Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Tetanus toxoid is a purified and chemically inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus disease by stimulating the production of antibodies.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Staphylococcal toxoid refers to a bacterial toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus that has been chemically modified to lose its toxicity, while retaining its antigenicity, used in the production of vaccines to induce immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infections.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is not a medical term or concept, but a regional organization that consists of post-Soviet states, and therefore, it does not have a medical definition.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).

Antigenicity of purified glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid administered orally. (1/148)

The antigenicity of orally administered glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid was investigated in healthy volunteers. Fourteen volunteers ingested two or three 2-mg doses of toxoid with saline, with the doses spaced at 28-day intervals. Thirteen other volunteers received comparable toxoid doses with NaHCO3 and milk to neutralize gastric acid. Increments in circulating antitoxin levels were used to assay the antigenicity of oral toxoid. Antitoxin was measured by adrenal cell, rabbit skin permeability factor, and passive hemagglutination assays in sera collected on days 0, 28, 35, 56, 63, and 84 after primary immunization. Adrenal cell and rabbit skin assays exhibited identical sensitivity in detecting antitoxin rises in the 27 vaccinees (19/27) and were significantly more sensitive than passive hemagglutination (11/27) (P less than 0.03). Volunteers who ingested toxoid with NaHCO3 and milk had a higher rate of seroconversion (77%) than those who received toxoid with saline (64%); they also had earlier rises in antitoxin titer and consistently higher geometric mean titers on all days tested. These studies demonstrate that purified cholera toxoid is antigenic in humans after oral administration. The possible role of oral toxoid in enhancing the protective effect of killed whole-cell vaccines can now be investigated.  (+info)

Suppressive versus stimulatory effects of allergen/cholera toxoid (CTB) conjugates depending on the nature of the allergen in a murine model of type I allergy. (2/148)

Recent reports have demonstrated that feeding small amounts of antigen conjugated to the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) suppress immune responses in experimental models of certain Th1-based autoimmune diseases. We have established a model of aerosol sensitization leading to Th2-mediated allergic immune responses in BALB/c mice. In the present study two different antigens, the dietary antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and the inhalant allergen Bet v 1 (the major birch pollen allergen), chemically coupled to recombinant CTB were tested for their potential to influence Th2-like immune responses. Intranasal administration of OVA-CTB prior to sensitization with OVA led to a significant decrease of antigen-specific IgE antibody levels, but a marked increase of OVA-specific IgG2a antibodies as compared to non-pretreated, sensitized animals. Antigen-specific lympho-proliferative responses in vitro were reduced by 65% in the pretreated group; IL-5 and IL-4, but not IFN-gamma, production were markedly decreased in responder cells of lungs and spleens of nasally pretreated mice. In contrast, mucosal administration of rBet v 1-CTB conjugates prior to sensitization led to an up-regulation of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a, increased in vitro lympho-proliferative responses as well as augmented production of IL-5, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma. Intranasal administration prior to sensitization of unconjugated allergens showed also contrasting effects: OVA could not significantly influence antigen-specific antibody or cytokine production, whereas intranasal pretreatment with unconjugated Bet v 1 suppressed allergen-specific immune responses in vivo and in vitro. These results demonstrated that the two antigens--in conjugated as in unconjugated form--had different effects on the Th2 immune responses. We therefore conclude that the tolerogenic or immunogenic properties of CTB--and probably also other antigen-delivery systems--strongly depend on the nature of the coupled antigen-allergen.  (+info)

Protective effects of pertussis immunoglobulin (P-IGIV) in the aerosol challenge model. (3/148)

Pertussis in infants is often severe, resulting in prolonged hospitalization. Treatment is limited to supportive care. Antibiotics do not significantly alter the course of the disease unless administered during the catarrhal phase. Therapies directed at pertussis toxin, a major virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis, may be beneficial. This study uses the aerosol challenge model to further examine the protective effects of P-IGIV, a new intravenous immunoglobulin product, which has high levels of pertussis toxin antibodies. P-IGIV was prepared as a 4% immunoglobulin G (IgG) solution from the pooled donor plasma from donors immunized with inactivated pertussis toxoid. The IgG pertussis toxin antibody concentration in P-IGIV is >7-fold higher than conventional intravenous immunoglobulin products. In the aerosol challenge model, P-IGIV-treated mice exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in mortality when monitored for 28 days postchallenge. P-IGIV in doses of 2,800, 1,400, and 350 mg/kg significantly reduced mortality compared to saline (P < 0.01)- and human IGIV (P < 0.01)-treated controls. The 50% protective dose of pertussis toxin antibodies in P-IGIV was 147 microg/ml. Recovery of weight gain and normalization of leukocyte counts occurred in all P-IGIV-treated groups but did not exhibit dose-dependent characteristics. Even after 7 days of infection, P-IGIV reversed the effects of pertussis in mice. This study provides further evidence that pertussis toxin antibodies not only play a role in passive protection but can also reverse symptoms of established disease in mice. We feel that P-IGIV deserves further evaluation in children hospitalized with severe pertussis.  (+info)

Intranasal administration of a Schistosoma mansoni glutathione S-transferase-cholera toxoid conjugate vaccine evokes antiparasitic and antipathological immunity in mice. (4/148)

Mucosal administration of Ags linked to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) can induce both strong mucosal secretory IgA immune responses and peripheral T cell hyporeactivity. In this study, intranasal (i.n. ) administration of CTB-conjugated Schistosoma mansoni 28-kDa GST (CTB-Sm28GST) was found to protect infected animals from schistosomiasis, especially from immunopathological complications associated with chronic inflammation. Worm burden and liver egg counts were reduced in infected animals treated with the CTB-Sm28GST conjugate as compared with mice infected only, or with mice treated with a control (CTB-OVA) conjugate. However, a more striking and consistent effect was that granuloma formations in liver and lungs of mice treated with CTB-Sm28GST were markedly suppressed. Such treatment was associated with reduced systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity and lymphocyte proliferative responses to Sm28GST. Production of IFN-gamma, IL-3, and IL-5 by liver cells was also markedly reduced after i.n. treatment of CTB-Sm28GST, whereas IL-4 production was not impaired. Intranasal treatment of infected mice with CTB-Sm28GST increased IgG1-, IgG2a-, IgA-, and IgE-Ab-forming cell responses in liver in comparison with treatment with CTB-OVA, or free Sm28GST. Most importantly, mucosal treatment with CTB-Sm28GST significantly reduced animal mortality when administered to chronically infected mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to design a therapeutic vaccine against schistosomiasis that both limits infection and suppresses parasite-induced pathology.  (+info)

A randomized clinical trial of acellular pertussis vaccines in healthy adults: dose-response comparisons of 5 vaccines and implications for booster immunization. (5/148)

The safety and immunogenicity of 5 acellular pertussis vaccines (ACVs) were compared in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial. A total of 481 healthy adults were given a single intramuscular booster dose of ACV or placebo. Three different dose levels were tested for 4 ACVs: full strength (the dose level proposed for infant immunization), one-third strength, and one-tenth strength. For 1 multicomponent vaccine, only the pertussis toxoid dose level varied. Minor injection site reactions were common and similar in frequency among vaccinated groups. Late-onset injection site reactions were seen in all ACV groups. Dose-related increases in mean antibody titers against vaccine antigens were seen after immunization with all ACVs. Antibody responses against antigens not known to be present in the vaccines were detected after immunization with 4/5 ACVs. Antibody levels fell significantly during the year after immunization. These data support evaluation of ACVs for broader use among adolescents and adults.  (+info)

Suppressive versus stimulatory effects of allergen/cholera toxoid (CTB) conjugates depending on the nature of the allergen in a murine model of type I allergy. (6/148)

Recent reports have demonstrated that feeding small amounts of antigen conjugated to the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) suppress immune responses in experimental models of certain T(h)1-based autoimmune diseases. We have established a model of aerosol sensitization leading to T(h)2-mediated allergic immune responses in BALB/c mice. In the present study two different antigens, the dietary antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and the inhalant allergen Bet v 1 (the major birch pollen allergen), chemically coupled to recombinant CTB were tested for their potential to influence T(h)2-like immune responses. Intranasal administration of OVA-CTB prior to sensitization with OVA led to a significant decrease of antigen-specific IgE antibody levels, but a marked increase of OVA-specific IgG2a antibodies as compared to non-pretreated, sensitized animals. Antigen-specific lympho-proliferative responses in vitro were reduced by 65% in the pretreated group; IL-5 and IL-4 production were decreased in responder cells of lungs and spleens of nasally pretreated mice. In contrast, mucosal administration of rBet v 1-CTB conjugates prior to sensitization led to an up-regulation of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a, increased in vitro lympho-proliferative responses as well as augmented production of IL-5, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma. Intranasal administration prior to sensitization of unconjugated allergens showed also contrasting effects: OVA could not significantly influence antigen-specific antibody or cytokine production, whereas intranasal pretreatment with unconjugated Bet v 1 suppressed allergen-specific immune responses in vivo and in vitro. These results demonstrated that the two antigens-in conjugated as in unconjugated form-had different effects on the T(h)2 immune responses. We therefore conclude that the tolerogenic or immunogenic properties of CTB-and probably also other antigen-delivery systems-strongly depend on the nature of the coupled antigen-allergen.  (+info)

Development of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C vaccine toxoids that are protective in the rabbit model of toxic shock syndrome. (7/148)

Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SPE C) is a superantigen produced by many strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that (along with streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A) is highly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and other invasive streptococcal diseases. Based on the three-dimensional structure of SPE C, solvent-exposed residues predicted to be important for binding to the TCR or the MHC class II molecule, or important for dimerization, were generated. Based on decreased mitogenic activity of various single-site mutants, the double-site mutant Y15A/N38D and the triple-site mutant Y15A/H35A/N38D were constructed and analyzed for superantigenicity, toxicity (lethality), immunogenicity, and the ability to protect against wild-type SPE C-induced STSS. The Y15A/N38D and Y15A/H35A/N38D mutants were nonmitogenic for rabbit splenocytes and human PBMCs and nonlethal in two rabbit models of STSS, yet both mutants were highly immunogenic. Animals vaccinated with the Y15A/N38D or Y15A/H35A/N38D toxoids were protected from challenge with wild-type SPE C. Collectively, these data indicate that the Y15A/N38D and Y15A/H35A/N38D mutants may be useful as toxoid vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Toxoids of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A are protective in rabbit models of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. (8/148)

Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs) are superantigens that have been implicated in causing streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Most notably, SPE serotype A is made by nearly all M-protein serotype 1 and 3 streptococci, the M types most associated with the illness (these strains contain one or more other SPEs, and those proteins are likely also to contribute to disease). We have prepared double-, triple-, and hexa-amino-acid mutants of SPE A by PCR and other mutagenesis procedures. The sites chosen for mutation were solvent-exposed residues thought to be important for T-cell receptor (TCR) or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II interaction. These mutants were nonsuperantigenic for human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and rabbit and mouse splenocytes and were nonlethal in two rabbit models of STSS. In addition, these mutants stimulated protective antibody responses. Interestingly, mutants that altered toxin binding to MHC class II were more immunogenic than mutants altering TCR binding. Collectively, these studies indicate that multiple-site mutants of SPE A are toxoids that may have use in protecting against the toxin's effects in STSS.  (+info)

Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins that have lost their toxicity but retain their antigenicity. They are often used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against certain diseases without causing the harmful effects associated with the active toxin. The process of converting a toxin into a toxoid is called detoxication, which is typically achieved through chemical or heat treatment.

One example of a toxoid-based vaccine is the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) or diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids (DTaP or TdaP) vaccines. These vaccines contain inactivated forms of the diphtheria and tetanus toxins, as well as inactivated pertussis toxin in the case of DTaP or TdaP vaccines. By exposing the immune system to these toxoids, the body learns to recognize and mount a response against the actual toxins produced by the bacteria, thereby providing immunity and protection against the diseases they cause.

Tetanus toxoid is a purified and inactivated form of the tetanus toxin, which is derived from the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is used as a vaccine to induce active immunity against tetanus, a potentially fatal disease caused by this toxin. The toxoid is produced through a series of chemical treatments that modify the toxic properties of the tetanus toxin while preserving its antigenic qualities. This allows the immune system to recognize and develop protective antibodies against the toxin without causing illness. Tetanus toxoid is often combined with diphtheria and/or pertussis toxoids in vaccines such as DTaP, Tdap, and Td.

Diphtheria toxoid is a modified form of the diphtheria toxin that has been made harmless but still stimulates an immune response. It is used in vaccines to provide immunity against diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, and paralysis. The toxoid is typically combined with other components in a vaccine, such as tetanus toxoid and pertussis vaccine, to form a combination vaccine that protects against multiple diseases.

The diphtheria toxoid is made by treating the diphtheria toxin with formaldehyde, which modifies the toxin's structure and makes it nontoxic while still retaining its ability to stimulate an immune response. When the toxoid is introduced into the body through vaccination, the immune system recognizes it as a foreign substance and produces antibodies against it. These antibodies then provide protection against future infections with the diphtheria bacteria.

The diphtheria toxoid vaccine is usually given as part of a routine childhood immunization schedule, starting at 2 months of age. Booster shots are recommended throughout childhood and adolescence, and adults may also need booster shots if they have not received them previously or if their immune status has changed.

Tetanus is a serious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The bacteria are found in soil, dust and manure and can enter the body through wounds, cuts or abrasions, particularly if they're not cleaned properly. The bacterium produces a toxin that affects the nervous system, causing muscle stiffness and spasms, often beginning in the jaw and face (lockjaw) and then spreading to the rest of the body.

Tetanus can be prevented through vaccination, and it's important to get vaccinated if you haven't already or if your immunization status is not up-to-date. If tetanus is suspected, medical attention should be sought immediately, as it can be a life-threatening condition if left untreated. Treatment typically involves administering tetanus immune globulin (TIG) to neutralize the toxin and antibiotics to kill the bacteria, as well as supportive care such as wound cleaning and management, and in some cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to assist with breathing.

Staphylococcal toxoid is a modified form of a toxin produced by the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium, which has been made less toxic through chemical treatment or irradiation. It is used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against staphylococcal infections. The toxoid induces the production of antibodies that recognize and neutralize the harmful effects of the original toxin, without causing the adverse reactions associated with the live toxin. This type of vaccine is used to prevent diseases such as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome.

Tetanus antitoxin is a medical preparation containing antibodies that neutralize tetanus toxin, a harmful substance produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. This antitoxin is used to provide immediate protection against tetanus infection in cases of wound management or as a post-exposure prophylaxis when tetanus vaccination history is incomplete or uncertain.

Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a severe and potentially fatal disease characterized by muscle stiffness and spasms, primarily affecting the jaw and neck muscles. The antitoxin works by binding to the tetanus toxin, preventing it from causing damage to the nervous system. It's important to note that tetanus antitoxin does not provide immunity against future tetanus infections; therefore, vaccination with a tetanus-containing vaccine is still necessary for long-term protection.

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It typically affects the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and windpipe (trachea), causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the lining of these areas. This can lead to breathing difficulties, heart complications, and neurological problems if left untreated.

The bacteria can also produce a powerful toxin that can cause damage to other organs in the body. Diphtheria is usually spread through respiratory droplets from an infected person's cough or sneeze, or by contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. The disease is preventable through vaccination.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine, also known as the DT vaccine or Td vaccine (if diphtheria toxoid is not included), is a combination vaccine that protects against two potentially serious bacterial infections: diphtheria and tetanus.

Diphtheria is a respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart problems, and nerve damage. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the jaw and neck.

The vaccine contains small amounts of inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus. When the vaccine is administered, it stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that provide protection against these diseases.

In addition to protecting against diphtheria and tetanus, some formulations of the vaccine may also include protection against pertussis (whooping cough), polio, or hepatitis B. The DTaP vaccine is a similar combination vaccine that includes protection against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but uses acellular pertussis components instead of the whole-cell pertussis component used in the DT vaccine.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus vaccine is typically given as a series of shots in childhood, with booster shots recommended every 10 years to maintain immunity. It is an important part of routine childhood vaccination and is also recommended for adults who have not received the full series of shots or whose protection has waned over time.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis (DTaP) vaccines are a type of combination vaccine that protect against three serious diseases caused by bacteria: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough).

Diphtheria is a highly contagious respiratory infection that can cause breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, and even death. Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, which can be severe enough to cause broken bones or suffocation. Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection that causes severe coughing fits, making it difficult to breathe, eat, or drink.

The "a" in DTaP stands for "acellular," which means that the pertussis component of the vaccine contains only parts of the bacteria, rather than the whole cells used in older vaccines. This reduces the risk of side effects associated with the whole-cell pertussis vaccine while still providing effective protection against the disease.

DTaP vaccines are typically given as a series of five shots, starting at 2 months of age and ending at 4-6 years of age. Booster doses may be recommended later in life to maintain immunity. DTaP vaccines are an essential part of routine childhood immunization schedules and have significantly reduced the incidence of these diseases worldwide.

The Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine is a combination immunization that protects against three bacterial diseases: diphtheria, tetanus (lockjaw), and pertussis (whooping cough).

Diphtheria is an upper respiratory infection that can lead to breathing difficulties, heart failure, paralysis, or even death. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and causes muscle stiffness and spasms, leading to "lockjaw." Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection characterized by severe coughing fits, which can make it difficult to breathe and may lead to pneumonia, seizures, or brain damage.

The DTaP vaccine contains inactivated toxins (toxoids) from the bacteria that cause these diseases. It is typically given as a series of five shots, with doses administered at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age. The vaccine helps the immune system develop protection against the diseases without causing the actual illness.

It is important to note that there are other combination vaccines available that protect against these same diseases, such as DT (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) and Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis), which contain higher doses of the diphtheria and pertussis components. These vaccines are recommended for different age groups and may be used as booster shots to maintain immunity throughout adulthood.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is a medication used to treat diphtheria, a serious bacterial infection that can affect the nose, throat, and skin. It is made from the serum of animals (such as horses) that have been immunized against diphtheria. The antitoxin works by neutralizing the harmful effects of the diphtheria toxin produced by the bacteria, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

Diphtheria Antitoxin is usually given as an injection into a muscle or vein, and it should be administered as soon as possible after a diagnosis of diphtheria has been made. It is important to note that while the antitoxin can help prevent further damage caused by the toxin, it does not treat the underlying infection itself, which requires antibiotics for proper treatment.

Like any medication, Diphtheria Antitoxin can have side effects, including allergic reactions, serum sickness, and anaphylaxis. It should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional who is experienced in its use and can monitor the patient for any adverse reactions.

Conjugate vaccines are a type of vaccine that combines a part of a bacterium with a protein or other substance to boost the body's immune response to the bacteria. The bacterial component is usually a polysaccharide, which is a long chain of sugars that makes up part of the bacterial cell wall.

By itself, a polysaccharide is not very immunogenic, meaning it does not stimulate a strong immune response. However, when it is conjugated or linked to a protein or other carrier molecule, it becomes much more immunogenic and can elicit a stronger and longer-lasting immune response.

Conjugate vaccines are particularly effective in protecting against bacterial infections that affect young children, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcal disease. These vaccines have been instrumental in reducing the incidence of these diseases and their associated complications, such as meningitis and pneumonia.

Overall, conjugate vaccines work by mimicking a natural infection and stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections with the same bacterium. By combining a weakly immunogenic polysaccharide with a protein carrier, these vaccines can elicit a stronger and more effective immune response, providing long-lasting protection against bacterial infections.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Guinea" is not a medical term. It is the second largest island in the world, located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, northeast of Australia. The island is divided politically between the independent nation of Papua New Guinea to the east and the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua to the west.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

Combined vaccines are defined in medical terms as vaccines that contain two or more antigens from different diseases, which are given to provide protection against multiple diseases at the same time. This approach reduces the number of injections required and simplifies the immunization schedule, especially during early childhood. Examples of combined vaccines include:

1. DTaP-Hib-IPV (e.g., Pentacel): A vaccine that combines diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and poliovirus components in one injection to protect against these five diseases.
2. MMRV (e.g., ProQuad): A vaccine that combines measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox) antigens in a single injection to provide immunity against all four diseases.
3. HepA-HepB (e.g., Twinrix): A vaccine that combines hepatitis A and hepatitis B antigens in one injection, providing protection against both types of hepatitis.
4. MenACWY-TT (e.g., MenQuadfi): A vaccine that combines four serogroups of meningococcal bacteria (A, C, W, Y) with tetanus toxoid as a carrier protein in one injection for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease caused by these serogroups.
5. PCV13-PPSV23 (e.g., Vaxneuvance): A vaccine that combines 13 pneumococcal serotypes with PPSV23, providing protection against a broader range of pneumococcal diseases in adults aged 18 years and older.

Combined vaccines have been thoroughly tested for safety and efficacy to ensure they provide a strong immune response and an acceptable safety profile. They are essential tools in preventing various infectious diseases and improving overall public health.

A Pertussis vaccine is a type of immunization used to protect against pertussis, also known as whooping cough. It contains components that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the bacteria that cause pertussis, Bordetella pertussis. There are two main types of pertussis vaccines: whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. wP vaccines contain killed whole cells of B. pertussis, while aP vaccines contain specific components of the bacteria, such as pertussis toxin and other antigens. Pertussis vaccines are often combined with diphtheria and tetanus to form combination vaccines, such as DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis) and TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis). These vaccines are typically given to young children as part of their routine immunization schedule.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Whoopering Cough, also known as Pertussis, is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is characterized by severe coughing fits followed by a high-pitched "whoop" sound during inspiration. The disease can affect people of all ages, but it is most dangerous for babies and young children. Symptoms typically develop within 5 to 10 days after exposure and include runny nose, low-grade fever, and a mild cough. After a week or two, the cough becomes more severe and is often followed by vomiting and exhaustion. Complications can be serious, especially in infants, and may include pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, or death. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria and reduce the severity of symptoms. Vaccination is available and recommended for the prevention of whooping cough.

'Clostridium tetani' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent of tetanus. The bacteria are commonly found in soil, dust, and manure, and can contaminate wounds, leading to the production of a potent neurotoxin called tetanospasmin. This toxin causes muscle spasms and stiffness, particularly in the jaw and neck muscles, as well as autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which can be life-threatening. Tetanus is preventable through vaccination with the tetanus toxoid vaccine.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a bacterium that can cause serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. There are two main types of Hib vaccines:

1. Polysaccharide vaccine: This type of vaccine is made from the sugar coating (polysaccharide) of the bacterial cells. It is not effective in children under 2 years of age because their immune systems are not yet mature enough to respond effectively to this type of vaccine.
2. Conjugate vaccine: This type of vaccine combines the polysaccharide with a protein carrier, which helps to stimulate a stronger and more sustained immune response. It is effective in infants as young as 6 weeks old.

Hib vaccines are usually given as part of routine childhood immunizations starting at 2 months of age. They are administered through an injection into the muscle. The vaccine is safe and effective, with few side effects. Vaccination against Hib has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of Hib infections worldwide.

An immunization schedule is a series of planned dates when a person, usually a child, should receive specific vaccines in order to be fully protected against certain preventable diseases. The schedule is developed based on scientific research and recommendations from health organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The immunization schedule outlines which vaccines are recommended, the number of doses required, the age at which each dose should be given, and the minimum amount of time that must pass between doses. The schedule may vary depending on factors such as the individual's age, health status, and travel plans.

Immunization schedules are important for ensuring that individuals receive timely protection against vaccine-preventable diseases, and for maintaining high levels of immunity in populations, which helps to prevent the spread of disease. It is important to follow the recommended immunization schedule as closely as possible to ensure optimal protection.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Tetanus toxin, also known as tetanospasmin, is a potent neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. This toxin binds to nerve endings and is transported to the nervous system's inhibitory neurons, where it blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, particularly glycine and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). As a result, it causes uncontrolled muscle contractions or spasms, which are the hallmark symptoms of tetanus disease.

The toxin has two main components: an N-terminal portion called the light chain, which is the enzymatically active part that inhibits neurotransmitter release, and a C-terminal portion called the heavy chain, which facilitates the toxin's entry into neurons. The heavy chain also contains a binding domain that allows the toxin to recognize specific receptors on nerve cells.

Tetanus toxin is one of the most potent toxins known, with an estimated human lethal dose of just 2.5-3 nanograms per kilogram of body weight when introduced into the bloodstream. Fortunately, tetanus can be prevented through vaccination with the tetanus toxoid, which is part of the standard diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) immunization series for children and adolescents and the tetanus-diphtheria (Td) booster for adults.

Botulinum antitoxin refers to a medication made from the antibodies that are generated in response to the botulinum toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that can cause paralysis and other serious medical complications in humans and animals.

The antitoxin works by neutralizing the effects of the toxin in the body, preventing further damage to the nervous system. It is typically used in emergency situations to treat individuals who have been exposed to large amounts of botulinum toxin, such as in a bioterrorism attack or accidental exposure in a laboratory setting.

Botulinum antitoxin is not the same as botulinum toxin type A (Botox), which is a purified form of the toxin that is used for cosmetic and therapeutic purposes. Botox works by temporarily paralyzing muscles, whereas the antitoxin works by neutralizing the toxin in the body.

Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated (IPV) is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio), a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. IPV contains inactivated (killed) polioviruses of all three poliovirus types. It works by stimulating an immune response in the body, but because the viruses are inactivated, they cannot cause polio. After vaccination, the immune system recognizes and responds to the inactivated viruses, producing antibodies that protect against future infection with wild, or naturally occurring, polioviruses. IPV is typically given as an injection in the leg or arm, and a series of doses are required for full protection. It is a safe and effective way to prevent polio and its complications.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that protect against Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (bloodstream infection). There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available, including conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the different serogroups of N. meningitidis, including A, B, C, Y, and W-135. The specific type of vaccine used and the number of doses required may depend on a person's age, health status, and other factors. Meningococcal vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk populations, such as infants, young children, adolescents, and people with certain medical conditions, as well as for travelers to areas where meningococcal disease is common.

Maternally-acquired immunity (MAI) refers to the passive immunity that is transferred from a mother to her offspring, typically through the placenta during pregnancy or through breast milk after birth. This immunity is temporary and provides protection to the newborn or young infant against infectious agents, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the mother's own immune experiences and responses.

In humans, maternally-acquired immunity is primarily mediated by the transfer of antibodies called immunoglobulins (IgG) across the placenta to the fetus during pregnancy. This process begins around the 20th week of gestation and continues until birth, providing the newborn with a range of protective antibodies against various pathogens. After birth, additional protection is provided through breast milk, which contains secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) that helps to prevent infections in the infant's gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.

Maternally-acquired immunity is an essential mechanism for protecting newborns and young infants, who have not yet developed their own active immune responses. However, it is important to note that maternally-acquired antibodies can also interfere with the infant's response to certain vaccines, as they may neutralize the vaccine antigens before the infant's immune system has a chance to mount its own response. This is one reason why some vaccines are not recommended for young infants and why the timing of vaccinations may be adjusted in cases where maternally-acquired immunity is present.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Alum compounds are a type of double sulfate salt, typically consisting of aluminum sulfate and another metal sulfate. The most common variety is potassium alum, or potassium aluminum sulfate (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum compounds have a wide range of uses, including water purification, tanning leather, dyeing and printing textiles, and as a food additive for baking powder and pickling. They are also used in medicine as astringents to reduce bleeding and swelling, and to soothe skin irritations. Alum compounds have the ability to make proteins in living cells become more stable, which can be useful in medical treatments.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

A "newborn infant" refers to a baby in the first 28 days of life outside of the womb. This period is crucial for growth and development, but also poses unique challenges as the infant's immune system is not fully developed, making them more susceptible to various diseases.

"Newborn diseases" are health conditions that specifically affect newborn infants. These can be categorized into three main types:

1. Congenital disorders: These are conditions that are present at birth and may be inherited or caused by factors such as infection, exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy, or chromosomal abnormalities. Examples include Down syndrome, congenital heart defects, and spina bifida.

2. Infectious diseases: Newborn infants are particularly vulnerable to infections due to their immature immune systems. Common infectious diseases in newborns include sepsis (bloodstream infection), pneumonia, and meningitis. These can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy or childbirth, or from the environment after birth.

3. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal growth and development of the newborn infant. Examples include cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, and vision or hearing impairments.

It is important to note that many newborn diseases can be prevented or treated with appropriate medical care, including prenatal care, proper hygiene practices, and timely vaccinations. Regular check-ups and monitoring of the newborn's health by a healthcare provider are essential for early detection and management of any potential health issues.

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of diarrheagenic E. coli that causes traveler's diarrhea and diarrheal diseases in infants in developing countries. It produces one or two enterotoxins, known as heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (ST), which cause the intestinal lining to secrete large amounts of water and electrolytes, resulting in watery diarrhea. ETEC is often transmitted through contaminated food or water and is a common cause of traveler's diarrhea in people traveling to areas with poor sanitation. It can also cause outbreaks in refugee camps, nursing homes, and other institutional settings. Prevention measures include avoiding consumption of untreated water and raw or undercooked foods, as well as practicing good personal hygiene.

Diphtheria toxin is a potent exotoxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes the disease diphtheria. This toxin is composed of two subunits: A and B. The B subunit helps the toxin bind to and enter host cells, while the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis within those cells, leading to cell damage and tissue destruction.

The toxin can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the site of infection. In respiratory diphtheria, it typically affects the nose, throat, and tonsils, causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the affected area, making breathing and swallowing difficult. In cutaneous diphtheria, it infects the skin, leading to ulcers and necrosis.

Diphtheria toxin can also have systemic effects, such as damage to the heart, nerves, and kidneys, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Fortunately, diphtheria is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) vaccine.

Botulinum toxins are neurotoxic proteins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. They are the most potent naturally occurring toxins, and are responsible for the paralytic illness known as botulism. There are seven distinct botulinum toxin serotypes (A-G), each of which targets specific proteins in the nervous system, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release and subsequent muscle paralysis.

In clinical settings, botulinum toxins have been used for therapeutic purposes due to their ability to cause temporary muscle relaxation. Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) is the most commonly used serotype in medical treatments, including management of dystonias, spasticity, migraines, and certain neurological disorders. Additionally, botulinum toxins are widely employed in aesthetic medicine for reducing wrinkles and fine lines by temporarily paralyzing facial muscles.

It is important to note that while botulinum toxins have therapeutic benefits when used appropriately, they can also pose significant health risks if misused or improperly handled. Proper medical training and supervision are essential for safe and effective utilization of these powerful toxins.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

Antibody affinity refers to the strength and specificity of the interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen at a molecular level. It is a measure of how strongly and selectively an antibody binds to its target antigen. A higher affinity indicates a more stable and specific binding, while a lower affinity suggests weaker and less specific interactions. Affinity is typically measured in terms of the dissociation constant (Kd), which describes the concentration of antigen needed to achieve half-maximal binding to an antibody. Generally, a smaller Kd value corresponds to a higher affinity, indicating a tighter and more selective bond. This parameter is crucial in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as immunoassays and targeted therapies, where high-affinity antibodies are preferred for improved sensitivity and specificity.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) vaccines are designed to protect against infections caused by various strains of the E. coli bacterium. These vaccines typically contain inactivated or attenuated (weakened) forms of the bacteria, which stimulate an immune response when introduced into the body. The immune system learns to recognize and fight off the specific strain of E. coli used in the vaccine, providing protection against future infections with that strain.

There are several types of E. coli vaccines available or in development, including:

1. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) vaccines: These vaccines protect against STEC strains, such as O157:H7 and non-O157 STECs, which can cause severe illness, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS).
2. Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) vaccines: These vaccines target ETEC strains that are a common cause of traveler's diarrhea in people visiting areas with poor sanitation.
3. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) vaccines: EPEC strains can cause persistent diarrhea, especially in young children in developing countries. Vaccines against these strains are still in the research and development stage.
4. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) vaccines: These vaccines aim to protect against ExPEC strains that can cause urinary tract infections, sepsis, and meningitis.

It is important to note that different E. coli vaccines are designed for specific purposes and may not provide cross-protection against other strains or types of E. coli infections.

Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent, and volatile chemical compound with the formula CH2O. It is a naturally occurring substance that is found in certain fruits like apples and vegetables, as well as in animals. However, the majority of formaldehyde used in industry is synthetically produced.

In the medical field, formaldehyde is commonly used as a preservative for biological specimens such as organs, tissues, and cells. It works by killing bacteria and inhibiting the decaying process. Formaldehyde is also used in the production of various industrial products, including adhesives, resins, textiles, and paper products.

However, formaldehyde can be harmful to human health if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, and prolonged exposure has been linked to respiratory problems and cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle formaldehyde with care and use appropriate safety measures when working with this chemical compound.

'Bordetella pertussis' is a gram-negative, coccobacillus bacterium that is the primary cause of whooping cough (pertussis) in humans. This highly infectious disease affects the respiratory system, resulting in severe coughing fits and other symptoms. The bacteria's ability to evade the immune system and attach to ciliated epithelial cells in the respiratory tract contributes to its pathogenicity.

The bacterium produces several virulence factors, including pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, fimbriae, and tracheal cytotoxin, which contribute to the colonization and damage of respiratory tissues. The pertussis toxin, in particular, is responsible for many of the clinical manifestations of the disease, such as the characteristic whooping cough and inhibition of immune responses.

Prevention and control measures primarily rely on vaccination using acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) or whole-cell pertussis vaccines (wP), which are included in combination with other antigens in pediatric vaccines. Continuous efforts to improve vaccine efficacy, safety, and coverage are essential for controlling the global burden of whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis.

Bacterial capsules are slimy, gel-like layers that surround many types of bacteria. They are made up of polysaccharides, proteins, or lipopolysaccharides and are synthesized by the bacterial cell. These capsules play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria as they help the bacteria to evade the host's immune system and promote their survival and colonization within the host. The presence of a capsule can also contribute to the bacteria's resistance to desiccation, phagocytosis, and antibiotics.

The chemical composition and structure of bacterial capsules vary among different species of bacteria, which is one factor that contributes to their serological specificity and allows for their identification and classification using methods such as the Quellung reaction or immunofluorescence microscopy.

Botulism is a rare but serious condition caused by the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The neurotoxin causes muscle paralysis, which can lead to respiratory failure and death if not treated promptly. Botulism can occur in three main forms: foodborne, wound, and infant.

Foodborne botulism is caused by consuming contaminated food, usually home-canned or fermented foods with low acid content. Wound botulism occurs when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxin in the body. Infant botulism affects babies under one year of age who have ingested spores of the bacterium, which then colonize the intestines and produce toxin.

Symptoms of botulism include double vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth, muscle weakness, and paralysis that progresses downward from the head to the limbs. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit monitoring, and antitoxin therapy. Prevention measures include proper food handling and canning techniques, prompt wound care, and avoiding consumption of known sources of contaminated food.

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is not a medical term, but rather a political and geographical term. It refers to a regional organization that was established in 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The CIS comprises 10 post-Soviet states: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

Therefore, there is no medical definition associated with the term "Commonwealth of Independent States." However, it is important to note that public health and healthcare systems in CIS countries have undergone significant changes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, with varying degrees of success and challenges.

Cholera toxin is a protein toxin produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which causes the infectious disease cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits, A and B, and its primary mechanism of action is to alter the normal function of cells in the small intestine.

The B subunit of the toxin binds to ganglioside receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells, allowing the A subunit to enter the cell. Once inside, the A subunit activates a signaling pathway that results in the excessive secretion of chloride ions and water into the intestinal lumen, leading to profuse, watery diarrhea, dehydration, and other symptoms associated with cholera.

Cholera toxin is also used as a research tool in molecular biology and immunology due to its ability to modulate cell signaling pathways. It has been used to study the mechanisms of signal transduction, protein trafficking, and immune responses.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C is a type of bacteria that can cause serious infections in humans. It is also known as meningococcus and is part of a group of bacteria called meningococci. These bacteria can be divided into several serogroups based on the chemical structure of their outer coat. Serogroup C is one of these groups and is responsible for causing a significant number of invasive meningococcal diseases worldwide.

The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C can cause serious infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (blood poisoning). These infections can be life-threatening and require prompt medical attention.

The bacteria are spread through close contact with an infected person, such as coughing or kissing. It can also be transmitted through respiratory droplets or saliva. The bacteria can colonize the nasopharynx (the upper part of the throat behind the nose) without causing any symptoms, but in some cases, they can invade the bloodstream and cause serious infections.

Vaccination is available to protect against Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C infection. The vaccine is recommended for people at increased risk of infection, such as those traveling to areas where the disease is common or those with certain medical conditions that weaken the immune system.

Cholera vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against the infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are several types of cholera vaccines available, including:

1. Inactivated oral vaccine (ICCV): This vaccine contains killed whole-cell bacteria and is given in two doses, with each dose administered at least 14 days apart. It provides protection for up to six months and can be given to adults and children over the age of one year.
2. Live attenuated oral vaccine (LCV): This vaccine contains weakened live bacteria that are unable to cause disease but still stimulate an immune response. The most commonly used LCV is called CVD 103-HgR, which is given in a single dose and provides protection for up to three months. It can be given to adults and children over the age of six years.
3. Injectable cholera vaccine: This vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and is given as an injection. It is not widely available and its effectiveness is limited compared to oral vaccines.

Cholera vaccines are recommended for travelers visiting areas with known cholera outbreaks, particularly if they plan to eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. They can also be used in response to outbreaks to help control the spread of the disease. However, it is important to note that vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent cholera infection and good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, should always be followed.

'Corynebacterium diphtheriae' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria that can cause the disease diphtheria. It is commonly found in the upper respiratory tract and skin of humans and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with contaminated objects. The bacterium produces a potent exotoxin that can cause severe inflammation and formation of a pseudomembrane in the throat, leading to difficulty breathing and swallowing. In severe cases, the toxin can spread to other organs, causing serious complications such as myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and peripheral neuropathy (damage to nerves outside the brain and spinal cord). The disease is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

"Vibrio cholerae" is a species of gram-negative, comma-shaped bacteria that is the causative agent of cholera, a diarrheal disease. It can be found in aquatic environments, such as estuaries and coastal waters, and can sometimes be present in raw or undercooked seafood. The bacterium produces a toxin called cholera toxin, which causes the profuse, watery diarrhea that is characteristic of cholera. In severe cases, cholera can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can be life-threatening if not promptly treated with oral rehydration therapy or intravenous fluids.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water. The main symptoms of cholera are profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration, which can lead to electrolyte imbalances, shock, and even death if left untreated. Cholera remains a significant public health concern in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. The disease is preventable through proper food handling, safe water supplies, and improved sanitation, as well as vaccination for those at high risk.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterial subtype that can cause serious infections, particularly in children under 5 years of age. Although its name may be confusing, Hib is not the cause of influenza (the flu). It is defined medically as a gram-negative, coccobacillary bacterium that is a member of the family Pasteurellaceae.

Hib is responsible for several severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), epiglottitis (swelling of the tissue located at the base of the tongue that can block the windpipe), pneumonia, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection).

Before the introduction of the Hib vaccine in the 1980s and 1990s, Haemophilus influenzae type b was a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children under 5 years old. Since then, the incidence of invasive Hib disease has decreased dramatically in vaccinated populations.

Streptococcal vaccines are immunizations designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus bacteria. These vaccines contain antigens, which are substances that trigger an immune response and help the body recognize and fight off specific types of Streptococcus bacteria. There are several different types of streptococcal vaccines available or in development, including:

1. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV): This vaccine protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a type of bacteria that can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections. PCV is recommended for all children under 2 years old, as well as older children and adults with certain medical conditions.
2. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine also protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, but it is recommended for adults 65 and older, as well as younger people with certain medical conditions.
3. Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which can cause a variety of infections, including strep throat, skin infections, and serious diseases like rheumatic fever and toxic shock syndrome. There are several different GAS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.
4. Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group B Streptococcus (GBS), which can cause serious infections in newborns, pregnant women, and older adults with certain medical conditions. There are several different GBS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.

Overall, streptococcal vaccines play an important role in preventing bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease caused by Streptococcus bacteria.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

... not the direct effects of the toxoid. The toxoid does not have virulence as the toxin did before inactivation. Toxoids are also ... There are toxoids for prevention of diphtheria, tetanus and botulism. Toxoids are used as vaccines because they induce an ... Toxoids are also used in the production of conjugate vaccines. The highly antigenic toxoids help draw attention to weaker ... Toxins are secreted by bacteria, whereas toxoids are altered form of toxins; toxoids are not secreted by bacteria. Thus, when ...
2004, January 7). 69 FR 1320 - Biological Products; Bacterial Vaccines and Toxoids; Implementation of Efficacy Review. [ ...
Vaccination with toxoid was not widely used until the early 1930s. In 1939, Dr. Nora Wattie, who was the Principal Medical ... In 1926, Alexander Thomas Glenny increased the effectiveness of diphtheria toxoid (a modified version of the toxin used for ... Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids. National Academies Press (US). "Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals". World Health ... 68 of 606 children died after diphtheria immunization due to improper manufacture of aluminum phosphate toxoid. In 1974, the ...
1980N-0208 Biological Products; Bacterial Vaccines and Toxoids; Implementation of Efficacy Review; Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed; ...
Roper MH, Wassilak SG, Tiwari TS, Orenstein WA (2013). "Tetanus toxoid". Vaccines (6th ed.). pp. 746-772. doi:10.1016/B978-1- ...
Povitzky, Olga R.; Eisner, Minnie (1935-03-01). "The Effect of Temperature on the Antigenic Value of Diphtheria Toxoid". The ... Povitzky, Olga R.; Jackson, Erla; Eisner, Minnie (1931-03-01). "Diphtheria Toxoid. Preparation and Dosage". The Journal of ... Povitzky, Olga R. (1936-07-01). "Standardization and Application of Different Preparations of Diphtheria Toxoid". American ... "Diphtheria Toxoid. Preparation and Dosage" (1931, with Minnie Eisner and Erla Jackson) "Predominant Strain of B. influenzae in ...
Mellanby, Jane; Van Heyningen, W. E. (July 1964). "Specific Precocious Protective Action of Toxoids". Nature. 203 (4942): 312- ... "Specific Precocious Protective Action of Toxoids" (1964, with W. E. van Heyningen) "The effect of tetanus toxin in the goldfish ...
Spotnitz, H. (1963). "The toxoid response". Psychoanalytic Review. 50: 611-624. PMID 14073183. Skelton, R., ed. (2006), The ...
Tetanus toxoid treatment is recommended in those whose vaccinations are not up to date and have a bite that punctures the skin ... TT = tetanus toxoid; TIG: tetanus immune globulin Antihistamines are effective treatment for the symptoms from bites. Many ...
The toxoid is generally coadministered with diphtheria toxoid and some form of pertussis vaccine as DPT vaccine or DTaP. This ... Roper MH, Wassilak SG, Tiwari TS, Orenstein WA (2013). "33 - Tetanus toxoid". Vaccines (6 ed.). Elsevier. pp. 746-772. doi: ... The toxin's action can be prevented with tetanus toxoid vaccines, which are often administered to children worldwide. ... called tetanus toxoid. This is made commercially by growing large quantities of C. tetani in fermenters, then purifying the ...
Roper MH, Wassilak SG, Tiwari TS, Orenstein WA (2013). "33 - Tetanus toxoid". Vaccines (6 ed.). Elsevier. pp. 746-772. doi: ...
Not all toxoids are for micro-organisms; for example, Crotalus atrox toxoid is used to vaccinate dogs against rattlesnake bites ... Toxoid vaccines are made from inactivated toxic compounds that cause illness rather than the micro-organism. Examples of toxoid ... for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and "Td" for tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. At its page on tetanus vaccination, the CDC ... Tetanus toxoid, for instance, is usually adsorbed onto alum. This presents the antigen in such a way as to produce a greater ...
Fitzgerald, J. G.; Defries, R. D.; Fraser, D. T.; Moloney, P. J.; McKinnon, N. E. (1932). "Experiences with Diphtheria Toxoid ... With Charles Beecher Weld (1899-1991), he developed the first diphtheria toxoid in North America. Moloney helped to develop a ... Moloney, P. J.; Hennessy, Joan N. (1944). "Titration of Tetanal Toxins and Toxoids by Flocculation". The Journal of Immunology ... Moloney, P. J.; Hennessy, J. N. (1942). "Purification of tetanus toxoid". The Biochemical Journal. 36 (7-9): 544-547. doi: ...
"Stellaris Toxoids pack introduces a poisonous order of knights". PCGamesN. 19 September 2022. Retrieved 2022-09-20. "Stellaris ...
Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, Hariri S, Bernstein H (January 2020). "Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and ... Havers FP, Moro PL, Hunter P, Hariri S, Bernstein H (January 2020). "Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and ... Tdap, (also dTpa), is a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine. It was licensed in the ... In October 2022, Boostrix (Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed [Tdap]) was ...
There have been[timeframe?] two RCTs with staphylococcal toxoid vaccine. A small RCT showed considerable benefit and a large ... Andersson M, Bagby JR, Dyrehag L, Gottfries C (1998). "Effects of staphylococcus toxoid vaccine on pain and fatigue in patients ... Zachrisson O, Regland B, Jahreskog M, Jonsson M, Kron M, Gottfries CG (2002). "Treatment with staphylococcus toxoid in ...
Mohammad, J; Kefah, AH; Abdel, Aziz H (2008). "Oculomotor neuropathy following tetanus toxoid injection". Neurol India. 56 (2 ...
"Approved Products, Tetanus & Diphtheria Toxoids, Adsorbed, Manufacturer: MassBiologics, License #1779". U.S. Food and Drug ...
The denatured toxin is called a toxoid. The use of simple molecules such as toxoids for immunization tends to produce a low ... For example, a toxoid might be attached to a polysaccharide from the capsule of the bacteria responsible for most lobar ... However, adding certain substances to the mixture, for example adsorbing tetanus toxoid onto alum, greatly enhances the immune ...
In 1987, the first Hib conjugate vaccine, which used diphtheria toxoid as the carrier protein (PRP-D), was licensed in the U.S ... "Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine (Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 24 April 2019. "Hiberix ... also called tetanus toxoid); mutant diphtheria protein; and meningococcal group B outer membrane protein. Multiple combinations ...
Toxoid (voiced by Dave Mallow) is another of Grimlord's key lieutenants. Toxoid was a mutant beast with a high pitched voice ... Toxoid is looked down upon the most due to his limited intellect and cowardly behavior. He was often seen among the organic- ... Toxoid's other abilities included teleportation and shooting goo out of his fingers. He has also had the most opportunities to ... Wolfbot appeared alongside Toxoid to find a powerful flower. In the "Defending Dark Heart" saga, Wolfbot participated in the ...
Tetanus toxoid containing vaccines (Td, DT, DTP and DTaP) may cause brachial neuritis at a rate of 0.5 to 1 case per 100,000 ... Severe side effects from diphtheria toxoid are rare. Pain may occur at the injection site. A bump may form at the site of ... Diphtheria Toxoid at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Diphtheria Vaccine". Drug ... Diphtheria vaccine is a toxoid vaccine against diphtheria, an illness caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Its use has ...
Fraser, D. T.; MacLean, D. L.; Plummer, H. C.; Wishart, F. O. (September 1943). "Tetanus Toxoid and Its Use for Active ... One of her first projects at Connaught involved major contributions to the culturing process of diphtheria toxoid, a non-toxic ... Taylor lead a research team dedicated to streamlining and improving the production of the toxoid. Taylor's cultures were grown ... Connaught had been producing tetanus toxoid since 1927 and, though their product was effective, it also produced unwanted side ...
... is a combination vaccine whose generic name is diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis ... "Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B (Recombinant), and Poliovirus (Inactivated) Vaccine". Drugs.com. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (March 2003). "FDA licensure of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (October 2008). "Licensure of a diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular ...
The products included diagnostic reagents and procedures, drugs, vaccines, toxoids, and antitoxins. Emphasis is placed on ...
Glenny A, Pope C, Waddington H, Wallace U (1926). "The antigenic value of toxoid precipitated by potassium alum". J Pathol ... Bacterial products: killed bacteria of the species Bordetella pertussis, Mycobacterium bovis,[citation needed] toxoids. MPL ( ...
The tetanus toxoid vaccine was first licensed for use in 1938 and, during the 1960s, it was noted that tetanus vaccination in ... Blencowe, Hannah; Lawn, Joy; Vandelaer, Jos; Roper, Martha; Cousens, Simon (2010). "Tetanus toxoid immunization to reduce ...
Tetanus toxoid vaccine should also be administered, if indicated. Surviving victims often suffer localized tissue necrosis and ...
... toxoid can be given in case of suspected exposure to tetanus. In such cases, it can be given with or without tetanus ... Tetanus toxoid vaccine was developed by P. Descombey in 1924, and was widely used to prevent tetanus induced by battle wounds ... Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination with tetanus toxoid. The CDC recommends that adults receive a booster vaccine every ten ...
Toxoids are inactivated toxic compounds from micro-organisms in cases where these (rather than the micro-organism itself) cause ... Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines ... recommended using a method similar to modern toxoid serum therapy, by drinking the blood of animals which fed on venomous ...
... not the direct effects of the toxoid. The toxoid does not have virulence as the toxin did before inactivation. Toxoids are also ... There are toxoids for prevention of diphtheria, tetanus and botulism. Toxoids are used as vaccines because they induce an ... Toxoids are also used in the production of conjugate vaccines. The highly antigenic toxoids help draw attention to weaker ... Toxins are secreted by bacteria, whereas toxoids are altered form of toxins; toxoids are not secreted by bacteria. Thus, when ...
CPT® 90758, Under Vaccines, Toxoids. The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT®) code 90758 as maintained by American Medical ...
Abbreviations: DTaP = diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis; Hib = Haemophilus influenzae type b; HepB = ... Each dose of DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB contains the same amount of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis antigens (inactivated ... Licensure of a Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae Type b ... On December 21, 2018 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed a hexavalent combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and ...
Tetanus toxoid. Class Summary. This is used to induce active immunity against tetanus. ... Immune globulins bind toxoids, stimulate an immune response, and offer transient protection while the host immune system ... The immunizing agent of choice for most adults and children older than 7 years is tetanus and diphtheria toxoids. It is ... Pregnant patients should receive only tetanus toxoid, not a diphtheria antigen-containing product. In children and adults, it ...
Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine is an annual vaccine that helps prevent the potentially fatal tetanus disease (caused by Clostridium ... Tetanus Toxoid is a vaccine used in the prevention of tetanus. Tetanus a potentially fatal equine bacterial disease caused by ...
Both tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) and tetanus toxoid vaccines have been used extensively in pregnant women worldwide to ... FDA approval of expanded age indication for a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine. MMWR ... Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine from the ... Updated Recommendations for Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine (Tdap) in Pregnant ...
Diphtheria tetanus toxoid and pertussis (DTP3) immunization coverage among 1-year-olds (%) (Universal health coverage). This ... Diphtheria tetanus toxoid and pertussis (DTP3) immunization coverage among 1-year-olds (%) (Universal health coverage) ... Data table: Diphtheria tetanus toxoid and pertussis (DTP3) Immunization coverage estimates by WHO region (view.main.81200) ... Data table: Diphtheria tetanus toxoid and pertussis (DTP3) Immunization coverage estimates by World Bank Income Group (view. ...
... tetanus toxoids), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... encoded search term (diphtheria & tetanus toxoids (Tenivac%2C TDVAX)) and diphtheria & tetanus toxoids (Tenivac, TDVAX) What to ... 2010infanrix-daptacel-diphtheria-tetanus-toxoids-acellular-pertussis-vaccine-343172Drugs. Drugs diphtheria & tetanus toxoids/ ... a preparation containing tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) is preferred instead of single-antigen tetanus toxoid to enhance ...
SARS-CoV-2 RBD-Tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine induces a strong neutralizing immunity in preclinical studies. Yury Valdes- ... We hypothesize that the orientation of RBD when conjugate to tetanus toxoid exposes better the RBM surface increasing the level ... Some advantages of the immunization with the viral antigen coupled to tetanus toxoid have become evident such as predominant ... Here we show that macromolecular constructs with recombinant RBD conjugated to tetanus toxoid induce a potent immune response ...
... reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been recommended by the Advisory Committee on ... booster doses of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) … ... Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid, and Acellular ... Since 2005, a single dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been ... booster doses of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine are recommended every 10 years or when indicated for wound ...
Explore health tetanus-toxoid-16-yearsstatistics and the comprehensive insights Year-wise of India at the most comprehensive e- ... Tetanus Toxoid (10 Years) Tetanus Toxoid (16 Years) Tetanus Toxoid (Pregnant Women) ... Tetanus Toxoid (10 Years) - Goa Tetanus Toxoid (16 Years) - Goa Tetanus Toxoid (Pregnant Women) - Goa ...
SARS-CoV-2 RBD-Tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine induces a strong neutralizing immunity in preclinical studies. View ORCID ... Some advantages of the immunization with the viral antigen coupled to tetanus toxoid have become evident such as predominant ... Here we show that macromolecular constructs with recombinant RBD conjugated to tetanus toxoid induce a potent immune response ... SARS-CoV-2 RBD-Tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine induces a strong neutralizing immunity in preclinical studies ...
... diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects. ... Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus- diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy ...
Conjugation with tetanus toxoid protein however greatly increased the molar mass and polydispersity of the final conjugates. ... and very different from the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein used for the conjugation. As with the recently published finding for ... and flexibility of capsular polysaccharides from Neisseria meningitidis and glycoconjugates with the tetanus toxoid protein ... and flexibility of capsular polysaccharides from Neisseria meningitidis and glycoconjugates with the tetanus toxoid protein. ...
Definition of Human Epitopes Recognized in Tetanus Toxoid and Development of an Assay Strategy to Detect Ex Vivo Tetanus CD4+ T ... Despite widespread uses of tetanus toxoid (TT) as a vaccine, model antigen and protein carrier, TT epitopes have been poorly ...
The yearly tetanus vaccine is a tetanus toxoid and is effective at preventing the disease. However, this vaccine is a toxoid ... in newborn foals is not recommended and it is recommended to vaccinate the mare 6 weeks before foaling with the tetanus toxoid ...
"Antibody response to booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids" 78, no. 2 (1963). Volk, V. K. et al. "Antibody response to ... Title : Antibody response to booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids Personal Author(s) : Volk, V. K.;Gottshall, R. Y.; ... 1963). Antibody response to booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 78(2). Volk, V. K. et al. " ... booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids" vol. 78, no. 2, 1963. Export RIS Citation Information.. ...
The Toxoids Species Pack gives players the chance to inhabit toxic worlds, gamble the future of their planets for immediate ...
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Tetanus toxoid vakcinom se može sprečiti razvoj tetanusa koji nastaje kao posledica kontaminacije rana i posekotina sa ... Dve ili tri nedelje nakon vakcinacije imunološki odgovor može biti procenjen merenjem totalnih anti-tetanus toxoid antitela. ...
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C.04.189 No person shall sell tetanus toxoid that contains phenol.. C.04.190 The expiration date of tetanus toxoid shall be not ... Tetanus Toxoid. C.04.180 Liquid tetanus toxoid shall be sterile, formalized, detoxified tetanus toxin, and shall not contain ... Diphtheria Toxoid. C.04.160 Liquid diphtheria toxoid shall be sterile, formalized, detoxified diphtheria toxin and shall not ... C.04.168 No person shall sell diphtheria toxoid that contains phenol.. C.04.169 No person shall sell diphtheria toxoid unless ...
Toxoid. A toxoid is an inactivated toxin (usually an exotoxin) whose toxicity has been suppressed either by chemical (formalin ... Toxins are secreted by bacteria, whereas toxoids are altered form of toxins; toxoids are not secreted by bacteria. ... Toxoid. A bacterial toxin that has been weakened until it is no longer toxic but is strong enough to induce the formation of ... Toxoid. A substance that has been treated to destroy its toxic properties but retains the capacity to stimulate production of ...
Centrum individuálnej prevencie civilizačných ochorení, Zvolenská 4, ...
Separate serum from cells ASAP or within 2 hours of collection. Pre and post vaccine specimens may be submitted separately or together and post specimens must be received within 60 days from receipt of the pre specimens. Label specimens plainly as pre-vaccine and post-vaccine ...
Vaccination coverage of Diphtheria Tetanus Toxoid and Pertussis vaccines over time ... Diphtheria tetanus toxoid and pertussis (DTP) vaccination coverage. These data represent administrative and official Diphtheria ... Tetanus Toxoid and Pertussis (DTP) vaccination coverage reported annually through the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on ...
Clostridium perfringens (type C) beta toxoid (inaktiveret). Clostridium perfringens (type C) beta toxoid (inaktiveret) Viser 2 ...
Tetanus-Diphtheria (Td) Toxoid Boosters. Tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid are excellent immunogens. The primary vaccination ... 50 years of age lack protective levels of antibodies to either tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, or both (32). Despite this ... Tetanus-Diphtheria (Td) Toxoid Boosters Vaccines for Travelers > 50 Years of Age Future Developments Conclusion Cite This ... Issues related to the decennial tetanus-diphtheria toxoid booster recommendations in adults. In: Infectious disease clinics of ...
Human Anti-Tetanus Toxin/Toxoid Manufactured by Gentaur. Gentaur is the biggest antibody manufacturer worldwide. ... Decrease Quantity of Human Anti-Tetanus Toxin/Toxoid , Gentaur Increase Quantity of Human Anti-Tetanus Toxin/Toxoid , Gentaur ... Human Anti-Tetanus Toxin/Toxoid , Gentaur. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average). 4 stars. ...
Shop Durapro Health for Tetanus Toxoid 1 Dose - 1 mL (Keep Refrigerated) by Zoetis Model 10009816. ... Tetanus Toxoid 1 Dose - 1 mL (Keep Refrigerated). https://www.duraprohealth.com/shop/10009816-tetanus-toxoid-1-dose-1-ml-keep- ... Ask a Question about: Tetanus Toxoid 1 Dose - 1 mL (Keep Refrigerated). ...
  • While patients may sometimes complain of side effects after a vaccine, these are associated with the process of mounting an immune response and clearing the toxoid, not the direct effects of the toxoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be prevented by vaccination, and the licensed anthrax vaccine is a toxoid vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetanus Toxoid is a vaccine used in the prevention of tetanus. (farmvet.com)
  • Note: Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids Adsorbed, containing 25 Lf of diphtheria toxoid and 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid per 0.5 mL dose, should not be administered as a tetanus booster to children over 7 years of age or adults due to the risk of reaction to the high diphtheria toxoid component in this vaccine. (rxmed.com)
  • Note: Tetanus toxoid, or a combined vaccine containing tetanus toxoid, and tetanus immune globulin should be administered in separate syringes at different sites. (rxmed.com)
  • Since 2005, a single dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for adolescents and adults (1,2). (nih.gov)
  • After receipt of Tdap, booster doses of tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine are recommended every 10 years or when indicated for wound management. (nih.gov)
  • Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus- diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects. (druglib.com)
  • Despite widespread uses of tetanus toxoid (TT) as a vaccine, model antigen and protein carrier, TT epitopes have been poorly characterized. (listlabs.com)
  • The yearly tetanus vaccine is a tetanus toxoid and is effective at preventing the disease. (vin.com)
  • However, this vaccine is a toxoid and so it is not effective until 2 weeks after the vaccine is given. (vin.com)
  • Tetanus toxoid is a type of vaccine, which works to protect against this problem. (healthlifeline1.com)
  • For this reason, it is necessary to get the tetanus toxoid vaccine. (healthlifeline1.com)
  • In such a situation, the newborn can be protected from tetanus infection by applying tetanus toxoid vaccine during pregnancy, so tetanus injection should be done during pregnancy. (healthlifeline1.com)
  • Medicine Central , im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51881/all/meningococcal_polysaccharide_diphtheria_toxoid_conjugate_vaccine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Vallerand AHA, Sanoski CAC, Quiring CC. Meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To examine the impact of a minimum interval schedule for administering diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) in infants during a statewide pertussis outbreak on receipt of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). (qxmd.com)
  • In spite of Information Education Communication (IEC) meetings held by midwives focusing on both diseases, knowledge about tetanus appeared to be substantially higher than that about hepatitis B. The acceptability of tetanus toxoid vaccine was good, the only barrier being the fear of useless injections. (christophe-perrey.com)
  • A new combination haemophilus influenzae type B and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine for primary immunization of infants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We conducted a phase 3 randomized controlled trial looking at the immunogenicity and safety of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, Hib-MenC-TT in a 2-, 3-, and 4-month primary infant immunization schedule. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study aimed to provide evidence on the costs and budgetary impact of the potential replacement of the tetanus - toxoid (TT) vaccine with the Td vaccine , considering different possible delivery strategies . (bvsalud.org)
  • immunizing pregnant mothers with at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine before delivery. (who.int)
  • Tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine coverage represents coverage with ≥1 Tdap dose at age ≥10 years. (medscape.com)
  • Toxoids are used as vaccines because they induce an immune response to the original toxin or increase the response to another antigen since the toxoid markers and toxin markers are preserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxoids are also used in the production of conjugate vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT ® ) code 90758 as maintained by American Medical Association, is a medical procedural code under the range - Vaccines, Toxoids. (aapc.com)
  • Since 2005, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has recommended tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) booster vaccines to unvaccinated postpartum mothers and other family members of newborn infants to protect infants from pertussis, a strategy referred to as cocooning ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Both tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) and tetanus toxoid vaccines have been used extensively in pregnant women worldwide to prevent neonatal tetanus. (cdc.gov)
  • Tetanus- and diphtheria-toxoid containing vaccines administered during pregnancy have not been shown to be teratogenic ( 9,10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Active immunization may also be accomplished by the administration of combined vaccines containing tetanus toxoid. (rxmed.com)
  • For example, the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are toxoid vaccines. (kidshealth.org)
  • Each dose of DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB contains the same amount of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis antigens (inactivated pertussis toxin [PT], filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA], pertactin, and fimbriae types 2 and 3) as does Pentacel. (cdc.gov)
  • ACIP recommends a single Tdap dose for persons aged 11 through 18 years who have completed the recommended childhood diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis/diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTP/DTaP) vaccination series and for adults aged 19 through 64 years who have not previously received Tdap ( 1 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • These data represent administrative and official Diphtheria Tetanus Toxoid and Pertussis (DTP) vaccination coverage reported annually through the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on Immunization (JRF). (who.int)
  • Effects of a minimum interval immunization schedule for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccination during a pertussis outbreak. (qxmd.com)
  • Immunization with Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed should be deferred in the presence of any acute illness, including febrile illness. (rxmed.com)
  • Primary Immunization: To establish active immunity against tetanus it is recommended that 2 doses of 0.5 mL each of Tetanus Toxoid Adsorbed be administered i.m. with an interval of 4 weeks between doses. (rxmed.com)
  • The National Immunization Schedule in India recommends 2 doses of Tetanus Toxoid (TT) to pregnant women. (healthlifeline1.com)
  • Multiple doses of tetanus toxoid are used by many plasma centers in the United States for the development of highly immune persons for the production of human anti-tetanus immune globulin (tetanus immune globulin (TIG), HyperTet (c)), which has replaced horse serum-type tetanus antitoxin in most of the developed world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frequent booster doses of tetanus toxoid in the presence of adequate or excessive serum levels of tetanus antitoxin have been associated with increased incidence and severity of reactions and should be avoided. (rxmed.com)
  • It has been shown that the incidence of reactions to tetanus toxoid rises according to the number of previously administered doses and occurs mainly in the over-immunized. (rxmed.com)
  • Pregnant patients should receive only tetanus toxoid not a not a diphtheria-antigen-containing product. (medscape.com)
  • According to the results of ELISA the natural diphtheria toxin, in contrast to recombinant toxoids - CRM197, and B subunit, interacted with mouse HB-EGF with a very low affinity. (kiev.ua)
  • These CD4+ T cells are specific for a peptide (QYIKANSKFIGITEL) derived from tetanus toxoid bound to HLA-DRB1*01. (criver.com)
  • The highly antigenic toxoids help draw attention to weaker antigens such as polysaccharides found in the bacterial capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the tetanus toxoid is derived from the tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tetanus toxoid vakcinom se može sprečiti razvoj tetanusa koji nastaje kao posledica kontaminacije rana i posekotina sa Clostridium tetani sporama iz okoline. (biomedicazavod.rs)
  • A toxoid is an inactivated toxin (usually an exotoxin) whose toxicity has been suppressed either by chemical (formalin) or heat treatment, while other properties, typically immunogenicity, are maintained. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, when used during vaccination, an immune response is mounted and immunological memory is formed against the molecular markers of the toxoid without resulting in toxin-induced illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxoid does not have virulence as the toxin did before inactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxin vs. Toxoid - What's the Difference? (askdifference.com)
  • The aim of the research was to compare in vitro characteristics of reception of the natural diphtheria toxin - DT and its nontoxic recombinant analogs - toxoids. (kiev.ua)
  • While human HB-EGF with an equally high affinity connected as toxoids as native diphtheria toxin. (kiev.ua)
  • Cost of Delivering Tetanus Toxoid and Tetanus-Diphtheria Vaccination in Vietnam and the Budget Impact of Proposed Changes to the Schedule. (bvsalud.org)
  • If a tetanus booster is required it is often appropriate to choose a combined preparation such as Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxoids Adsorbed For 7 years and Older containing 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid and 2 Lf of diphtheria toxoid per 0.5 mL dose. (rxmed.com)
  • Title : Antibody response to booster dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids Personal Author(s) : Volk, V. K.;Gottshall, R. Y.;Anderson, H. D.;Top, Franklin H.;Bunney, W. E.;Gilbert, Maud G. (cdc.gov)
  • However, because of this potential problem, the use of tetanus antitoxin in newborn foals is not recommended and it is recommended to vaccinate the mare 6 weeks before foaling with the tetanus toxoid, which protects the foal. (vin.com)
  • Conformation analysis using HYDFIT (which globally combines sedimentation and viscosity data), "Conformation Zoning" and Wales-van Holde approaches showed a high degree of flexibility - at least as great as the unconjugated polysaccharides, and very different from the tetanus toxoid (TT) protein used for the conjugation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Conjugation with tetanus toxoid protein however greatly increased the molar mass and polydispersity of the final conjugates. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • There are toxoids for prevention of diphtheria, tetanus and botulism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Tetanus toxoid. (who.int)
  • Significant differences in both the affinity and IgG subclass of antibodies produced after immunization with tetanus toxoid have been demonstrated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to healthy controls. (nih.gov)
  • Antibodies to tetanus toxoid in controls were predominantly IgG1 and IgG4 but in RA and SLE there was either a restricted IgG1 response or a more general response in all the IgG subclasses. (nih.gov)
  • This article in PLoS One reports on the prevalence of tetanus toxoid antibodies in Ugandan men who were vaccinated against tetanus 28 days before being circumcised. (malecircumcision.org)
  • Antitoxin is the antibodies directed against bacterial toxins, while toxoid is inactivated bacterial toxin. (pediaa.com)
  • Toxoids are used to induce active immunity. (medscape.com)
  • Each 0.5 mL dose is formulated to contain 6.7 Lf of diphtheria toxoid and 5 Lf of tetanus toxoid (both toxoids induce at least 2 units of antitoxin per mL in the guinea pig potency test), and 46.8 m g of pertussis antigens. (rxlist.com)
  • The tetanus and diphtheria toxoids induce at least 2 units and 1 unit of antitoxin per mL of serum, respectively, in the guinea pig potency test. (nih.gov)
  • The main difference between antitoxin and toxoid is that antitoxin is an antibody directed against bacterial toxins, whereas toxoid is an inactivated bacterial toxin . (pediaa.com)
  • The monoclonal antibody 26 raised against tetanus toxoid also recognizes tetanus toxin and β2-glycoprotein I - its binding properties in vitro and potential applications by: Inić-Kanada Aleksandra B., et al. (uitm.edu.my)
  • The results of polyclonal ELISA tests showed that the reactivity towards the epsilon toxoid increased from the first round to third round, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although there is a decrease of tetanus infection worldwide due to immunisation programmes and the use of anti-tetanus toxoid, it is important for health workers to recognise the symptoms and signs of this disease and start treatment as soon as possible because of the high morbidity and mortality rate. (scielo.org.za)
  • There was no evidence that the patient had been given anti-tetanus toxoid in the emergency room. (scielo.org.za)
  • Moreover, another important feature of toxoid is that it is used for long-term immunity. (pediaa.com)
  • Antitoxin is a type of passive immunity, while toxoid is a type of active immunity. (pediaa.com)
  • Antitoxin is important for short-term immunity, while toxoid is important for long-term immunity. (pediaa.com)
  • Also, toxoids are a type of active immunity that lasts for a longer period of time. (pediaa.com)
  • The Toxoids Species pack for Stellaris is finally here! (player.one)
  • The Stellaris 3.5 'Fornax' update is releasing next Tuesday on September 20th, alongside the Toxoids Species Pack. (paradoxplaza.com)
  • Meanwhile, toxoid is the inactivated bacterial toxins. (pediaa.com)
  • Therefore, the main difference between antitoxin and toxoid is their type. (pediaa.com)
  • Although there have been no decreases in production of tetanus toxoid (TT), availability is low because of increased use during the Td shortage. (cdc.gov)
  • Preparation of Tetanus toxoid for equine by: H. A. EL-Helw, et al. (uitm.edu.my)
  • After vaccination with toxoids, our body mounts an immune response and generates immunological memory against toxoids. (pediaa.com)
  • In children and adults, tetanus toxoid may be administered into the deltoid or midlateral thigh muscles. (medscape.com)
  • At first, the molecular size and purity of the epsilon toxoid were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each 0.5 mL dose of MassBiologics' TDVAX is formulated to contain the following active ingredients: 2 Lf of tetanus toxoid and 2 Lf of diphtheria toxoid. (nih.gov)
  • Toxoids are also useful in the production of human antitoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diphtheria and tetanus toxoids are adsorbed using aluminum potassium sulfate (alum). (rxlist.com)
  • The tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are individually adsorbed onto aluminum phosphate. (nih.gov)