A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
The thin, horny plates that cover the dorsal surfaces of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes of primates.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.
A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A dithiocarbamate chemical, used commercially in the rubber processing industry and as a fungicide. In vivo studies indicate that it inactivates the enzyme GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE. It has mutagenic activity and may induce chromosomal aberrations.
A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
Manganese poisoning is associated with chronic inhalation of manganese particles by individuals who work with manganese ore. Clinical features include CONFUSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and an extrapyramidal syndrome (PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) that includes rigidity; DYSTONIA; retropulsion; and TREMOR. (Adams, Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1213)
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE known for the edible fruit that is the source of BROMELAINS.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.
Therapy of sitting in a hot steamy room followed by a cool bath or shower.
The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.
A plant genus of the family ANACARDIACEAE best known for the edible fruit.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.
Fluoride poisoning, also known as fluoride toxicity, is a condition characterized by symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and seizures that result from ingesting excessive amounts of fluoride, typically through contaminated water or industrial exposure.
A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
An extracellular selenoprotein that contains most of the SELENIUM in PLASMA. Selenoprotein P functions as an antioxidant and appears to transport selenium from the LIVER to peripheral tissues.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)
A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.

Apparent ileal and total-tract nutrient digestion by pigs as affected by dietary nondigestible oligosaccharides. (1/924)

The effects of two types of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) were studied on growing and weanling pigs' nutrient digestion. Dietary NDO were included at the expense of purified cellulose. Twenty-five 57-d-old growing pigs, averaging 15.9+/-.6 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a corn-based control diet or the control with 6.8 or 13.5 g of FOS/kg or 4.0 or 8.0 g of TOS/kg (five pigs per diet). Feces were collected on d 28 to 32, and small-intestinal digesta were collected (slaughter technique) on d 42 to 47 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, and crude fiber. Dietary NDO did not significantly affect apparent fecal and small intestinal digestion of nutrients in growing pigs. After being fed a NDO-free diet through d 10 after weaning, 38-d-old weanling pigs (n = 20), averaging 10.4+/-.8 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a control diet (based on cornstarch, casein, and oat husk meal) or the control with 10 or 40 g of FOS or TOS/kg (four pigs per diet). Feces and urine were collected on d 13 to 17, and ileal digesta were collected via a postvalve T-cecum cannula on d 33 to 37 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, starch, NDF, ADF, ADL, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn. Nonstarch neutral-detergent soluble carbohydrates (NNSC) completed the mass balance for the carbohydrates. Urine was analyzed for N and minerals. The apparent fecal digestion of NNSC increased in the NDO-supplemented diets. The TOS-fed pigs tended (P<.10) to have a higher apparent fecal digestion of CP than the FOS-fed and control pigs but excreted more N via the urine (P<.01). Nitrogen and mineral balances were not affected. The FOS was nearly completely degraded prececally. Mean fiber digestion was lower at the fecal compared with the ileal level, as was the extent of NDO effects. This indicates that fiber digestion requires more than 2 wk to adapt to dietary NDO. Apparent ileal digestion of hemicellulose increased for the NDO-supplemented diets (P<.05), but that of NNSC decreased (P<.001). Thus, under the well-controlled conditions of this experiment, dietary NDO hardly affected nutrient digestion in well-kept growing and weanling pigs. However, digestion of dietary nonstarch carbohydrates may be affected.  (+info)

Copper, zinc, and magnesium levels in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. (2/924)

A relationship has been reported between trace elements and diabetes mellitus. This study evaluated the role of such a relationship in 83 patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (40 men and 43 women), with a mean duration of diabetes of 3.9 +/- 3.6 years. Patients with nephropathy were excluded. Thirty healthy non-diabetic subjects were studied for comparative analysis. Subjects were subdivided into obese and non-obese. Diabetic subjects were also subdivided into controlled and uncontrolled groups; control was based on fasting blood glucose and serum fructosamine levels. Plasma copper, zinc and magnesium levels were analysed using a GBC 902 double beam atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma zinc and magnesium levels were comparable between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects, while copper levels were significantly elevated (p < 0.01) in diabetic patients. Age, sex, duration and control of diabetes did not influence copper, zinc, or magnesium concentrations. We conclude that zinc and magnesium levels are not altered in diabetes mellitus, but the increased copper levels found in diabetics in our study may merit further investigation of the relationship between copper and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.  (+info)

Effects of supplementation of organic and inorganic combinations of copper, cobalt, manganese, and zinc above nutrient requirement levels on postpartum two-year-old cows. (3/924)

The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn in an organic or inorganic form fed at higher than nutrient recommendations for 2-yr-old cows from calving to breeding would affect pregnancy rate, calving date, calf performance, and cow liver and serum mineral concentrations. Crossbred 2-yr-old cows were used after calving in 1994 (n = 127) and 1995 (n = 109). Cows were blocked by calving date to one of three treatments: 1) no supplemental minerals (CTL), 2) organic minerals (ORG), or 3) inorganic minerals (ING). Minerals were fed for the same daily intake for both organic and inorganic treatments: Cu (125 mg), Co (25 mg), Mn (200 mg), and Zn (360 mg). Cows were individually fed a mineral-protein supplement with grass hay from calving (February-March) to before breeding (May 15). Hay intakes were calculated using chromium oxide boluses to determine fecal output. Fecal excretion of minerals was calculated following trace element analysis of feces. Liver biopsies were obtained before calving, after calving (start of supplementation), at the end of supplementation, and in midsummer. Over 2 yr, more cows did not become pregnant (P < .01) in ORG (11/78) and ING (11/78) treatments than in CTL (0/80) treatments. A treatment x year interaction was found for day of conception. Cows in the ORG group conceived later (P < .01) than cows in the ING or CTL groups in 1994. In 1995, there was no difference (P > .10) in day of conception among groups. Liver Zn and Mn concentrations were not different (P > .10) and Cu concentrations increased (P < .01) for the ORG and ING groups. Cows in the ORG and ING groups had higher (P < .01) concentrations of Cu, Mn, and Zn in the feces than the CTL cows. Trace elements in the feces did not differ for ORG and ING groups. Results indicate that combinations of Cu, Co, Mn, and Zn fed at higher levels than are required reduced reproductive performance.  (+info)

Comparative absorption of calcium sources and calcium citrate malate for the prevention of osteoporosis. (4/924)

Anthropologically speaking, humans were high consumers of calcium until the onset of the Agricultural Age, 10,000 years ago. Current calcium intake is one-quarter to one-third that of our evolutionary diet and, if we are genetically identical to the Late Paleolithic Homo sapiens, we may be consuming a calcium-deficient diet our bodies cannot adjust to by physiologic mechanisms. Meta-analyses of calcium and bone mass studies demonstrate supplementation of 500 to 1500 mg calcium daily improves bone mass in adolescents, young adults, older men, and postmenopausal women. Calcium citrate malate has high bioavailability and thus has been the subject of calcium studies in these populations. Positive effects have been seen in prepubertal girls, adolescents, and postmenopausal women. The addition of trace minerals and vitamin D in separate trials has improved the effect of calcium citrate malate on bone density and shown a reduction of fracture risk.  (+info)

Effects of stair-step nutrition and trace mineral supplementation on attainment of puberty in beef heifers of three sire breeds. (5/924)

A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of nutrition and sire breed on age at puberty and first lactation milk yield in crossbred beef heifers. After weaning, 208 heifers sired by Hereford, Limousin, or Piedmontese bulls were assigned to either a control (CG) or stair-step gain (SSG) dietary regimen plus a mineral supplement with or without Cu, Zn, and Mn top-dressed onto the feed. Heifers on the SSG regimen were fed a diet intended to supply energy to support gains at a rate of 120% of the CG diet for 55 d and then were switched to a diet formulated to produce an ADG at 70% of the rate of the CG diet for 84 d. They then switched back to the 120% diet for the last 30 d before breeding. Total weight gain and overall rate of gain did not differ among dietary treatments. Hereford- and Limousin-sired heifers gained at similar rates, and Piedmontese-sired heifers gained an average of .10 kg/d slower than the other two sire breed groups. During one period, Piedmontese-sired heifers on the CG diet gained .19 kg/d faster ( P < . 01) when supplemented with mineral than when not. During that same period, there was no influence of mineral supplementation on weight gains for Hereford- or Piedmontese-sired heifers on the high SSG diet, but Limousin-sired heifers tended (P = .07) to gain faster (1.00 vs .85 kg/d) when supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn than when not. Piedmontese-sired heifers reached puberty at the earliest age (P = .03), followed by Hereford- and then Limousin-sired heifers. There were no treatment effects on milk yield at an average of 70 d of lactation. However, at approximately 120 d of lactation, Piedmontese-sired heifers were producing less milk (P < .05) than Limousin- but not Hereford-sired heifers. Hereford-sired heifers had lower (P < .05) plasma Cu concentrations than Piedmontese-sired heifers. There were no treatment effects on plasma Zn concentrations. Heifers sired by bulls of breeds that differ in potential muscularity differed in growth, reproduction, milk yield, and plasma mineral concentrations, but dietary treatments resulted in little to no differences in these variables.  (+info)

Marked elevation of myocardial trace elements in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy compared with secondary cardiac dysfunction. (6/924)

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the possible pathogenetic role of myocardial trace elements (TE) in patients with various forms of cardiac failure. BACKGROUND: Both myocardial TE accumulation and deficiency have been associated with the development of heart failure indistinguishable from an idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Myocardial and muscular content of 32 TE has been assessed in biopsy samples of 13 patients (pts) with clinical, hemodynamic and histologic diagnosis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM), all without past or current exposure to TE. One muscular and one left ventricular (LV) endomyocardial specimen from each patient, drawn with metal contamination-free technique, were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and compared with 1) similar surgical samples from patients with valvular (12 pts) and ischemic (13 pts) heart disease comparable for age and degree of LV dysfunction; 2) papillary and skeletal muscle surgical biopsies from 10 pts with mitral stenosis and normal LV function, and 3) LV endomyocardial biopsies from four normal subjects. RESULTS: A large increase (>10,000 times for mercury and antimony) of TE concentration has been observed in myocardial but not in muscular samples in all pts with IDCM. Patients with secondary cardiac dysfunction had mild increase (< or = 5 times) of myocardial TE and normal muscular TE. In particular, in pts with IDCM mean mercury concentration was 22,000 times (178,400 ng/g vs. 8 ng/g), antimony 12,000 times (19,260 ng/g vs. 1.5 ng/g), gold 11 times (26 ng/g vs. 2.3 ng/g), chromium 13 times (2,300 ng/g vs. 177 ng/g) and cobalt 4 times (86,5 ng/g vs. 20 ng/g) higher than in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: A large, significant increase of myocardial TE is present in IDCM but not in secondary cardiac dysfunction. The increased concentration of TE in pts with IDCM may adversely affect mitochondrial activity and myocardial metabolism and worsen cellular function.  (+info)

Trace elements and electrolytes in human resting mixed saliva after exercise. (7/924)

OBJECTIVES: Exercise is known to cause changes in the concentration of salivary components such as amylase, Na, and Cl. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of physical exercise on the levels of trace elements and electrolytes in whole (mixed) saliva. METHODS: Forty subjects performed a maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Samples of saliva were obtained before and immediately after the exercise test. Sample concentrations of Fe, Mg, Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Ag, Sb, Cs, and Hg were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and concentrations of Ca and Na by atomic absorption spectrometry. RESULTS: After exercise, Mg and Na levels showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) while Mn levels fell (p < 0.05). Zn/Cu molar ratios were unaffected by exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Intense physical exercise induced changes in the concentrations of only three (Na, Mg, and Mn) of the 16 elements analysed in the saliva samples. Further research is needed to assess the clinical implications of these findings.  (+info)

Effects of weight loss and exercise on the distribution of lead and essential trace elements in rats with prior lead exposure. (8/924)

We studied the effects of weight loss and non-weight-bearing exercise (swimming) on blood and organ lead and essential metal concentrations in rats with prior lead exposure. Nine-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 37) received lead acetate in their drinking water for 2 weeks, followed by a 4-day latency period without lead exposure. Rats were then randomly assigned to one of six treatment groups: weight maintenance with ad libitum feeding, moderate weight loss with 20% food restriction, and substantial weight loss with 40% food restriction, either with or without swimming. Blood lead concentrations were measured weekly. The rats were euthanized after a 4-week period of food restriction, and the brain, liver, kidneys, quadriceps muscle, lumbar spinal column bones, and femur were harvested for analysis for lead, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, and zinc using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Both swimming and nonswimming rats fed restricted diets had consistently higher blood lead concentrations than the ad libitum controls. Rats in the substantial weight loss group had higher organ lead concentrations than rats in the weight maintenance group. Rats in the moderate weight loss group had intermediate values. There were no significant differences in blood and organ lead concentrations between the swimming and nonswimming groups. Organ iron concentrations increased with weight loss, but those of the other metals studied did not. Weight loss also increased hematocrits and decreased bone density of the nonswimming rats. The response of lead stores to weight loss was similar to that of iron stores because both were conserved during food restriction in contrast to decreased stores of the other metals studied. It is possible that weight loss, especially rapid weight loss, could result in lead toxicity in people with a history of prior excessive lead exposure.  (+info)

Trace elements are essential minerals that the body needs in very small or tiny amounts, usually less than 100 milligrams per day, for various biological processes. These include elements like iron, zinc, copper, manganese, fluoride, selenium, and iodine. They are vital for maintaining good health and proper functioning of the human body, but they are required in such minute quantities that even a slight excess or deficiency can lead to significant health issues.

Selenium is a trace element that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. According to the medical definitions provided by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), selenium is a component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defense systems, and immune function.

Selenium is found in a variety of foods, including nuts (particularly Brazil nuts), cereals, fish, and meat. It exists in several forms, with selenomethionine being the most common form found in food. Other forms include selenocysteine, which is incorporated into proteins, and selenite and selenate, which are inorganic forms of selenium.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for selenium is 55 micrograms per day for adults. While selenium deficiency is rare, chronic selenium deficiency can lead to conditions such as Keshan disease, a type of cardiomyopathy, and Kaschin-Beck disease, which affects the bones and joints.

It's important to note that while selenium is essential for health, excessive intake can be harmful. High levels of selenium can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and neurological damage. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for selenium is 400 micrograms per day for adults.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: *cuprum*) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Copper is found as a free element in nature, and it is also a constituent of many minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite.

In the human body, copper is an essential trace element that plays a role in various physiological processes, including iron metabolism, energy production, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue synthesis. Copper is found in a variety of foods, such as shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and organ meats. The recommended daily intake of copper for adults is 900 micrograms (mcg) per day.

Copper deficiency can lead to anemia, neutropenia, impaired immune function, and abnormal bone development. Copper toxicity, on the other hand, can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and in severe cases, liver damage and neurological symptoms. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced copper intake through diet and supplements if necessary.

Atomic spectrophotometry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the concentration of specific atoms or ions in a sample by measuring the intensity of light absorbed or emitted at wavelengths characteristic of those atoms or ions. This technique involves the use of an atomic spectrometer, which uses a source of energy (such as a flame, plasma, or electrode) to excite the atoms or ions in the sample, causing them to emit light at specific wavelengths. The intensity of this emitted light is then measured and used to calculate the concentration of the element of interest.

Atomic spectrophotometry can be further divided into two main categories: atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrophotometry (AES). In AAS, the sample is atomized in a flame or graphite furnace and the light from a lamp that emits light at the same wavelength as one of the elements in the sample is passed through the atoms. The amount of light absorbed by the atoms is then measured and used to determine the concentration of the element. In AES, the sample is atomized and excited to emit its own light, which is then measured and analyzed to determine the concentration of the element.

Atomic spectrophotometry is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, clinical chemistry, forensic science, and industrial quality control for the determination of trace elements in a variety of sample types including liquids, solids, and gases.

X-ray emission spectrometry is a technique used to analyze the elements present in a sample by measuring the characteristic X-rays that are emitted when the sample is bombarded with high-energy X-rays or charged particles. The sample is excited to emit X-rays, which have specific energies (wavelengths) that correspond to the energy levels of the electrons in the atoms of the elements present in the sample. These X-ray emissions are then detected and analyzed using a spectrometer, which separates and measures the intensity of the different X-ray energies. The resulting spectrum provides information about the identity and quantity of the elements present in the sample. This technique is widely used in materials analysis, particularly for the identification and quantification of heavy metals and other elements in a variety of samples, including geological, biological, and industrial materials.

In the context of medical terminology, "nails" primarily refer to the keratinous plates that are found at the tips of fingers and toes. These specialized structures are part of the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis) and are formed by a type of cells called keratinocytes. The nails serve to protect the delicate underlying tissues from trauma, and they also aid in tasks such as picking up small objects or scratching itches.

The medical term for fingernails and toenails is "unguis," which comes from Latin. Each nail consists of several parts:

1. Nail plate: The visible part of the nail that is hard and flat, made up of keratin.
2. Nail bed: The skin beneath the nail plate to which the nail plate is attached; it supplies blood to the nail.
3. Matrix: The area where new cells are produced for the growth of the nail plate; located under the cuticle and extends slightly onto the finger or toe.
4. Lunula: The crescent-shaped white area at the base of the nail plate, which is the visible portion of the matrix.
5. Cuticle: The thin layer of skin that overlaps the nail plate and protects the underlying tissue from infection.
6. Eponychium: The fold of skin that surrounds and covers the nail plate; also known as the "proximal nail fold."
7. Hyponychium: The area of skin between the free edge of the nail plate and the fingertip or toe tip.
8. Perionychiun: The skin surrounding the nail on all sides.

Understanding the anatomy and medical aspects of nails is essential for healthcare professionals, as various conditions can affect nail health, such as fungal infections, ingrown nails, or tumors.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a specific gravity at least five times greater than that of water. They include metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). These metals are considered toxic when they accumulate in the body beyond certain levels, interfering with various biological processes and causing damage to cells, tissues, and organs.

Heavy metal exposure can occur through various sources, including occupational exposure, contaminated food, water, or air, and improper disposal of electronic waste. Chronic exposure to heavy metals has been linked to several health issues, such as neurological disorders, kidney damage, developmental problems, and cancer. Monitoring and controlling exposure to these elements is essential for maintaining good health and preventing potential adverse effects.

In the context of medicine, the term "elements" generally refers to the basic constituents or parts that make up a whole. These can include chemical elements, such as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which are the building blocks of biological molecules like proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates.

However, "elements" can also refer more broadly to the fundamental components of a system or process. For example, in traditional humorism, one of the ancient medical systems, the four "elements" were considered to be black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood, which were believed to correspond to different temperaments and bodily functions.

In modern medicine, the term is less commonly used, but it may still refer to the basic components of a biological or chemical system, such as the elements of a chemical reaction or the building blocks of a cell.

Selenoproteins are a specific group of proteins that contain the essential micronutrient selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec), which is a naturally occurring amino acid. Selenocysteine is encoded by the opal codon UGA, which typically serves as a stop codon in mRNA.

There are 25 known human selenoproteins, and they play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including antioxidant defense, DNA synthesis, thyroid hormone metabolism, and immune function. Some of the well-known selenoproteins include glutathione peroxidases (GPxs), thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs), and iodothyronine deiodinases (IDIs).

The presence of selenocysteine in these proteins makes them particularly efficient at catalyzing redox reactions, which involve the gain or loss of electrons. This property is essential for their functions as antioxidants and regulators of cellular signaling pathways.

Deficiencies in selenium can lead to impaired function of selenoproteins, potentially resulting in various health issues, such as increased oxidative stress, weakened immune response, and disrupted thyroid hormone metabolism.

Deficiency diseases are a group of medical conditions that occur when an individual's diet lacks essential nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals. These diseases develop because the body needs these nutrients to function correctly, and without them, various bodily functions can become impaired, leading to disease.

Deficiency diseases can manifest in many different ways, depending on which nutrient is lacking. For example:

* Vitamin A deficiency can lead to night blindness and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases.
* Vitamin C deficiency can result in scurvy, a condition characterized by fatigue, swollen gums, joint pain, and anemia.
* Vitamin D deficiency can cause rickets in children, a disease that leads to weakened bones and skeletal deformities.
* Iron deficiency can result in anemia, a condition in which the blood lacks adequate healthy red blood cells.

Preventing deficiency diseases involves eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all the major food groups. In some cases, supplements may be necessary to ensure adequate nutrient intake, especially for individuals who have restricted diets or medical conditions that affect nutrient absorption.

Manganese is not a medical condition, but it's an essential trace element that is vital for human health. Here is the medical definition of Manganese:

Manganese (Mn) is a trace mineral that is present in tiny amounts in the body. It is found mainly in bones, the liver, kidneys, and pancreas. Manganese helps the body form connective tissue, bones, blood clotting factors, and sex hormones. It also plays a role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption, and blood sugar regulation. Manganese is also necessary for normal brain and nerve function.

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for manganese is 2.3 mg per day for adult men and 1.8 mg per day for adult women. Good food sources of manganese include nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, and tea.

In some cases, exposure to high levels of manganese can cause neurological symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease, a condition known as manganism. However, this is rare and usually occurs in people who are occupationally exposed to manganese dust or fumes, such as welders.

Chromium is an essential trace element that is necessary for human health. It is a key component of the glucose tolerance factor, which helps to enhance the function of insulin in regulating blood sugar levels. Chromium can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, whole grains, and some fruits and vegetables. However, it is also available in dietary supplements for those who may not get adequate amounts through their diet.

The recommended daily intake of chromium varies depending on age and gender. For adults, the adequate intake (AI) is 20-35 micrograms per day for women and 35-50 micrograms per day for men. Chromium deficiency is rare but can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

It's important to note that while chromium supplements are marketed as a way to improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control, there is limited evidence to support these claims. Moreover, excessive intake of chromium can have adverse effects on health, including liver and kidney damage, stomach irritation, and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplements containing chromium.

"Response elements" is a term used in molecular biology, particularly in the study of gene regulation. Response elements are specific DNA sequences that can bind to transcription factors, which are proteins that regulate gene expression. When a transcription factor binds to a response element, it can either activate or repress the transcription of the nearby gene.

Response elements are often found in the promoter region of genes and are typically short, conserved sequences that can be recognized by specific transcription factors. The binding of a transcription factor to a response element can lead to changes in chromatin structure, recruitment of co-activators or co-repressors, and ultimately, the regulation of gene expression.

Response elements are important for many biological processes, including development, differentiation, and response to environmental stimuli such as hormones, growth factors, and stress. The specificity of transcription factor binding to response elements allows for precise control of gene expression in response to changing conditions within the cell or organism.

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is not strictly a medical definition, but it's a technique used in the field of nuclear medicine and forensic medicine for material analysis and identification. Here's a general definition:

Neutron Activation Analysis is a non-destructive analytical method that uses nuclear reactions to identify and determine the concentration of elements within a sample. The sample is irradiated with neutrons, which induce nuclear reactions that produce radioactive isotopes of the elements present in the sample. The gamma radiation emitted by these radioisotopes is then measured and analyzed to quantify the elemental composition of the sample. This technique is particularly useful for detecting and measuring trace elements and isotopes, making it valuable in various fields such as archaeology, geology, nuclear medicine, and forensic science.

In the context of nutrition and health, minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for various bodily functions, such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and bone structure. They are required in small amounts compared to macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and are obtained from food and water.

Some of the major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride, while trace minerals or microminerals are required in even smaller amounts and include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, and fluoride.

It's worth noting that the term "minerals" can also refer to geological substances found in the earth, but in medical terminology, it specifically refers to the essential inorganic elements required for human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nickel" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ni and atomic number 28. Nickel is a hard, silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. It is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic and is used as a common component in various alloys due to its properties such as resistance to corrosion and heat.

However, in a medical context, nickel may refer to:

* Nickel allergy: A type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an immune system response to the presence of nickel in jewelry, clothing fasteners, or other items that come into contact with the skin. Symptoms can include redness, itching, and rash at the site of exposure.
* Nickel carbonyl: A highly toxic chemical compound (Ni(CO)4) that can cause respiratory and neurological problems if inhaled. It is produced during some industrial processes involving nickel and carbon monoxide and poses a health risk to workers if proper safety measures are not taken.

If you have any concerns about exposure to nickel or symptoms related to nickel allergy, it's best to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and treatment.

Medically, hair is defined as a threadlike structure that grows from the follicles found in the skin of mammals. It is primarily made up of a protein called keratin and consists of three parts: the medulla (the innermost part or core), the cortex (middle layer containing keratin filaments) and the cuticle (outer layer of overlapping scales).

Hair growth occurs in cycles, with each cycle consisting of a growth phase (anagen), a transitional phase (catagen), and a resting phase (telogen). The length of hair is determined by the duration of the anagen phase.

While hair plays a crucial role in protecting the skin from external factors like UV radiation, temperature changes, and physical damage, it also serves as an essential aspect of human aesthetics and identity.

Genetic enhancer elements are DNA sequences that increase the transcription of specific genes. They work by binding to regulatory proteins called transcription factors, which in turn recruit RNA polymerase II, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into messenger RNA (mRNA). This results in the activation of gene transcription and increased production of the protein encoded by that gene.

Enhancer elements can be located upstream, downstream, or even within introns of the genes they regulate, and they can act over long distances along the DNA molecule. They are an important mechanism for controlling gene expression in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner, allowing for the precise regulation of gene activity during embryonic development and throughout adult life.

It's worth noting that genetic enhancer elements are often referred to simply as "enhancers," and they are distinct from other types of regulatory DNA sequences such as promoters, silencers, and insulators.

In the context of medicine, "lead" most commonly refers to lead exposure or lead poisoning. Lead is a heavy metal that can be harmful to the human body, even at low levels. It can enter the body through contaminated air, water, food, or soil, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

Lead poisoning occurs when lead builds up in the body over time, causing damage to the brain, nervous system, red blood cells, and kidneys. Symptoms of lead poisoning may include abdominal pain, constipation, fatigue, headache, irritability, memory problems, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, or even death.

Lead exposure is particularly dangerous for children, as their developing bodies are more sensitive to the harmful effects of lead. Even low levels of lead exposure can cause learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and developmental delays in children. Therefore, it's important to minimize lead exposure and seek medical attention if lead poisoning is suspected.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

Thiram is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in some medical and healthcare settings. Thiram is an organic compound that belongs to the class of chemicals known as dithiocarbamates. It is primarily used as a fungicide to prevent fungal growth on crops such as potatoes, beans, and nuts.

In medical contexts, thiram has been used in some topical creams and ointments as an antifungal agent to treat skin conditions like athlete's foot and ringworm. However, its use in medicine is relatively limited due to concerns about its potential toxicity and environmental impact.

It is important to note that the use of thiram in topical medications has declined over time, and it is not commonly used in modern medical practice. Always consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information regarding medical treatments and therapies.

Selenocysteine (Sec) is a rare, naturally occurring amino acid that contains selenium. It is encoded by the opal (TGA) codon, which typically signals stop translation in mRNA. However, when followed by a specific hairpin-like structure called the Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element in the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA, the TGA codon is interpreted as a signal for selenocysteine incorporation during protein synthesis.

Selenocysteine plays an essential role in several enzymes involved in antioxidant defense and redox homeostasis, such as glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases, and iodothyronine deiodinases. These enzymes require selenocysteine for their catalytic activity due to its unique chemical properties, which allow them to neutralize harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintain proper cellular function.

In summary, selenocysteine is a specialized amino acid containing selenium that is encoded by the TGA codon in mRNA when accompanied by a SECIS element. It is crucial for the activity of several enzymes involved in antioxidant defense and redox homeostasis.

The chemical element aluminum (or aluminium in British English) is a silvery-white, soft, non-magnetic, ductile metal. The atomic number of aluminum is 13 and its symbol on the periodic table is Al. It is the most abundant metallic element in the Earth's crust and is found in a variety of minerals such as bauxite.

Aluminum is resistant to corrosion due to the formation of a thin layer of aluminum oxide on its surface that protects it from further oxidation. It is lightweight, has good thermal and electrical conductivity, and can be easily formed and machined. These properties make aluminum a widely used metal in various industries such as construction, packaging, transportation, and electronics.

In the medical field, aluminum is used in some medications and medical devices. For example, aluminum hydroxide is commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and treat heartburn, while aluminum salts are used as adjuvants in vaccines to enhance the immune response. However, excessive exposure to aluminum can be harmful and has been linked to neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, although the exact relationship between aluminum and these conditions is not fully understood.

Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that is a byproduct of the mining and smelting of zinc, lead, and copper. It has no taste or smell and can be found in small amounts in air, water, and soil. Cadmium can also be found in some foods, such as kidneys, liver, and shellfish.

Exposure to cadmium can cause a range of health effects, including kidney damage, lung disease, fragile bones, and cancer. Cadmium is classified as a known human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP).

Occupational exposure to cadmium can occur in industries that produce or use cadmium, such as battery manufacturing, metal plating, and pigment production. Workers in these industries may be exposed to cadmium through inhalation of cadmium-containing dusts or fumes, or through skin contact with cadmium-containing materials.

The general population can also be exposed to cadmium through the environment, such as by eating contaminated food or breathing secondhand smoke. Smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure for smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke.

Prevention measures include reducing occupational exposure to cadmium, controlling emissions from industrial sources, and reducing the use of cadmium in consumer products. Regular monitoring of air, water, and soil for cadmium levels can also help identify potential sources of exposure and prevent health effects.

Sodium Selenite is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound with the formula Na2SeO3. It is used in medicine as a dietary supplement and also in veterinary medicine. Medically, it is used to treat selenium deficiency, which is rare.

Selenium is an essential trace element for human health, playing a crucial role in various physiological processes, such as antioxidant defense systems, thyroid hormone metabolism, and DNA synthesis. Sodium Selenite serves as a source of selenium in these medical applications.

Please note that supplementation with sodium selenite should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as excessive selenium intake can lead to selenosis, a condition characterized by symptoms like nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and neurological damage.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Chemical water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater) with harmful chemicals or substances that negatively impact water quality and pose a threat to human health, aquatic life, and the environment. These chemical pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural activities, waste disposal, oil spills, and chemical accidents. Examples of chemical pollutants include heavy metals (such as mercury, lead, and cadmium), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other hazardous substances. These chemicals can have toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic effects on living organisms and can disrupt ecosystems, leading to decreased biodiversity and impaired ecological functions.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Molybdenum" is not a medical term. It is an element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42 on the periodic table. Molybdenum is used in various industries, including medicine, for example in the production of surgical instruments and some prosthetics due to its strength and resistance to corrosion. However, it is not a term used to describe a medical condition or bodily process. If you have any questions related to elements and their uses in medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is a hard, silver-white, lustrous, and brittle metal that is found naturally only in chemically combined form, except for small amounts found in meteorites. Cobalt is used primarily in the production of magnetic, wear-resistant, and high-strength alloys, as well as in the manufacture of batteries, magnets, and pigments.

In a medical context, cobalt is sometimes used in the form of cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope, for cancer treatment through radiation therapy. Cobalt-60 emits gamma rays that can be directed at tumors to destroy cancer cells. Additionally, small amounts of cobalt are present in some vitamin B12 supplements and fortified foods, as cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12. However, exposure to high levels of cobalt can be harmful and may cause health effects such as allergic reactions, lung damage, heart problems, and neurological issues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geological phenomena" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Geological phenomena refer to natural processes and features related to the earth's physical structure, composition, and the various changes it undergoes over time. This could include things like volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, rock formations, or the formation of fossil fuels. If you have a term that you would like me to provide a medical definition for, I'd be happy to help!

Manganese poisoning, also known as manganism, is a condition that results from excessive exposure to manganese. Manganese is an essential nutrient, but at high levels, it can become toxic to the body. The symptoms of manganese poisoning can be similar to those of Parkinson's disease and may include tremors, difficulty walking, and mood changes. In severe cases, manganese poisoning can lead to irreversible neurological damage. Exposure to manganese can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact, and is often associated with occupational exposure in industries such as welding, mining, and manufacturing of batteries and fertilizers.

"Ananas" is the common name for a tropical fruit that is also known as a pineapple. The term "ananas" comes from the Tupi language, which was spoken by indigenous people in what is now Brazil. When European explorers first encountered this fruit in South America, they adopted the Tupi word "nana," meaning "excellent fruit," and added the Greek prefix "an-" to mean "producing."

The medical or scientific definition of Ananas refers to the genus Ananas, which is a member of the Bromeliaceae family. The most common species in this genus is Ananas comosus, which is the pineapple that we are familiar with today.

Pineapples have several health benefits and are rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. They contain bromelain, a mixture of enzymes that has anti-inflammatory properties and can help with digestion. Pineapple is also an excellent source of vitamin C, manganese, and dietary fiber.

In summary, the medical definition of "Ananas" refers to the pineapple fruit and its genus Ananas, which belongs to the Bromeliaceae family. It has several health benefits due to its rich nutritional content, including bromelain, vitamin C, manganese, and dietary fiber.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Strontium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Sr and atomic number 38. It is a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element that is highly reactive chemically. In the medical field, strontium ranelate is a medication used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It works by increasing the formation of new bone and decreasing bone resorption (breakdown).

It is important to note that strontium ranelate has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, such as heart attack and stroke, so it is not recommended for people with a history of these conditions. Additionally, the use of strontium supplements in high doses can be toxic and should be avoided.

"Citrullus" is a genus of plants that includes watermelon and several other species of vine-like fruits. The name "Citrullus" comes from the Latin word for watermelon, "citrullus lanatus." Watermelons are the most well-known member of this genus and are popular for their juicy, sweet red or pink flesh, which is high in vitamins A and C and contains a high amount of lycopene. Other species in the Citrullus genus include citron melon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) and colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis), also known as bitter apple.

A steam bath is not explicitly defined in traditional medical textbooks or resources. However, it is a common wellness practice that involves exposure to warm, humid air within an enclosed space, typically called a "steam room." The temperature in a steam bath usually ranges from 100°F to 115°F (38°C to 46°C), with a high relative humidity of around 100%.

Steam baths can have some potential health benefits, such as:

1. Promoting relaxation and stress reduction
2. Easing muscle tension and joint pain
3. Improving circulation and cardiovascular function
4. Supporting skin health by opening pores and promoting detoxification through perspiration
5. Alleviating respiratory congestion and symptoms of colds or allergies

However, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before participating in steam baths, especially for individuals with pre-existing medical conditions like heart disease, high blood pressure, respiratory issues, or pregnancy. Prolonged exposure to high temperatures can lead to dehydration, dizziness, or heat exhaustion.

Animal shells are hard, protective outer coverings that are produced by certain types of animals, primarily mollusks and arthropods. In mollusks, these include creatures such as clams, oysters, and snails, while in arthropods, they can be found in animals like crabs, lobsters, and insects.

Mollusk shells are typically made of calcium carbonate and are secreted by the mantle tissue of the animal. They provide protection for the soft body of the mollusk and may also serve as a home for hermit crabs. Arthropod exoskeletons, on the other hand, are made up of chitin, a tough polysaccharide, and proteins. These exoskeletons provide support and protection for the animal's body and can be shed periodically as the animal grows.

Animal shells have been used by humans for various purposes throughout history, including tools, jewelry, and decorative arts. They also play an important role in many ecosystems, providing habitats and food sources for other organisms.

"Mangifera" is not a medical term, but a botanical name. It refers to the genus of trees that produce mangoes and other related fruits. The scientific name for the mango fruit is "Mangifera indica." This tropical tree is native to South Asia, particularly India and Southeast Asia.

The mango fruit is rich in vitamins A, C, and B6, as well as dietary fiber, antioxidants, and various other nutrients. It has been used in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and hypoglycemic properties. However, it is important to note that while the fruit itself may have health benefits, "Mangifera" does not have a specific medical definition or application.

I apologize for any confusion, but "coal" is not a medical term. Coal is a black or brownish-black sedimentary rock that is formed from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment. It is commonly used as a fuel source due to its high carbon content. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in small quantities for the normal growth, development, and maintenance of life in humans. They are required for various biochemical functions in the body such as energy production, blood clotting, immune function, and making DNA.

Unlike macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), vitamins do not provide energy but they play a crucial role in energy metabolism. Humans require 13 essential vitamins, which can be divided into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble.

Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are stored in the body's fat tissues and liver, and can stay in the body for a longer period of time. Water-soluble vitamins (B-complex vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body and need to be replenished regularly through diet or supplementation.

Deficiency of vitamins can lead to various health problems, while excessive intake of certain fat-soluble vitamins can also be harmful due to toxicity. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet that provides all the essential vitamins in adequate amounts.

Hemodiafiltration (HDF) is a type of renal replacement therapy used for patients with severe kidney failure. It combines elements of hemodialysis and hemofiltration to provide more efficient removal of waste products, toxins, and excess fluid from the blood.

During HDF, the patient's blood is passed through a semi-permeable membrane in a dialyzer or artificial kidney. The membrane allows for the passage of smaller molecules such as urea, creatinine, and electrolytes, while retaining larger molecules like proteins. A combination of diffusion (due to the concentration gradient) and convection (due to the application of a transmembrane pressure) leads to the removal of waste products and toxins from the blood.

In addition to this, a substitution fluid is infused into the extracorporeal circuit to replace the volume of fluid removed during convection. This substitution fluid can be tailored to match the patient's electrolyte and acid-base status, allowing for better control over their biochemical parameters.

HDF has been shown to provide better clearance of middle and large molecular weight uremic toxins compared to conventional hemodialysis, potentially leading to improved clinical outcomes such as reduced inflammation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular risk. However, more research is needed to confirm these benefits and establish the optimal dosing and prescription for HDF.

Fluoride poisoning, also known as fluoride toxicity, is a condition that occurs when someone ingests too much fluoride. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, excessive saliva, and weakness. In severe cases, it can cause more serious problems, such as seizures, coma, or even death.

Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral that is often added to drinking water and toothpaste in order to help prevent tooth decay. However, consuming too much fluoride can be harmful. The amount of fluoride that is considered safe for human consumption depends on a number of factors, including age, weight, and overall health.

Fluoride poisoning is usually caused by accidental ingestion of large amounts of fluoride-containing products, such as toothpaste or mouthwash. It can also occur if someone drinks water that has been contaminated with high levels of fluoride. In some cases, fluoride poisoning may be the result of industrial accidents or intentional poisoning.

If you suspect that you or someone else has ingested too much fluoride, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment for fluoride poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as administering fluids to help flush the fluoride out of the body. In severe cases, more invasive treatments may be necessary.

Rare earth metals, also known as rare earth elements, are a group of 17 metallic elements found in the periodic table. They include:

1. Lanthanum (La)
2. Cerium (Ce)
3. Praseodymium (Pr)
4. Neodymium (Nd)
5. Promethium (Pm)
6. Samarium (Sm)
7. Europium (Eu)
8. Gadolinium (Gd)
9. Terbium (Tb)
10. Dysprosium (Dy)
11. Holmium (Ho)
12. Erbium (Er)
13. Thulium (Tm)
14. Ytterbium (Yb)
15. Lutetium (Lu)

Nutritional requirements refer to the necessary amount of nutrients, including macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), that an individual requires to maintain good health, support normal growth and development, and promote optimal bodily functions. These requirements vary based on factors such as age, sex, body size, pregnancy status, and physical activity level. Meeting one's nutritional requirements typically involves consuming a balanced and varied diet, with additional consideration given to any specific dietary restrictions or medical conditions that may influence nutrient needs.

"Food analysis" is not a medical term per se, but it falls under the broader field of food science and nutrition. Food analysis refers to the laboratory methods and techniques used to determine the composition and quality of food products. This can include testing for nutrients (such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals), contaminants (like heavy metals, pesticides, or allergens), and other components that may affect the safety, quality, or authenticity of food.

The results of food analysis can be used to ensure compliance with regulatory standards, develop new food products, assess the nutritional value of diets, investigate food-borne illnesses, and monitor trends in food consumption. While not a medical definition, food analysis is an important tool for promoting public health and preventing diet-related diseases.

Regulatory sequences in nucleic acid refer to specific DNA or RNA segments that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes without encoding proteins. They are crucial for the proper functioning of cells as they regulate various cellular processes such as transcription, translation, mRNA stability, and localization. Regulatory sequences can be found in both coding and non-coding regions of DNA or RNA.

Some common types of regulatory sequences in nucleic acid include:

1. Promoters: DNA sequences typically located upstream of the gene that provide a binding site for RNA polymerase and transcription factors to initiate transcription.
2. Enhancers: DNA sequences, often located at a distance from the gene, that enhance transcription by binding to specific transcription factors and increasing the recruitment of RNA polymerase.
3. Silencers: DNA sequences that repress transcription by binding to specific proteins that inhibit the recruitment of RNA polymerase or promote chromatin compaction.
4. Intron splice sites: Specific nucleotide sequences within introns (non-coding regions) that mark the boundaries between exons (coding regions) and are essential for correct splicing of pre-mRNA.
5. 5' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 5' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements affecting translation efficiency, stability, and localization.
6. 3' untranslated regions (UTRs): Regions located at the 3' end of an mRNA molecule that contain regulatory elements influencing translation termination, stability, and localization.
7. miRNA target sites: Specific sequences in mRNAs that bind to microRNAs (miRNAs) leading to translational repression or degradation of the target mRNA.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finite Element Analysis" (FEA) is not a medical term. It is a computational technique used in engineering and physical sciences. FEA is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. It's a way that engineers can simulate the performance of a product or system before it is built, which can help reduce costs, improve quality, and shorten the development time.

However, in a medical context, FEA might be used in the field of biomechanical engineering to analyze the mechanical behavior of biological systems, such as bones, joints, or soft tissues, under various loads and conditions. This can help researchers and clinicians better understand the mechanisms of injury, disease, or the effects of treatment, and develop more effective prevention, diagnostic, or therapeutic strategies.

Selenoprotein P is a protein that contains several selenocysteine residues and is encoded by the SEPP1 gene in humans. It is primarily synthesized in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, where it functions as a major antioxidant and a selenium transport protein. Selenoprotein P plays a crucial role in protecting cells against oxidative stress and has been implicated in various physiological processes, including neuroprotection, fertility, and immune function. Additionally, selenoprotein P has been suggested as a potential biomarker for selenium status and oxidative stress in the body.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geology" is not a medical term. It is a scientific discipline that deals with the Earth's physical structure and substance, its history, and the processes that act on it. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Nutritional status is a concept that refers to the condition of an individual in relation to their nutrient intake, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. It encompasses various aspects such as body weight, muscle mass, fat distribution, presence of any deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and overall health status.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritional status typically includes a review of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (such as height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure), laboratory tests (such as serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol levels, vitamin and mineral levels), and clinical evaluation for signs of malnutrition or overnutrition.

Malnutrition can result from inadequate intake or absorption of nutrients, increased nutrient requirements due to illness or injury, or excessive loss of nutrients due to medical conditions. On the other hand, overnutrition can lead to obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Therefore, maintaining a good nutritional status is essential for overall health and well-being, and it is an important consideration in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions.

Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is a family of enzymes with peroxidase activity whose main function is to protect the organism from oxidative damage. They catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides, and organic hydroperoxides to water or corresponding alcohols, using glutathione (GSH) as a reducing agent, which is converted to its oxidized form (GSSG). There are several isoforms of GPx found in different tissues, including GPx1 (also known as cellular GPx), GPx2 (gastrointestinal GPx), GPx3 (plasma GPx), GPx4 (also known as phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx), and GPx5-GPx8. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as antioxidant defense, cell signaling, and apoptosis regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tellurium" is not a medical term. Tellurium is a chemical element with the symbol "Te" and atomic number 52. It is a rare, silver-white metalloid that is chemically related to selenium and sulfur. It is not used in medicine or healthcare. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Bromine is a chemical element with the symbol "Br" and atomic number 35. It belongs to the halogen group in the periodic table and is a volatile, reddish-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates easily into a red-brown gas with a strong, chlorine-like odor.

Bromine is not found free in nature, but it is present in many minerals, such as bromite and halite. It is produced industrially through the treatment of brine with chlorine gas. Bromine has a wide range of uses, including as a disinfectant, fumigant, flame retardant, and intermediate in the production of various chemicals.

In medicine, bromine compounds have been used historically as sedatives and anticonvulsants, although their use has declined due to the availability of safer and more effective drugs. Bromine itself is not used medically, but some of its compounds may have therapeutic applications in certain contexts. For example, bromide salts have been used as a mild sedative and anticonvulsant in veterinary medicine. However, their use in humans is limited due to the risk of toxicity.

In the context of medicine, Mercury does not have a specific medical definition. However, it may refer to:

1. A heavy, silvery-white metal that is liquid at room temperature. It has been used in various medical and dental applications, such as therapeutic remedies (now largely discontinued) and dental amalgam fillings. Its use in dental fillings has become controversial due to concerns about its potential toxicity.
2. In microbiology, Mercury is the name of a bacterial genus that includes the pathogenic species Mercury deserti and Mercury avium. These bacteria can cause infections in humans and animals.

It's important to note that when referring to the planet or the use of mercury in astrology, these are not related to medical definitions.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Electrolytes are substances that, when dissolved in water, break down into ions that can conduct electricity. In the body, electrolytes are responsible for regulating various important physiological functions, including nerve and muscle function, maintaining proper hydration and acid-base balance, and helping to repair tissue damage.

The major electrolytes found in the human body include sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. These electrolytes are tightly regulated by various mechanisms, including the kidneys, which help to maintain their proper balance in the body.

When there is an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, it can lead to a range of symptoms and health problems. For example, low levels of sodium (hyponatremia) can cause confusion, seizures, and even coma, while high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) can lead to heart arrhythmias and muscle weakness.

Electrolytes are also lost through sweat during exercise or illness, so it's important to replace them through a healthy diet or by drinking fluids that contain electrolytes, such as sports drinks or coconut water. In some cases, electrolyte imbalances may require medical treatment, such as intravenous (IV) fluids or medication.

Arsenic is a naturally occurring semi-metal element that can be found in the earth's crust. It has the symbol "As" and atomic number 33 on the periodic table. Arsenic can exist in several forms, including inorganic and organic compounds. In its pure form, arsenic is a steel-gray, shiny solid that is brittle and easily pulverized.

Arsenic is well known for its toxicity to living organisms, including humans. Exposure to high levels of arsenic can cause various health problems, such as skin lesions, neurological damage, and an increased risk of cancer. Arsenic can enter the body through contaminated food, water, or air, and it can also be absorbed through the skin.

In medicine, arsenic has been used historically in the treatment of various diseases, including syphilis and parasitic infections. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is limited due to its toxicity. Today, arsenic trioxide is still used as a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a type of blood cancer. The drug works by inducing differentiation and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in APL cells, which contain a specific genetic abnormality. However, its use is closely monitored due to the potential for severe side effects and toxicity.

Alu elements are short, repetitive sequences of DNA that are found in the genomes of primates, including humans. These elements are named after the restriction enzyme Alu, which was used to first identify them. Alu elements are derived from a 7SL RNA molecule and are typically around 300 base pairs in length. They are characterized by their ability to move or "jump" within the genome through a process called transposition.

Alu elements make up about 11% of the human genome and are thought to have played a role in shaping its evolution. They can affect gene expression, regulation, and function, and have been associated with various genetic disorders and diseases. Additionally, Alu elements can also serve as useful markers for studying genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among primates.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Avitaminosis is a medical condition that results from a deficiency of vitamins in the body. It occurs when an individual fails to consume sufficient amounts of essential vitamins, either due to poor nutrition, malabsorption, or increased requirements. The symptoms and severity of avitaminosis depend on the specific vitamin that is lacking and can range from mild to life-threatening.

For example:

* Avitaminosis A (deficiency of vitamin A) may lead to night blindness, dry skin, and impaired immunity.
* Avitaminosis B1 (deficiency of thiamine) can cause beriberi, a condition characterized by muscle weakness, peripheral neuropathy, and heart failure.
* Avitaminosis C (deficiency of ascorbic acid) may result in scurvy, which is marked by fatigue, swollen gums, joint pain, and anemia.
* Avitaminosis D (deficiency of calciferol) can lead to rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults, both of which are characterized by weakened bones and skeletal deformities.

To prevent avitaminosis, it is essential to maintain a balanced diet that includes all the necessary vitamins and minerals. In some cases, supplementation may be required to meet daily requirements, especially in individuals with medical conditions that affect nutrient absorption or increased needs. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any supplement regimen.

Pica is a medical condition where an individual has an appetite for substances that are not typically considered food, and are not nutritionally beneficial. These substances can include things like dirt, clay, paper, hair, paint chips, or even feces. The behavior must be persistent and continue for a month or longer to be considered pica.

Pica can occur in children, pregnant women, and people with intellectual disabilities, but it can also affect typically developing adults. It's important to note that while some cultures may include non-food items in their diet, this does not necessarily mean they have pica.

The causes of pica are not fully understood, but it can be associated with nutritional deficiencies, mental health disorders, or developmental disabilities. It can lead to serious health complications, such as poisoning, intestinal blockages, and infections, so it's important to seek medical help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of pica.

Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5. It is a metalloid that is light-colored, hard, and highly resistant to corrosion. In its crystalline form, boron is nearly as hard as diamond.

In medicine, boron compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, particularly in the treatment of cancer. For example, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a type of radiation therapy that involves the use of boron-containing compounds to selectively deliver radiation to cancer cells.

Boron is also an essential micronutrient for plants and some animals, including humans. However, excessive exposure to boron can be toxic to humans and other organisms. Therefore, it is important to maintain appropriate levels of boron in the body and environment.

Selenium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the metalloid element selenium (Se) in its various oxidation states, combined with other elements. These compounds can be organic or inorganic and can exist in different forms, such as selenides, selenites, and selenates. Selenium is an essential trace element for human health, playing a crucial role in several biological processes, including antioxidant defense, immune function, and thyroid hormone metabolism. However, excessive exposure to certain selenium compounds can be toxic and cause serious health effects.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may refer to the physiological processes and phenomena related to nutrition.

Nutrition, in a medical context, refers to the process of providing or obtaining food necessary for health and growth. Physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the functional manifestations of living organisms and their parts.

So, "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could hypothetically refer to the various physiological processes that occur in the body in relation to nutrition, such as digestion, absorption, metabolism, transportation, and storage of nutrients. However, I would recommend consulting the specific source or context where this term was used for a more accurate definition.

... trace elements are classified into two groups: essential trace elements, and non-essential trace elements. Essential trace ... A trace element is a chemical element of a minute quantity, a trace amount, especially used in referring to a micronutrient, ... Trace elements of some heavy metals have a biological role as essential micronutrients. The two types of trace element in ... "Definition of Trace element". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 30 June 2023. "What are Trace Elements ?" (PDF). Bowen, ...
... is a journal established in 1979 and published by Springer Science+Business Media. The editor ... "Biological Trace Element Research". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2021.{{cite ...
Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the roles played by trace elements ... "Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology". 2017 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate ... It is published by Elsevier on behalf of the Federation of European Societies on Trace Elements and Minerals (FESTEM), of which ... It was established in 1987 as the Journal of Trace Elements and Electrolytes in Health and Disease, obtaining its current title ...
... s are the metals subset of trace elements; that is, metals normally present in small but measurable amounts in ... Trace metals are sometimes referred to as trace elements, although the latter includes minerals and is a broader category. See ... Trace elements are required by the body for specific functions. Things such as vitamins, sports drinks, fresh fruits and ... Taken in excessive amounts, trace elements can cause problems. For example, fluorine is required for the formation of bones and ...
These induce an equivalence relation of equivalent strings; the elements of the equivalence classes are the traces. The ... The trace monoid or free partially commutative monoid is a monoid of traces. In a nutshell, it is constructed as follows: sets ... The trace monoid is universal, in that all dependency-homomorphic (see below) monoids are in fact isomorphic. Trace monoids are ... They are the object of study in trace theory. The utility of trace monoids comes from the fact that they are isomorphic to the ...
Hit-temperature trace heating elements can prevent blockage of pipes. Industrial applications for trace heating range from ... Electric trace heating cables are an alternative to steam trace heating where steam is unavailable or unwanted. Electric trace ... Trace heating takes the form of an electrical heating element run in physical contact along the length of a pipe. The pipe is ... Heat generated by the element then maintains the temperature of the pipe. Trace heating may be used to protect pipes from ...
The elements that occur on Earth only in traces are listed below. Isotopes of other elements (not exhaustive): Tritium ... A trace radioisotope is a radioisotope that occurs naturally in trace amounts (i.e. extremely small). Generally speaking, trace ... since primordial nuclides tend to occur in larger than trace amounts. Trace radioisotopes are therefore present only because ... Natural processes which produce trace radioisotopes include cosmic ray bombardment of stable nuclides, ordinary alpha and beta ...
Trace metals are elements such as iron, magnesium, copper, and zinc that occur at low levels in the environment. Trace metals ... doi:10.1016/0012-821X(81)90022-4. Collier R, Edmond J (January 1984). "The trace element geochemistry of marine biogenic ... September 2012). "GEOTRACES IC1 (BATS) contamination‐prone trace element isotopes Cd, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mo intercalibration ... Trace metal stable isotope biogeochemistry is the study of the distribution and relative abundances of trace metal isotopes in ...
Then the trace of the indecomposable element v ⊗ f is defined to be f(v); the trace of a general element is defined by ... Golden-Thompson inequality Singular trace Specht's theorem Trace class Trace identity Trace inequalities von Neumann's trace ... The trace of a Hermitian matrix is real, because the elements on the diagonal are real. The trace of a permutation matrix is ... The partial trace is another generalization of the trace that is operator-valued. The trace of a linear operator Z which lives ...
ISBN 978-0-8021-2911-6. Leon, Donna (March 3, 2020). Trace Elements. Atlantic Monthly Press. ASIN B07YF4SD2L. Leon, Donna ( ... Trace Elements (2020) - A woman in hospice reaches out to the Venice police regarding the motorcycle death of her husband, an ...
Nielsen FH (April 2003). "Trace Elements". In Caballero B, Finglas P, Toldra F (eds.). Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and ... Sardesai VM (December 1993). "Molybdenum: an essential trace element". Nutrition in Clinical Practice. 8 (6): 277-81. doi: ...
"Trace Elements". In Stefferud (1957). Broadbent. "Organic Matter". In Stefferud (1957). Clark. "Living Organisms in the Soil". ...
"Trace Elements". In Stefferud (1957). Broadbent. "Organic Matter". In Stefferud (1957). Clark. "Living Organisms in the Soil". ... As the primary minerals in soil parent material weather, the elements combine into new and colourful compounds. Iron forms ...
"Trace Elements". In Stefferud (1957). Broadbent. "Organic Matter". In Stefferud (1957). Clark. "Living Organisms in the Soil". ... Seventeen elements or nutrients are essential for plant growth and reproduction. They are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O ... To be taken up by a plant, a nutrient element must be located near the root surface; however, the supply of nutrients in ... Although minerals are the origin of most nutrients, and the bulk of most nutrient elements in the soil is held in crystalline ...
DAVID YEZZI (June 1, 1999). "Trace Elements.(Review)". Poetry.[dead link] "What Poems", The Writer's Almanac v t e v t e (All ... ISBN 978-0-8070-6809-0. Trace elements. Penguin Books. 1998. "Vision as Appetite: Clampitt as Naturalist". Antietam Review. xii ...
Sweetland, Phil (September-October 2000). "Trace Elements". American Cowboy. Watts, Cindy (2017-09-17). "SongBird Tours: ... Trace Adkins, Reba McEntire, Carrie Underwood, and Duff McKagan's Loaded. Bruce received a Daytime Emmy Award for Best Original ...
"Trace elements", American Cowboy, pp. 24-27 Gardiner, Amy (February 13, 2012). "Singer Trace Adkins reunites with Baylor's Kim ... "Trace Adkins Checks into Rehab". Archived from the original on 2014-01-16. "Trace Adkins Is Getting Divorced After 18 Years Of ... "Trace and Trump". Country on Demand. 2007-10-26. Archived from the original on 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2007-10-26. "Trace Adkins ... "Trace Adkins' Father Dies". McCall, Michael (June 13, 2004). "A Dream Come True for Trace Adkins". American Profile. Archived ...
"Trace Elements by Akatombo". Bandcamp. Retrieved 12 November 2019. "Akatombo - Trace Elements". AllMusic. Retrieved 12 November ... Solo Trace Elements (Spigel's Swim, 2003) False Positives Sometime, Never (Hand-Held Recordings, 2015) Short Fuse (Hand-Held ...
Trace Element Res. 18: 81-83. doi:10.1007/BF02917491. PMID 2484571. S2CID 19585513. Chien, Y.; Chien, P.K. (1991). "Acute ... Some of the publications included a review that linked trace and toxic metals with cancer (1960), a book on chelation and ...
Watts, David L. (March-April 2016). "Hair Trace Elements Environmental and Archeological Studies" (PDF). Trace Elements ... Hair Trace Elements Environmental and Archeological Studies, summary of forensic work extending from Peterson's studies on ... "nearly every element imaginable," with a level of arsenic 128 times that normally found in pet dog hair. Peterson's study was ...
He co-founded Trace Elements Records in 1980, which released records from artists such as Nicolas Collins and Phill Niblock. ... Poss, Robert (2010). "About". Trace Elements Records. Retrieved March 23, 2016. Official website Robert Poss discography at ...
... trace-element partitioning; surficial weathering; paleo-oceanography; chemical oceanography; ground water hydrology; water-rock ... Against the Elements, Spring 2009; Volcano Time Bomb, December 2012); NHK Japanese Public Television (Miracle Continent ... "Against the Elements : Programs : Discovery Channel : Discovery Press Web". press.discovery.com. Retrieved June 7, 2018. " ... "Inferences about mantle magma sources from incompatible element concentration ratios in oceanic basalts." Geochimica et ...
Biological Trace Element Research. 20 (3): 225-232. doi:10.1007/BF02917437. ISSN 0163-4984. PMID 2484755. S2CID 9439946. Liu, ...
Biological Trace Element Research. 20 (3): 225-232. doi:10.1007/BF02917437. PMID 2484755. S2CID 9439946. Curis, E.; Nicolis, I ... Théobald-Dietrich, A.; Giegé, R.; Rudinger-Thirion, J. L. (2005). "Evidence for the existence in mRNAs of a hairpin element ... UGA codon and SECIS element for selenocysteine, UAG PYLIS downstream sequence for pyrrolysine. All other amino acids are termed ...
Biological Trace Element Research. 199 (10): 3642-3646. doi:10.1007/s12011-020-02512-1. ISSN 1559-0720. PMC 7695238. PMID ...
July 2020). "The Systemic Zinc Homeostasis Was Modulated in Broilers Challenged by Salmonella". Biological Trace Element ... Biological Trace Element Research. 199 (6): 2158-2171. doi:10.1007/s12011-020-02328-z. PMID 32776265. S2CID 221101181. Bly M ( ... A hypoxia response element (HRE) is present within a SLC39A12 intron, which can increase ZIP12 expression under hypoxic ... The ZIP12 protein contains many elements that are conserved across other ZIP transporters in vertebrates (including mammals and ...
Most Te (and Se) is obtained from porphyry copper deposits, where it occurs in trace amounts. The element is recovered from ... Taylor, Andrew (1996). "Biochemistry of tellurium". Biological Trace Element Research. 55 (3): 231-9. doi:10.1007/BF02785282. ... Taylor, Andrew (1996). "Biochemistry of tellurium". Biological Trace Element Research. 55 (3): 231-239. doi:10.1007/BF02785282 ... Biological Trace Element Research. 20 (3): 225-32. doi:10.1007/BF02917437. PMID 2484755. S2CID 9439946. Leddicotte, G. W. (1961 ...
Biological Trace Element Research. 6 (1): 3-9. doi:10.1007/BF02918316. PMID 24263742. S2CID 28405797. McDonough, John R.; Hames ...
Melnikov, P; Zanoni, LZ (June 2010). "Clinical effects of cesium intake". Biological Trace Element Research. 135 (1-3): 1-9. ... nlm.nih.gov Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0 ...
Biological Trace Element Research. 189 (2): 529-537. doi:10.1007/s12011-018-1485-9. PMID 30132119. S2CID 255452740. Sahin, N; ... Biological Trace Element Research. 123 (1-3): 144-153. doi:10.1007/s12011-007-8083-6. PMID 18188513. S2CID 24775551. de ...
Trace Elements/Metals. Class Summary. WHO has introduced the use of zinc for 10-14 days as part of a diarrheal disease control ...
Trace Elements. Class Summary. Copper histidine used in this class has been shown to prevent neurodegeneration when ...
1996)‎. Trace elements in human nutrition and health. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/37931 ... Aspects sanitaires et nutritionnels des oligo-éléments et des éléments en traces ...
SGS has the proven geochemical expertise and equipment to provide you with reliable trace element analysis. Contact us today. ... SGS provides trace element analysis in the following areas:. *Multielement ICP-AES and ICP-MS packages that contain 32 - 55 ... Trace elements are those found at the 10pmm -10,000ppm level in rocks, ores, soils etc. ... SGS has the proven geochemical expertise and equipment to provide you with reliable trace element analysis. Our multielement ...
International Trace Elements Conference. Grant Number: 1R13DK061988-01. PI Name: Janet King. Project Title: International Trace ... Because trace element deficiencies exist primarily in the developing world, a special effort will be made to include applied, ... Four workshops on new, emerging techniques for studying trace elements will also be offered. The local organizing committee is ... About 40 scientists have been invited to give presentations on all aspects of trace element research going from cellular ...
You have to enable JavaScript in your browsers settings in order to use the eReader.. Or try downloading the content offline. DOWNLOAD ...
... related trace elements can be identified in tissues of individuals at their times of death in 2007-2012. If signature trace ... Were trace elements from WTC-contaminants released on 9/11/2001 still present in tissues of World Trade Center Health Registry ... Do trace element concentrations in the tissues of autopsied WTCHR decedents correlate with interview-based estimates of ... In pursuit of this goal, we are measuring trace and major elements in tissues obtained from individuals enrolled in the World ...
A table of trace elements found in biologic systems is given below. ... The trace elements include more than 60 substances that are usually present in low concentrations in the environment and ... Review Trace elements in agroecosystems and impacts on the environment.[J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2005]. Review Trace elements in ... Trace elements. N Engl J Med 1977; 297: 318-21. [PubMed: 876314]. (Brief review of trace elements, their metabolic roles, ...
Trace Elements Analysis Core. Project Leader: Brian P. Jackson. Co-Investigator: Tracy Punshon. Grant Number: P42ES007373. ... The Trace Element Analysis Core continues to provide state-of-the-art analytical resources and expertise to Dartmouth Superfund ... In the past year, the Trace Element Analysis Core acquired additional peripheral instrumentation that allows them to perform ...
Trace elements are particularly associated with the Aβ plaques. Metal-protein attenuating compounds have been developed to ... Dyshomeostasis of trace elements have been implicated in the progression of Alzheimers disease (AD), which is characterized by ... Trace element alterations in Alzheimers disease: A review Karen Cilliers. Clin Anat. 2021 Jul. ... Dyshomeostasis of trace elements have been implicated in the progression of Alzheimers disease (AD), which is characterized by ...
... ... 1989)‎. Minor and trace elements in breast milk : report of a joint WHO/IAEA collaborative study. World Health Organization. ... The book concludes that when minor and trace elements are determined under similar conditions in the breast milk of groups of ... The book opens with a brief explanation of the biochemical functions of trace elements and the association of deficiencies with ...
Analytik Jena presents the application advantages for trace element determination in light naphtha samples originating from an ... Application Note: Determination of silicon and other trace elements in light naphtha feedstocks by HR ICP-OES. 5 January 2023 ... In this application note, Analytik Jena presents the application advantages for trace element determination in light naphtha ...
Trace Element. Class Summary. Zinc deficiency is sometimes seen; zinc is easily replaced via oral compounds. ...
TRACE ELEMENTS IN PELITIC ROCKS: PART II: GEOCHEMICAL RELATIONS. GSA Bulletin (1954) 65 (12): 1167-1182. ... The geochemistry of modern sediments from the Gulf of Paria-II The location and distribution of trace elements ...
UK-based scientists study trace metal elements to identify brain tumours. UK-based scientists study trace metal elements to ... "This work is still in its early stages but, in time, the discovery of the link between certain trace metals and their role in ... The scientists are trying to explore the link between such trace metals and the growth, and crucially, the malignancy of ... "When exposed to X-rays, elements fluoresce in certain ways: this allows us to determine what elements are present and where. ...
Title : Trace elements in biology and agriculture Personal Author(s) : McElroy, William D. Published Date : Aug 1958;08-1958; ... Minor-element interactions in copper matte smelting Cite CITE. Title : Minor-element interactions in copper matte smelting ... "Minor-element behavior and interaction in the copper matte-iron silicate slag system have been studied by the Bureau of Mines. ...
Accurate trace element analysis of speleothems and biogenic calcium carbonates by LA-ICP-MS ... 2012). Accurate trace element analysis of speleothems and biogenic calcium carbonates by LA-ICP-MS. Chemical Geology, 318, 31- ... Accurate trace element analysis of speleothems and biogenic calcium carbonates by LA-ICP-MS ...
Trace Elements. *Iodine. *Selenium. Isoflavones & Lignans. *Genistein. *Daidzein. *O-Desmethylangolensin. *Equol. *Enterodiol ...
MULTRYS- trace elements injection 4 injection, solution. Number of versions: 1. Published Date (What is this?). Version. Files ... Multrys trace elements 4 in 1 ml Injection. PSN. 5. 2568579. 1 ML copper sulfate 0.15 MG/ML / manganese sulfate 0.00822 MG/ML ... MULTRYS- trace elements injection 4 injection, solution. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into ... Multrys (trace elements injection 4*, USP) is a clear, colorless to slightly blue solution supplied in:. *1 mL single-dose vial ...
Stuart Coulton speaks on 17 May 2017 from Matthew 7:13-29
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Chapter 253 Effect of Long-Term Trace Element Supplementation on Blood Trace Element Levels and Absorption of 75 Se, 54 Mn and ... Chapter 137 Trace Element and Macro Electrolyte Behaviour during Inflammatory Diseases in Cattle and Sheep ... Trace Elements in Man and Animals 6. Overview of attention for book ... Chapter 30 Inflammation-Related Changes in Trace Elements, GSH-Metabolism, Prostaglandins, and Sialic Acid in Bovine Mastitis ...
This revealed two groups of elements (I: Fe, Cu, Mn, Li; II: Ca, Mg, Zn, Ni), while trace element profiles of root. stem, ... This revealed two groups of elements (I: Fe, Cu, Mn, Li; II: Ca, Mg, Zn, Ni), while trace element profiles of root. stem, ... This revealed two groups of elements (I: Fe, Cu, Mn, Li; II: Ca, Mg, Zn, Ni), while trace element profiles of root. stem, ... Analyses of the mentioned elements in soil and in an ethanolic extract of E. purpurea were made, too. The trace element data ...
Trace elements, hair analysis and nutrition / Richard A. Passwater and Elmer M. Cranton. by Passwater, Richard A , Cranton, ... Trace elements in health and disease : symposium, October 23-25, 1984 / edited by Harry Boström and Nils Ljungstedt. by Boström ... Trace elements in medicine, health and atherosclerosis / editors: M. Fatima Reis ... [et al] by Reis, M. Fatima , ... Trace elements in human nutrition and health. by World Health Organization , International Atomic Energy Agency , Food and ...
BD Vacutainer Trace Element Plastic Blood Collection Tubes offer dependable and simple solutions to facilitate trace-element, ... BD Vacutainer Trace Element Plastic Blood Collection Tubes offer dependable and simple solutions to facilitate trace-element, ...
Trace elements play an important role in health functions. In fact, experts estimate that they fulfill at least five functions ... Trace Elements: Why Are They Important?. Health August 8, 2020 0 Trace elements play an important role in health functions. In ... What are Trace Elements?. Trace elements are minerals we find in very small amounts in the body. Additionally, theyre ... Prevent Deficiency of Trace Elements. The best way to avoid deficiency is to follow a balanced diet. That includes eating as ...
TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF GEOLOGICAL MATERIALS By: Reeves, Roger D.. Contributor(s): Brooks, R. R.. Material type: BookSeries: ... Publisher: New York John Wiley 1978Description: x,421.Subject(s): Trace Elements -- Analysis , Rocks -- AnalysisDDC ...
Leading Humizone Trace Element Amino Acid Chelate (ACC-Te-P) Manufacturers & Suppliers, find Humizone Trace Element Amino Acid ... China Humizone Trace Element Amino Acid Chelate (ACC-Te-P) with High-Quality, ... mino Acid Chelated Trace Element. Amino Acid>25%; Fe+Cu+B+Zn+Mn>10%. ... Functions Ø Provide a variety of important trace elements. Ø Prevent the disease in livestock. Ø Improve nutrient utilization ...
  • Do trace element concentrations in the tissues of autopsied WTCHR decedents correlate with interview-based estimates of exposure? (cdc.gov)
  • Concentrations of 34 elements are being measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (cdc.gov)
  • Preliminary data indicate significantly higher trace or major element concentrations in peripheral lung among 7 individuals with high self-reported WTC exposure compared to 17 with lower self-reported exposures for Pb (median=0.31 vs. 0.14, p=0.03) and Al (34.0 high vs. 11.8 low, p=0.04. (cdc.gov)
  • Our findings, through mid-June 2014, are that unusual trace and major elements were present in autopsy tissues among individuals who died in 2008-2009 and that concentrations of these elements appear to be correlated with interview-based estimates of WTC exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • We will explore whether trace and major element concentrations in tissues, coupled with interview data, can provide more accurate estimates of WTC exposures than interview data alone. (cdc.gov)
  • Concentrations of 13 trace elements measured in Dan River water samples within 4 kilometers of the release site declined sharply after the release and were equivalent within 5 days to measurements taken upriver. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Concentrations of trace elements measured in river water following the ash release never exceeded adopted standards for livestock drinking water. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The percolated solutions were ultrafiltrated with various decreasing cutoff thresholds to separate the different colloidal phases in which the dissolved organic carbon and trace element concentrations were measured. (hal.science)
  • We characterized concentrations of trace elements in 40 nail polishes, 9 technicians' urine, and 20 technicians' toenail clippings from 8 nail salons in the Boston area in 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • In the accumulation and coarse modes, concentrations of crustal elements and barium were also significantly higher in the low-SES community compared to the high-SES community. (cdc.gov)
  • Trace elements of some heavy metals have a biological role as essential micronutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • The high resolution and sensitivity of the silicon drift detector combined with powerful software algorithms make it possible to quantify traces of metals within the limits required by pharmaceutical and food regulations. (malvernpanalytical.com)
  • Metabolism of trace metals in man / editors, Owen M. Rennert, Wai-Yee Chan. (who.int)
  • Toxic elements, such as lead, have been found in nail polish, and it is unclear if new finishes using metallic effect pigments may be contributing to metals exposure in nail technicians. (cdc.gov)
  • Selenium is an essential trace element with fundamental effects on human biology. (nih.gov)
  • Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc), whole blood glutathione (GSH), and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) were examined at screening (0 week) and after 12 weeks' intervention. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to these antioxidant enzymes, dietary micronutrients, such as vitamins C and E, and trace elements, such as copper, iron, selenium and zinc, also play an important role in antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recall of dietary supplements has brought attention to selenium, a naturally occurring trace mineral element found in rocks and soils. (cdc.gov)
  • Essential trace elements in human nutrition, and other animals include iron (Fe) (hemoglobin), copper (Cu) (respiratory pigments), cobalt (Co) (Vitamin B12), iodine, manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) (enzymes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Trace elements: iodine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The FESTEM 2019 provides an exciting programme that highlights a wide diversity of all aspects in the field of trace elements and minerals. (uni-potsdam.de)
  • The levels of trace elements (also known as minerals or micronutrients) don't just vary significantly from region to region and farm to farm, but also from field to field and from one season to the next. (animax-vet.com)
  • by International Symposium on the Metabolism of Minerals and Trace Elements in Human Disease (1987: New Delhi, India, etc. (who.int)
  • Health-related monitoring of trace element pollutants using nuclear techniques : results of co-ordinated research programmes on nuclear methods for health-related monitoring of trace element pollutants and health-related environmental research using nuclear techniques. (who.int)
  • Manganese can also interfere with availability of other trace elements. (animax-vet.com)
  • Of those elements in nail polish and salon surfaces, aluminum and iron were detected in toenails, manganese was detected in urine and toenails, and barium was detected in urine at comparable levels to the general population. (cdc.gov)
  • Second, the efficacy of proactively bolusing with these trace element on a regular basis - usually every 6 months - is becoming increasingly proven and popular as it offers a level of supplementation guarantee with minimal labour. (animax-vet.com)
  • Based on available data for the average composition of saltwater in the tropics, AquaLife Trace Elements GC brings a new level of accuracy to reef tank supplementation. (advancedaquaticecosystems.com)
  • We performed scenario calculations to assess the potential for excessive trace‐element loading to soils via irrigation and flooding with Dan River water, uptake of trace elements by crops, and livestock consumption of trace elements via drinking water. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Based on our analyses, we present guidelines for safe usage of Dan River water to diminish negative impacts of trace elements on soils and crop production. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Organic or inorganic colloids play a major role in the mobilization of trace elements in soils and waters. (hal.science)
  • Associations of major and trace elements in lung tissues with world trade center exposures and subsequent respiratory symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposures in nail salons to trace elements in nail polish from impurities or pigment ingredients - a pilot study. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings suggest that people living in the low-SES community may experience higher exposures to some toxic elements as compared to people in the high-SES community. (cdc.gov)
  • Were trace elements from WTC-contaminants released on 9/11/2001 still present in tissues of World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees who died and were autopsied in 2007-2012? (cdc.gov)
  • This project aims to test the hypothesis that World Trade Center (WTC)-related trace elements remained in human tissues years after 9/11/2001 and may be useful in the development of biomarkers of WTC exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Zou, H & Reid, MR 2001, ' Quantitative modeling of trace element fractionation during incongruent dynamic melting ', Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta , vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 153-162. (nau.edu)
  • The structural components of cells and tissues that are required in the diet in gram quantities daily are known as bulk elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study will determine if World Trade Center (WTC)-related trace elements can be identified in tissues of individuals at their times of death in 2007-2012. (cdc.gov)
  • In pursuit of this goal, we are measuring trace and major elements in tissues obtained from individuals enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry (WTCHR) who died and were autopsied in 2007-2012. (cdc.gov)
  • A deficiency in just one trace element can impact on critical body functions, and with each trace element having a unique role, compensation by more of another trace element is not effective. (animax-vet.com)
  • Trace elements deficiency is not an uncommon finding in autoimmune diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Lead, cadmium, and other trace elements in the liver of golden eagles and white-tailed eagles: recent data from Poland and a systematic review of previous studies. (bvsalud.org)
  • The golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos) and the white -tailed eagle ( Haliaeetus albicilla), being apex predators and facultative scavengers, can bioaccumulate different environmental contaminants, including toxic elements that may adversely affect their health . (bvsalud.org)
  • The hepatic Pb found in almost half of all the tested individuals suggests environmental exposure to this toxic element . (bvsalud.org)
  • Enrichment factors (EFs) and sequential extractions were also used to assess the degree of contamination and availability of the trace elements under investigation. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • An essential trace element is a dietary element, a mineral that is only needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIMS: To determine the age and trace element chemistry of zircon crystals from mineral separates. (edu.au)
  • The authors present the most updated version of the SIAL database (SISALv3) which now includes trace element ratios and Sr-isotopes as additional, hydroclimate-sensitive geochemical proxies. (pastglobalchanges.org)
  • Formulated to take the guess work out of dosing, AquaLife Trace Elements GC supplies essential ions in appropriate ratios to calcium. (advancedaquaticecosystems.com)
  • This study was dedicated to follow the colloid-mediated mobilization of trace elements through time at the soil/water interface by means of an experimental approach. (hal.science)
  • Not only do trace elements play a role in biological processes but they also serve as catalysts to engage in redox - oxidation and reduction mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trace and alloying elements in steel, such as Mn, Si, and Ni, can diffuse to the surface and influence the deoxidation process. (lu.se)
  • If the bolus does stay in the system, the surface area can increase over time, meaning a possible increase in exposure to rumen fluid, which may result in a quicker (and shorter) release of trace elements. (animax-vet.com)
  • Ultimate high sensitivity of trace element detection was proposed and demonstrated by solid surface analysis with laser ablation spectroscopy. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Nakamura, D , Oki, Y , Takao, T & Maeda, M 2006, Atogram and nanometer trace element detection from solid surface by soft laser ablation atomic fluorescence spectroscopy . (elsevierpure.com)
  • Essential trace elements are needed for many physiological and biochemical processes in both plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nutrition, trace elements are classified into two groups: essential trace elements, and non-essential trace elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trace elements, hair analysis and nutrition / Richard A. Passwater and Elmer M. Cranton. (who.int)
  • 2019 ( https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/UNICEF-WHOlowbirthweight-estimates-2019/en/ ). (who.int)
  • Chromium is a naturally occurring element with trace levels normally found in the diet. (cdc.gov)
  • In general, anthropogenic activities have yet to significantly perturb dissolved trace element fluxes in these river systems. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, the repeatability of the measurements demonstrate that the Epsilon 1 is a very stable instrument for trace analysis of gelatin. (malvernpanalytical.com)
  • ANIMAX Trace sure® features a unique patented diffusion technology™ (previously referred to as "leaching"), which in a nutshell, means the bolus offers a consistent rate of release and retains the same size and mass throughout its active life. (animax-vet.com)
  • Thus, humic substances allowed directly or indirectly a colloidal transport of many insoluble trace elements either by binding trace elements or by stabilizing a ferric carrier phase. (hal.science)
  • Environmental speciation and monitoring needs for trace metal-containing substances from energy-related processes : proceedings of the DoE/NBS Workshop held at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, May 18-20, 1981 / editors, Frederick E. Brinckman and Richard H. Fish. (who.int)
  • The two types of trace element in biochemistry are classed as essential or non-essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The essential trace elements are those that are required to perform vital metabolic activities in organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Astronomers in Europe have mapped out the cosmic history of one of life's most essential elements, phosphorus, tracing the mineral's interstellar journey from the star-forming regions of space directly to DNA of life on Earth. (courthousenews.com)
  • In the constellation of Auriga, astronomers have pinpointed massive star-forming clouds, top left, that produce the essential life element phosphorus monoxide as well as tracking the 67P comet, bottom left, as it carries phosphorus-bearing molecules along its interstellar journey from the cosmos to Earth. (courthousenews.com)
  • Víctor Rivilla, the study's lead author, said in a statement that many questions about essential elements remain unsolved. (courthousenews.com)
  • However, irrespective of how it is managed, even the lushest of grasses and highest quality silages are most likely deficient in one or more of the trace elements essential to the health and performance of today's productive cattle and sheep. (animax-vet.com)
  • In fact, ANIMAX Trace sure® boluses have been found expelled 12-24 months after application looking not much different to how they looked upon application. (animax-vet.com)
  • Elements in health and disease : proceedings of the First International Conference on Elements in Health and Disease, Karachi, 13-15 February 1983 / edited by Hakim Mohammed Said. (who.int)
  • Trace elements in health and disease : symposium, October 23-25, 1984 / edited by Harry Boström and Nils Ljungstedt. (who.int)
  • All elements tested except Pb were below the suggested thresholds linked with adverse health effects in birds . (bvsalud.org)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Trace elements. (who.int)
  • If signature trace elements can be identified, this project will lay the foundation for future development of biomarkers indicative of cumulative exposure to WTC contaminants among living individuals. (cdc.gov)
  • A trace element is a chemical element of a minute quantity, a trace amount, especially used in referring to a micronutrient, but is also used to refer to minor elements in the composition of a rock, or other chemical substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study was to analyze potential impacts of coal‐ash‐derived trace elements on agriculture following a 35,000‐tonne release of coal ash into the Dan River at the Duke Energy Steam Station in Eden, NC. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Analyses of trace elements in the liver samples of the Polish eagles revealed interspecific differences in Cd, Cu, and Mn and differences in Co, Mn, Tl, and Zn among study regions. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the food industry the Food Chemical Codex and the European Regulation No. 853/2004 stipulate the residue limits for a number of elements including Cu, Cr, Zn and Fe. (malvernpanalytical.com)
  • The difference in calculation results between IDM and IBM is significant, particularly for incompatible elements in the residual melt and the total residue. (nau.edu)
  • By contrast, the trace elements belonging to the so-called colloidal pool were mostly mobilized by humic acids containing iron nanoparticles. (hal.science)
  • Individual zircon grains from these samples were analyzed by Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) for uranium lead ages and a suite of trace elements. (usgs.gov)
  • The availability of trace elements can differ depending on the source. (animax-vet.com)
  • In particular, higher extraction proportions were obtained for Zn and Pb (68 and 71%, respectively), which were also the same elements where the highest EFs were determined. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Area normalized dissolved fluxes in these catchments are ~2 to 10 times higher than global average values for most elements, consistent with high rates of chemical weathering. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • iii) The data demonstrate that the fulvic acids seem to be a major organic carrier phase for trace elements such as Cu, Cd, Co, and Ni. (hal.science)
  • We also used a systematic review to summarize the available literature data on Cd, Pb, and other studied elements in the liver of both eagle species. (bvsalud.org)
  • Simply determine the rate at which a given reef aquarium utilizes calcium, and follow the label instructions for calculating the appropriate dosage of AquaLife Trace Elements GC. (advancedaquaticecosystems.com)
  • 5. Finally, divide the result in step four by 0.2 to determine the number of drops of AquaLife Reef Trace Elements GC to add per gallon of aquarium volume each day. (advancedaquaticecosystems.com)
  • A recent significant achievement in trace element modeling is the development of the congruent (eutectic) dynamic melting (CDM) model where only melt is generated. (nau.edu)
  • For years, scientists sought to unlock the story of how the element arrived on Earth. (courthousenews.com)
  • Distinctive rare earth element (REE) patterns with a middle REE hump in clinopyroxene can be produced by partial melting in garnet stability field. (nau.edu)
  • contributing between 1 and 17 % of global dissolved riverine fluxes to the land-ocean interface for the studied elements. (st-andrews.ac.uk)