Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).

Antigenicity of purified glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid administered orally. (1/148)

The antigenicity of orally administered glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid was investigated in healthy volunteers. Fourteen volunteers ingested two or three 2-mg doses of toxoid with saline, with the doses spaced at 28-day intervals. Thirteen other volunteers received comparable toxoid doses with NaHCO3 and milk to neutralize gastric acid. Increments in circulating antitoxin levels were used to assay the antigenicity of oral toxoid. Antitoxin was measured by adrenal cell, rabbit skin permeability factor, and passive hemagglutination assays in sera collected on days 0, 28, 35, 56, 63, and 84 after primary immunization. Adrenal cell and rabbit skin assays exhibited identical sensitivity in detecting antitoxin rises in the 27 vaccinees (19/27) and were significantly more sensitive than passive hemagglutination (11/27) (P less than 0.03). Volunteers who ingested toxoid with NaHCO3 and milk had a higher rate of seroconversion (77%) than those who received toxoid with saline (64%); they also had earlier rises in antitoxin titer and consistently higher geometric mean titers on all days tested. These studies demonstrate that purified cholera toxoid is antigenic in humans after oral administration. The possible role of oral toxoid in enhancing the protective effect of killed whole-cell vaccines can now be investigated.  (+info)

Suppressive versus stimulatory effects of allergen/cholera toxoid (CTB) conjugates depending on the nature of the allergen in a murine model of type I allergy. (2/148)

Recent reports have demonstrated that feeding small amounts of antigen conjugated to the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) suppress immune responses in experimental models of certain Th1-based autoimmune diseases. We have established a model of aerosol sensitization leading to Th2-mediated allergic immune responses in BALB/c mice. In the present study two different antigens, the dietary antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and the inhalant allergen Bet v 1 (the major birch pollen allergen), chemically coupled to recombinant CTB were tested for their potential to influence Th2-like immune responses. Intranasal administration of OVA-CTB prior to sensitization with OVA led to a significant decrease of antigen-specific IgE antibody levels, but a marked increase of OVA-specific IgG2a antibodies as compared to non-pretreated, sensitized animals. Antigen-specific lympho-proliferative responses in vitro were reduced by 65% in the pretreated group; IL-5 and IL-4, but not IFN-gamma, production were markedly decreased in responder cells of lungs and spleens of nasally pretreated mice. In contrast, mucosal administration of rBet v 1-CTB conjugates prior to sensitization led to an up-regulation of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a, increased in vitro lympho-proliferative responses as well as augmented production of IL-5, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma. Intranasal administration prior to sensitization of unconjugated allergens showed also contrasting effects: OVA could not significantly influence antigen-specific antibody or cytokine production, whereas intranasal pretreatment with unconjugated Bet v 1 suppressed allergen-specific immune responses in vivo and in vitro. These results demonstrated that the two antigens--in conjugated as in unconjugated form--had different effects on the Th2 immune responses. We therefore conclude that the tolerogenic or immunogenic properties of CTB--and probably also other antigen-delivery systems--strongly depend on the nature of the coupled antigen-allergen.  (+info)

Protective effects of pertussis immunoglobulin (P-IGIV) in the aerosol challenge model. (3/148)

Pertussis in infants is often severe, resulting in prolonged hospitalization. Treatment is limited to supportive care. Antibiotics do not significantly alter the course of the disease unless administered during the catarrhal phase. Therapies directed at pertussis toxin, a major virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis, may be beneficial. This study uses the aerosol challenge model to further examine the protective effects of P-IGIV, a new intravenous immunoglobulin product, which has high levels of pertussis toxin antibodies. P-IGIV was prepared as a 4% immunoglobulin G (IgG) solution from the pooled donor plasma from donors immunized with inactivated pertussis toxoid. The IgG pertussis toxin antibody concentration in P-IGIV is >7-fold higher than conventional intravenous immunoglobulin products. In the aerosol challenge model, P-IGIV-treated mice exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in mortality when monitored for 28 days postchallenge. P-IGIV in doses of 2,800, 1,400, and 350 mg/kg significantly reduced mortality compared to saline (P < 0.01)- and human IGIV (P < 0.01)-treated controls. The 50% protective dose of pertussis toxin antibodies in P-IGIV was 147 microg/ml. Recovery of weight gain and normalization of leukocyte counts occurred in all P-IGIV-treated groups but did not exhibit dose-dependent characteristics. Even after 7 days of infection, P-IGIV reversed the effects of pertussis in mice. This study provides further evidence that pertussis toxin antibodies not only play a role in passive protection but can also reverse symptoms of established disease in mice. We feel that P-IGIV deserves further evaluation in children hospitalized with severe pertussis.  (+info)

Intranasal administration of a Schistosoma mansoni glutathione S-transferase-cholera toxoid conjugate vaccine evokes antiparasitic and antipathological immunity in mice. (4/148)

Mucosal administration of Ags linked to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) can induce both strong mucosal secretory IgA immune responses and peripheral T cell hyporeactivity. In this study, intranasal (i.n. ) administration of CTB-conjugated Schistosoma mansoni 28-kDa GST (CTB-Sm28GST) was found to protect infected animals from schistosomiasis, especially from immunopathological complications associated with chronic inflammation. Worm burden and liver egg counts were reduced in infected animals treated with the CTB-Sm28GST conjugate as compared with mice infected only, or with mice treated with a control (CTB-OVA) conjugate. However, a more striking and consistent effect was that granuloma formations in liver and lungs of mice treated with CTB-Sm28GST were markedly suppressed. Such treatment was associated with reduced systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity and lymphocyte proliferative responses to Sm28GST. Production of IFN-gamma, IL-3, and IL-5 by liver cells was also markedly reduced after i.n. treatment of CTB-Sm28GST, whereas IL-4 production was not impaired. Intranasal treatment of infected mice with CTB-Sm28GST increased IgG1-, IgG2a-, IgA-, and IgE-Ab-forming cell responses in liver in comparison with treatment with CTB-OVA, or free Sm28GST. Most importantly, mucosal treatment with CTB-Sm28GST significantly reduced animal mortality when administered to chronically infected mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to design a therapeutic vaccine against schistosomiasis that both limits infection and suppresses parasite-induced pathology.  (+info)

A randomized clinical trial of acellular pertussis vaccines in healthy adults: dose-response comparisons of 5 vaccines and implications for booster immunization. (5/148)

The safety and immunogenicity of 5 acellular pertussis vaccines (ACVs) were compared in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial. A total of 481 healthy adults were given a single intramuscular booster dose of ACV or placebo. Three different dose levels were tested for 4 ACVs: full strength (the dose level proposed for infant immunization), one-third strength, and one-tenth strength. For 1 multicomponent vaccine, only the pertussis toxoid dose level varied. Minor injection site reactions were common and similar in frequency among vaccinated groups. Late-onset injection site reactions were seen in all ACV groups. Dose-related increases in mean antibody titers against vaccine antigens were seen after immunization with all ACVs. Antibody responses against antigens not known to be present in the vaccines were detected after immunization with 4/5 ACVs. Antibody levels fell significantly during the year after immunization. These data support evaluation of ACVs for broader use among adolescents and adults.  (+info)

Suppressive versus stimulatory effects of allergen/cholera toxoid (CTB) conjugates depending on the nature of the allergen in a murine model of type I allergy. (6/148)

Recent reports have demonstrated that feeding small amounts of antigen conjugated to the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) suppress immune responses in experimental models of certain T(h)1-based autoimmune diseases. We have established a model of aerosol sensitization leading to T(h)2-mediated allergic immune responses in BALB/c mice. In the present study two different antigens, the dietary antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and the inhalant allergen Bet v 1 (the major birch pollen allergen), chemically coupled to recombinant CTB were tested for their potential to influence T(h)2-like immune responses. Intranasal administration of OVA-CTB prior to sensitization with OVA led to a significant decrease of antigen-specific IgE antibody levels, but a marked increase of OVA-specific IgG2a antibodies as compared to non-pretreated, sensitized animals. Antigen-specific lympho-proliferative responses in vitro were reduced by 65% in the pretreated group; IL-5 and IL-4 production were decreased in responder cells of lungs and spleens of nasally pretreated mice. In contrast, mucosal administration of rBet v 1-CTB conjugates prior to sensitization led to an up-regulation of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a, increased in vitro lympho-proliferative responses as well as augmented production of IL-5, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma. Intranasal administration prior to sensitization of unconjugated allergens showed also contrasting effects: OVA could not significantly influence antigen-specific antibody or cytokine production, whereas intranasal pretreatment with unconjugated Bet v 1 suppressed allergen-specific immune responses in vivo and in vitro. These results demonstrated that the two antigens-in conjugated as in unconjugated form-had different effects on the T(h)2 immune responses. We therefore conclude that the tolerogenic or immunogenic properties of CTB-and probably also other antigen-delivery systems-strongly depend on the nature of the coupled antigen-allergen.  (+info)

Development of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C vaccine toxoids that are protective in the rabbit model of toxic shock syndrome. (7/148)

Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SPE C) is a superantigen produced by many strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that (along with streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A) is highly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and other invasive streptococcal diseases. Based on the three-dimensional structure of SPE C, solvent-exposed residues predicted to be important for binding to the TCR or the MHC class II molecule, or important for dimerization, were generated. Based on decreased mitogenic activity of various single-site mutants, the double-site mutant Y15A/N38D and the triple-site mutant Y15A/H35A/N38D were constructed and analyzed for superantigenicity, toxicity (lethality), immunogenicity, and the ability to protect against wild-type SPE C-induced STSS. The Y15A/N38D and Y15A/H35A/N38D mutants were nonmitogenic for rabbit splenocytes and human PBMCs and nonlethal in two rabbit models of STSS, yet both mutants were highly immunogenic. Animals vaccinated with the Y15A/N38D or Y15A/H35A/N38D toxoids were protected from challenge with wild-type SPE C. Collectively, these data indicate that the Y15A/N38D and Y15A/H35A/N38D mutants may be useful as toxoid vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Toxoids of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A are protective in rabbit models of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. (8/148)

Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs) are superantigens that have been implicated in causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Most notably, SPE serotype A is made by nearly all M-protein serotype 1 and 3 streptococci, the M types most associated with the illness (these strains contain one or more other SPEs, and those proteins are likely also to contribute to disease). We have prepared double-, triple-, and hexa-amino-acid mutants of SPE A by PCR and other mutagenesis procedures. The sites chosen for mutation were solvent-exposed residues thought to be important for T-cell receptor (TCR) or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II interaction. These mutants were nonsuperantigenic for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and rabbit and mouse splenocytes and were nonlethal in two rabbit models of STSS. In addition, these mutants stimulated protective antibody responses. Interestingly, mutants that altered toxin binding to MHC class II were more immunogenic than mutants altering TCR binding. Collectively, these studies indicate that multiple-site mutants of SPE A are toxoids that may have use in protecting against the toxin's effects in STSS.  (+info)

References for Abcams Natural Clostridium difficile Toxoid B protein (ab124002). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
The study was designed as an event-driven group sequential protocol with 4 interim analyses at defined information milestones and a final analysis when a specific number of clinical endpoints are reached. Analyses of trial futility (non-efficacy) were to be performed at the first 2 interim analyses, and the study was to be stopped if either of those analyses provided robust and compelling evidence that meaningful levels of vaccine efficacy (VE) would not be demonstrated.. Following completion of the first interim analysis (50 cases of confirmed CDI observed), the futility criterion was met and in accordance with IDMC recommendation, enrollment and further vaccination ceased in November 2017.. Due to the early termination of the study, some of the planned secondary efficacy endpoints could not be analyzed as all planned data were not collected.. Participants were randomized to receive either the candidate vaccine or a placebo that was to be administered in a 3-dose schedule. At the time of group ...
The study was designed as an event-driven group sequential protocol with 4 interim analyses at defined information milestones and a final analysis when a specific number of clinical endpoints are reached. Analyses of trial futility (non-efficacy) were to be performed at the first 2 interim analyses, and the study was to be stopped if either of those analyses provided robust and compelling evidence that meaningful levels of vaccine efficacy (VE) would not be demonstrated.. Following completion of the first interim analysis (50 cases of confirmed CDI observed), the futility criterion was met and in accordance with IDMC recommendation, enrollment and further vaccination ceased in November 2017.. Due to the early termination of the study, some of the planned secondary efficacy endpoints could not be analyzed as all planned data were not collected.. Participants were randomized to receive either the candidate vaccine or a placebo that was to be administered in a 3-dose schedule. At the time of group ...
Interaction of a cholera toxin derivative containing a reduced number of receptor binding sites with intact cells in culture ...
Agents for treating pain, methods for producing the agents and methods for treating pain by administration to a patient of a therapeutically effective amount of the agent. The agent can include a clostridial neurotoxin, or a component or fragment or derivative thereof, attached to a targeting moiety, wherein the targeting moiety is selected from a group consisting of transmission compounds which can be released from neurons upon the transmission of pain signals by the neurons, and compounds substantially similar to the transmission compounds.
Summary The Global Staphylococcus toxoid Industry Report 2015 is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Staphylococcus toxoid
View List Labs product catalog containing bacterial toxins, GMP, antibodies, FRET peptides, toxoids, vaccine carrier proteins & adjuvants and more.
Looking for online definition of toxoids in the Medical Dictionary? toxoids explanation free. What is toxoids? Meaning of toxoids medical term. What does toxoids mean?
Papers and discussions from a meeting held at the Ciba Foundation, London, England, 21-23 October 1975. Topics most pertinent to internal medicine are cholera toxin (nature and action), trials of cholera toxoid, viral gastroenteritis. ...
In addition to the live, attenuated or inactive virus, pathogen or toxoid, the Hep B (Recombivax) vaccine contains the following ingredients:. ...
This is the first comprehensive report of serologic responses to the oral ETEC-rCTB vaccine in subjects living in an area where ETEC is endemic. We consider the pediatric data presented herein especially relevant, since children and infants in Egypt and other developing countries represent important targets for ETEC immunization. Several of our findings bear importance for future evaluations of the ETEC-rCTB vaccine. First, the vaccine elicited pronounced antitoxin antibody responses of both IgA and IgG isotypes in all three age groups as reported here and elsewhere (15). Second, a high proportion of vaccinated children achieved seroconversion to each of the four vaccine-shared CF antigens studied, and the magnitude of antibody elevations, particularly of IgA isotype, was substantial. Third, both age and preimmunization titer were independently and inversely associated with the magnitude of IgA antibody responses to the vaccine. Last, IgG antibodies to CF antigens appeared to reflect a ...
AREND, W.P., JOSLIN, F.G., THOMPSON, R.C. et al.: An IL-I inhibitor from human monocytes: Production and characterization of biological properties. J. Immunol., 143, 1851-1858 (1989).. BARRY, W.S., PIERCE, N.F.: Protein depreviation causes reversible impairment of mucosal immune response to cholera toxoid/toxin in rat gut. Nature, 281, 64-65 (1979).. BEACH, R.S., GERSHWIN, M.E., HURLEY, L.S.: Nutritional factors and autoimmunity. III. Zinc deprivation versus restricted food intake in MLR/J mice - the distinction between interacting dietary influences. J. Immunol., 129, 2682-2692 (1982).. REACH, R.S., GERSHWIN, M.E., HURLEY, L.S.: Persistent immunological consequences of gestational zinc deprivation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 38, 579-590 (1983).. BEISEL, W.R.: Metabolic effects of infection. Prog. Food Nutr. Sci., 8, 43-75 (1984).. BENSI, G., RAUGEI, G., PALLA, E. et al.: Human interleukin 1 beta gene. Gene, 52, 95-101 (1987). BEUTLER, B., MAHONEY, J., LETRANG, N., PEKALA, CERAMI, A.: Purification of ...
TTIGS : Assessment of an antibody response to the tetanus toxoid vaccine, which should be performed at least 3 weeks after immunization   An aid to diagnose immunodeficiency
Survey: Cross-sectional - De facto - GPS coordinates (GIS) - Household - Individual - Interview - Nationally representative - Subnationally representative - Urban-rural representative ...
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Learn about Pentacel (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Learn about Tetanus Toxoid (Canada) for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information.
Tetanus, commonly known as lockjaw, is a serious, sometimes fatal disease of the nervous system. Those who survive often have long term problems with speech, memory, and mental function. When the bacteria enter the body, a toxin (poison) is made that affects the nerves that control muscle activity.. During the 1920s and 1930s, 26 to 55 deaths from tetanus were reported each year. Due to immunization with tetanus toxoid vaccine there have been 0-5 cases per year in Ontario (2005-2014). The disease is more common in farming regions and in areas where contact with animal feces is more likely and in areas where immunization rates are lower.. ...
List Labs catalog of products provide the starting materials for vaccine research & development or production. See frequently used terms here.
This vaccine is for injection into a muscle or under the skin. It is given by a health care professional.. A copy of Vaccine Information Statements will be given before each vaccination. Read this sheet carefully each time. The sheet may change frequently.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 7 years of age for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
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Diphteria causes breathing problems through a thick coating in the nose, throat and airways. This can lead to breathing problems, paralysis , heart failure and
Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a β-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been identified as a key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis, a disease causing significant economic damage to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify amino acids that play a role in NetB oligomerisation and pore-formation. NetB K41H showed significantly reduced toxicity towards LMH cells and human red blood cells relative to wild type toxin. NetB K41H was unable to oligomerise and form pores in liposomes. These findings suggest that NetB K41H could be developed as a genetic toxoid vaccine to protect against necrotic enteritis.
Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a β-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been identified as a key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis, a disease causing significant economic damage to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify amino acids that play a role in NetB oligomerisation and pore-formation. NetB K41H showed significantly reduced toxicity towards LMH cells and human red blood cells relative to wild type toxin. NetB K41H was unable to oligomerise and form pores in liposomes. These findings suggest that NetB K41H could be developed as a genetic toxoid vaccine to protect against necrotic enteritis.
21 Rabbits 1, 3, and 4 had been given a series of four weekly injections, which were apparently insufficient to demonstrate an appreciable antitoxin titer. All were bred; no offspring showed any antitoxin titer. Five months later, another series of injections was begun, in the above quantities, the three rabbits receiv-ing 0.4, 0.05, and 0.2 ml., respectively, each time. These were given naught, three, eight, ten, fourteen, fif-teen, seventeen, twenty-two, and twenty-four days after the first injection, with the intention of producing as high as possible an hyperimmune state in the three experi-mental rabbits. Bleedings from the marginal vein of the ear were made before the first injection, and seven, thirty-nine, and sixty-three days later. The blood specimens were allowed to clot, centrifuged, and serum removed and frozen until they were ready to be titrated. Additional inoculations of toxoid were given sixty-eight, sixty-nine, seventy, eighty-four, and eighty-eight days after the original ...
Tetanus toxoid vaccination (% of live births): Q3 in Congo was reported at 45.7 % in 2014, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Congo - Tetanus toxoid vaccination (% of live births): Q3 - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on February of 2020.
Our current knowledge of cholera and the highly effective oral treatment of the disease could not have been attained without the use of animal models and human volunteers. Ever since the discovery of the etiologic agent of cholera, there have been attempts to develop suitable animal models for studying the interactions of Vibrio cholerae with its accidental human niche. The major animal models that have been employed in cholera research and some examples of the valuable information provided by these models have been discussed in this chapter. Finkelstein clearly demonstrated the presence of classical exo-enterotoxin (CT) (choleragen) and proceeded to work on purification of the material from Syncase medium, using infant rabbits as his biological assay. Concomitant with toxin purification, attempts were made to derive mutants of V. cholerae that would produce altered toxins or natural toxoids. Colonization studies are largely dependent on animal models, because the complex interactions between the two
Reaktivität: Bakterien Wirt: Maus Klon: KBA468 Konjugat: Alexa Fluor 405 | Clostridium Botulinum A Toxoid Antikörper (ABIN4263840).
3. Neurological Reactions. Neurological reactions were observed in 1.4/million vaccinations (10 p. 161). The peripheral nervous system is affected more often than the central nervous system. The rate of side effects is clearly lower than with the DPT vaccination, but similar to the DT vaccination, with the important remark that with the latter the central nervous system is affected more often. The time span between vaccination and complication differs from barely a few minutes for acute allergic reactions, to 12 to 48 hours for delayed allergic reactions, to 4 to 10 days for the onset of neuritis (49). 43% of cases show their first symptoms within 72 hours.. Peripheral neuropathy occurs in 1.4/million vaccinations (10 p161). The first symptoms can be observed within 10-14 days. It can be provoked by different mechanisms. In one case, a clear cut causal relationship was established with hypersensitivity to the tetanus toxoid.. Affected parts are the arm muscles (plexus brachialis, N. medianus) ...
Tetanus Toxoid, by Fort Dodge, is for the intramuscular vaccination of healthy horses, sheep and swine as an aid in the prevention of tetanus.
Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nano/micro particles were investigated as a potential vaccine platform for pertussis antigen. Presentation of pertussis toxoid as nano/micro particles (NP/MP) gave similar antigen-specific IgG responses in …. ...
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n: anatoxin, toxoid} a bacterial toxin that has been weakened until it is no longer toxic but is strong enough to induce the formation of antibodies and immunity to the specific disease caused by the toxin ...
Prevention:. Prevention of the disease is directed toward avoiding rapid proliferation of the organism in the intestinal tract and neutralization of the toxin produced.. Vaccination: Type C and D toxoid. Requires two injections. The best form of prevention in nursing lambs is by vaccinating with the two-injection vaccine to the pregnant ewe. Pregnant ewes should not receive the second booster after four weeks prior to lambing. The protection comes through the ewes colostrum, and can provide immunity to the lamb up to five weeks of age.. First: Vaccinate ewes at 6-8 weeks prior to lambing as a first time ewe. In succeeding years vaccinate ewes 2-3 weeks prior to lambing.. Second: Before 4 weeks prior to lambing Vaccination of the lambs may also be necessary to maintain high levels of protection after immunity from colostrum has disappeared. Repeat vaccination procedure 2-3 weeks in late nursing period. When early weaning, 40 days, give vaccination about 10 days prior to weaning, and the second 10 ...
CPT CODE and description 90460 - Immunization administration through 18 years of age via any route of administration, with counseling by physician or other qualified health care professional; first or only component of each vaccine or toxoid administere -average fee amount - $20 - $30 90461 - Immunization administration through 18 years of age via any route of administration, with counseling .... http://www.medicarepaymentandreimbursement.com/2016/09/cpt-code-90460-90471-immunization.html DA: 39 PA: 47 MOZ Rank: 86 ...
Vaccines, allergens, allergoids, toxoids, toxins, bacteriophages, immunomodulators, interferons, blood products, serums, other preparations of the NPO Microgen
TY - JOUR. T1 - Duration of serum antitoxin response following Vibrio cholerae infection in North Americans. T2 - Relevance for seroepidemiology. AU - Levine, Myron M.. AU - Young, Charles R.. AU - Hughes, Timothy P.. AU - Odonnell, Sylvia. AU - Black, Robert E.. AU - Clements, Mary Lou. AU - Robins-browne, Roy. AU - Lim, Yu Leong. PY - 1981/9. Y1 - 1981/9. N2 - Because of repeated infections with bacterial enteropathogens elaborating antigenically related enterotoxins, persons living in less-developed areas even where cholera is not endemic have high prevalence and levels of cholera antitoxin. Thus, in less-developed areas, antitoxin is not helpful for the seroepidemiology of cholera. In contrast, since diarrheal infections due to pathogens elaborating cholera-like enterotoxins are rare in industrialized countries, this study reviewed the magnitude and duration of the serum antitoxin response to cholera infections in North Americans to develop guidelines for use of antitoxin as a ...
Welcome to the Diphtheria Toxoid + Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed, DT, Td information hub. Featuring active ingredients, dosages, related medications, and Diphtheria Toxoid + Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed, DT, Td forums.
Dive into the research topics of T-cell-mediated immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and tetanus toxoid vaccine in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis during tofacitinib treatment. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Comprehensive disease interaction information for diphtheria toxoid/haemophilus b conjugate (hboc) vaccine/pertussis, whole cell/tetanus toxoid. Includes Vaccination - Infections.
Tetanus Toxoid shall be produced from a culture of Clostridium tetani which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. The toxoid may be either absorbed, precipitated, or purified and concentrated. Each serial of biological product containing tetanus toxoid fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in § 113.100 and shall be tested for purity, safety, and potency as prescribed in this section. A serial or subserial found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test shall not be released. (a)Purity test. Final container samples of completed product from each serial and subserial shall be tested for viable bacteria and fungi as provided in § 113.26. (b)Safety test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested for safety as provided in § 113.33(b). (c)Potency test. Bulk or final container samples of completed product from each serial shall be tested for potency. A group of 10 guinea pigs consisting of an equal number of males and females weighing 450 to 550 ...
Airborne transmission of A. pleuropneumoniae and PRRS virus between pig units. / Kristensen, C. S.; Bøtner, Anette; Angen, Øystein; Sørensen, Vibeke; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind; Takai, H.; Barfod, Kristen; Nielsen, J. P.. Proceedings of the 17th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress. 2002. p. 272-272 Paper 102.. Publication: Research - peer-review › Article in proceedings - Annual report year: 2002 ...
Necrotic Enteritis is a bacterial disease that is caused by Clostridium perfringenes, the common clinical signs of necrotic enteritis are pale comb, orange color feces, etc.
This vaccine is for injection into a muscle. It is given by a health care professional.. A copy of Vaccine Information Statements will be given before each vaccination. Read this sheet carefully each time. The sheet may change frequently.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of VN-0103 and diphtheria-tetanus toxoid after one injection in Japanese adolescents.
Pneumococcal PCV Vaccine Type , Usage , Precautions , Side Effects Pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae), a gram-positive bacteria, is an important cause of various pyogenic infections, most Read More. ...
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis is a bi-functional leukotoxin. It penetrates myeloid phagocytes expressing the complement receptor 3 and delivers into their cytosol its N-terminal adenylate cyclase enzyme domain (~400 residues). In parallel, ~1300 residue-long RT …
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Figure 2: Toxoid specific antibody response (IgG1, IgG2a, IgA) elicited after oral immunization in mice. BALB/c mice (n=6) were orally immunized with a single dose of BSA (80 μg) either free or adjuvanted with 10 μg of CT (Cholera Toxin) or rVTX1 (recombinant verotoxin). Antibody response against the corresponding protein-adjuvant was determined up to 5 weeks. Significant differences between CT and rVTX1 groups are indicated by asterisks (*P. 0.05 ...
Toxoids[edit]. Main article: Toxoid. Some diseases, such as tetanus, cause disease not by bacterial growth but by bacterial ... For example, a toxoid might be attached to a polysaccharide from the capsule of the bacteria responsible for most lobar ... The use of simple molecules such as toxoids for immunization tends to produce a low response by the immune system, and thus ... However, adding certain substances to the mixture, for example adsorbing tetanus toxoid onto alum, greatly enhances the immune ...
Toxoid vaccines are known for their efficacy.[34] Not all toxoids are for micro-organisms; for example, Crotalus atrox toxoid ... Toxoid. Toxoid vaccines are made from inactivated toxic compounds that cause illness rather than the micro-organism.[36] ... for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and "Td" for tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. At its page on tetanus vaccination,[52] the ... Tetanus toxoid, for instance, is usually adsorbed onto alum. This presents the antigen in such a way as to produce a greater ...
Vaccination with toxoid was not widely used until the early 1930s. In 1939, Dr. Nora Wattie Principal Medical Officer ( ... In 1926, Alexander Thomas Glenny increased the effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid (a modified version of the toxin used for ... Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids. National Academies Press (US). "Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals". World Health ... 68 of 606 children died after diphtheria immunization due to improper manufacture of aluminum phosphate toxoid. In 1974, the ...
1980N-0208 Biological Products; Bacterial Vaccines and Toxoids; Implementation of Efficacy Review; Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed; ...
"Tetanus toxoid". Vaccines (6th ed.). doi:10.1016/B978-1-4557-0090-5.00039-2. ISBN 9781455700905. Tetanolysin Alouf, J. (1997) ...
Spotnitz, H. (1963). "The toxoid response". Psychoanalytic Review. 50: 611-624. PMID 14073183. Skelton, R., ed. (2006), The ...
Tetanus toxoid treatment is recommended in those whose vaccinations are not up to date and have a bite that punctures the skin ... TT = tetanus toxoid; TIG: tetanus immune globulin Antihistamines are effective treatment for the symptoms from bites. Many ...
Roper MH, Wassilak SG, Tiwari TS, Orenstein WA (2013). "33 - Tetanus toxoid". Vaccines (6 ed.). Elsevier. pp. 746-772. doi: ...
90465-90474) immunization administration for vaccines/toxoids. *(90476-90749) vaccines, toxoids. *(90801-90899) psychiatry ...
Andersson M, Bagby JR, Dyrehag L, Gottfries C (1998). "Effects of staphylococcus toxoid vaccine on pain and fatigue in patients ... There have been[timeframe?] 2 RCTs with staphylococcal toxoid vaccine. A small RCT showed considerable benefit and a large ... Zachrisson O, Regland B, Jahreskog M, Jonsson M, Kron M, Gottfries CG (2002). "Treatment with staphylococcus toxoid in ...
Mohammad, J; Kefah, AH; Abdel, Aziz H (2008). "Oculomotor neuropathy following tetanus toxoid injection". Neurol India. 56 (2 ...
"Approved Products, Tetanus & Diphtheria Toxoids, Adsorbed, Manufacturer: MassBiologics, License #1779". U.S Food and Drug ...
"Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 24 April 2019. "Hiberix ... also called tetanus toxoid); mutant diphtheria protein; and meningococcal group B outer membrane protein. Multiple combinations ...
Toxoid (voiced by Dave Mallow) is another of Grimlord's key lieutenants. Toxoid was a mutant beast with a high pitched voice ... Toxoid is looked down upon the most due to his limited intellect and cowardly behavior. He was often seen among the organic- ... Toxoid's other abilities included teleportation and shooting goo out of his fingers. He has also had the most opportunities to ... Wolfbot appeared alongside Toxoid to find a powerful flower. In the "Defending Dark Heart" saga, Wolfbot participated in the ...
Tetanus toxoid containing vaccines (Td, DT, DTP and DTaP) may cause brachial neuritis at a rate of 0.5 to 1 case per 100,000 ... Severe side effects from diphtheria toxoid are rare. Pain may occur at the injection site. A bump may form at the site of ... Diphtheria Toxoid at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Diphtheria Vaccine". Drug Information ... Diphtheria vaccine is a toxoid vaccine against diphtheria, an illness caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Its use has ...
Fraser, D. T.; MacLean, D. L.; Plummer, H. C.; Wishart, F. O. (September 1943). "Tetanus Toxoid and Its Use for Active ... One of her first projects at Connaught involved major contributions to the culturing process of diphtheria toxoid, a non-toxic ... Taylor lead a research team dedicated to streamlining and improving the production of the toxoid. Taylor's cultures were grown ... Connaught had been producing tetanus toxoid since 1927 and, though their product was effective, it also produced unwanted side ...
Glenny A, Pope C, Waddington H, Wallace U (1926). "The antigenic value of toxoid precipitated by potassium alum". J Pathol ...
... is a combination vaccine whose generic name is diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis ... "Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B (Recombinant), and Poliovirus (Inactivated) Vaccine". Drugs.com. ... Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (March 2003). "FDA licensure of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular ... Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) (October 2008). "Licensure of a diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular ...
Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, Hariri S, Bernstein H (January 2020). "Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and ... Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, Hariri S, Bernstein H (January 2020). "Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and ... Tdap, (also dTpa), is a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine. It was licensed in the ... December 2006). "Preventing tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis among adults: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid ...
The products included diagnostic reagents and procedures, drugs, vaccines, toxoids, and antitoxins. Emphasis is placed on ...
Tetanus toxoid vaccine should also be administered, if indicated. Surviving victims often suffer localized tissue necrosis and ...
... toxoid can be given in case of a suspected exposure to tetanus. In such cases, it can be given with or without tetanus ... Tetanus toxoid vaccine was developed by P. Descombey in 1924, and was widely used to prevent tetanus induced by battle wounds ... Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination with tetanus toxoid. The CDC recommends that adults receive a booster vaccine every ten ...
Toxoids are inactivated toxic compounds from micro-organisms in cases where these (rather than the micro-organism itself) cause ... Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines ... he recommended using a method similar to modern toxoid serum therapy, by drinking the blood of animals which fed on venomous ...
Reasons such as an allergic reaction, tetanus toxoid vaccination, or an alteration of immune regulation are suspected. Other ... Akosa AB, Ali MH, Khoo CT, Evans DM (June 1990). "Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia associated with tetanus toxoid ...
In 1925-6 he developed alum-precipitated diphtheria toxoid. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1944 and awarded the ... In the same paper they also briefly described the properties of diphtheria toxoid, which had been discovered by Glenny in 1904 ...
Vaccinations: Tetanus toxoid, smallpox, and diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus vaccinations. The DRESS syndrome is a severe ...
The first inactive tetanus toxoid is discovered and produced. December 17 - Dismantling of James Watt's workshop for display in ...
For example, for vaccines containing tetanus toxoid (e.g., DTaP, DTP, DT, Td, or TT), anaphylaxis within four hours or brachial ...
... Please note: An erratum has been published for this article. To ... diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) or diptheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) (1). This shortage ... Although there have been no decreases in production of tetanus toxoid (TT), availability is low because of increased use during ... A temporary shortage of adult tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) in the United States has resulted from two coincident ...
Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed) used for immunization against tetanus in individuals 7 years of age or older. Side effects, drug ... Consumer information about the vaccine tetanus toxoid injection ( ... What is tetanus toxoid?. *Why is tetanus toxoid prescribed to ... How should I keep tetanus toxoid stored?. Tetanus toxoid vaccines should be refrigerated between 2.2 C and 7.7 C (36 F and 46 F ... Tetanus toxoid injection (Tetanus Toxoid Absorbed) is a vaccine used to provide active immunity against the tetanus toxin. Side ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Diphtheria Toxoid is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Diphtheria Toxoid is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Diphtheria Toxoid. Diphtheria Vaccine, Adsorbed. Diphtheria Toxoid (JAN, USAN) is also known as ... Diphtheria Toxoid. Diphtheria Toxoid may be available in the countries listed below. ...
Tetanus toxoids vaccine definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... tetanus-diphtheria toxoids vaccine, tetanus immune globulin, tetanus neonatorum, tetanus toxin, tetanus toxoid, tetanus toxoids ... One of the forms of the diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine, containing tetanus toxoids and used to immunize ...
toxoid synonyms, toxoid pronunciation, toxoid translation, English dictionary definition of toxoid. n. A substance that has ... Related to toxoid: tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid. tox·oid. (tŏk′soid′). n.. A substance that has been treated to destroy ... The tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine, adsorbed (Tdap) was licensed in June for use as ... Tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended during the third trimester of ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine. Includes indications, proper ... Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Adsorbed, Tetanus Toxoid and Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and ... Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids, and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine. Generic Name: Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids, and Acellular ... Diphtheria toxoid / pertussis, acellular / tetanus toxoid Rating. No Reviews - Be the first! ...
What does TETANUS TOXOID-INJECTION look like?. tetanus toxoid,adsorbed (PF) 5 LF unit/0.5 mL IM ... diphtheria/tetanus toxoids). This document does not contain all possible interactions. Therefore, before using this product, ...
Renz H., Gierten B. (2019) Impfantikörper gegen Tetanus-Toxoid. In: Gressner A.M., Arndt T. (eds) Lexikon der Medizinischen ... Schauer U et al (2003) Levels of antibodies specific to tetanus toxoid, Haemophilus influenzae type B, and pneumococcal ...
toxoids. Measurements. overall: 1 1/4 in x 1 3/8 in x 2 7/8 in; 3.175 cm x 3.4925 cm x 7.3025 cm. place made. United States: ... Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine Combined - Alum Precipitated - Squibb. National Museum of American History ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoids, Adult (Td) at PatientsLikeMe. 0 ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoids, Adult (Td). ...
... Size And Forecast According to Verified Market Research, Global Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Market is ... Global Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Market Outlook In the report, the market outlook section mainly encompasses fundamental dynamics ... Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Market Size And Forecast. According to Verified Market Research, Global Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Market is ... Global Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Market Competitive Landscape. The Global Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Market study report will provide ...
... and labeling of bacterial vaccines and toxoids with... ... of the Panel on Review of Bacterial Vaccines and Toxoids (the ... Tetanus Toxoid fluid, manufactured by Aventis Pasteur, Inc., is the only fluid toxoid product that remains licensed in the ... Diphtheria Toxoid. On July 27, 1993, FDA revoked the license for Diphtheria Toxoid at the request of the manufacturer. ... Tetanus Toxoid. On October 11, 1989, FDA revoked the license for Tetanus Toxoid at the request of the manufacturer. ...
Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, ... bIf only three doses of fluid tetanus toxoid have been received, then a fourth dose of toxoid, preferably, an adsorbed toxoid ... 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid and 2 Lf of diphtheria toxoid. The tetanus and diphtheria toxoids induce at least 2 units and 0.5 units ... cYes, if ≥ 10 years since the last tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine dose.. dYes, if ≥ 5 years since the last tetanus toxoid- ...
Toxoids. Class Summary. Toxoids are used to induce active immunity against the respective antigens. ... Tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Adacel, Boostrix). *View full drug information ... This is a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine. It promotes active immunity to diphtheria ... The immunizing agent of choice for most adults and children older than 7 years is tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. It is ...
Find patient medical information for Tetanus Toxoid Injection on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, ... How to use Tetanus Toxoid Solution. Read the Vaccine Information Statement available from your health care professional before ... What should I know regarding pregnancy, nursing and administering Tetanus Toxoid Solution to children or the elderly? ...
113.114 Tetanus Toxoid.. Tetanus Toxoid shall be produced from a culture of Clostridium tetani which has been inactivated and ... The toxoid may be either absorbed, precipitated, or purified and concentrated. Each serial of biological product containing ... tetanus toxoid fraction shall meet the applicable requirements in § 113.100 and shall be tested for purity, safety, and potency ...
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine (DT, pediatric). Skip to the navigation Pronunciation: dif THEER ee a TET a nus TOX oids ... The diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine is given in a series of shots. The first shot is usually given when the child is 2 ... The diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine is given in a series of shots. The first shot is usually given when the child is 2 ... The diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine (also called DT) is used to help prevent these diseases in children who are ages 6 ...
diphtheria toxoids (drug ingredient). tetanus toxoids (drug ingredient). pertussis vaccine (drug ingredient). poliomyelitis ... Tetravax - Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Pertussis Vaccine, Alum Precipitated, and Poliomyelitis Vaccine. National Museum ...
Tetanus toxoid is used to induce active immunity against tetanus in selected patients. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are the ... In children and adults, tetanus toxoid may be administered into the deltoid or midlateral thigh muscles. In infants, the ... Pregnant patients should receive only tetanus toxoid, not a diphtheria antigen-containing product. ...
Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... Each 0.5 mL dose contains 15 Lf diphtheria toxoid, 5 Lf tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens [20 mcg detoxified ... Tetanus toxoid. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, Offit PA, editors. Vaccines. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders; 2008. p. ... Both diphtheria and tetanus toxoids induce at least 2 neutralizing units per mL in the guinea pig potency test. The potency of ...
This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this medicine or any other medicine. Only the healthcare provider has the knowledge and training to decide which medicines are right for a specific patient. This information does not endorse any medicine as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. This is only a brief summary of general information about this medicine. It does NOT include all information about the possible uses, directions, warnings, precautions, interactions, adverse effects, or risks that may apply to this medicine. This information is not specific medical advice and does not replace information you receive from the healthcare provider. You must talk with the healthcare provider for complete information about the risks and benefits of using this medicine.. ...
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Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed (Td). Reason for the Shortage. * *Grifols has tetanus and diphtheria toxoids adsorbed ( ... Adult tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines are not affected by this shortage. ... Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed (Td) intramuscular suspension for injection, Grifols, 2 Lf tetanus toxoid / 2 Lf ... Tenivac intramuscular suspension for injection, Sanofi Pasteur, 5 Lf tetanus toxoid / 2 Lf diphtheria toxoid, 0.5 mL vial, 10 ...
Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed. Descriptions. Tetanus Toxoid is used to prevent tetanus (also known as lockjaw). Tetanus is a serious ... depending on which type of tetanus toxoid you receive. In addition, it is very important that you get a booster injection every ...
Browse our Diphtheria Toxoid Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... We offer Diphtheria Toxoid Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA, Western Blot. Each Diphtheria Toxoid ... Alternate Names for Diphtheria Toxoid Antibodies. anti-Diphtheria Toxoid antibody, anti-C. Diphtheria toxin antibody, anti- ... Choose from our Diphtheria Toxoid polyclonal antibodies and browse our Diphtheria Toxoid monoclonal antibody catalog. ...
References for Abcams Natural Clostridium difficile Toxoid B protein (ab124002). Please let us know if you have used this ...
Mouse monoclonal Tetanus Toxoid antibody [5.1B8]. Validated in ELISA. Cited in 4 publication(s). Immunogen corresponding to ... Hi Im just wondering - this antibody was produced using Tetanus toxoid as the immunogen. Do you sell this toxoid commercially ... Anti-Tetanus Toxoid antibody [5.1B8]. See all Tetanus Toxoid primary antibodies. ... Tetanus toxoid is derived from the toxin released by Clostridium Tetanis that causes the disease tetanus. It is used as a ...
Immune response to toxoids If I were to use a toxoid to build up immunity and it had a very low molecular weight and and its ... Specific in vivo and in vitro antibody response to tetanus toxoid immunization ...
Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA. ... Toxoids. Known as: Toxoids [Chemical/Ingredient], [IM105] TOXOIDS, toxoid Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their ... Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine in recurrent C. difficile-associated diarrhea.. *Stavros Sougioultzis, Lorraine Kyne, +8 ... The successful coupling of the meningococcal groups A, B, and C polysaccharides to tetanus toxoid to yield water soluble… (More ...
Give booster dose at 11-12yrs of age if last dose of tetanus and diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine was given ≥5yrs ago. ... Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids; aluminum adsorbed; susp for IM inj; contains residual formaldehyde, thimerosal (trace); latex- ... Indications for TETANUS AND DIPHTHERIA TOXOIDS ADSORBED: Tetanus and diphtheria immunization in patients ≥7yrs. ... Guillain-Barre syndrome within 6 weeks of previous tetanus toxoid vaccine. Previous Arthus-type hypersensitivity reaction: not ...
  • Many people may be familiar with tetanus-toxoid vaccines that are recommended every 10 years - that's a booster dose. (mercurynews.com)
  • Are parental vaccine safety concerns associated with receipt of measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids with acellular pertussis, or hepatitis B vaccines by children? (nih.gov)
  • and 10,800 tetanus toxoid vaccines for babies and mothers. (hdp.com)
  • 1 These changes include removal of thimerosal from infant doses of hepatitis B and Hib vaccines, use of the all-inactivated poliovirus vaccine series for poliomyelitis prevention, removal of rotavirus vaccine due to the risk of intussusception, and use of acellular diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine instead of whole-cell diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine. (aafp.org)
  • The market is classified into live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, toxoid vaccines, recombinant vaccines and other vaccines on the basis of technology. (valuates.com)
  • ICD-10-PCS code List for Serum, Toxoid and Vaccine is medical classification list by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). (aapc.com)
  • ActHIB Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus toxoid conjugate) Solution for Intramuscular Injection [product labeling]. (ashp.org)
  • The candidate is a conjugate vaccine, in which the virus antigen, the receptor-binding domain (RBD), is chemically bound to tetanus toxoid. (cubasi.cu)
  • Specifically, the vaccine has tetanus toxoid core - the same as in the better-known tetanus vaccine - formulated with adjuvants alum and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN). (zmescience.com)
  • 5. The Department of Defense Illegally Forced U.S. Troops to Take Unapproved, Experimental and Investigational Botulism Toxoid Vaccine During Desert Shield/ Desert Storm: That is a criminal violation of the Nuremberg Code. (all-natural.com)
  • To provide an immunological extra, the antigen of Cuba's Sovereign II vaccine is mixed with tetanus toxoid, as was done with Cuba's Hemophilus influenza vaccine. (mltoday.com)
  • This supplementary statement provides information on and recommendations for the use of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Use of diphtheria toxoid-tetanus toxoid-acellular pertussis vaccine as a five-dose series : supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (cdc.gov)
  • Adults who have not received tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) or for whom pertussis vaccination status is unknown should receive 1 dose of Tdap followed by a tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) booster every 10 years. (sugarloafmedical.com)
  • Tdap should be administered regardless of when a tetanus or diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine was last received. (sugarloafmedical.com)
  • UNICEF and the World Health Organization are the two UN agencies that have provided the Kenyan government with the anti-tetanus vaccine TT (for tetanus toxoid) for a campaign aimed at 2.6 million female Kenyans aged 14-49 and already administered to more than one million. (africanglobe.net)
  • TT (tetanus toxoid) vaccine needs to be done in a suitable laboratory, and from a sample of the actual medicine/vaccine…and not a blood sample. (africanglobe.net)
  • MENHIBRIX (Meningococcal serogroups C and Y, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine). (skepticalraptor.com)
  • Affinity-purified monoclonal antibody scFv fragment (single chain variable fragment) expressed in E.Coli to bind against tetanus toxoid antigen. (absave.com)
  • 2. A minimum of three or more properly spaced doses of diphtheria toxoid. (vacode.org)
  • 3. A minimum of three or more properly spaced doses of tetanus toxoid. (vacode.org)
  • d) date of administration of tetanus toxoid (e.g. (navy.mil)