selective anti-activator-protein-1 activity only marginally induced mucin gene expression. The RARalpha antagonist strongly inhibited mucin gene induction and mucous cell differentiation caused by RA and by the RARalpha- and RARgamma-selective retinoids. In contrast, the RARgamma antagonist only weakly inhibited RARalpha-selective-retinoid-induced mucin gene expression, but completely blocked mucin gene expression induced by the RARgamma-selective retinoid. Our studies indicate that RARalpha is the major retinoid receptor subtype mediating RA-dependent mucin gene expression and mucous cell differentiation, but that the RARgamma isotype can also induce mucin genes. Furthermore these studies suggest that RARbeta is probably not (directly) involved in RA-induced mucin gene expression.  (+info)

Comparison of functional antagonism between isoproterenol and M2 muscarinic receptors in guinea pig ileum and trachea. (3/4621)

The ability of the M2 muscarinic receptor to mediate an inhibition of the relaxant effects of forskolin and isoproterenol was investigated in guinea pig ileum and trachea. In some experiments, trachea was first treated with 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) mustard to inactivate M3 receptors. The contractile response to oxotremorine-M was measured subsequently in the presence of both histamine (10 microM) and isoproterenol (10 nM). Under these conditions, [[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3b]-[1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116) antagonized the contractile response to oxotremorine-M in a manner consistent with an M3 mechanism. However, when the same experiment was repeated using forskolin (4 microM) instead of isoproterenol, the response to oxotremorine-M exhibited greater potency and was antagonized by AF-DX 116 in a manner consistent with an M2 mechanism. We also measured the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the ability of isoproterenol to inhibit the contraction elicited by a single concentration of either histamine (0.3 microM) or oxotremorine-M (40 nM) in both the ileum and trachea. Pertussis toxin treatment had no significant effect on the potency of isoproterenol for inhibiting histamine-induced contractions in the ileum and trachea. In contrast, pertussis toxin treatment enhanced the relaxant potency of isoproterenol against oxotremorine-M-induced contractions in the ileum but not in the trachea. Also, pertussis toxin treatment enhanced the relaxant potency of forskolin against oxotremorine-M-induced contractions in the ileum and trachea. We investigated the relaxant potency of isoproterenol when very low, equi-effective (i.e., 20-34% of maximal response) concentrations of either histamine or oxotremorine-M were used to elicit contraction. Under these conditions, isoproterenol exhibited greater relaxant potency against histamine in the ileum but exhibited similar relaxant potencies against histamine and oxotremorine-M in the trachea. Following 4-DAMP mustard treatment, a low concentration of oxotremorine-M (10 nM) had no contractile effect in either the ileum or trachea. Nevertheless, in 4-DAMP mustard-treated tissue, oxotremorine-M (10 nM) reduced the relaxant potency of isoproterenol against histamine-induced contractions in the ileum, but not in the trachea. We conclude that in the trachea the M2 receptor mediates an inhibition of the relaxant effects of forskolin, but not isoproterenol, and the decreased relaxant potency of isoproterenol against contractions elicited by a muscarinic agonist relative to histamine is not due to activation of M2 receptors but rather to the greater contractile stimulus mediated by the M3 receptor compared with the H1 histamine receptor.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis of drug-receptor interactions of long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics in isolated receptor membranes: evidence against prolonged effects of salmeterol and formoterol on receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase. (4/4621)

The long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics salmeterol and formoterol have been presumed to exert their prolonged action either by binding to an accessory binding site ("exo-site") near the beta2 adrenoceptor or by their high affinity for beta2 adrenoceptors and correspondingly slow dissociation. Whereas most studies with salmeterol had been done in intact tissues, which have slow diffusion and compartmentation of drugs in lipophilic phases, that restrict drug access to the receptor biophase, we used purified receptor membranes from rat lung and disaggregated calf tracheal myocytes as model systems. Binding experiments were designed to measure the slow dissociation of agonists by means of delayed association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol. Rat lung membranes were pretreated with high concentrations of agonists (salmeterol, formoterol, isoprenaline) before dissociation was induced by 50-fold dilution. Half-times of association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol remained unchanged compared with untreated controls, indicating that dissociation of agonists occurred in less than 2 min. Adenylyl cyclase experiments were designed to determine the on and off kinetics of agonists to beta2 adrenoceptors by measuring the rate of receptor-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation. Experiments were performed in tracheal membranes characterized by high Vmax values of cAMP formation. Adenylyl cyclase activation occurred simultaneously with the addition of the agonist, continued linearly with time for 60 min, and ceased immediately after the antagonist was added. Similarly, when receptor membranes were preincubated in a small volume with high salmeterol concentrations, there was a linear increase in cAMP formation, which was immediately interrupted by a 100-fold dilution of the reaction mixture. This militates against the exo-site hypothesis. On the other hand, dissociation by dilution was much less when membranes were preincubated with a large volume of salmeterol at the same concentration, indicating that physicochemical effects, and not exo-site binding, underlie its prolonged mode of action.  (+info)

The contribution of extraneuronal uptake to the trachea-blood vessel selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor stimulants in vitro in guinea-pigs. (5/4621)

1 The potencies relative to isoprenaline of isoetharine, tertiary butyl noradrenaline, salbutamol, orciprenaline, Me 506, rimiterol, fenoterol, carbuterol and terbutaline on isolated preparations of guinea-pig trachea and blood vessels (perfused hind limb) were determined. All the compounds were selective for trachea and selectivity values, i.e. relative potency on trachea divided by relative potency on hind limb, ranged from 2.3 to 21.4. 2 Responses to isoprenaline (the reference compound), tertiary butyl noradrenaline and isoetharine were potentiated on trachea by 50 muM phenoxybenzamine (PHB) and by other inhibitors of extraneuronal uptake (ENU). Under these conditions the selectivity values of all the compounds was close to unity. 3 Selectivity values were also close to unity if they were calculated from data obtained without ENU inhibition, provided that only those compounds not potentiated by PHB on trachea were used. 4 It is proposed that the trachea-blood vessel selectivity shown by beta-adrenoceptor stimulants can be caused by the influence of ENU upon them, rather than by their ability to distinguish between two beta2-adrenoceptors. 5 The suggestion that differences exist between beta2-adrenoceptors in respiratory and vascular smooth muscle is not supported by the in vitro experiments described.  (+info)

The cat lung strip as an in vitro preparation of peripheral airways: a comparison of beta-adrenoceptor agonists, autacoids and anaphylactic challenge on the lung strip and trachea. (6/4621)

1 A new in vitro preparation, the isolated lung strip of the cat, is described for investigating the direct effect of drugs on the smooth muscle of the peripheral airways of the lung. The preparation comprises a thin strip of lung parenchyma which can be mounted in a conventional organ bath for isometric tension recording. Its pharmacological responses have been characterized and compared with the isolated tracheal preparation of the cat. 2 The lung strip exhibited an intrinsic tone which was relaxed by catecholamines, aminophylline and flufenamate. It was contracted strongly by histamine, prostaglandin F2alpha, acetylcholine, compound 48/80, potassium depolarizing solution and alternating current field stimulation. In contrast, the cat trachea was unresponsive to histamine and prostaglandin F2alpha and did not exhibit an intrinsic tone. 3 (-)-Isoprenaline and (-)-adrenaline were much more potent in relaxing the lung strip than the trachea. The potency order of relaxation responses to isoprenaline, adrenaline and (+/-)-noradrenaline in the lung strip was isoprenaline greater than adrenaline greater than noradrenaline but in the trachea was isoprenaline greater than noradrenaline greater than or equal to adrenaline. 4 beta2-Adrenoceptor selective agonists salbutamol and terbutaline were more potent in the lung strip than the trachea, suggesting beta2-adrenoceptors predominated in the lung strip. Propranolol was equipotent in inhibiting isoprenaline relexations of the lung strip and trachea, whereas practolol was much less effective in inhibiting lung strip than trachea, further supporting a predominance of beta2-adrenoceptors in lung strip and beta1-adrenoceptors in trachea. 5 Strong Schultz-Dale type contractions were elicited in both lung strips and trachea by Ascaris lumbricoides antigen in actively sensitized cats. The initial phase of the contractile response of the lung strip following challenge was shown to be due to histamine release and was absent in the trachea. The delayed phase of the contraction which took several minutes to develop in both the mepyramine-treated lung strip and trachea was not due to prostaglandins E1, F2alpha or bradykinin, the probable mediator being slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A). 6 It is concluded that the isolated lung strip of the cat is useful as an in vitro model for investigating the effect of drugs on the smooth muscle of the peripheral airways of the lungs.  (+info)

Neuroregulation by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) of mucus secretion in ferret trachea: activation of BK(Ca) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. (7/4621)

1. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates cholinergic and 'sensory-efferent' (tachykininergic) 35SO4 labelled mucus output in ferret trachea in vitro, using a VIP antibody, (2) the class of potassium (K+) channel involved in VIP-regulation of cholinergic neural secretion using glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor), iberiotoxin (a large conductance calcium activated K+ (BK(ca)) channel blocker), and apamin (a small conductance K(ca) (SK(ca)) channel blocker), and (3) the effect of VIP on cholinergic neurotransmission using [3H]-choline overflow as a marker for acetylcholine (ACh) release. 2. Exogenous VIP (1 and 10 microM) alone increased 35SO4 output by up to 53% above baseline, but suppressed (by up to 80% at 1 microM) cholinergic and tachykininergic neural secretion without altering secretion induced by ACh or substance P (1 microM each). Endogenous VIP accounted for the minor increase in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC), non-tachykininergic neural secretion, which was compatible with the secretory response of exogenous VIP. 3. Iberiotoxin (3 microM), but not apamin (1 microM) or glibenclamide (0.1 microM), reversed the inhibition by VIP (10 nM) of cholinergic neural secretion. 4. Both endogenous VIP (by use of the VIP antibody; 1:500 dilution) and exogenous VIP (0.1 microM), the latter by 34%, inhibited ACh release from cholinergic nerve terminals and this suppression was completely reversed by iberiotoxin (0.1 microM). 5. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, endogenous VIP has dual activity whereby its small direct stimulatory action on mucus secretion is secondary to its marked regulation of cholinergic and tachykininergic neurogenic mucus secretion. Regulation is via inhibition of neurotransmitter release, consequent upon opening of BK(Ca) channels. In the context of neurogenic mucus secretion, we propose that VIP joins NO as a neurotransmitter of i-NANC nerves in ferret trachea.  (+info)

Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine. (8/4621)

1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh.  (+info)

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Tracheal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the trachea, which is the windpipe that carries air from the nose and throat to the lungs. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tracheal neoplasms are relatively rare and can be primary (originating in the trachea) or secondary (spreading from another part of the body, such as lung cancer). Primary tracheal cancers can be squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, or sarcomas. Symptoms may include cough, difficulty breathing, wheezing, or chest pain. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm and can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Tracheal diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the trachea, also known as the windpipe. The trachea is a tube-like structure made up of rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which extends from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (airways leading to the lungs). Its primary function is to allow the passage of air to and from the lungs.

Tracheal diseases can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, often caused by viral or bacterial infections.
2. Tracheal stenosis: Narrowing of the trachea due to scarring, inflammation, or compression from nearby structures such as tumors or goiters.
3. Tracheomalacia: Weakening and collapse of the tracheal walls, often seen in newborns and young children but can also occur in adults due to factors like chronic cough, aging, or connective tissue disorders.
4. Tracheoesophageal fistula: An abnormal connection between the trachea and the esophagus, which can lead to respiratory complications and difficulty swallowing.
5. Tracheal tumors: Benign or malignant growths that develop within the trachea, obstructing airflow and potentially leading to more severe respiratory issues.
6. Tracheobronchial injury: Damage to the trachea and bronchi, often caused by trauma such as blunt force or penetrating injuries.
7. Congenital tracheal abnormalities: Structural defects present at birth, including complete tracheal rings, which can cause narrowing or collapse of the airway.

Symptoms of tracheal diseases may include cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing. Treatment options depend on the specific condition and its severity but may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to alleviate symptoms and improve respiratory function.

Tracheal stenosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal narrowing of the trachea (windpipe), which can lead to difficulty breathing. This narrowing can be caused by various factors such as inflammation, scarring, or the growth of abnormal tissue in the airway. Symptoms may include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort, particularly during physical activity. Treatment options for tracheal stenosis depend on the severity and underlying cause of the condition and may include medications, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, or surgical interventions such as laser surgery, stent placement, or tracheal reconstruction.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

"Bronchi" are a pair of airways in the respiratory system that branch off from the trachea (windpipe) and lead to the lungs. They are responsible for delivering oxygen-rich air to the lungs and removing carbon dioxide during exhalation. The right bronchus is slightly larger and more vertical than the left, and they further divide into smaller branches called bronchioles within the lungs. Any abnormalities or diseases affecting the bronchi can impact lung function and overall respiratory health.

Muscle relaxation, in a medical context, refers to the process of reducing tension and promoting relaxation in the skeletal muscles. This can be achieved through various techniques, including progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), where individuals consciously tense and then release specific muscle groups in a systematic manner.

PMR has been shown to help reduce anxiety, stress, and muscle tightness, and improve overall well-being. It is often used as a complementary therapy in conjunction with other treatments for conditions such as chronic pain, headaches, and insomnia.

Additionally, muscle relaxation can also be facilitated through pharmacological interventions, such as the use of muscle relaxant medications. These drugs work by inhibiting the transmission of signals between nerves and muscles, leading to a reduction in muscle tone and spasticity. They are commonly used to treat conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

Intubation, intratracheal is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic or rubber tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted through the mouth or nose, passing through the vocal cords and into the trachea (windpipe). This procedure is performed to establish and maintain a patent airway, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during mechanical ventilation in various clinical scenarios, such as:

1. Respiratory failure or arrest
2. Procedural sedation
3. Surgery under general anesthesia
4. Neuromuscular disorders
5. Ingestion of toxic substances
6. Head and neck trauma
7. Critical illness or injury affecting the airway

The process of intubation is typically performed by trained medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists, using direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords and guide the ETT into the correct position. Once placed, the ETT is secured to prevent dislodgement, and the patient's respiratory status is continuously monitored to ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Mucus is a viscous, slippery secretion produced by the mucous membranes that line various body cavities such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. It serves to lubricate and protect these surfaces from damage, infection, and foreign particles. Mucus contains water, proteins, salts, and other substances, including antibodies, enzymes, and glycoproteins called mucins that give it its characteristic gel-like consistency.

In the respiratory system, mucus traps inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens, preventing them from reaching the lungs. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures lining the airways, move the mucus upward toward the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled through coughing or sneezing. In the gastrointestinal tract, mucus helps protect the lining of the stomach and intestines from digestive enzymes and other harmful substances.

Excessive production of mucus can occur in various medical conditions such as allergies, respiratory infections, chronic lung diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, nasal congestion, and diarrhea.

A tracheotomy is a surgical procedure that involves creating an opening in the neck and through the front (anterior) wall of the trachea (windpipe). This is performed to provide a new airway for the patient, bypassing any obstruction or damage in the upper airways. A tube is then inserted into this opening to maintain it and allow breathing.

This procedure is often conducted in emergency situations when there is an upper airway obstruction that cannot be easily removed or in critically ill patients who require long-term ventilation support. Complications can include infection, bleeding, damage to surrounding structures, and difficulties with speaking, swallowing, or coughing.

Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the inside of the airways and lungs with a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope. This procedure allows healthcare professionals to directly visualize the airways, take tissue samples for biopsy, and remove foreign objects or secretions. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose and manage various respiratory conditions such as lung infections, inflammation, cancer, and bleeding. It is usually performed under local or general anesthesia to minimize discomfort and risks associated with the procedure.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

Tracheitis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe. It can cause symptoms such as cough, sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and fever. Tracheitis can be caused by viral or bacterial infections, and it may also occur as a complication of other respiratory conditions. In some cases, tracheitis may require medical treatment, including antibiotics for bacterial infections or corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of tracheitis, especially if they are severe or persistent.

"SRS-A" is an older abbreviation for "Slow-Reacting Substance of Anaphylaxis," which refers to a group of molecules called "leukotrienes." Leukotrienes are mediators of inflammation and play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. They are produced by mast cells and basophils upon activation, and cause bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and mucus production.

The term "SRS-A" is not commonly used in modern medical literature, as it has been largely replaced by the more specific names of its individual components: LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These leukotrienes are now collectively referred to as the "cysteinyl leukotrienes."

Exocrine glands are a type of gland in the human body that produce and release substances through ducts onto an external or internal surface. These glands are responsible for secreting various substances such as enzymes, hormones, and lubricants that help in digestion, protection, and other bodily functions.

Exocrine glands can be further classified into three types based on their mode of secretion:

1. Merocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by exocytosis, where the secretory product is enclosed in a vesicle that fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents outside the cell. Examples include sweat glands and mucous glands.
2. Apocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by pinching off a portion of the cytoplasm along with the secretory product. An example is the apocrine sweat gland found in the armpits and genital area.
3. Holocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by disintegrating and releasing the entire cell, including its organelles and secretory products. An example is the sebaceous gland found in the skin, which releases an oily substance called sebum.

Methacholine compounds are medications that are used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and confirm the presence of airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with respiratory symptoms such as cough, wheeze, or shortness of breath. These compounds act as bronchoconstrictors, causing narrowing of the airways in individuals who have heightened sensitivity and reactivity of their airways, such as those with asthma.

Methacholine is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that mediates nerve impulse transmission in the body. When inhaled, methacholine binds to muscarinic receptors on the smooth muscle surrounding the airways, leading to their contraction and narrowing. The degree of bronchoconstriction is then measured to assess the patient's airway responsiveness.

It is important to note that methacholine compounds are not used as therapeutic agents but rather as diagnostic tools in a controlled medical setting under the supervision of healthcare professionals.

Bronchial diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead into the lungs. These diseases can cause inflammation, narrowing, or obstruction of the bronchi, leading to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and difficulty breathing.

Some common bronchial diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes recurring episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing.
2. Chronic Bronchitis: A long-term inflammation of the bronchi that leads to a persistent cough and excessive mucus production.
3. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the bronchi become damaged and widened, leading to chronic infection and inflammation.
4. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchi that can cause coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness.
5. Emphysema: A lung condition that causes shortness of breath due to damage to the air sacs in the lungs. While not strictly a bronchial disease, it is often associated with chronic bronchitis and COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease).

Treatment for bronchial diseases may include medications such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, or antibiotics, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or surgery may be necessary.

Neurokinin A (NKA) is a neuropeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, which also includes substance P and neurokinin B. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays a role in various physiological functions such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and immune response regulation. NKA exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, although it has lower affinity for these receptors compared to substance P. It is involved in several pathological conditions, including inflammation, neurogenic pain, and neurodegenerative disorders.

A tracheostomy is a surgically created opening through the neck into the trachea (windpipe). It is performed to provide an airway in cases where the upper airway is obstructed or access to the lower airway is required, such as in prolonged intubation, severe trauma, or chronic lung diseases. The procedure involves making an incision in the front of the neck and creating a direct opening into the trachea, through which a tracheostomy tube is inserted to maintain the patency of the airway. This allows for direct ventilation of the lungs, suctioning of secretions, and prevention of complications associated with upper airway obstruction.

Bronchial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead into the lungs. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant bronchial neoplasms are often referred to as lung cancer and can be further classified into small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, depending on the type of cells involved.

Benign bronchial neoplasms are less common than malignant ones and may include growths such as papillomas, hamartomas, or chondromas. While benign neoplasms are not cancerous, they can still cause symptoms and complications if they grow large enough to obstruct the airways or if they become infected.

Treatment for bronchial neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Substance P is an undecapeptide neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, belonging to the tachykinin family of peptides. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is primarily found in sensory neurons. Substance P plays a crucial role in pain transmission, inflammation, and various autonomic functions. It exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, which are expressed on the surface of target cells. Apart from nociception and inflammation, Substance P is also involved in regulating emotional behaviors, smooth muscle contraction, and fluid balance.

Parasympatholytics are a type of medication that blocks the action of the parasympathetic nervous system. The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the body's rest and digest response, which includes slowing the heart rate, increasing intestinal and glandular activity, and promoting urination and defecation.

Parasympatholytics work by selectively binding to muscarinic receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and digestive system. By blocking these receptors, parasympatholytics can cause a range of effects, such as an increased heart rate, decreased glandular secretions, and reduced intestinal motility.

Some common examples of parasympatholytics include atropine, scopolamine, and ipratropium. These medications are often used to treat conditions such as bradycardia (slow heart rate), excessive salivation, and gastrointestinal cramping or diarrhea. However, because they can have significant side effects, parasympatholytics are typically used only when necessary and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) is the part of the autonomic nervous system that primarily controls vegetative functions during rest, relaxation, and digestion. It is responsible for the body's "rest and digest" activities including decreasing heart rate, lowering blood pressure, increasing digestive activity, and stimulating sexual arousal. The PNS utilizes acetylcholine as its primary neurotransmitter and acts in opposition to the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS), which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

The vagus nerve, also known as the 10th cranial nerve (CN X), is the longest of the cranial nerves and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen. It has both sensory and motor functions and plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, speech, and sweating, among others.

The vagus nerve is responsible for carrying sensory information from the internal organs to the brain, and it also sends motor signals from the brain to the muscles of the throat and voice box, as well as to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerve helps regulate the body's involuntary responses, such as controlling heart rate and blood pressure, promoting relaxation, and reducing inflammation.

Dysfunction in the vagus nerve can lead to various medical conditions, including gastroparesis, chronic pain, and autonomic nervous system disorders. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapeutic intervention that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and migraine headaches.

A tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is an abnormal connection between the trachea (windpipe) and the esophagus (tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach). This congenital anomaly is usually present at birth and can vary in size and location. It can cause complications such as respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and recurrent lung infections. TEF is often treated surgically to separate the trachea and esophagus and restore their normal functions.

The laryngeal nerves are a pair of nerves that originate from the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) and provide motor and sensory innervation to the larynx. There are two branches of the laryngeal nerves: the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The superior laryngeal nerve has two branches: the external branch, which provides motor innervation to the cricothyroid muscle and sensation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule; and the internal branch, which provides sensory innervation to the mucous membrane of the laryngeal vestibule.

The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle, and sensation to the mucous membrane below the vocal folds. The right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a longer course than the left one, as it hooks around the subclavian artery before ascending to the larynx.

Damage to the laryngeal nerves can result in voice changes, difficulty swallowing, and respiratory distress.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

Laryngeal cartilages refer to the various pieces of cartilage that make up the structure of the larynx, also known as the voice box. The larynx is a crucial part of the respiratory system, located in the neck between the pharynx and the trachea. It plays a vital role in protecting the lower airways from food or drink entering the windpipe, as well as producing sound during speech.

There are several laryngeal cartilages, including:

1. Thyroid cartilage: This is the largest and most superior of the laryngeal cartilages. It forms the Adam's apple in men and has a prominent notch in the front called the thyroid notch. The thyroid cartilage protects the larynx and provides attachment for various muscles and ligaments.
2. Cricoid cartilage: This is the only complete ring of cartilage in the airway and lies inferior to the thyroid cartilage. It has a broad, flat superior portion called the cricoid lamina and a narrower, more curved inferior portion called the cricoid arch. The cricoid cartilage serves as an attachment site for several muscles and ligaments involved in breathing and swallowing.
3. Arytenoid cartilages: These are paired, pyramid-shaped structures that sit on top of the cricoid cartilage. They help form the posterior portion of the laryngeal inlet and provide attachment for the vocal cords (vocal folds). The arytenoid cartilages play a crucial role in voice production and respiration.
4. Corniculate cartilages: These are small, conical-shaped structures that project from the superior aspect of each arytenoid cartilage. They help form the most posterior portion of the laryngeal inlet.
5. Cuneiform cartilages: These are tiny, flat, crescent-shaped structures located near the corniculate cartilages. They also contribute to forming the posterior aspect of the laryngeal inlet.

These laryngeal cartilages work together to protect the airway, facilitate breathing, and enable voice production.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

Tachykinins are a group of neuropeptides that share a common carboxy-terminal sequence and bind to G protein-coupled receptors, called tachykinin receptors. They are widely distributed in the nervous system and play important roles as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in various physiological functions, such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and inflammation. The most well-known tachykinins include substance P, neurokinin A, and neuropeptide K. They are involved in many pathological conditions, including chronic pain, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Mucociliary clearance is a vital defense mechanism of the respiratory system that involves the coordinated movement of tiny hair-like structures called cilia, which are present on the surface of the respiratory epithelium, and the mucus layer. This mechanism helps to trap inhaled particles, microorganisms, and other harmful substances and move them away from the lungs towards the upper airways, where they can be swallowed or coughed out.

The cilia beat in a coordinated manner, moving in a wave-like motion to propel the mucus layer upwards. This continuous movement helps to clear the airways of any debris and maintain a clean and healthy respiratory system. Mucociliary clearance plays an essential role in preventing respiratory infections and maintaining lung function. Any impairment in this mechanism, such as due to smoking or certain respiratory conditions, can increase the risk of respiratory infections and other related health issues.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Fiber optic technology in the medical context refers to the use of thin, flexible strands of glass or plastic fibers that are designed to transmit light and images along their length. These fibers are used to create bundles, known as fiber optic cables, which can be used for various medical applications such as:

1. Illumination: Fiber optics can be used to deliver light to hard-to-reach areas during surgical procedures or diagnostic examinations.
2. Imaging: Fiber optics can transmit images from inside the body, enabling doctors to visualize internal structures and tissues. This is commonly used in medical imaging techniques such as endoscopy, colonoscopy, and laparoscopy.
3. Sensing: Fiber optic sensors can be used to measure various physiological parameters such as temperature, pressure, and strain within the body. These sensors can provide real-time data during surgical procedures or for monitoring patients' health status.

Fiber optic technology offers several advantages over traditional medical imaging techniques, including high resolution, flexibility, small diameter, and the ability to bend around corners without significant loss of image quality. Additionally, fiber optics are non-magnetic and can be used in MRI environments without causing interference.

Isoproterenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-adrenergic agonists. Medically, it is defined as a synthetic catecholamine with both alpha and beta adrenergic receptor stimulating properties. It is primarily used as a bronchodilator to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, thereby improving breathing.

Isoproterenol can also be used in the treatment of bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), cardiac arrest, and heart blocks by increasing the heart rate and contractility. However, due to its non-selective beta-agonist activity, it may cause various side effects such as tremors, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. Its use is now limited due to the availability of more selective and safer medications.

Aporphine is a type of chemical compound called alkaloids, which are found in certain plants. Aporphines have a specific chemical structure and can have various pharmacological effects. They have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and antiasthmatic activities. Some aporphine alkaloids have also been found to have psychoactive effects and are used in traditional medicine in some cultures. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential and safety of aporphines.

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Respiratory mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract, including the nose, throat, bronchi, and lungs. It is a specialized type of tissue that is composed of epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands that produce mucus, which helps to trap inhaled particles such as dust, allergens, and pathogens.

The respiratory mucosa also contains cilia, tiny hair-like structures that move rhythmically to help propel the mucus and trapped particles out of the airways and into the upper part of the throat, where they can be swallowed or coughed up. This defense mechanism is known as the mucociliary clearance system.

In addition to its role in protecting the respiratory tract from harmful substances, the respiratory mucosa also plays a crucial role in immune function by containing various types of immune cells that help to detect and respond to pathogens and other threats.

Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by mimicking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in transmitting signals between nerves and muscles. Carbachol binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, but its effects are more pronounced on muscarinic receptors.

Carbachol is used in medical treatments to produce miosis (pupil constriction), lower intraocular pressure, and stimulate gastrointestinal motility. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to test for certain conditions such as Hirschsprung's disease.

Like any medication, carbachol can have side effects, including sweating, salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia (slow heart rate), and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways in the lungs). It should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Thyroid cartilage is the largest and most superior of the laryngeal cartilages, forming the front and greater part of the larynx, also known as the "Adam's apple" in humans. It serves to protect the vocal cords and provides attachment for various muscles involved in voice production. The thyroid cartilage consists of two laminae that join in front at an angle, creating a noticeable prominence in the anterior neck. This structure is crucial in speech formation and swallowing functions.

Laryngoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the larynx, which is the upper part of the windpipe (trachea), and the vocal cords using a specialized instrument called a laryngoscope. The laryngoscope is inserted through the mouth or nose to provide a clear view of the larynx and surrounding structures. This procedure can be performed for diagnostic purposes, such as identifying abnormalities like growths, inflammation, or injuries, or for therapeutic reasons, such as removing foreign objects or taking tissue samples for biopsy. There are different types of laryngoscopes and techniques used depending on the reason for the examination and the patient's specific needs.

Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. It works by inhibiting the activity of certain enzymes in the body, including cyclooxygenase (COX), which plays a role in producing prostaglandins, chemicals involved in the inflammatory response.

Indomethacin is available in various forms, such as capsules, suppositories, and injectable solutions, and is used to treat a wide range of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and bursitis. It may also be used to relieve pain and reduce fever in other conditions, such as dental procedures or after surgery.

Like all NSAIDs, indomethacin can have side effects, including stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney damage, especially when taken at high doses or for long periods of time. It may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to use indomethacin only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Esophageal atresia is a congenital condition in which the esophagus, the tube that connects the throat to the stomach, does not develop properly. In most cases, the upper esophagus ends in a pouch instead of connecting to the lower esophagus and stomach. This condition prevents food and liquids from reaching the stomach, leading to difficulty swallowing and feeding problems in newborn infants. Esophageal atresia often occurs together with a congenital defect called tracheoesophageal fistula, in which there is an abnormal connection between the esophagus and the windpipe (trachea).

The medical definition of 'Esophageal Atresia' is:

A congenital anomaly characterized by the absence of a normal connection between the upper esophagus and the stomach, resulting in the separation of the proximal and distal esophageal segments. The proximal segment usually ends in a blind pouch, while the distal segment may communicate with the trachea through a tracheoesophageal fistula. Esophageal atresia is often associated with other congenital anomalies and can cause serious complications if not diagnosed and treated promptly after birth.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

A vaginal fistula is an abnormal opening or connection between the vagina and another organ, such as the bladder (resulting in a vesicovaginal fistula), the rectum (resulting in a rectovaginal fistula), or the colon (resulting in a colovaginal fistula). This condition can lead to various complications, including chronic urinary or fecal incontinence, infection, and difficulty with sexual intercourse.

Vaginal fistulas are often caused by obstetric trauma, such as prolonged labor, or may be the result of surgery, radiation therapy, injury, or infection. Symptoms can vary depending on the size and location of the fistula but typically include abnormal discharge, pain, and foul-smelling odor. Treatment usually involves surgical repair of the fistula, although smaller fistulas may sometimes heal on their own with proper care and management.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

The esophagus is the muscular tube that connects the throat (pharynx) to the stomach. It is located in the midline of the neck and chest, passing through the diaphragm to enter the abdomen and join the stomach. The main function of the esophagus is to transport food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach for digestion.

The esophagus has a few distinct parts: the upper esophageal sphincter (a ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the throat), the middle esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (another ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach). The lower esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow food and liquids to enter the stomach and then contracts to prevent stomach contents from flowing back into the esophagus.

The walls of the esophagus are made up of several layers, including mucosa (a moist tissue that lines the inside of the tube), submucosa (a layer of connective tissue), muscle (both voluntary and involuntary types), and adventitia (an outer layer of connective tissue).

Common conditions affecting the esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus, esophageal cancer, esophageal strictures, and eosinophilic esophagitis.

... cross-section low resolution Trachea Coronal section of larynx and upper part of trachea "Trachea , Definition of Trachea by ... The trachea (PL: tracheae or tracheas), also known as the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the ... The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary bronchi. At the top of the trachea the cricoid cartilage ... Although trachea is a midline structure, it can be displaced normally to the right by the aortic arch. The trachea passes by ...
Trachea toxaridia (Druce, 1889) Trachea uscana (Druce, 1889) Trachea viridata Prout, 1922 Trachea viridis (Druce, 1898) Trachea ... Trachea altivolans Schaus, 1911 Trachea anguliplaga (Walker, 1858) Trachea atriplaga Hampson, 1911 Trachea atriplicis (Linnaeus ... Trachea conjuncta Wileman, 1914 Trachea delicata (Grote, 1874) Trachea espumosa (Dognin, 1897) Trachea eugrapha E. D. Jones, ... 1908 Trachea mnionia Dognin, 15 Trachea nicgrescens Schaus, 1911 Trachea normalis Hampson, 1914 Trachea novicia Schaus, 1933 ...
... is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae. It is found in Taiwan, China, India, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trachea auriplena. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ... Oriental Butterflies and Moths Wikispecies has information related to Trachea auriplena. ...
"Trachea delicata species Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2019-09-24. "North American Moth Photographers Group, Trachea ... "Trachea delicata Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2019-09-24. "Trachea delicata". GBIF. Retrieved ... Trachea delicata is a species of cutworm or dart moth in the family Noctuidae that occurs in North America. The MONA or Hodges ...
... is a moth of the family Noctuidae first described by Vincenz Kollar in 1844. It is found in Sri Lanka, ... "Trachea melanospila Kollar, 1844". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved 15 October 2018. v t e (Articles with short ... "Species Details: Trachea melanospila Kollar, 1844". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 29 May 2018. Koçak, Ahmet Ömer; Kemal, ... "Trachea melanospila Kollar, 1844 ヒメシロテンアオヨトウ". An Identification Guide of Japanese Moths Compiled by Everyone. Retrieved 28 ...
The Orache Moth (Trachea atriplicis) is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae. It is found in all of Europe, east across ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Trachea atriplicis. Orache Moth at UKmoths Fauna Europaea Lepiforum.de Vlindernet.nl (in ...
... in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Black Sea Caecum trachea (Montagu, 1803). Gofas, S. (2009). Caecum trachea (Montagu, 1803 ... Caecum trachea is a species of minute sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk or micromollusk in the family Caecidae. The shell ...
A saber-sheath trachea also known as scabbard trachea is a trachea that has an abnormal shape. The posterior area of the ... trachea increases in diameter while the lateral measurement decreases. It can occur in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or ...
The carina of trachea (also: "tracheal carina") is a ridge of cartilage at the base of the trachea separating the openings of ... Anatomical dissection of trachea and main bronchi showing the carina Anatomy of the trachea "tracheal carina - NCI Dictionary ... The carina occurs at the lower end of the trachea - usually at the level of the 4th to 5th thoracic vertebra. This is in line ... The carina is around the area posterior to where the aortic arch crosses to the left of the trachea. The azygos vein crosses ...
... is the debut album from Canadian mathcore band The End. The album ... "Transfer Trachea Reverberations from Point: False Omniscient - the End , Songs, Reviews, Credits , AllMusic". AllMusic. v t e ( ...
1913). "Seleucia Trachea". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Wikimedia Commons has media related to ... Seleucia Trachea, and Seleucia Tracheotis -. The city took its name from its founder, King Seleucus I Nicator. The ancient city ...
"FFS: Trachea shave". 2005-06-21. Archived from the original on 2005-06-21. Retrieved 2021-06-28. "Facial Feminization Surgery ... as doing so can reduce the structure of the trachea and cause breathing difficulties.[citation needed] Most surgeons who ...
Larynx and Trachea. 1826. "Cases of Ligature of Subclavian and Right Carotid, and a Case of Tracheotomy", Dublin Hospital ... He was noted for his writing on the larynx and the trachea. "A Successful Case of Cynanache Maligna, with Trachaeotomy", Medico ...
A saber-sheath trachea may also be shown that is indicative of COPD. A CT scan is not routinely used except for the exclusion ... "saber sheath trachea , Search , Radiopaedia.org". Radiopaedia. Retrieved 13 August 2021. Vestbo J, Hurd SS, Agustí AG, et al. ( ...
Candidiasis of the Trachea; Candidiasis of the Bronchi; Candidiasis of the Lungs; Kaposi's Sarcoma; Pneumonia; Tuberculosis; ...
... and Trachea". Boorman's Pathology of the Rat. Elsevier. pp. 391-435. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-391448-4.00022-8. ISBN 978-0-12- ...
R. H. Kahn (1907). "Zur Physiologie der Trachea". Archiv für Anatomie und Physiologie, Archiv für Physiologie: 398-426. Hans ...
In the case where no blood is visible in the trachea, EIPH in the small airways may still be present and can be confirmed by a ... Blood can usually be detected in the trachea or bronchi for 1-3 days after an episode of EIPH, but may be present for up to a ... The amount of blood visible in the trachea at the time of examination is most commonly graded on a scale of 0 (no blood) to 4 ( ... Approximately 43 to 75% of horses have blood in the trachea and bronchi following a single post-race endoscopic examination. In ...
Surgery of larynx and trachea. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 2010. 107-214. Oswal VH, Gandhi SS. Endoscopic laser ...
First trachea transplant without immunosuppression , Eureka! Science News Anthony Hollander - University of Liverpool Webpage ...
Remacle, Marc; Eckel, Hans Edmund (8 January 2010). Surgery of Larynx and Trachea. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 59. ... Remacle, Marc; Eckel, Hans Edmund (8 January 2010). Surgery of Larynx and Trachea. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN ... "Phonosurgery Phonosurgery" (PDF). Remacle, Marc; Eckel, Hans Edmund (8 January 2010). Surgery of Larynx and Trachea. Springer ...
In this case, the trachea is not attached to the oesophagus. In Faro type G, a segment of the trachea is absent, defining it as ... The trachea is absent proximally but there remains a short normal segment of the distal trachea. A tracheoesophageal fistula ... Faro type F describes the proximal absence of the trachea but the normal presence of the distal trachea. ... trachea and lungs. In mice, NK2 homeobox 1 null mutation results in a significantly shorter trachea, connected to the ...
The trachea divides into the left main bronchus which supplies the left lung, and the right main bronchus which supplies the ... Cross sectional cut of primary bronchiole Trachea Primary bronchus Lobar bronchus Segmental bronchus Bronchiole Alveolar duct ... ISBN 978-0-321-49804-5. Paxton, Steve; Peckham, Michelle; Knibbs, Adele (2003). "Respiratory: Trachea, bronchioles and bronchi ...
2017). "Tumours of the Hypopharynx, Larynx, Trachea and Parapharyngeal Space". World Health Organization Classification of Head ... Surgery of Larynx and Trachea. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 91-112. ISBN 9783540791355. OCLC 567327912. ...
Zheng, Y.; Li, H.; Manole, C. G.; Sun, A.; Ge, J.; Wang, X. (October 2011). "Telocytes in trachea and lungs". Journal of ...
... trachea or esophagus); ALL (T-cell ALL can present with mediastinal mass that compresses the trachea and causes inspiratory ... collapsed trachea). congenital anomalies of the airway are present in 87% of all cases of stridor in infants and children. ... vascular rings compressing the trachea; thyroiditis such as Riedel's thyroiditis; vocal cord palsy; tracheomalacia or ...
... narrow/misshapen tracheas; collapsing tracheas; stenotic nares (nasal passages that are too small); swollen tonsils; everted ... Also of a secondary magnitude there are instances of epilepsy, narrow tracheas, luxating patellas, hip dysplasia, mitral valve ...
For the rest, the caterpillars eat the leaves and roots: Caradrina morpheus (Hufnagel), the mottled rustic; Trachea atriplicis ...
"The trachea and the stem bronchi". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Saladin KS (2007). Anatomy and ...
While Macchiarini admitted that the synthetic trachea did not work in the current state, he did not agree that trying it on ... "Trachea surgeon Macchiarini acted "without due care," but is not guilty of misconduct: Karolinska". Retraction Watch. 28 August ... "Reading about embattled trachea surgeon Paolo Macchiarini? Here's what you need to know". Retraction Watch. 12 February 2016. ... Macchiarini also claimed that the synthetic trachea had been tested on animals before using it on humans, something that could ...
... cross-section low resolution Trachea Coronal section of larynx and upper part of trachea "Trachea , Definition of Trachea by ... The trachea (PL: tracheae or tracheas), also known as the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the ... The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary bronchi. At the top of the trachea the cricoid cartilage ... Although trachea is a midline structure, it can be displaced normally to the right by the aortic arch. The trachea passes by ...
Trachea, NosePharynxMore Than Just a PipeGas Laws and BreathingVolumes and Volumes I know, I know, breathing always makes you ... Anatomy and Physiology: Lungs, Bronchi, Trachea, Nose Lungs, Bronchi, Trachea, Nose. Anatomy and Physiology. *The Respitory ... This region consists of the nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. This anatomical dead space limits ... Anatomy and Physiology: Lungs, Bronchi, Trachea, Nose ...
encoded search term (Trachea Foreign Bodies) and Trachea Foreign Bodies What to Read Next on Medscape ... Trachea Foreign Bodies Updated: Sep 21, 2022 * Author: Neil Gildener-Leapman, MD; Chief Editor: Steven C Dronen, MD, FAAEM more ...
Trachea of a scolopendrid. Christian Gautier Affiliation. JACANA Press Agency. Vanves, France. Technique. Rheinberg ...
... lung anomalies and congenital stenosis of the oesophagus and trachea) are relatively common anomalies occurring in 1 in 2,000- ... Essential function of Gli2 and Gli3 in the formation of lung, trachea and oesophagus Nat Genet. 1998 Sep;20(1):54-7. doi: ... Mutant mice lacking both Gli2 and Gli3 function did not form oesophagus, trachea and lung. These results indicate that Gli2 and ... including stenosis of the oesophagus and trachea, as well as hypoplasia and lobulation defects of the lung. A reduction of 50% ...
Dissection around trachea and bronchus in salvage thoracoscopic esophagectomy. Yusuke Taniyama, Tadashi Sakurai, Makoto Hikage ... Especially when the tumor is adjacent to trachea or main bronchus, dissection would be much harder. Furthermore, ... Thus, we present the twists and methods of dissecting around trachea and bronchus in salvage thoracoscopic esophagectomy, ... Magnified view by thoracoscopy is necessary during the dissection of trachea and bronchus in salvage esophagectomy. ...
... including main tracheae, the main tracheae top of installation gas-tpe fitting, be arranged on air bag, the gas tube being ... connected with air bag, the charge valve installed in gas tube top of main tracheae bottom, in main tracheae both sides, ... it is located at two groups of side openings that left and right arrangement is set above air bag at 5mm-10mm in main tracheae ... A kind of trachea cannula, including main tracheae, the main tracheae top of installation gas-tpe fitting, be arranged on air ...
bronchi, inferior, inferior lobe, left inferior lobe, left lobe, left superior lobe, lobe, lobes, lung, lungs, middle, middle lobe, organs, respiratory system, right inferior lobe, right lobe, right middle lobe, right superior lobe, superior, superior lobe, trachea
Radiation Exposure to Human Trachea from Xenon-133 Procedures Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal ... Radiation Exposure to Human Trachea from Xenon-133 Procedures. Isak Prohovnik, Claire D. Metz and Harold L. Atkins ...
Neurogenic mucus secretion in ferret trachea : excitatory and inhibitory control. Author: Ramnarine, Sean Issac. ISNI: 0000 ...
Trachea - one of the tubules forming the respiratory system of most insects and many arachnids ... this point is called the bifurcation of the trachea. The trachea is composed of from 16 to 20 cartilaginous rings, connected by ...
Mitch had the right idea, they are arteries in the sense that they are transportation corridors, but instead of blood they they transport air to every cell. Some think that this breathing system is the factor that limits the size of insects. Some very ancient (fossil) insects were much larger, made possible by the higher concentration of oxygen in the air ...
Bordetella avium, trachea, 7 days after infection. Scanning electron microscopy of a trachea from a poult 7 days after ...
Tissue-Engineered Trachea Transplant Is Adult Stem Cell Breakthrough. *Not Science Fiction: The Road Map To Organ Transplants ... Using adult stem cells from her bone marrow, the team created a scaffold and grew the new trachea. Then the 9-hour operation ... 2-Year-Old Gets Trachea Transplant, Made From Her Own Stem Cells ... organs like a trachea. As time goes on, those operations will ...
Tracheas (from larynx to carina) were dissected out and connected to glass pipette holders to allow intraluminal perfusion (Hua ... B, The concentration of CGRP (fmol/mg tissue) in the rat trachea;C, the CGRP concentration (fmol/mg protein) in vagus nerve 2 ... trachea. Gram-negative bacteria exert profound influences on the physiology of organisms through the actions of endotoxin. ... The effect of Lys-d-Pro-Thr, ketorolac, and indomethacin were studied by applying the drug to the trachea 20 min before and ...
Transfer Trachea Reverberations from Point: False Omniscient (Relapse). By: Jeb Branin. THE END is another entry in the ever ...
Lungs, heart & vessels, trachea & bronchi 3D Model. Something went wrong with the 3D viewer.. Learn how to fix it here. ...
The Trachea and Bronchi The trachea or windpipe (Fig. 961) is a cartilaginous and membranous tube, extending from the lower ... The Trachea and Bronchi. The trachea or windpipe (Fig. 961) is a cartilaginous and membranous tube, extending from the lower ... Relations.-The anterior surface of the trachea is convex, and covered, in the neck, from above downward, by the isthmus of the ... Vessels and Nerves.-The trachea is supplied with blood by the inferior thyroid arteries. The veins end in the thyroid venous ...
... and trachea - v. 2--Diseases of the oesophagus, nose, and naso-pharynx ... A manual of diseases of the throat and nose : including the pharynx, larynx, trachea, oesophagus, nose and naso-pharynx by. ... A manual of diseases of the throat and nose : including the pharynx, larynx, trachea, oesophagus, nose and naso-pharynx ... v. 1--Diseases of the pharynx, larynx, and trachea - v. 2--Diseases of the oesophagus, nose, and naso-pharynx ...
100% natural USA beef trachea, covered with beef esophagus, a great treat for dogs of all sizes! These chewy trachea can be fed ... Home > Dog > Bones, Chews & Treats > Natural Chews > Beef Trachea 6 Covered w/ Esophagus ...
Specification of leading and trailing cell features during collective migration in the Drosophila trachea ...
Bravo Bag-O-Chews Beef Trachea Minis Dry-Roasted Dog Treats (6 oz)Reg price: $10.39. Sale price: $7.99. Bravo Bag-O-Chews 3.5" ... Beef Trachea Chews Dry-Roasted Dog Treats (4 Pack)Reg price: $10.39. Sale price: $7.99. Bravo! Dry Roast Beef Trachea (20 count ... Bravo Bag-O-Chews Beef Trachea are naturally high in protein plus chondroitin and glucosamine, the building blocks of cartilage ... Bravo Bag-O-Chews 8" Beef Trachea Chews Dry-Roasted Dog Treats (2 Pack). Write a Review ...
Other diseases of trachea and bronchus not elsewhere classified. *There are 2 ICD-9-CM codes below 519.1 that define this ...
Konzerva Brit premium by Nature Pork & Trachea 800 g. Kompletné vlhké krmivo pre dospelé psy s citlivým trávením. Viac detailov ... Zloženie: bravčové mäso 36 %, bravčový vývar 35,5 %, kura 21 %, bravčová trachea 5 %, rozmarín 1 %, minerály 1 %, lososový olej ... Zloženie: bravčové mäso 36 %, bravčový vývar 35,5 %, kura 21 %, bravčová trachea 5 %, rozmarín 1 %, minerály 1 %, lososový olej ...
A-Hole Pushes Her Friend Off 60ft Bridge (5 Broken Ribs, Injured trachea, Bruised Esophagus, Air Trapped Lining of Lungs) by ... Home » A-Hole Pushes Her Friend Off 60ft Bridge (5 Broken Ribs, Injured trachea, Bruised Esophagus, Air Trapped Lining of Lungs ... According to The Washington Post Jordan sustained five broken ribs, an injured trachea, a bruised esophagus and air trapped in ...
See before and after photos of patients who have received Trachea Shave services from The Spiegel Center. ...
Trachea Replacement Rigid F/ Cricoid Simulator-1 Replacement Trachea-Rigid ...
Hen Toes, Beef Tracheas, And Different Pure Glucosamine Sources For Dogs. Jefferey Metcalfe January 23, 2019 2 min read ...
Trachea utvärderas genom två metoder som vardera grundar sig på två mätavstånd i thorax. Den ena jämför tracheas diameter med ... The trachea will be evaluated through two different methods, both measuring two distances in the thorax. The first one compares ... Tracheas dimension hos Engelsk Bulldog : en retrospektiv radiologisk pilotstudie på svenska hundar. Second cycle, A1N, A1F or ... Det finns en önskan att utvärdera tracheas diameter hos den svenska Engelsk Bulldog populationen, en ras med andningsproblem, ...
Lung, Liver, Trachea, Tendon, and Steer Sticks. ONE ingredient only, all USA products.. Ingredients. beef trachea. Guaranteed ...
  • CT scan of the thorax (axial lung window) CT scan of the thorax (coronal lung window) CT scan of the thorax (coronal mediastinal window) Cross section of a trachea and esophagus The sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles lie on top of the upper part of the trachea The thyroid gland also lies on top of the trachea, and lies below the cricoid cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • 100% natural USA beef trachea, covered with beef esophagus, a great treat for dogs of all sizes! (petsupplies4less.com)
  • According to The Washington Post Jordan sustained five broken ribs, an injured trachea, a bruised esophagus and air trapped in the lining of her lungs. (unofficialnetworks.com)
  • Natural beef trachea and beef esophagus. (naturalpetwarehouse.com)
  • During stage 13 (embryo is 28 days old), the trachea and lung buds become more evident as the esophagus, respiratory tract, and tracheoesophageal septum elongates. (medscape.com)
  • The trachea (PL: tracheae or tracheas), also known as the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all animals with lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a major part of the respiratory tract, when obstructed the trachea prevents air entering the lungs and so a tracheostomy may be required if the trachea is obstructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea, also called the windpipe, is a tube that carries air from the mouth and nose to the lungs . (stayingalive.com)
  • The membranes line the inside of the trachea and secrete mucus, which traps dust and other particles so they do not enter the lungs. (stayingalive.com)
  • The epiglottis, a flap of tissue that covers the trachea when we swallow, prevents food and liquids from entering the lungs. (stayingalive.com)
  • Pomeranian breathing problems with this disease include unpleasant coughing spasms as a result because the trachea flattens out and blocks the airflow to and from the dog's lungs. (pomeranian.org)
  • The trachea is also lined with cilia, which sweep fluids and foreign particles out of the airway so that they stay out of the lungs. (kidshealth.org)
  • At its bottom end, the trachea divides into left and right air tubes called bronchi (pronounced: BRAHN-kye), which connect to the lungs. (kidshealth.org)
  • The trachea extends from the larynx and branches into the two primary bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the top of the trachea the cricoid cartilage attaches it to the larynx. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea can be affected by inflammation or infection, usually as a result of a viral illness affecting other parts of the respiratory tract, such as the larynx and bronchi, called croup, that can result in a cough. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea begins at the lower edge of the cricoid cartilage of the larynx at the level of sixth cervical vertebra (C6) and ends at the carina, the point where the trachea branches into left and right main bronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea or windpipe (Fig. 961) is a cartilaginous and membranous tube, extending from the lower part of the larynx, on a level with the sixth cervical vertebra, to the upper border of the fifth thoracic vertebra, where it divides into the two bronchi, one for each lung. (bartleby.com)
  • 961- Front view of cartilages of larynx, trachea, and bronchi. (bartleby.com)
  • The trachea (windpipe) is the continuation of the airway below the larynx. (kidshealth.org)
  • The walls of the trachea (say: TRAY-kee-uh) are strengthened by stiff rings of The trachea, or windpipe, is the continuation of the airway below the larynx. (kidshealth.org)
  • The trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi are composed of imperfect rings of hyaline cartilage, fibrous tissue, muscular fibers, mucous membrane, and glands. (bartleby.com)
  • The trachea divides into the left and right bronchi at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra. (stayingalive.com)
  • This is where the cartilage rings around the trachea (windpipe) are weakened and collapse inwards, obstructing the windpipe and making the dog cough. (pomeranian.org)
  • Foregut malformations (oesophageal atresia, tracheo-oesophageal fistula, lung anomalies and congenital stenosis of the oesophagus and trachea) are relatively common anomalies occurring in 1 in 2,000-5,000 live births, although their aetiology is poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • We report here that mutant mice lacking Gli2 function exhibit foregut defects, including stenosis of the oesophagus and trachea, as well as hypoplasia and lobulation defects of the lung. (nih.gov)
  • Mutant mice lacking both Gli2 and Gli3 function did not form oesophagus, trachea and lung. (nih.gov)
  • X-rays can be taken during exhalation and inhalation to identify a collapsed trachea as well as lung and/or heart problems. (pomeranian.org)
  • You an extend chew time by stuffing a trachea with raw grind, or any treats and freezing! (realroar.com)
  • Gently dehydrated 100% Grass Fed & Finished Hawai'i Sheep Trachea treats. (pawniolopetshawaii.com)
  • Especially when the tumor is adjacent to trachea or main bronchus, dissection would be much harder. (sages.org)
  • Thus, we present the twists and methods of dissecting around trachea and bronchus in salvage thoracoscopic esophagectomy, especially focused on the preservation of blood flow of trachea and bronchus. (sages.org)
  • Magnified view by thoracoscopy is necessary during the dissection of trachea and bronchus in salvage esophagectomy. (sages.org)
  • This fact serves to explain why a foreign body in the trachea more frequently falls into the right bronchus. (bartleby.com)
  • The sub-tracheal or seromucous glands in the trachea are found just beneath the epithelium. (byu.edu)
  • The most likely cause of Pomeranian tracheal collapse is the abnormal synthesis of parts of the cartilage that are found in the trachea. (pomeranian.org)
  • Bravo Bag-O-Chews Beef Trachea are naturally high in protein plus chondroitin and glucosamine, the building blocks of cartilage. (entirelypets.com)
  • ValueBull USA Lamb Trachea Dog Chews, 4-7 Inch, , are high in glucosamine which aids in overall joint health. (valuepetsupplies.com)
  • The thyroid gland also stretches across the upper trachea, with the isthmus overlying the second to fourth rings, and the lobes stretching to the level of the fifth or sixth cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea is about four inches long and consists of cartilage, muscles, and membranes. (stayingalive.com)
  • The cartilage forms a flexible skeleton that keeps the trachea open so air can pass through. (stayingalive.com)
  • The c-rings are hyaline cartilage and hold the trachea open to better facilitate respiration. (byu.edu)
  • The walls of the trachea are strengthened by stiff rings of cartilage to keep it open. (kidshealth.org)
  • Behind the trachea, along its length, sits the oesophagus, followed by connective tissue and the vertebral column. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have investigated the guidance roles of the morphogens Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic during directed outgrowth of cytoplasmic extensions in the Drosophila trachea. (biologists.com)
  • and to its sides on its back surface run the recurrent laryngeal nerves in the upper trachea, and the vagus nerves in the lower trachea. (wikipedia.org)
  • this point is called the bifurcation of the trachea. (dictionary.net)
  • 963- Transverse section of the trachea, just above its bifurcation, with a bird's-eye view of the interior. (bartleby.com)
  • These secrete the mucous that lines the trachea and acts as a trap for foreign particles. (byu.edu)
  • British Library EThOS: Neurogenic mucus secretion in ferret trachea : excitatory and inhibitory control. (bl.uk)
  • Scanning electron microscopy of a trachea from a poult 7 days after infection, showing mucus and individual B avium on the luminal surface. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The cilia, tiny hairlike structures, beat rhythmically to move the mucus and trapped particles up and out of the trachea. (stayingalive.com)
  • Trachea are a durable, crunchy chew that dogs love due to the higher fat content (compared to a bully stick). (realroar.com)
  • There are a number of other medical problems that can cause your dog to cough, which contributes to the collapsing trachea. (pomeranian.org)
  • Effects of recycled paper dust extracts on isolated guinea pig trachea. (cdc.gov)
  • Pharmacologic studies of paper dust extracts in isolated guinea pig trachea. (cdc.gov)
  • This is not easily determined upon sight, but can be deduced by looking at other structures unique to the trachea like the subtracheal glands, and the c-rings. (byu.edu)
  • After the trachea has collapsed, coughing will cause more coughing and irritate and inflame your dog's throat. (pomeranian.org)
  • Palpation of your dog's trachea. (pomeranian.org)
  • A small camera (and light) is inserted into the dog's trachea. (pomeranian.org)
  • The structure, dimensions, and anatomic relations of the trachea as well as the neurovascular and lymphatic supply of the upper airway are described below (see the following images). (medscape.com)
  • The trachea passes by many structures of the neck and chest (thorax) along its course. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea will be evaluated through two different methods, both measuring two distances in the thorax. (slu.se)
  • Trachea utvärderas genom två metoder som vardera grundar sig på två mätavstånd i thorax. (slu.se)
  • Infection with bacteria usually affects the trachea only and can cause narrowing or even obstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea is constantly exposed to potential harm from inhaled irritants, such as smoke and bacteria. (stayingalive.com)
  • Infections, such as influenza and pneumonia, can cause inflammation and swelling of the trachea. (stayingalive.com)
  • Chronic inflammation from smoking can also damage the trachea and lead to difficulties breathing. (stayingalive.com)
  • Pomeranian trachea issues are a serious problem and also can be encountered in many small-breed dogs. (pomeranian.org)
  • Insects have an open respiratory system made up of spiracles, tracheae, and tracheoles to transport metabolic gases to and from tissues An adult's trachea has an inner diameter of about 1.5 to 2 centimetres (1⁄2 to 3⁄4 in) and a length of about 10 to 11 cm (4 to 4+1⁄4 in), wider in males than females. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trachea is a vital part of the respiratory system and without it, the gas exchange would not be possible. (stayingalive.com)
  • Using adult stem cells from her bone marrow, the team created a scaffold and grew the new trachea. (science20.com)
  • In the child the trachea is smaller, more deeply placed, and more movable than in the adult. (bartleby.com)
  • The trachea begins to form in the second month of embryo development, becoming longer and more fixed in its position over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further preferably, the left and right side opening protrudes from main tracheae outer wall and outer end face is spherical, avoids scratch patient Trunnion. (google.com)
  • Two groups of side openings of left and right arrangement, left and right capsule are set due to being located in main tracheae above air bag at 5mm-10mm Upper attraction infratubal port corresponds to two groups of side openings respectively, and one of which side opening is air inlet, and another group of side opening is leakage fluid dram. (google.com)
  • Det finns en önskan att utvärdera tracheas diameter hos den svenska Engelsk Bulldog populationen, en ras med andningsproblem, och om möjligt använda det som avelskriterie för att förbättra livssituationen för dessa hundar. (slu.se)
  • Den ena jämför tracheas diameter med höjden på främre bröstapperturen och den andra med bredden på tredje revbenet. (slu.se)
  • In front of the upper trachea lies connective tissue and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cartilages of the trachea vary from sixteen to twenty in number: each forms an imperfect ring, which occupies the anterior two-thirds or so of the circumference of the trachea, being deficient behind, where the tube is completed by fibrous tissue and unstriped muscular fibers. (bartleby.com)
  • the jugular arch, which joins the two anterior jugular veins, sits in front of the upper part of the trachea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further preferably, suction tube is pasted on main inner surface of trachea on the capsule. (google.com)
  • Trachea are known to be a natural source of glucosamine, which may help preserve joint health and mobility. (realroar.com)
  • 100% natural beef trachea, air dried to lock in the goodness. (hollings.co.uk)
  • The trachea is a circular tube that's rigid and goes from the throat to the chest. (pomeranian.org)
  • The muscles contract and relax to help move air through the trachea. (stayingalive.com)