A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. The drug is effective against gram-positive aerobic pathogens, N. gonorrhoeae, and staphylococci. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria and Toxoplasma gondii.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.

Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation. (1/2611)

The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further characterization. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of bradyzoites with BAG1 antisera demonstrated expression of BAG1 in the Y8 and the PLK strain but no expression in H7. All three strains expressed a 116 kDa bradyzoite cyst wall antigen, a 29 kDa matrix antigen and the 65 kDa matrix reactive antigen MAG1. Mice inoculated with H7 parasites formed significantly fewer cysts than those inoculated with the Y8 and the PLK strains. H7 parasites were complemented with BAG1 using phleomycin selection. Cyst formation in vivo for the BAG1-complemented H7 parasites was similar to wild-type parasites. We therefore conclude that BAG1 is not essential for cyst formation, but facilitates formation of cysts in vivo.  (+info)

Chemokine secretion of human cells in response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. (2/2611)

The ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and immunocompromised hosts. Both acute invasion and reactivation of latent infection result in an inflammatory reaction with lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. The mechanisms responsible for triggering the local host response to toxoplasmosis are not fully understood. Infection of monolayers of human HeLa epithelial cells and fibroblasts with T. gondii resulted in a marked increase in the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8)-specific mRNA and secretion of the proinflammatory and chemoattractant cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), GROalpha, and MCP-1. Host cell invasion and lysis were required for this response, as tachyzoite lysates alone had no effect on IL-8 secretion. IL-8 release was dependent on the release of soluble host cell factors: IL-1alpha in HeLa cells and an additional mediator in fibroblasts. HT-29 epithelial cells, which lack IL-1alpha or another IL-8-inducing activity, did not release IL-8 after infection, although they were efficiently infected with T. gondii and increased IL-8 secretion in response to added IL-1alpha. These data suggest that proinflammatory chemokine secretion is an important host cell response to toxoplasmosis and that the release of IL-1alpha and other mediators from lysed host cells is critical for this chemokine response.  (+info)

Transformed Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites expressing the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium knowlesi elicit a specific immune response in rhesus monkeys. (3/2611)

Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were transformed with the coding sequence of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of the primate malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi. A single inoculation of live transformed tachyzoites elicited an antibody response directed against the immunodominant repeat epitope (EQPAAGAGG)2 of the P. knowlesi CS protein in rhesus monkeys. Notably, these animals failed to show a positive serum conversion against T. gondii. Antibodies against Toxoplasma antigens were detected only after a second inoculation with a higher number of transformed tachyzoites. This boost induced an increased antibody response against the P. knowlesi CS protein associated with immunoglobulin class switching, thus demonstrating the establishment of immunological memory. These results indicate that the Toxoplasma-derived CS protein is efficiently recognized by the monkey immune system and represents an immunodominant antigen in transformed parasites.  (+info)

Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase exacerbates chronic cerebral toxoplasmosis in Toxoplasma gondii-susceptible C57BL/6 mice but does not reactivate the latent disease in T. gondii-resistant BALB/c mice. (4/2611)

Infection of C57BL/6 mice with Toxoplasma gondii leads to progressive and ultimately fatal chronic Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE). Genetic deletion or inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) from the beginning of infection increased the number of T. gondii cysts in the brain and markedly reduced the time-to-death in this mouse strain. In the present study, we addressed whether iNOS also contributes to the control of intracerebral parasites in a clinically stable latent infection that develops in T. gondii-resistant BALB/c mice after resolution of the acute phase of TE. iNOS was expressed in the inflammatory cerebral infiltrates of latently infected BALB/c mice, but the number of iNOS+ cells was significantly lower than in the brains of chronically infected T. gondii-susceptible C57BL/6 mice. In BALB/c mice with latent TE (> 30 days of infection), treatment with the iNOS inhibitors L-N6-iminoethyl-lysine or L-nitroarginine-methylester for < or = 40 days did not result in an increase of the intracerebral parasitic load and a reactivation of the disease, despite the presence of iNOS-suppressive inhibitor levels in the brain. However, L-nitroarginine-methylester treatment had remarkably toxic effects and induced a severe wasting syndrome with high mortality. In contrast to BALB/c mice, L-N6-iminoethyl-lysine treatment rapidly exacerbated the already established chronic TE of C57BL/6 mice. Thus, the containment of latent toxoplasms in T. gondii-resistant BALB/c mice is independent of iNOS, whereas the temporary control of intracerebral parasites in T. gondii-susceptible C57BL/6 mice with chronic TE requires iNOS activity.  (+info)

Specific antibody-dependent killing of Toxoplasma gondii by normal macrophages. (5/2611)

The requirement for specificity of antibody-dependent inhibition or killing of intracellular Toxoplasma gondii trophozoites by normal mouse peritoneal macrophages was evaluated in vitro using light microscopy and autoradiography. Anti-toxoplasma antibody in the presence of 'accessory factor' rendered extracellular T. gondii trophozoites non-viable and non-infectious for cells, whereas exposure of extracellular trophozoites to heat-inactivated immune serum did not appear to damage the parasites. Although pretreatment of extracellular trophozoites with heat-inactivated immune serum neither diminished nor prevented infection of normal mouse peritoneal macrophages, it did confer upon macrophages the ability to inhibit or kill the organisms once they were intracellular. In contrast, pretreatment of trophozoites with either heat-inactivated normal or Besnoitia jellisoni immune serum did not enable normal macrophages to inhibit or kill T. gondii; rather, such organisms multiplied intracellularly in normal macrophages. Thus, pretreatment with specific antibody alone prepared T. gondii trophozoites for intracellular destruction by normal mouse peritoneal macrophages. These results suggest that spesific antibody acting in concert with normal macrophages may play a role in controlling infection with T. gondii.  (+info)

Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in combination with sulfadiazine is active against Toxoplasma gondii. (6/2611)

The activity of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21), alone or in combination with sulfadiazine, on the intracellular replication of Toxoplasma gondii was assessed in vitro and in mice with acute toxoplasmosis. rBPI21 markedly inhibited the intracellular growth of T. gondii in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Following 72 h of exposure, the 50% inhibitory concentration of rBPI21 for T. gondii was 2.6 micrograms/ml, whereas only slight cytotoxicity for HFF cells was observed at the concentrations tested. Subsequent mathematical analyses revealed that the combination of rBPI21 with sulfadiazine yielded slight to moderate synergistic effects against T. gondii in vitro. Infection of mice orally with C56 cysts or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with RH tachyzoites resulted in 100% mortality, whereas prolongation of the time to death or significant survival (P = 0.002) was noted for those animals treated with 5 to 20 mg of rBPI21 per kg of body weight per day. Treatment with rBPI21 in combination with sulfadiazine resulted in significant (P = 0.0001) survival of mice infected i.p. with tachyzoites but not of mice infected orally with T. gondii cysts. These results indicate that rBPI21 is active in vitro and in vivo against T. gondii and that its activity is significantly enhanced when it is used in combination with sulfadiazine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the activity of rBPI21 against a protozoan parasite.  (+info)

Toxoplasma gondii antibody titers in sera of children admitted to the Seoul National University Children's Hospital. (7/2611)

A total of 542 children under 10 years of age, admitted to the Seoul National University Children's Hospital, was examined for antibody titers of Toxoplasma gondii using indirect latex agglutination (ILA) test. Among them, 7.7% showed positive titers higher than 1:32, without significant difference between males (7.3%) and females (8.5%). The seropositive rate increased with age although the statistical significance was negligible (0.05 < P < 0.1). By residential areas, the prevalence appeared higher among children from southern provinces (Kyongsang-do and Cholla do) than those from other areas, but the statistical significance was also very low (0.05 < P < 0.1). When the seropositive cases were analyzed by coincidental diseases, the prevalence was significantly higher in patients with congenital diseases than in patients with non-congenital diseases (P < 0.05). The results showed that the seropositive rate of toxoplasmosis in children examined was not high compared with other endemic countries. Some correlations are suggested between toxoplasmosis and congenital anomalies in Korea.  (+info)

Effector cells of both nonhemopoietic and hemopoietic origin are required for interferon (IFN)-gamma- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-dependent host resistance to the intracellular pathogen, Toxoplasma gondii. (8/2611)

Although interferon (IFN)-gamma-activated, mononuclear phagocytes are considered to be the major effectors of resistance to intracellular pathogens, it is unclear how they control the growth of microorganisms that reside in nonhemopoietic cells. Pathogens within such cells may be killed by metabolites secreted by activated macrophages or, alternatively, directly controlled by cytokine-induced microbicidal mechanisms triggered within infected nonphagocytic cells. To distinguish between these two basic mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity, reciprocal bone marrow chimeras were constructed between wild-type and IFN-gamma receptor-deficient mice and their survival assessed following infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite that invades both hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cell lineages. Resistance to acute and persistent infection was displayed only by animals in which IFN-gamma receptors were expressed in both cellular compartments. Parallel chimera experiments performed with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-deficient mice also indicated a codependence on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lineages for optimal control of the parasite. In contrast, in mice chimeric for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme associated with IFN-gamma-induced macrophage microbicidal activity, expression by cells of hemopoietic origin was sufficient for host resistance. Together, these findings suggest that, in concert with bone marrow-derived effectors, nonhemopoietic cells can directly mediate, in the absence of endogenous iNOS, IFN-gamma- and TNF-alpha-dependent host resistance to intracellular infection.  (+info)

"Toxoplasma" is a genus of protozoan parasites, and the most well-known species is "Toxoplasma gondii." This particular species is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans. It's known for its complex life cycle that involves felines (cats) as the definitive host.

Infection in humans, called toxoplasmosis, often occurs through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or through contact with cat feces that contain T. gondii oocysts. While many people infected with Toxoplasma show no symptoms, it can cause serious health problems in immunocompromised individuals and developing fetuses if a woman becomes infected during pregnancy.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition should not be used for self-diagnosis or treatment. Always consult with a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It can infect humans, birds, and most warm-blooded animals, including marine mammals. In humans, it is usually contracted through eating undercooked, contaminated meat or ingesting oocysts (a form of the parasite) from cat feces, often through contact with litter boxes or gardening in soil that has been contaminated with cat feces.

The infection can also be passed to the fetus if a woman becomes infected during or just before pregnancy. Most healthy individuals who become infected with Toxoplasma gondii experience few symptoms and are not aware they have the disease. However, for those with weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and pregnant women, toxoplasmosis can cause severe complications, including damage to the brain, eyes, and other organs.

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in individuals with weakened immune systems may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and headache. In pregnant women, infection can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, or severe developmental problems in the baby. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications such as pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine.

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease, meaning it can be transmitted from animals to humans. It is caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite can infect a wide range of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals, as intermediate hosts. However, cats are the primary definitive host for this parasite because the sexual stage of the parasite's life cycle occurs in their intestines, leading to the shedding of oocysts (environmentally resistant stages) in their feces.

Animals can become infected with Toxoplasma gondii through several routes:

1. Ingestion of sporulated oocysts from contaminated soil, water, or food.
2. Consumption of tissue cysts present in the tissues of infected animals during predation.
3. Vertical transmission (transplacental) from an infected mother to her offspring.

Clinical signs and symptoms of toxoplasmosis in animals can vary depending on their age, immune status, and the parasite's virulence. In many cases, animals may not show any apparent signs of infection, but some may develop:

1. Generalized illness with fever, lethargy, and loss of appetite.
2. Lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes).
3. Neurological symptoms such as tremors, ataxia (lack of coordination), or seizures if the central nervous system is affected.
4. Eye lesions, including inflammation and scarring of the retina, which can lead to vision loss in severe cases.
5. Reproductive issues, such as abortion, stillbirths, or birth defects in offspring when pregnant females are infected.

It is important to note that while toxoplasmosis can cause significant health problems in animals, particularly in immunocompromised individuals and developing fetuses, it is often asymptomatic or mild in healthy adult animals. Nonetheless, the zoonotic potential of Toxoplasma gondii highlights the importance of practicing good hygiene and taking necessary precautions when handling infected animals or their waste to minimize the risk of transmission to humans.

Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a type of toxoplasmosis, which is an infection caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite. In cerebral toxoplasmosis, the infection primarily affects the brain, leading to inflammation and the formation of lesions or abscesses in the brain tissue.

This condition is most commonly observed in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those living with HIV/AIDS, receiving immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation, or having other conditions that compromise their immune function. The infection can cause a range of neurological symptoms, including headaches, seizures, confusion, memory loss, poor coordination, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Early diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antiparasitic medications are crucial to manage the infection and prevent complications.

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a medical condition that results from the transmission of the Toxoplasma gondii parasite from an infected pregnant woman to her developing fetus through the placenta. The severity of the infection can vary widely, depending on the stage of pregnancy at which the mother becomes infected.

Infection during early pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of severe symptoms in the newborn, including:

* Intracranial calcifications
* Hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain)
* Microcephaly (abnormally small head)
* Chorioretinitis (inflammation of the eye's retina and choroid layer)
* Seizures
* Developmental delays
* Hearing loss

Infection later in pregnancy may result in less severe symptoms or be asymptomatic at birth, but can still lead to developmental delays, learning disabilities, and vision problems as the child grows.

Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis typically involves a combination of tests, such as blood tests to detect antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, imaging studies (e.g., ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to assess any structural abnormalities in the brain and other organs, and ophthalmologic examinations to evaluate potential eye damage.

Treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis usually involves a combination of antiparasitic medications (such as spiramycin, pyrimethamine, and sulfadiazine) and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. Early treatment can help minimize the severity of symptoms and improve outcomes for affected children.

Antibodies, protozoan, refer to the immune system's response to an infection caused by a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

When the body is infected with a protozoan, the immune system responds by producing specific proteins called antibodies. Antibodies are produced by a type of white blood cell called a B-cell, and they recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the protozoan organism.

There are five main types of antibodies: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each type of antibody has a different role in the immune response. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody and provides long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. IgM is the first antibody produced in response to an infection and is important for activating the complement system, which helps to destroy the protozoan organism.

Overall, the production of antibodies against protozoan organisms is a critical part of the immune response and helps to protect the body from further infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

Ocular toxoplasmosis is an inflammatory eye disease caused by the parasitic infection of Toxoplasma gondii in the eye's retina. It can lead to lesions and scarring in the retina, resulting in vision loss or impairment. The severity of ocular toxoplasmosis depends on the location and extent of the infection in the eye. In some cases, it may cause only mild symptoms, while in others, it can result in severe damage to the eye. Ocular toxoplasmosis is usually treated with medications that target the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, such as pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, often combined with corticosteroids to reduce inflammation.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) found on the surface of cells, or viruses, that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the context of protozoa, antigens refer to the specific proteins or other molecules found on the surface of these single-celled organisms that can trigger an immune response in a host organism.

Protozoa are a group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that include a diverse range of species, some of which can cause diseases in humans and animals. When a protozoan infects a host, the host's immune system recognizes the protozoan antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response involves the activation of various types of immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and target the protozoan antigens.

Understanding the nature of protozoan antigens is important for developing vaccines and other immunotherapies to prevent or treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers have identified specific antigens on the surface of the malaria parasite that are recognized by the human immune system and have used this information to develop vaccine candidates. However, many protozoan infections remain difficult to prevent or treat, and further research is needed to identify new targets for vaccines and therapies.

Host-parasite interactions refer to the relationship between a parasitic organism (the parasite) and its host, which can be an animal, plant, or human body. The parasite lives on or inside the host and derives nutrients from it, often causing harm in the process. This interaction can range from relatively benign to severe, depending on various factors such as the species of the parasite, the immune response of the host, and the duration of infection.

The host-parasite relationship is often categorized based on the degree of harm caused to the host. Parasites that cause little to no harm are called commensals, while those that cause significant damage or disease are called parasitic pathogens. Some parasites can even manipulate their hosts' behavior and physiology to enhance their own survival and reproduction, leading to complex interactions between the two organisms.

Understanding host-parasite interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat parasitic infections, as well as for understanding the ecological relationships between different species in natural ecosystems.

Sulfadiazine is an antibacterial drug, specifically a sulfonamide. It is chemically described as 4-amino-N-(2-pyrimidinyl)benzenesulfonamide. Sulfadiazine works by inhibiting the bacterial synthesis of dihydrofolic acid, which is essential for bacterial growth and reproduction.

It is used to treat a wide range of infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and certain types of meningitis. Sulfadiazine is often combined with other antibiotics, such as trimethoprim, to increase its effectiveness against certain bacteria.

Like all sulfonamides, sulfadiazine can cause side effects, including skin rashes, allergic reactions, and stomach upset. It should be used with caution in people who are allergic to sulfa drugs or have kidney or liver disease. Additionally, it is important to note that the use of sulfonamides during pregnancy, especially during the third trimester, should be avoided due to the risk of kernicterus in the newborn.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

There is no medical definition for "Protozoan Vaccines" as such because there are currently no licensed vaccines available for human protozoan diseases. Protozoa are single-celled microorganisms that can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis.

Researchers have been working on developing vaccines against some of these diseases, but none have yet been approved for use in humans. Therefore, it is not possible to provide a medical definition for "Protozoan Vaccines" as a recognized category of vaccines.

Neospora is a genus of intracellular parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The most common species that affects animals is Neospora caninum, which is known to cause serious disease in cattle and dogs. It can also infect other warm-blooded animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and deer.

Neosporosis, the infection caused by Neospora, primarily affects the nervous system and muscles of the host animal. In cattle, it is a major cause of abortion, stillbirths, and neurological disorders. The parasite can be transmitted through the placenta from an infected mother to her offspring (congenital transmission), or through the ingestion of contaminated feed or water (horizontal transmission).

Neospora is a significant economic concern for the livestock industry, particularly in dairy and beef cattle operations. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for neosporosis in animals, so prevention efforts focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to reduce the spread of the parasite.

Apicomplexa is a phylum of single-celled, parasitic organisms that includes several medically important genera, such as Plasmodium (which causes malaria), Toxoplasma (which causes toxoplasmosis), and Cryptosporidium (which causes cryptosporidiosis). These organisms are characterized by the presence of a unique apical complex, which is a group of specialized structures at one end of the cell that are used during invasion and infection of host cells. They have a complex life cycle involving multiple stages, including sexual and asexual reproduction, often in different hosts. Many Apicomplexa are intracellular parasites, meaning they live and multiply inside the cells of their hosts.

Chorioretinitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the choroid and the retina, which are both important structures in the eye. The choroid is a layer of blood vessels that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the retina, while the retina is a light-sensitive tissue that converts light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain and interpreted as visual images.

Chorioretinitis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious conditions, such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, autoimmune diseases, or cancer. The symptoms of chorioretinitis may include decreased vision, floaters, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, and eye pain. Treatment for chorioretinitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, corticosteroids, or other immunosuppressive therapies. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of chorioretinitis, as timely diagnosis and treatment can help prevent permanent vision loss.

Coccidiostats are a type of medication used to prevent and treat coccidiosis, which is an infection caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Coccidia. These medications work by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of the parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, particularly poultry and livestock.

Coccidiostats are commonly added to animal feed to prevent infection and reduce the spread of coccidiosis within a flock or herd. They can also be used to treat active infections, often in combination with other medications. Common examples of coccidiostats include sulfaquinoxaline, monensin, and lasalocid.

It's important to note that the use of coccidiostats in food-producing animals is regulated by government agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to ensure their safe use and to minimize the risk of residues in animal products.

Parasitic pregnancy complications refer to a rare condition where a parasitic twin takes over the development of the dominant twin's reproductive system and becomes pregnant. This condition is also known as fetus in fetu or vanishing twin syndrome with a parasitic twin. The parasitic twin may have some organs developed, but it is not fully formed and relies on the dominant twin for survival. The pregnancy can pose risks to the dominant twin, such as abnormal growth patterns, organ damage, and complications during childbirth. This condition is usually detected during prenatal ultrasound examinations.

An oocyst is a thick-walled, environmentally resistant spore-like structure produced by some protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora, during their life cycle. These oocysts can survive for long periods in the environment and can infect a host when ingested, leading to infection and disease. The term "oocyst" is specific to certain groups of protozoan parasites and should not be confused with other types of spores produced by fungi or bacteria.

Spiramycin is an antibiotic belonging to the class of macrolides. It is primarily used in the treatment and prevention of various bacterial infections, particularly those caused by susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci, and some other gram-positive bacteria. Spiramycin works by inhibiting protein synthesis in bacteria.

The medical definition of Spiramycin is:

A macrolide antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci, and some anaerobes. It is used in the treatment of respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and other bacterial infections. Spiramycin is also used as an alternative treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy due to its low placental transfer.

It's important to note that antibiotics should only be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance.

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Genes in protozoa refer to the hereditary units of these single-celled organisms that carry genetic information necessary for their growth, development, and reproduction. These genes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which contain sequences of nucleotide bases that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Protozoan genes are responsible for various functions, such as metabolism, response to environmental stimuli, and reproduction.

It is important to note that the study of protozoan genes has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetics and evolution, particularly in areas such as molecular biology, cell biology, and genomics. However, there is still much to be learned about the genetic diversity and complexity of these organisms, which continue to be an active area of research.

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Organelles are specialized structures within cells that perform specific functions essential for the cell's survival and proper functioning. They can be thought of as the "organs" of the cell, and they are typically membrane-bound to separate them from the rest of the cellular cytoplasm. Examples of organelles include the nucleus (which contains the genetic material), mitochondria (which generate energy for the cell), ribosomes (which synthesize proteins), endoplasmic reticulum (which is involved in protein and lipid synthesis), Golgi apparatus (which modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids for transport), lysosomes (which break down waste materials and cellular debris), peroxisomes (which detoxify harmful substances and produce certain organic compounds), and vacuoles (which store nutrients and waste products). The specific organelles present in a cell can vary depending on the type of cell and its function.

'Life cycle stages' is a term used in the context of public health and medicine to describe the different stages that an organism goes through during its lifetime. This concept is particularly important in the field of epidemiology, where understanding the life cycle stages of infectious agents (such as bacteria, viruses, parasites) can help inform strategies for disease prevention and control.

The life cycle stages of an infectious agent may include various forms such as spores, cysts, trophozoites, schizonts, or vectors, among others, depending on the specific organism. Each stage may have different characteristics, such as resistance to environmental factors, susceptibility to drugs, and ability to transmit infection.

For example, the life cycle stages of the malaria parasite include sporozoites (the infective form transmitted by mosquitoes), merozoites (the form that infects red blood cells), trophozoites (the feeding stage inside red blood cells), schizonts (the replicating stage inside red blood cells), and gametocytes (the sexual stage that can be taken up by mosquitoes to continue the life cycle).

Understanding the life cycle stages of an infectious agent is critical for developing effective interventions, such as vaccines, drugs, or other control measures. For example, targeting a specific life cycle stage with a drug may prevent transmission or reduce the severity of disease. Similarly, designing a vaccine to elicit immunity against a particular life cycle stage may provide protection against infection or disease.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. They are essentially fluid-filled sacs that store various substances, such as enzymes, waste products, and nutrients. In plants, vacuoles often contain water, ions, and various organic compounds, while in fungi, they may store lipids or pigments. Vacuoles can also play a role in maintaining the turgor pressure of cells, which is critical for cell shape and function.

In animal cells, vacuoles are typically smaller and less numerous than in plant cells. Animal cells have lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes and break down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. Lysosomes can be considered a type of vacuole, but they are more specialized in their function.

Overall, vacuoles are essential for maintaining the health and functioning of cells by providing a means to store and dispose of various substances.

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasites are typically much smaller than their hosts, and they may be classified as either ectoparasites (which live on the outside of the host's body) or endoparasites (which live inside the host's body).

Parasites can cause a range of health problems in humans, depending on the type of parasite and the extent of the infection. Some parasites may cause only mild symptoms or none at all, while others can lead to serious illness or even death. Common symptoms of parasitic infections include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue.

There are many different types of parasites that can infect humans, including protozoa (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), and ectoparasites (such as lice and ticks). Parasitic infections are more common in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene, but they can also occur in industrialized nations.

Preventing parasitic infections typically involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding contaminated water. Treatment for parasitic infections usually involves medication to kill the parasites and relieve symptoms.

Coccidiosis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Eimeria genus, which typically affects the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. The infection occurs when a person or animal ingests oocysts (the infective stage of the parasite) through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with infected feces.

In humans, coccidiosis is most commonly found in children living in poor sanitary conditions and in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy. The infection can cause watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it may lead to dehydration, weight loss, and even death in individuals with compromised immune systems.

In animals, particularly in poultry, swine, and ruminants, coccidiosis can cause significant economic losses due to decreased growth rates, poor feed conversion, and increased mortality. Preventive measures include improving sanitation, reducing overcrowding, and administering anticoccidial drugs or vaccines.

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

Encephalitis is defined as inflammation of the brain parenchyma, which is often caused by viral infections but can also be due to bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to toxins. The infection or inflammation can cause various symptoms such as headache, fever, confusion, seizures, and altered consciousness, ranging from mild symptoms to severe cases that can lead to brain damage, long-term disabilities, or even death.

The diagnosis of encephalitis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis). Treatment may include antiviral medications, corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Sarcocystis is a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoa that belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa. These microscopic organisms are known to infect both animals and humans, causing a variety of symptoms depending on the specific species involved and the immune status of the host.

Sarcocystis spp. have a complex life cycle involving two hosts: an intermediate host, which is typically a herbivorous animal, and a definitive host, which is usually a carnivorous or omnivorous animal. The parasites form cysts, known as sarcocysts, in the muscles of the intermediate host, which are then ingested by the definitive host during feeding.

In humans, Sarcocystis spp. can cause two main types of infections: intestinal and muscular. Intestinal infection occurs when humans accidentally ingest undercooked or raw meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. The parasites then invade the human's intestinal wall, causing symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever.

Muscular infection, on the other hand, is caused by the ingestion of water or food contaminated with sporocysts shed in the feces of infected definitive hosts. This type of infection is relatively rare in humans and typically causes mild symptoms such as muscle pain, weakness, and fever.

It's worth noting that while Sarcocystis spp. can cause illness in humans, they are not usually considered a significant public health concern. Proper cooking of meat and good hygiene practices can help prevent infection with these parasites.

Thus, T-cells play a central role in immunity against Toxoplasma infection. T-cells recognize Toxoplasma antigens that are ... they renamed it Toxoplasma gondii. The new genus name Toxoplasma is a reference to its morphology: Toxo, from Greek τόξον ( ... Toxoplasma gondii was found to be the root cause in 16.2% of these deaths, while 6.7% of the deaths were due to a closely ... Toxoplasma gondii (/ˈtɒksəˌplæzmə ˈɡɒndi.aɪ, -iː/) is a parasitic protozoan (specifically an apicomplexan) that causes ...
In Toxoplasma gondii the translational repression of lactate dehydrogenase 1 (LDH1) was discovered to be mediated through its 5 ... "Sustained translational repression of lactate dehydrogenase 1 in Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoites is conferred by a small ...
Grand prix de l'Imaginaire for Toxoplasma 2018: Prix Rosny aîné for Toxoplasma Délius, une chanson d'été (1997, Mnémos) La Nuit ... Toxoplasma. ISBN 9782370490544. Oniri Island, 2018 The Inner Friend, 2018 Cloutier, Mario (19 July 2018). "Sabrina Calvo: ...
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Life cycle of the Babesia parasite Life cycle of the Eimeria parasite Life cycle of the Toxoplasma parasite Trematode life ... A bradyzoite (G. bradys, slow + zōon, animal) is a sessile, slow-growing form of zoonotic microorganisms such as Toxoplasma ... Organisms whose life cycles rely on this process include Theileria, Babesia, Plasmodium, and Toxoplasma gondii. Sporogony is a ... Endodyogeny is a process of asexual reproduction, favoured by parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii. It involves an unusual ...
... and Toxoplasma gondii. The severity of thrombocytopenia may be correlated with pathogen type; some research indicates that the ...
... and Toxoplasma gondii. Protozoal-related mortality, specifically due to toxoplasmosis, are becoming a great threat to the ...
February 2019). "Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite infection". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294 (5): 1541-1553. doi:10.1074/ ... These were discovered in Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Several different enzymes catalyse the elongation of the ...
Toxoplasma infection and pregnancy. Thesis/dissertation. Oslo. 1978. OCLC 603441082.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing ... Toxoplasma infection and pregnancy. OCLC 603441082. Retrieved 25 March 2021 - via worldcat.org. Tidemann, Grethe (13 February ...
Fusarium Parasites: Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara. A recent systematic review found that the most common source of infectious ...
Toxoplasma gondii, and Trypanosoma congolense. Mites may cause sarcoptic mange. Tick species include Amblyomma hebraeum, A. ...
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Toxoplasma-seronegative recipients who receive organs from recently infected Toxoplasma-seropositive donors are at risk. Organ ... In the first response to infection, toxoplasma-specific IgG has a low affinity for the toxoplasma antigen; in the following ... The Sabin Feldman Dye Test is now the gold standard for identifying Toxoplasma infection. Transmission of Toxoplasma by eating ... "Transmission of Toxoplasma: clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine ...
ISBN 9781420092363 Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik (2013). "Toxoplasma gondii: The Parasite in Trend". In ...
Worldwide, the percentage of pigs harboring viable Toxoplasma gondii parasites has been measured to be 3% to 71.43%. Surveys of ... Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik (2013). "Toxoplasma gondii: The Parasite in Trend". In Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian ...
"Toxoplasma gondii (ID 30) - Genome - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-12-31. "Index of /genomes/refseq/protozoa/ ... "Index of /genomes/refseq/protozoa/Toxoplasma_gondii/latest_assembly_versions/GCF_000006565.2_TGA4". ftp.ncbi.nih.gov. Retrieved ...
Kanková S, Sulc J, Nouzová K, Fajfrlík K, Frynta D, Flegr J (February 2007). "Women infected with parasite Toxoplasma have more ... Flegr J, Klose J, Novotná M, Berenreitterová M, Havlícek J (2009). "Increased incidence of traffic accidents in Toxoplasma- ... "Effects of Toxoplasma on Human Behavior". Schizophr Bull. 33 (3): 757-60. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbl074. PMC 2526142. PMID 17218612 ...
Kissinger, J. C.; Gajria, B.; Li, L.; Paulsen, I. T.; Roos, D. S. (2003). "ToxoDB: Accessing the Toxoplasma gondii genome". ... In the genera Aggregata, Atoxoplasma, Cystoisospora, Schellackia, and Toxoplasma, the original is now definitive, whereas in ... Toxoplasma gondii) The name Apicomplexa derives from two Latin words-apex (top) and complexus (infolds)-for the set of ...
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Toxoplasma gondii infects approximately 30% of the world's human population, but causes overt clinical symptoms in only a small ... Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii (seropositivity) without developing Toxoplasmosis has been proven to alter various ... Yagmur, F; Yazar, S; Temel, HO; Cavusoglu, M (2010). "May Toxoplasma gondii increase suicide attempt-preliminary results in ... Carruthers VB, Suzuki Y (May 2007). "Effects of Toxoplasma gondii Infection on the Brain". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 33 (3): 745- ...
Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that may be found in raw or undercooked meat. A multicentre case-control study found ... Gajewski, Patrick D.; Falkenstein, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G.; Golka, Klaus (February 2014). "Toxoplasma gondii impairs memory ... "Sources of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multicentre case-control studyCommentary: Congenital toxoplasmosis- ... this meat dish in some parts of the world because of the danger of contamination by bacteria and parasites such as Toxoplasma ...
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The main factors causing Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity on cats are age, raw meat and outdoor access. A study shows that T. ... Norwegian Forest cats have a relatively high rate of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity (4.66%) comparing with other pure-bred ... "Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed". PLOS ONE. 12 (9): e0184659. Bibcode:2017PLoSO..1284659M. doi:10.1371/ ...
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The life cycle is similar to Toxoplasma. An infected dog will pass the oocysts through its feces and infect food or water. A ... Presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum DNA in the brain of wild birds. Veterinary Parasitology 183: 377-381 Mineo T ...
Examples include Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia lamblia. In many flatworms, there are very high levels of expression of cysteine ...
In Toxoplasma specifically, some serpins inhibit rhomboids.: 519 A rhomboid in the Gram-negative bacterium Providencia stuartii ... Bisio H, Soldati-Favre D (September 2019). "Signaling Cascades Governing Entry into and Exit from Host Cells by Toxoplasma ... Santos JM, Ferguson DJ, Blackman MJ, Soldati-Favre D (January 2011). "Intramembrane cleavage of AMA1 triggers Toxoplasma to ... Various rhomboid family proteins are vital to Toxoplasma gondii virulence and motility, including TgMIC2, TgMIC6, various AMA1 ...
Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2009 Sep 15;49(6):878-84.( ... Management of Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2008 Aug 15;47(4):554-66. (cited 559 ... Laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2002 Feb 15;185( ...
Thus, T-cells play a central role in immunity against Toxoplasma infection. T-cells recognize Toxoplasma antigens that are ... they renamed it Toxoplasma gondii. The new genus name Toxoplasma is a reference to its morphology: Toxo, from Greek τόξον ( ... Toxoplasma gondii was found to be the root cause in 16.2% of these deaths, while 6.7% of the deaths were due to a closely ... Toxoplasma gondii (/ˈtɒksəˌplæzmə ˈɡɒndi.aɪ, -iː/) is a parasitic protozoan (specifically an apicomplexan) that causes ...
LBXTO1 - Toxoplasma (IgG). Variable Name: LBXTO1. SAS Label: Toxoplasma (IgG). English Text: Toxoplasma (IgG). Target: Both ... LBXTO2 - Toxoplasma (IgM). Variable Name: LBXTO2. SAS Label: Toxoplasma (IgM). English Text: Toxoplasma (IgM). Target: Both ... LBXTO3 - Toxoplasma (Dye). Variable Name: LBXTO3. SAS Label: Toxoplasma (Dye). English Text: Toxoplasma (Dye) Positive =, 1:8. ... LBXTO5 - Toxoplasma (Avidity) IgG. Variable Name: LBXTO5. SAS Label: Toxoplasma (Avidity) IgG. English Text: Toxoplasma ( ...
To assess possible Toxoplasma gondii infection in patients younger than 6 months, order Toxoplasma gondii Antibody, IgM, Serum ... To assess possible Toxoplasma gondii infection in patients younger than 6 months, order Toxoplasma gondii Antibody, IgM, Serum ...
Toxoplasmas Dark Side: The Link Between Parasite and Suicide ... Toxoplasma can only continue its life cycle and end up a happy ... Photos: Toxoplasma gondii parasites in rat ascitic fluid from the CDCs Public Health Image Library; Brain MRI Scan in Patient ... For example, Toxoplasma infection alters rat behavior with surgical precision, making them lose their fear of (and even become ... Since Toxoplasma has no trouble affecting rats, whose brains are similar in many ways to our own, scientists wonder how much ...
Toxoplasma gondii can infect all warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals and birds [1-3]. Genetic diversity of T. gondii is ... J. Chen, S. F. Fang, D. H. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, G. H. Liu, and X. Q. Zhu, "Sequence variation in the Toxoplasma gondii eIF4A gene ... J. Chen, S. Fang, Z. Li, D. Zhou, G. Liu, and X. Zhu, "Sequence variation in ROP9 gene among Toxoplasma gondii strains from ... S. Huang, W. Cong, P. Zhou et al., "First report of genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from wild birds in China," Journal ...
A monolayer of human foreskin fibroblast cells was infected with Toxoplasma gondii expressing EGFP-tagged TgCentrin2 and ... Toxoplasma gondii RH Cell Line. Toxoplasma gondii RH stable cell line Cellular Component. inner membrane complex centriole ... A monolayer of human foreskin fibroblast cells was infected with Toxoplasma gondii expressing EGFP-tagged TgCentrin2 and ... John Murray (University of Pennsylvania), Ke Hu (Indiana University, Bloomington) (2011) CIL:10498, Toxoplasma gondii RH. CIL. ...
... International Journal of Zoological Research, 7: 330-337. DOI: ... Detection of Toxoplasma gondii from Wastage Nourished Small Ruminant and Poultry: Zoonotic Significance ... Modified Agglutination Test for Serologic Survey of Toxoplasma gndii Infection in Goats and Water Buffaloes in Egypt ... Evaluation of Excreted/Secreted Antigens Derived from Peritoneal of Toxoplasma Infected Small Mice to Detect IgG Against ...
Lower performance of Toxoplasma-infected, Rh-negative subjects in the weight holding and hand-grip tests. Jaroslav Flegr, ... Toxoplasma, a protozoan parasite of cats, infects many species of intermediate and paratenic hosts, including about one-third ... Lower performance of Toxoplasma-infected, Rh-negative subjects in the weight holding and hand-grip tests ... Therefore, the results only partly support the hypothesis for the lower endurance of Toxoplasma infected subjects as the ...
I would like to thank Silveira et al for their article, Toxoplasmosis gondii in the peripheral blood of patients with acute and chronic toxoplasmosis.1 It adds new insight to the pathogenesis of the reactivation of ocular toxoplasmosis, which is known to develop at the border of old scars and is attributed to the rupture of tissue cysts located within the old lesions. But sometimes new lesions are found to occur at a distance from the old scar. The exact mechanism of these findings of reactivation in ocular toxoplasmic patients is not known. The authors studied 20 patients including acute infected patients, patients with recurrent active toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, patients with old toxoplasmic retinal scars … ...
Risk factors for infection by Toxoplasma gondii in herds of goats in Ceará, Brazil. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 2008; 60(1): 36-41 ... Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in goat from São Paulo State, Brazil. Small Rum Res ... Risk factors for infection by Toxoplasma gondii in herds of goats in Ceará, Brazil. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 2008; 60(1): 36-41 ... Prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in goat from São Paulo State, Brazil. Small Rum Res ...
... protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes opportunistic disease in... ... Journal / Immunology and Infection / Un crible génétique pour isoler Toxoplasma gondii tants Egress de la cellule hôte… ... Toxoplasma gondii Formation paroi du kyste dans la moelle osseuse Activé macrophages dérivés et Conditions Bradyzoite… ... Toxoplasma gondii Formation paroi du kyste dans la moelle osseuse Activé macrophages dérivés et Conditions Bradyzoite… ...
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular parasite mainly found in the central nervous system CNS, however, it can ... Toxoplasma IgM (TORCH) (EIA-1799), DRG International, Inc., USA) AND (DRG® Toxoplasma IgG (TORCH) (EIA-1798), DRG International ... Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among AIDS Patients in Saudi Arabia. Rana Ghazi Zaini1, Khadiga Ahmed Ismail1,2, Haytham ... 5. Al-Qurashi, A.R., Ghandour, A.M., Obeid, O.E., Al-Mulhim, A. and Makki, S.M. (2001) Seroepidemiological Study of Toxoplasma ...
A transient receptor channel in Toxoplasma gondii that conducts calcium represents the first molecular element that initiates ... Calcium signaling through a transient receptor channel is important for Toxoplasma gondii growth. ... Calcium signaling through a transient receptor channel is important for Toxoplasma gondii growth ... Calcium signaling through a transient receptor channel is important for Toxoplasma gondii growth ...
Interaction of diet and habitat predicts Toxoplasma gondii infection rates in wild birds at a global scale. Wilson, Amy, Ottawa ... Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals, including humans, primarily through a free- ... Wilson, Amy (2022). Interaction of diet and habitat predicts Toxoplasma gondii infection rates in wild birds at a global scale ...
Use of the nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughterhouse workers in Thika District, ... The widely used methods of diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii are serological. Current reports indicate a high seroprevalence of T ... Use of the nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughterhouse workers in Thika District, ...
Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect IgG anti-toxoplasma. Titres ≥ 1: 20 were considered positive. The ... we evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among 400 women referred to Qazvin community health centre laboratory for ... Data suggest that toxoplasma infection in humans is life-long, namely: there is a slow decrease in specific antibodies to T. ... Prevalence of toxoplasma infection among the pregnant women and their newborn infants in Amol. Paper presented at the 4th ...
Toxoplasma gondii detection and viability assays in ham legs and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs. ... Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States. ... The effect of salting on Toxoplasma gondii viability evaluated and implemented in a quantitative risk assessment of meat-borne ... The effect of salting on Toxoplasma gondii viability evaluated and implemented in a quantitative risk assessment of meat-borne ...
Toxoplasma gondii, Brazil Cite CITE. Title : Toxoplasma gondii, Brazil Personal Author(s) : Gomez-Marin, Jorge Published Date ... 2010). Toxoplasma gondii Oocyst-specific Antibodies and Source of Infection. 16(10). Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia A. et al. "Toxoplasma ... Gomez-Marin, Jorge "Toxoplasma gondii, Brazil" 13, no. 3 (2007). Gomez-Marin, Jorge "Toxoplasma gondii, Brazil" vol. 13, no. 3 ... "Toxoplasma gondii Oocyst-specific Antibodies and Source of Infection" vol. 16, no. 10, 2010. Export RIS Citation Information.. ...
... is common in cats, but the clinical picture is rare. Up to 50% of cats, especially free-roaming ... Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden. J Am Vet Med Assoc ... The Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats guidelines that the present article is updating were published in J Feline Med Surg ... Detection of Toxoplasma gondii antigen-containing immune complexes in the serum of cats. Am J Vet Res 1993; 54: 415-419. ...
Toxoplasmosis infection is caused by a parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It occurs in animals and can be carried by cats and shed in ... Toxoplasma infection - including symptoms, treatment and prevention. On this page Toxoplasma infection is caused by a parasite ... Signs and symptoms of Toxoplasma infection Toxoplasma infection usually does not cause any symptoms. Occasionally fever and ... Diagnosis of Toxoplasma infection Diagnosis is made by a series of blood tests, sometimes by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) ...
Toxoplasma Nicolle & Manceaux, 1909 References edit Nicolle, M.M.C. & Manceaux, L. 1909. Sur un protozoaire nouveau du gondi ( ... Toxoplasma gondii. Taxonavigation edit Taxonavigation: Eimeriorina Superregnum: Eukaryota. Regnum: Chromista. Subregnum: Harosa ... Genus: Toxoplasma Species: Toxoplasma gondii Name edit ... Toxoplasma n.g.). Arch. Inst. Pasteur Tunis 2: 97-103 / Comptes ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Toxoplasma&oldid=9113976" ...
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasitic protozoan in humans. It is a classical model for the study of ... The mothers had been tested for toxoplasma infection during their pregnancy, 326 mothers were IgG seropositive to Toxoplasma ... We compared the gender of springs between the toxoplasma-seropositive and toxoplasma-seronegative (control) groups. The female ... The number of girls in Toxoplasma-seropositive and Toxoplasma-seronegative mothers was 165 (49.44%) and 136 (45.48%), ...
Toxoplasma - LPs EPs Tapes Digital Shit Klamotten Buttons (25mm) / Pins Patches Accessoires Poster Accessories Papers & Mags ...
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Access Toxoplasma gondii case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
Toxoplasma gondii - Molecular Biology. * Proficiency Testing. *. Toxoplasma gondii - Molecular Biology (2 Items x 4 Rounds) - ... Toxoplasma gondii - Molecular Biology quantity. ADD PROGRAM(S) TO BUDGET. Categories: Clinical, Genetics and Molecular Biology ...
IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma in Pregnant females indicate immunity or past infection. Demonstration of Toxoplasma IgG in the ... Be the first to review "Toxo Plasma IGG" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * ... Toxo Plasma IGG. Report Delivery: Same Day. Pre Test Infomation:No special preparation required. ... Demonstration of increased Toxoplasma specific IgG in CSF can help confirm the diagnosis of Toxoplasmic encephalitis in ...
More than 40 million men, women, and children in the U.S. carry the Toxoplasma parasite, but very few have symptoms because the ... However, women newly infected with Toxoplasma during or shortly before pregnancy and anyone with a compromised immune system ...
  • A team from the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and elsewhere looks at gene regulation and differentiation in the single-celled eukaryotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii , which causes intracellular infections and corresponding cysts. (genomeweb.com)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is arguably the most interesting parasite on the planet. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Since Toxoplasma has no trouble affecting rats, whose brains are similar in many ways to our own, scientists wonder how much the parasite affects the big, complex brains we love so much. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The idea has gained traction - a later paper found, for example, that anti-psychotics worked just as well as parasite-killing drugs in restoring normal behaviors in infected rats , affirming the similarities between psychological disorders and Toxoplasma infection. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Toxoplasma , a protozoan parasite of cats, infects many species of intermediate and paratenic hosts, including about one-third of humans worldwide. (biorxiv.org)
  • Background: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular parasite mainly found in the central nervous system CNS, however, it can persist in multiple tissues in the body. (scirp.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that affects primarily members of the felid family but also most genera of warm-blooded animals, including birds and humans. (researchsquare.com)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that typically requires alternation of sexual and asexual reproductive stages in their life cycle [3-4]. (researchsquare.com)
  • When seronegative women are infected with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy, the parasite may be congenitally acquired through the placenta. (who.int)
  • Knowledge gaps in host-parasite interaction preclude accurate assessment of meat-borne exposure to Toxoplasma gondii. (openrepository.com)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide intracellular parasite which infects warm-blood hosts, including human. (ufu.br)
  • Toxoplasma (T.) gondii is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that can infect virtually all species of warm-blooded animals, including people. (abcdcatsvets.org)
  • More than 40 million men, women, and children in the U.S. carry the Toxoplasma parasite, but very few have symptoms because the immune system usually keeps the parasite from causing illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Congenital toxoplasmosis is a group of symptoms that occur when an unborn baby (fetus) is infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii . (medlineplus.gov)
  • A common infecting agent is the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). (bvsalud.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite that causes a zoonotic disease capable of infecting nearly all warm-blooded hosts, including humans . (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we studied whether the sequential exposure to SWCNT via pharyngeal aspiration and infection of mice with the ubiquitous intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii would impact on the immune response of the host against the parasite. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxoplasmosis is infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii . (msdmanuals.com)
  • A monolayer of human foreskin fibroblast cells was infected with Toxoplasma gondii expressing EGFP-tagged TgCentrin2 and mCherry-tagged TgIMC1 (innermembrane complex scaffold protein). (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii (/ˈtɒksəˌplæzmə ˈɡɒndi.aɪ, -iː/) is a parasitic protozoan (specifically an apicomplexan) that causes toxoplasmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foundation Toxoplasma Serology Laboratory (PAMF-TSL) ( 1 ) from 1/1/1991 to 12/31/2010 to identify families with a family/household member diagnosed with acute toxoplasmosis (index case [IC]) and at least one additional family/household member tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide distribution zoonosis, caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). (unesp.br)
  • However, women newly infected with Toxoplasma during or shortly before pregnancy and anyone with a compromised immune system should be aware that toxoplasmosis can have severe consequences. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals, including humans, primarily through a free-living oocyst and/or tissue cyst life-stage. (datadryad.org)
  • In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among 400 women referred to Qazvin community health centre laboratory for pre-marriage examinations. (who.int)
  • To assess possible Toxoplasma gondii infection in patients younger than 6 months, order Toxoplasma gondii Antibody, IgM, Serum. (akronchildrens.org)
  • A cross-sectional study based on planned sampling was carried out to determine flock-level risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in dairy goat flocks in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect IgG anti-toxoplasma. (who.int)
  • Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies are detectable 1-3 weeks after infection and remain detectable for the life of the individual. (cdc.gov)
  • Toxoplasma-specific IgM antibodies are also detectable 1-3 weeks after infection but generally decline to nil by one year after infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood serum samples were tested for toxoplasma IgM antibodies by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and for toxoplasma IgG antibodies using an Immunochromatographic technique . (bvsalud.org)
  • Using gene editing, a reporter screen, single-cell RNA-seq, and other approaches, the researchers focused in on and characterized the transcription BFD1, which they call a master regulator of differentiation in Toxoplasma parasites from chronic-stage infections. (genomeweb.com)
  • The widely used methods of diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii are serological. (samj.org.za)
  • Infection occurs when people unknowingly ingest toxoplasma cysts from cat feces or eat contaminated meat. (msdmanuals.com)
  • While previous studies have focused on the effect of individual infectious exposure, namely, Herpesviridae viruses or Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii), on cognitive functioning, the objective of the present study was to examine the effect of multiple infections on cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and in healthy controls. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Toxoplasma and schizophrenia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Toxoplasma gondii can infect all warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals and birds [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Sera assayed using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) and immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and their corresponding mutton samples were microscopically examined after pepsin digestion for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection. (scialert.net)
  • Toxoplasma gondii detection and viability assays in ham legs and shoulders from experimentally infected pigs. (openrepository.com)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa (single-cell infectious organisms) present worldwide wherever there are cats. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Those infections were due to two terrestrial protozoal pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona . (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, animal-associated infections (caused by, for example, Toxoplasma gondii , Listeria monocytogenes ) have been reported in people at increased risk because of deficiencies in the normal immune response as a result of immunosuppressive drugs, cancer or HIV infection. (who.int)
  • Background Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii infection is prevalent in up to 90% of the world's population. (researchsquare.com)
  • Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States. (openrepository.com)
  • Pulmonary exposure to single-walled carbon nanotube s does not affect the early immune response against Toxoplasma gondii. (cdc.gov)
  • Foi conduzido um estudo transversal baseado em amostragem planejada com o objetivo de determinar fatores de risco associados com a prevalência de anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii, em rebanhos de caprinos leiteiros, em uma região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil. (scielo.br)
  • What scientists really wanted to understand is whether Toxoplasma affects people with no prior disposition to psychological problems. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Bovine meat versus pork in Toxoplasma gondii transmission in Italy: A quantitative risk assessment model. (openrepository.com)
  • Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women with recurrent fetal loss from the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. (bvsalud.org)
  • The effect of salting on Toxoplasma gondii viability evaluated and implemented in a quantitative risk assessment of meat-borne human infection. (openrepository.com)
  • This study investigated whether polymorphisms of the MICA gene are associated withthe development of eye lesions related to infection by Toxoplasma gondii in a group ofimmunocompetent patients from southeastern Brazil. (fapesp.br)
  • Similarly, a study found that countries with high Toxoplasma infection rates also had high suicide rates - but the connection between the two was weak, and there was no direct evidence that the women who committed suicide were infected. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Details of Toxoplasma gondii strains used in the present study. (hindawi.com)
  • Toxoplasma can only continue its life cycle and end up a happy adult in a cat's gut if it can find its way into a cat's gut, and the fastest way to a cat's gut, of course, is to be eaten by a cat. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Describe the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii and the importance of the oocyst in transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • The hypothesis given for this phenomenon is that while for most people who are infected, Toxoplasma has minor effects, for some, the changes are much more pronounced. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Surprisingly, but in an accordance with some already published data, Toxoplasma -infected, Rh-positive subjects expressed a higher, rather than lower, performance in our endurance tests. (biorxiv.org)
  • Therefore, the results only partly support the hypothesis for the lower endurance of Toxoplasma infected subjects as the performance of Rh-positive subjects (representing majority of population) correlated positively with the Toxoplasma infection. (biorxiv.org)
  • Collectively, modulation of BFD1 holds substantial clinical and biotechnological potential, as chronic infection represents a major barrier to both the treatment of Toxoplasma and its use in delivery of heterologous antigens and protein-based therapeutics," the authors conclude. (genomeweb.com)
  • Toxoplasma gondii infection is common in cats, but the clinical picture is rare. (abcdcatsvets.org)