Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of mid-term (a few months) exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a short-term (a few weeks) exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
Tests or bioassays that measure the skin sensitization potential of various chemicals.
An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

Long-term pulmonary responses of three laboratory rodent species to subchronic inhalation of pigmentary titanium dioxide particles. (1/139)

Female mice, rats, and hamsters were exposed to 10, 50, or 250 mg/m(3) pigmentary titanium dioxide (p-TiO(2)) particles for 6 h per day and 5 days per week for 13 weeks with recovery groups held for an additional 4, 13, 26, or 52 weeks postexposure (46 weeks for the p-TiO(2)-exposed hamsters). At each time point p-TiO(2) burdens in the lung and lymph nodes and selected lung responses were examined. The responses studied were chosen to assess a variety of pulmonary parameters, including inflammation, cytotoxicity, lung cell proliferation, and histopathologic alterations. Burdens of p-TiO(2) in the lungs and in the lung-associated lymph nodes increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Retained lung burdens following exposure were greatest in mice. Rats and hamsters had similar lung burdens immediately postexposure when assessed as milligrams of p-TiO(2) per gram of dried lung. Particle retention data suggested that pulmonary overload was achieved in both rats and mice at the exposure levels of 50 and 250 mg/m(3). Under the conditions of the present study, hamsters were better able to clear p-TiO(2) particles than were similarly exposed mice and rats. Pulmonary histopathology revealed both species and concentration-dependent differences in p-TiO(2) particle retention patterns. Inflammation was noted in all three species at 50 and 250 mg/m(3), as evidenced by increases in macrophage and neutrophil numbers and in soluble indices of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF; rats > mice, hamsters). In mice and rats, the BALF inflammatory responses remained elevated relative to controls throughout the entire postexposure recovery period in the most highly exposed animals. In comparison, inflammation in hamsters eventually disappeared, even at the highest exposure dose, due to the more rapid clearance of particles from the lung. Pulmonary lesions were most severe in rats, where progressive epithelial- and fibroproliferative changes were observed in the 250 mg/m(3) group. These epithelial proliferative changes were also manifested in rats as an increase in alveolar epithelial cell labeling in cell proliferation studies. Associated with these foci of epithelial proliferation were interstitial particle accumulation and alveolar septal fibrosis. In summary, there were significant species differences in pulmonary responses to inhaled p-TiO(2) particles. Under conditions in which the lung p-TiO(2) burdens were similar and likely to induce pulmonary overload, rats developed a more severe and persistent pulmonary inflammatory response than either mice or hamsters. Rats also were unique in the development of progressive fibroproliferative lesions and alveolar epithelial metaplasia in response to 90 days of exposure to a high concentration of p-TiO(2) particles.  (+info)

Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of chlorpromazine hydrochloride and p-cresidine in the p53 heterozygous mouse model. (2/139)

The carcinogenic potential of chlorpromazine hydrochloride, a psychotropic agent, was assessed in the p53 heterozygous mouse assay. In a 4-week dose range finding study in p53 wild-type mice, doses of 20,40, 60, and 80 mg/kg were poorly tolerated because of mortality secondary to the severe sedative and hypotensive effects of chlorpromazine. Based on 40% mortality at a dose of 20 mg/kg in the dose-range finding study, a high dose of 10 mg/kg was chosen for the 26-week carcinogenicity study in p53 heterozygous mice. Doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg chlorpromazine hydrochloride were well tolerated in the 26-week study. The administration of chlorpromazine hydrochloride at dose levels up to and including 10 mg/kg to p53 heterozygous and wild-type mice did not result in a dose-related increase in tumor incidence or in the type of tumors seen in comparison to controls. Findings related to the administration of chlorpromazine in the 26-week study were limited to minimal uterine and ovarian atrophy in p53 wild-type mice dosed with 10 mg/kg chlorpromazine hydrochloride. However, p53 heterozygous mice administered 400 mg/kg p-cresidine, a genotoxic carcinogen commonly used as a positive control for this model, developed urinary bladder tumors. Administration of p-cresidine also resulted in a regenerative anemia, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, renal findings, and ovarian and uterine atrophy. This study demonstrated that chlorpromazine hydrochloride, at the doses tolerated, was not carcinogenic in the p53 heterozygous mouse assay.  (+info)

Subchronic studies in Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate mechanisms of MTBE-induced Leydig cell cancer. (3/139)

High MTBE exposures caused rat Leydig cell (LC) tumors in inhalation and gavage cancer bioassays. Investigating early endocrine changes consistent with known mechanisms of LC carcinogenesis, we gavaged adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with MTBE in five different subchronic experiments and studied testosterone biosynthesis in isolated rat LCs exposed in vitro to MTBE or a major metabolite, t-butanol. In vitro LC testosterone production declined 29-50% following 3-h exposures to 50-100 mM MTBE or t-butanol. Within hours after gavaging with 1,000 or 1,500 mg/kg MTBE, circulating testosterone declined to 38-49% of control (p < 0.05). If sampled longer after treatment or with lower doses, testosterone reductions were less dramatic or nondetectable even after 28 days of treatment. Accessory organ:brain weight ratios decreased only slightly although showing dose response with 40-800 mg/kg/day after 28 days. High MTBE doses caused slight liver weight and total P450 increases. Reduced aromatase activity in liver and testis microsomes predicted low serum estradiol, but estradiol was 19% higher than corn oil controls concurrent with testosterone reduction 1 h after the last of 14 daily 1,200-mg/kg doses (p < 0.05). Pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin measured in both intact and orchiectomized rats, with testosterone implants in some castrated rats providing stable levels of testosterone, revealed no consistent direct effect on hypothalamic-pituitary function. MTBE-treated rat livers showed no evidence of peroxisome proliferation, a characteristic of some LC carcinogens. Considering recognized mechanisms of Leydig cell cancer in rats, collectively these results suggested reduced LC steroidogenesis enzyme activity as a possible mechanism underlying MTBE LC carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Effect of diet and housing on growth, body weight, survival and tumor incidences of B6C3F1 mice in chronic studies. (4/139)

Diet is one of the most important environmental factors influencing growth, body weight, survival, and age-related diseases of rodents in chronic studies. NIH-07 open formula diet was the selected diet for the NTP studies from 1980 to 1994. A new diet designated as NTP-2000 diet is the current diet for mice in the NTP studies beginning in 1994. This report is a summary of results of untreated control groups of B6C3F1 mice fed NTP-2000 or NIH-07 diet from several retrospective 2-year dosed-feed and inhalation studies for differences in growth, body weight, survival, and tumor incidences. The dosed-feed studies were conducted in 3 different facilities located in the United States, and all the inhalation studies were conducted in 1 facility. During dosed-feed studies, male and female mice housed in polycarbonate cages and fed the NTP-2000 diet had lower maximum body weights than those fed NIH-07 diet. However, during inhalation studies, mice housed in wire mesh cages and fed the NTP-2000 diet had higher maximum body weights than the mice fed NIH-07 diet. Survival was higher in groups fed NTP-2000 diet irrespective of sex, housing conditions, or body weight compared to the corresponding groups fed NIH-07 diet. Survival was higher in mice housed in polycarbonate cages irrespective of diet and sex compared to the respective sex and diet groups housed in wire mesh cages. During inhalation studies, survival of male and female mice fed NTP-2000 diet was higher than that of the groups fed NIH-07 diet, although the body weights of NTP-2000 diet groups were higher than those of the groups fed NIH-07 diet. When the NTP-2000 diet was used, male and female mice in dosed-feed studies and male mice in inhalation studies had markedly lower incidences of liver tumors than the corresponding groups fed NIH-07 diet. Significant decreases in the incidences of lung tumors were observed only in the male groups fed NTP-2000 diet during dosed-feed studies. These results suggest that body weight may not be the major contributing factor for mortality and liver tumors and that an interaction between diet and housing conditions appears to affect the growth, survival and tumor incidences of B6C3F1 mice.  (+info)

Recommended tissue list for histopathologic examination in repeat-dose toxicity and carcinogenicity studies: a proposal of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP). (5/139)

The Executive Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) appointed an ad hoc task force to devise and recommend a standard list of tissues to be evaluated histopathologically in repeat-dose toxicity and carcinogenicity studies that are used to support the registration of new pharmaceutical products. The recommended tissue list is intended to be a minimum core list that can be used for all types of repeat-dose toxicity and carcinogenicity studies, regardless of route of administration, species or strain of mammalian laboratory animal, duration, or class of drug to be tested. The resulting recommendations of the task force, presented here, were subsequently reviewed by the STP membership and endorsed by the STP Executive Committee.  (+info)

Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in rats: effects on lymphocytes and the inflammatory response in a chronic intermittent dosing study. (6/139)

We investigated the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on isolated splenic lymphocytes and the histo-morphologic changes in the spleens and liver of Fisher-344 male rats. Weaned animals were fed chow diets that contained 0, 0.01, 0.04, 0.4, or 1.6 ppm AFB1, using an intermittent dosing regimen (4 weeks on and 4 weeks off AFB1), for 40 weeks. An additional group of animals was fed the 1.6 ppm AFB1 diet continuously. The intermittent dosing regimen was designed to evaluate effects of cumulative dose and exposure for risk assessment comparisons. The percentages of T and B cells were affected as shown by flow cytometric analysis after the dosing cycles. The observed changes appeared to reverse or compensate to some extent after the off cycles. Lymphocytes were stimulated in culture for analysis of the production of IL-2, IL-1, and IL-6. Significantly increased production of IL-1 and IL-6 was seen in the second dosing cycle (12 weeks) and the second "off" cycle (16 weeks) at the higher doses. Inflammatory infiltrates were seen in the liver after eight weeks of continuous and intermittent dosing and were increased in size and number at 12 weeks in both 1.6 ppm dose groups correlating with the peak production of Il-1 and IL-6. We concluded that AFB1 effects on the immune system can be either stimulatory or suppressive dependent on a critical exposure window of dose and time. Immune cells in spleen such as T-lymphocytes and macrophages, both important mediators of inflammatory responses to tissue damage, were affected differently in the continuous and intermittent exposures to AFB1.  (+info)

Acute and chronic effects of alcohol exposure on skeletal muscle c-myc, p53, and Bcl-2 mRNA expression. (7/139)

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a common feature in alcoholism that affects up to two-thirds of alcohol misusers, and women appear to be particularly susceptible. There is also some evidence to suggest that malnutrition exacerbates the effects of alcohol on muscle. However, the mechanisms responsible for the myopathy remain elusive, and some studies suggest that acetaldehyde, rather than alcohol, is the principal pathogenic perturbant. Previous reports on rats dosed acutely with ethanol (<24 h) have suggested that increased proto-oncogene expression (i.e., c-myc) may be a causative process, possibly via activating preapoptotic or transcriptional pathways. We hypothesized that 1) increases in c-myc mRNA levels also occur in muscle exposed chronically to alcohol, 2) muscle of female rats is more sensitive than that from male rats, 3) raising acetaldehyde will also increase c-myc, 4) prior starvation will cause further increases in c-myc mRNA expression in response to ethanol, and 5) other genes involved in apoptosis (i.e., p53 and Bcl-2) would also be affected by alcohol. To test this, we measured c-myc mRNA levels in skeletal muscle of rats dosed either chronically (6-7 wk; ethanol as 35% of total dietary energy) or acutely (2.5 h; ethanol as 75 mmol/kg body wt ip) with ethanol. All experiments were carried out in male Wistar rats (approximately 0.1-0.15 kg body wt) except the study that examined gender susceptibility in male and female rats. At the end of the studies, rats were killed, and c-myc, p53, and Bcl-2 mRNA was analyzed in skeletal muscle by RT-PCR with an endogenous internal standard, GAPDH. The results showed that 1) in male rats fed ethanol chronically, there were no increases in c-myc mRNA; 2) increases, however, occurred in c-myc mRNA in muscle from female rats fed ethanol chronically; 3) raising endogenous acetaldehyde with cyanamide increased c-myc mRNA in acute studies; 4) starvation per se increased c-myc mRNA levels and at 1 day potentiated the acute effects of ethanol, indicative of a sensitization response; 5) the only effect seen with p53 mRNA levels was a decrease in muscle of rats starved for 1 day compared with fed rats, and there was no statistically significant effect on Bcl-2 mRNA in any of the experimental conditions. The increases in c-myc may well represent a preapoptotic effect, or even a nonspecific cellular stress response to alcohol and/or acetaldehyde. These data are important in our understanding of a common muscle pathology induced by alcohol.  (+info)

Effect of diet and animal care/housing protocols on body weight, survival, tumor incidences, and nephropathy severity of F344 rats in chronic studies. (8/139)

Diet is an important environmental factor affecting body weight, survival, and age-related diseases of rodents. The NIH-07 open formula diet was the diet used in the National Toxicology Program's (NTPs) rodent carcinogenicity studies from 1980 to 1994. In 1994 the NTP began using a new diet designated the NTP-2000 diet. This paper compares body weight, survival, tumor incidence, and nephropathy severity in untreated control groups of Fischer 344 (F344) rats fed the NTP-2000 or NIH-07 diets, using data from 22 separate 2-year feed and inhalation studies. The feed studies were conducted in 3 different facilities, and all the inhalation studies were conducted in a single facility. During feed studies, rats were group housed in polycarbonate cages and fed diets in powder (mash) form, while in inhalation studies, rats were housed individually in wire mesh cages, and fed diets in pelleted form. Survival was significantly (p<0.05) higher in groups fed NTP-2000 diet compared to the corresponding groups fed NIH-07 diet, irrespective of sex or housing conditions. Use of the NTP-2000 diet was also associated with a decreased incidence of pituitary gland tumors in both sexes and decreased incidences of adrenal pheochromocytoma and preputial gland tumors in males. The incidence and severity of nephropathy was also decreased in animals receiving the NTP-2000 diet, especially males. The decreased nephropathy severity and the decreased incidence of pituitary gland tumors are likely the major factors contributing to the improved survival of rats receiving the NTP-2000 diet relative to those given the NIH-07 diet. These data also support earlier findings that decreased incidences of adrenal pheochromocytoma are associated with reduced nephropathy severity in male F344 rats. Throughout the two-year study female rats receiving the NTP-2000 diet were significantly (p<0.05) lighter than those receiving the NIH-07 diet. However, it is uncertain if this difference can be attributed to the NTP-2000 diet, since implementation of this diet by the NTP approximately coincided with changes in the F344 rat production colony that resulted in somewhat lighter animals being provided to the NTP. Controls from inhalation studies and feed studies differed significantly (p<0.01) in the incidence of a variety of tumors, irrespective of diet. This suggests that differences in animal care and housing protocols may impact tumor incidence in F344 rats, most notably pituitary gland and testis tumors.  (+info)

Acute toxicity tests are a category of medical or biological testing that measure the short-term adverse effects of a substance on living organisms. These tests are typically performed in a laboratory setting and involve exposing test subjects (such as cells, animals, or isolated organs) to a single high dose or multiple doses of a substance within a short period of time, usually 24 hours or less.

The primary objective of acute toxicity testing is to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) or concentration (LC50) of a substance, which is the amount or concentration that causes death in 50% of the test subjects. This information can be used to help assess the potential health hazards associated with exposure to a particular substance and to establish safety guidelines for its handling and use.

Acute toxicity tests are required by regulatory agencies around the world as part of the process of evaluating the safety of chemicals, drugs, and other substances. However, there is growing concern about the ethical implications of using animals in these tests, and many researchers are working to develop alternative testing methods that do not involve the use of live animals.

Toxicity tests, also known as toxicity assays, are a set of procedures used to determine the harmful effects of various substances on living organisms, typically on cells, tissues, or whole animals. These tests measure the degree to which a substance can cause damage, inhibit normal functioning, or lead to death in exposed organisms.

Toxicity tests can be conducted in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) using cell cultures or in vivo (in living organisms) using animals such as rats, mice, or rabbits. The results of these tests help researchers and regulators assess the potential risks associated with exposure to various chemicals, drugs, or environmental pollutants.

There are several types of toxicity tests, including:

1. Acute toxicity tests: These tests measure the immediate effects of a single exposure to a substance over a short period (usually 24 hours or less).
2. Chronic toxicity tests: These tests evaluate the long-term effects of repeated exposures to a substance over an extended period (weeks, months, or even years).
3. Genotoxicity tests: These tests determine whether a substance can damage DNA or cause mutations in genetic material.
4. Developmental and reproductive toxicity tests: These tests assess the impact of a substance on fertility, embryonic development, and offspring health.
5. Carcinogenicity tests: These tests evaluate the potential of a substance to cause cancer.
6. Ecotoxicity tests: These tests determine the effects of a substance on entire ecosystems, including plants, animals, and microorganisms.

Toxicity tests play a crucial role in protecting public health by helping to identify potentially harmful substances and establish safe exposure levels. They also contribute to the development of new drugs, chemicals, and consumer products by providing critical data for risk assessment and safety evaluation.

Subchronic toxicity tests are a type of medical study used to evaluate the potential adverse health effects resulting from repeated exposure to a substance over a relatively short period of time, usually lasting between 28 and 90 days. These tests are designed to identify the dosage levels at which a substance may cause harm, as well as any patterns of toxicity that may emerge with repeated exposure.

The tests typically involve administering the substance to groups of animals, such as rats or mice, at different dose levels. The animals are then closely monitored for signs of toxicity, including changes in body weight, food and water intake, clinical chemistry parameters, hematology, urinalysis, and histopathological examinations of major organs.

The data collected from these tests can be used to establish a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) or a lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL), which can help inform regulatory decisions about the safe use of the substance in question. Subchronic toxicity tests are an important part of the overall risk assessment process for many chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other substances that may be used in consumer products or industrial applications.

Chronic toxicity tests are a type of experimental procedure in toxicology that are conducted over an extended period to evaluate the potential adverse health effects resulting from repeated exposure to low levels of chemical substances or physical agents. These tests are designed to assess the long-term effects of these agents on living organisms, including humans, and typically span a significant portion of the lifespan of the test species.

The primary objective of chronic toxicity testing is to identify potential health hazards associated with prolonged exposure to chemicals or physical agents, such as heavy metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, nanomaterials, and ionizing radiation. The tests provide information on the nature and severity of toxic effects, including cancer, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurological damage, and other chronic health issues.

Standardized protocols for conducting chronic toxicity tests are established by regulatory agencies such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These guidelines typically involve testing on two or more species, often including rodents and non-rodents, to ensure the results are applicable across different taxonomic groups.

The data generated from chronic toxicity tests contribute significantly to risk assessment and help regulatory agencies establish safe exposure limits for chemical substances and physical agents in various settings, such as occupational, consumer, and environmental contexts.

Subacute toxicity tests are a type of toxicity test used in preclinical safety evaluation of new pharmaceuticals, chemicals, or medical devices. These tests are conducted over a longer period than acute toxicity tests, typically lasting between 14 and 28 days, to evaluate the potential adverse effects of repeated exposure to the substance.

The test involves administering the substance to animals, usually rodents, at specified doses and observing them for signs of toxicity. The parameters evaluated during subacute toxicity tests include clinical observations, body weight changes, food and water consumption, hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, and necropsy findings.

The primary objective of subacute toxicity testing is to identify the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) or the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), which helps in determining safe starting doses for subsequent long-term toxicity studies and human clinical trials. It also provides information on potential target organs of toxicity, which is useful in risk assessment and safety evaluation.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

"Morinda" is a botanical term that refers to a genus of tropical shrubs and trees in the family Rubiaceae, which includes several species with medicinal properties. One of the most well-known species is Morinda citrifolia, also known as noni, which has been used in traditional medicine for various health purposes.

The fruit, leaves, bark, and roots of Morinda plants have been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as infections, inflammation, fever, skin disorders, and digestive problems. Some studies suggest that Morinda extracts may have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immune-boosting properties, but more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

It's important to note that while Morinda has a long history of use in traditional medicine, it should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment. Before taking any herbal supplements, including Morinda, it's always best to consult with a healthcare provider to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Animal testing alternatives, also known as alternative methods or replacement methods, refer to scientific techniques that can be used to replace the use of animals in research and testing. These methods aim to achieve the same scientific objectives while avoiding harm to animals. There are several categories of animal testing alternatives:

1. In vitro (test tube or cell culture) methods: These methods involve growing cells or tissues in a laboratory setting, outside of a living organism. They can be used to study the effects of chemicals, drugs, and other substances on specific cell types or tissues.
2. Computer modeling and simulation: Advanced computer programs and algorithms can be used to model biological systems and predict how they will respond to various stimuli. These methods can help researchers understand complex biological processes without using animals.
3. In silico (using computer models) methods: These methods involve the use of computational tools and databases to predict the potential toxicity or other biological effects of chemicals, drugs, and other substances. They can be used to identify potential hazards and prioritize further testing.
4. Microdosing: This method involves giving human volunteers very small doses of a drug or chemical, followed by careful monitoring to assess its safety and pharmacological properties. This approach can provide valuable information while minimizing the use of animals.
5. Tissue engineering: Scientists can create functional tissue constructs using cells, scaffolds, and bioreactors. These engineered tissues can be used to study the effects of drugs, chemicals, and other substances on human tissues without using animals.
6. Human-based approaches: These methods involve the use of human volunteers, donated tissues, or cells obtained from consenting adults. Examples include microdosing, organ-on-a-chip technology, and the use of human cell lines in laboratory experiments.

These animal testing alternatives can help reduce the number of animals used in research and testing, refine experimental procedures to minimize suffering, and replace the use of animals with non-animal methods whenever possible.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

'Daphnia' is not a medical term, but rather it refers to a group of small, planktonic crustaceans commonly known as water fleas. They are widely distributed in various freshwater environments and play an important role in the aquatic food chain as they serve as a food source for many larger animals such as fish.

While Daphnia may not have a direct medical definition, there has been some research into their potential use in biomedical applications due to their sensitivity to environmental changes. For instance, they have been used as indicators of water quality and toxicity levels in ecotoxicological studies. However, it is important to note that Daphnia itself is not a medical term or concept.

Skin irritancy tests are experimental procedures used to determine the potential of a substance to cause irritation or damage to the skin. These tests typically involve applying the substance to intact or abraded (damaged) skin of human volunteers or animals, and then observing and measuring any adverse reactions that occur over a specified period. The results of these tests can help assess the safety of a substance for use in consumer products, pharmaceuticals, or industrial applications. It is important to note that the ethical considerations and regulations surrounding animal testing have led to an increased focus on developing alternative methods, such as in vitro (test tube) tests using reconstructed human skin models.

Amphipoda is an order of crustaceans characterized by a laterally compressed body and a distinctive jointed swimming leg, making them well-adapted for swimming in open water. They are commonly known as "sand fleas" or "beach fleas," although they are not actually fleas. Amphipods can be found in various aquatic habitats, including marine, freshwater, and brackish environments. Some species live on the seafloor, while others are planktonic or associate with other organisms. They vary greatly in size, ranging from less than a millimeter to over 30 centimeters in length.

The medical definition of 'Amphipoda' is not typically used since amphipods do not have direct relevance to human health or medicine. However, they can serve as bioindicators of environmental quality and may be involved in the transmission of certain diseases between aquatic organisms.

Toxicology is a branch of medical science that deals with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or toxins on living organisms and the environment, including their detection, evaluation, prevention, and treatment. It involves understanding how various substances can cause harm, the doses at which they become toxic, and the factors that influence their toxicity. This field is crucial in areas such as public health, medicine, pharmacology, environmental science, and forensic investigations.

'Artemia' is a genus of aquatic branchiopod crustaceans, also known as brine shrimp. They are commonly found in saltwater environments such as salt lakes and highly saline ponds. Artemia are known for their ability to produce cysts (also called "resting eggs") that can survive extreme environmental conditions, making them an important organism in research related to survival in harsh environments and space exploration.

In a medical context, Artemia is not typically used as a term but may be referenced in scientific studies related to biology, genetics, or astrobiology. The compounds derived from Artemia, such as astaxanthin and other carotenoids, have been studied for their potential health benefits, including antioxidant properties and support for eye and heart health. However, these applications are still under research and not yet considered part of mainstream medical practice.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Animal tests indicate low toxicity. Little is known about chronic effects. For liver toxicity, the 3,4-epoxide are proposed ...
Various toxicity tests can be performed to assess the Obtuse toxicity of different contaminants, and usually last at least 10% ... Obtuse toxicity tests are performed to determine the long term toxicity potential of toxicants or other stressors, commonly to ... Because of this, acute toxicity tests are more commonly employed, and ACRs and AFs are used to estimate Obtuse toxicity of ... are obtained from acute toxicity tests, whereas criteria continuous concentrations (CCCs) are obtained from Obtuse toxicity ...
... through non-clinical safety tests; from physio-chemical properties through acute to chronic toxicity tests. GLP was first ... data generated in the testing of chemicals in one OECD Member Country, in accordance with OECD Test Guidelines and the ... reagents and materials Test systems Physical/Chemical Biological Test and reference items Standard operating procedures ... The Klimisch score system tries to rank the reliability of toxicity studies for use by risk assessors (regulatory agencies). It ...
These toxicity tests typically result in a no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC, also called a no-observed-effect level, or ... Part I: Towards a new measure of chronic toxicity in ecotoxicology. Introduction and workshop results. Environmetrics, 8: 241 ... Current practice consists of the use of standard tests. In the standard tests groups of animals are exposed to different ... Chen C.W. and Selleck R.E. (1969) - A kinetic model of fish toxicity threshold. Res. J. Water Pollut. Control Feder. 41: 294 - ...
Muscatello, Jorgelina R.; Liber, Karsten (16 January 2009). "Accumulation and Chronic Toxicity of Uranium Over Different Life ... Their larvae make good candidates for toxicity tests. ... Chironomus tentans life-cycle test: Design and evaluation for ... use in assessing toxicity of contaminated sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16: 1165-1176. Martinez, E. A., et ...
"Alternative toxicity test methods: reducing, refining and replacing animal use for safety testing" (PDF). Society of Toxicology ... Factors that influence chemical toxicity include the dosage, duration of exposure (whether it is acute or chronic), route of ... and computational toxicology could transform toxicity testing from a system based on whole-animal testing to one founded ... Toxicity experiments may be conducted in vivo (using the whole animal) or in vitro (testing on isolated cells or tissues), or ...
It is widely considered unethical to use humans as test subjects for acute (or chronic) toxicity research. However, some ... Acute toxicity is distinguished from chronic toxicity, which describes the adverse health effects from repeated exposures, ... most acute toxicity data comes from animal testing or, more recently, in vitro testing methods and inference from data on ... Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure or from multiple ...
In chronic toxicity tests, mice exposed to low levels of PPI developed no side effects. Only those mice exposed to the two ...
... acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, developmental toxicity/reproductive toxicity, mutagenicity, ecotoxicity and environmental ... Since 2009, the EPA required companies to perform toxicity testing on merely 34 chemicals. In 2011, the EPA announced, but as ... Only 21 companies (or 3% of the 830 companies) have all SIDS tests available for their chemicals. The basic set of test data ... of TRI chemicals have had full SIDS testing, while only 7% of other chemicals have full test data". They wrote "...of the 830 ...
ELS tests were adapted from full life-cycle toxicity tests, chronic tests that expose an organism to a contaminant for its ... An early life stage (ELS) test is a chronic toxicity test using sensitive early life stages like embryos or larvae to predict ... The growth response in fish chronic and early life stage toxicity tests: A critical review. Aquat Toxicol 5:1-21. ASTM ... Biological test method: toxicity tests using the early life stages of salmonid fish (rainbow trout). Report EPS 1/RM/28, 2nd ed ...
... acute and chronic toxicity testing do not explicitly address nervous system function and underestimate thresholds for toxicity ... Olfactory toxicity can also affect the ability of anadromous fish to find their natal stream causing them to stray to other ... Olfactory toxicity due to metals cause a general depression of the olfactory system leading to decreased sense of smell, loss ... It is important to note that not all fish have the same types or number of receptor proteins making olfactory toxicity and the ...
Questions remain however about chronic toxicity or the consequences of bioaccumulation since siloxanes can be long-lived. ... "The inertness of silicones toward warmblooded animals has been demonstrated in a number of tests." With an LD50 in rats of >50 ... "Review of recent advances in research on the toxicity, detection, occurrence and fate of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes in ...
... s are currently used in laboratory tests for the early detection of soil pollution. Acute and chronic toxicity tests ... Avoidance tests have been also performed. They have been standardized, too. Avoidance tests are complementary to toxicity tests ... Krogh, Paul Henning (August 1, 2008). "Toxicity testing with the collembolans Folsomia fimetaria and Folsomia candida and the ... Avoidance test for determining the quality of soils and effects of chemicals on behaviour. Part 2: Test with collembolans ( ...
These tests include: acute toxicity test (short-term toxicity test) and chronic toxicity test (long-term toxicity test). These ... These tests include: acute toxicity test (short-term toxicity test) and chronic toxicity test (long-term toxicity test). These ... IBT was the nation's largest independent laboratory that conducted toxicity tests. The EPA and the Canadian Department of ... Based on acute toxicity, pesticides are assigned to a Toxicity Class. Some pesticides are considered too hazardous for sale to ...
90-day inhalation toxicology study 18-month chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity study in mice 24-month chronic toxicity/ ... "Methods for Toxicity Testing", Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, National Academies Press (US), retrieved 2023- ... Acute studies identify: Dermal toxicity Eye irritation Inhalation toxicity Oral toxicity Skin irritation Skin sensitization PBO ... Subchronic and chronic studies examine the toxicity of longer-term, repeated exposure to chemicals. They may range from 90 days ...
In a study a 60-day chronic toxicity test was conducted on Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) as a general fish model. Of ... Specifically, the toxicity of nitenpyram on Culex quinquefasciatus or the southern house mosquito was tested. The LC50 of the ... In a 2015 study, neonicotinoids toxicity was tested on the egg parasitoid trichogramma. Nitenpyram specifically was found to ... In a 14-day exposure period, the Toxicity in LC50 of nitenpyram on e.fetida was found to be 4.34 mg/kg soil, showing an ...
Acute toxicity tests are normally 24-96 hours, whereas chronic tests will typically run for a week or longer. Using the MATC to ... Since the MATC should only be reported in chronic toxicity tests, there is a widely accepted method to convert the chronic MATC ... Using the results of a partial life-cycle chronic toxicity test, the MATC is reported as the geometric mean between the No ... A partial life cycle test must be used. This type of toxicity test uses organisms in their most sensitive life stages, usually ...
These procedures, called whole effluent toxicity tests, include acute toxicity tests as well as chronic test methods. The ... From the 1940s to the 1960s, animal bioassays were primarily used to test the toxicity and safety of drugs, food additives, and ... Another example is the bioassay ECOTOX, which uses the microalgae Euglena gracilis to test the toxicity of water samples. (See ... Home pregnancy tests use ELISA to detect the increase of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) during pregnancy. HIV tests also ...
Laboratory and field testing revealed that clothianidin shows relatively low toxicity to many test species but is highly or ... Toxicity varies depending on whether the exposure occurs on a short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic) basis. Honey bees ... as evidenced by the results of laboratory and field toxicity testing and demonstrated in acute poisoning incidents in France ... "satisfies the guideline requirements for a field toxicity test with honeybees." Clothianidin continued to be sold under a ...
Sub-acute and sub-chronic toxicity tests have demonstrated that TBPH causes minimal toxicity and no treatment-related effects, ... which resulted in a request for a prenatal developmental toxicity study. A compliance check (the testing of products ... In vitro mutagenicity tests have shown that TBPH can induce chromosomal aberrations, but does not give rise to point mutations ... Although carcinogenicity tests have not been assessed for TBPH, (Q)SAR predictions did show that TBPH, belonging to the ...
... either test can be performed for confirmation of cardiac muscle damage and laboratories usually offer one test or the other. ... In veterinary medicine, increased cTnI has been noted from myocardial damage after ionophore toxicity in cattle. The high ... Other causes of raised troponin I include chronic kidney failure, heart failure, subarachnoid haemorrhage and pulmonary embolus ... The test may be added to the check-up programs or used as a stand along in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic ...
September 1947). "Tests for the chronic toxicity of propylene glycol and triethylene glycol on monkeys and rats by vapor ... Because of its low chronic oral toxicity, propylene glycol was classified by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration as " ... Human Toxicity Excerpts: CAS Registry Number: 57-55-6 (1,2-Propylene Glycol). Selected toxicity information from HSDB. 2005. ... of the test population) for rats is 20 g/kg (oral/rat). Toxicity generally occurs at plasma concentrations over 4 g/L, which ...
The study, however, did test oral toxicity specifically on canines. After testing different dosage amounts of the Nelumbinis ... One cause of separation anxiety in canines is chronic stress. A study in 2012 tested Nelumbinis Semen, the seeds of the herb ... "Assessment of anti-depressant effect of nelumbinis semen on rats under chronic mild stress and its subchronic oral toxicity in ... With chronic stress, impairments to physiological health can manifest. Increased stress in the dog alters hormone levels, thus ...
Muyssen, Brita T.A.; De Schamphelaere, Karel A.C.; Janssen, Colin R. (2006). "Mechanisms of chronic waterborne Zn toxicity in ... Medical tests can detect metals often, but this is to be expected and alone is not evidence that a person is poisoned. Metal ... Therefore, a common characteristic of toxic metals is the chronic nature of their toxicity. This is particularly notable with ... Toxicity is a function of solubility. Insoluble compounds as well as the metallic forms often exhibit negligible toxicity. The ...
These effects are generally not observed well in a shorter acute toxicity test. A longer, chronic toxicity test will allow ... integrating behavioural and physiological indicators of toxicity. Aquatic Toxicology 68:369-392. Rand, G.M. (Ed). Fundamentals ...
Common tests include standardized acute and chronic toxicity tests lasting 24-96 hours (acute test) to 7 days or more (chronic ... in the short-term chronic effluent toxicity tests and the acute effluent toxicity tests is that the short-term chronic test ... Chronic tests are long-term tests (weeks, months years), relative to the test organism's life span (>10% of life span), and ... NOECs, LOECs and EC50s are reported in these tests. Bioaccumulation tests are toxicity tests that can be used for hydrophobic ...
... an array of synthetic compounds and herbal extracts has been tested to infer toxicity on the adult monogenean; assessment of ... the gilt-head seabream response to chronic and mild infection by S. chrysophrii has been evaluated using RNA-seq, as well ... common in tissue catabolism and degenerative chronic disorders. Secondary infections with other parasites and bacteria are ...
... to test the toxicity of OTA in rats, a different dietary dose of OTA was administered to male Fischer rats. Only chronic ... For example, in the White Leghorn cockerel, chronic haematological damage caused by (OTA) exposure can be reduced by exogenous ... Ghibaudo, G; Peano, A (October 2010). "Chronic monolateral otomycosis in a dog caused by Aspergillus ochraceus". Veterinary ... In humans and animals the consumption of this fungus produces chronic neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, genotoxic, carcinogenic ...
More recently, an investigation of the chronic toxicity of SSL was conducted on rats. Four different levels (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, ... and the test solution had a pH of 7.1 at the end of the 28-day test. Therefore, the test material met the criteria to be ... The test group showed no adverse effects and all test results were normal. When one dog was given 7.5% CSL for one month, 12.5 ... Patch tests showed a strong positive reaction from a 5% SSL in petrolatum solution. The patch tests were extended to include 26 ...
... mainly chronic kidney failure, hearing loss, and deafness. The risk of relapse is increased in people with GPA who test ... Today, medication toxicity is managed more carefully and long-term remissions are possible. Some affected individuals are able ... More than 90% of people who have GPA test positive for ANCA. Cytoplasmic-staining ANCAs that react with the enzyme proteinase 3 ... Kidney: rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (75%), leading to chronic kidney disease Upper airway, eye and ear disease: Ears ...
... we can test it for any adverse effects over extended periods of time ... If your therapeutic entity is intended for repeated or chronic use in patients, ... Similar to shorter repeated dose toxicity study designs, the purpose of chronic and subchronic toxicity study is to further ... At Altasciences, we understand that subchronic toxicity studies provide conclusions about the long-term effects of a test ...
Trichloroethylene Toxicity: How Should Patients Exposed to Trichloroethylene Be Evaluated? ... TCE: Directly testing for TCE in the blood can be used for either immediate exposure or chronic exposure. However, multiple ... Laboratory Tests: Introduction. TCE may be measured to confirm TCE exposure. Keep in mind that although a TCE test might show ... Significant exposure to TCE can result in elevated values of routine laboratory tests, including renal and liver function tests ...
Animal tests indicate low toxicity. Little is known about chronic effects. For liver toxicity, the 3,4-epoxide are proposed ...
Chronic-toxicity; Clinical-diagnosis; Clinical-tests; Treatment; Lung-disorders; Pneumoconiosis; Blood-tests; Urinalysis; Toxic ... although this does not always correlate either with external exposure dose or with toxicity. The available biologic tests of ... Metal-compounds; Aluminum-compounds; Aluminum-oxides; Biological-monitoring; Acute-exposure; Chronic-exposure; ...
Chronic Ingestion. If a patient presents after multiple ingestions or chronic ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of ... EMA Panel Recommends DPD Testing Prior to Fluorouracil Treatment * ASTRO 2023: A Trio of Studies With Potential Clinical ... encoded search term (Acetaminophen Toxicity) and Acetaminophen Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape ... Acetaminophen Toxicity Treatment & Management. Updated: Oct 05, 2021 * Author: Susan E Farrell, MD; Chief Editor: Michael A ...
... through non-clinical safety tests; from physio-chemical properties through acute to chronic toxicity tests.[1][2] ... OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals[edit]. OECD publishes OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, which are ... Following Decision C(97),186/Final of the OECD Council, data generated in the testing of chemicals in one OECD Member Country, ... The Klimisch score system tries to rank the reliability of toxicity studies for use by risk assessors (regulatory agencies). It ...
Chronic toxicity is tested using animal feeding studies. In these studies, the pesticide under investigation is incorporated ... Chronic Toxicity Measures. There is no standard measure like the LD50 for chronic toxicity. How chronic toxicity of chemicals ... In order to compare the results of toxicity tests done in different labs, there are strict testing procedures. Toxicity testing ... Chronic Toxicity. Chronic toxicity refers to harmful effects produced by long-term exposure to pesticides. Less is known about ...
Liver function tests, because elevated liver enzyme levels, hepatitis, and hyperammonemia may be noted with chronic toxicity ... encoded search term (Carbamazepine Toxicity) and Carbamazepine Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape ... Carbamazepine Toxicity Workup. Updated: Sep 05, 2023 * Author: Muhammad Waseem, MBBS, MS, FAAP, FACEP, FAHA; Chief Editor: ... The severity of toxicity is assessed on the basis of the clinical status and not only the serum carbamazepine concentration. ...
Toxicity testing. Ecotoxicology. Forensic, nutritional, food and clinical toxicology. Acute, chronic and mixture toxicity. Risk ... Toxicity screening of water and wastewater systems by microbial testing methods.. ESC 518 Fundamentals of Anaerobic Digestion ... Dark and light-catalyzed advanced oxidation processes; reaction pathways and kinetics, process control by toxicity assessment ... Microsatellite descriptive statistics, allelic richness, tests of population differentiation (Fst). Next generation ddRAD ...
Chronic toxicity: No data.. Risk. The PEC/PNEC ratio could not be determined since no ecotoxicological test results are ... Chronic toxicity: No data.. Risk. The PEC/PNEC ratio could not be determined since no ecotoxicological test results are ... Toxicity. It cannot be excluded that propiomazine is toxic, due to the lack of data.. Risk. Risk of environmental impact cannot ...
Such evidence includes chronic toxicity NOECs , water solubility or , 1 mg/L. The only chronic data available is the algae test ... In this test, the NOEC based on growth rate is 10 mg/L. The concentration of BisGMA at 10 mg/L Modified Small Vinyl Ester is ... For GHS, the Safety Net Classification (Chronic Category 4) was considered not to be applicable. According to CLP, no safety ... it is concluded that no Chronic Category 4 classification is required. ...
Newton GW, Schmidt ES, Lewis JP, et al.: Amygdalin toxicity studies in rats predict chronic cyanide poisoning in humans. West J ... Laetrile has been tested on cultured animal cells, in whole animals, in xenograft models, and in humans to determine whether it ... No toxicity was associated with either preparation of benzaldehyde, and it was reported that the responses persisted as long as ... The toxicity of laetrile appears to be dependent on the route of administration. Oral administration is associated with much ...
Robust good health--healthy immunity, low inflammation, low toxic burden, and freedom from stealth infection and chronic ... Valuable information on simple treatment and recommended diagnostic tests for given conditions ... The Virus and the Host: Protect Yourself from Infectious Disease by Reducing Toxicity, Improving Immunity, and Minimizing ... The Virus and the Host: Protect Yourself from Infectious Disease by Reducing Toxicity, Improving Immunity, and Minimizing ...
Advantages of Using Regression Analysis to Calculate Results of Chronic Toxicity Tests.. 1984. ... Acute and chronic parathion toxicity to fish and invertebrates /. 1981. 26. Acute and chronic toxicity of copper to the ... Acute toxicity of certain pesticides to Acartia tonsa dana /. 1976. 30. Acute Toxicity of MRD-80-3 to the Water Flea Daphnia ... Acute and chronic parathion toxicity to fish and invertebrates. 1976. 25. ...
This study investigates the acute, subacute and chronic effects of a commercial TA coffee in Sprague Dawley rats when given in ... No dose-dependent relationship was apparent in the dosage range tested, though these changes may suggest an initial safety ... Non-toxicity-related changes were observed in the food and water consumption parameters. Body weight showed normal increments ... There was significant decrease of platelet count in all the chronic study male treated groups. Significant elevation of renal ...
The Relationship Between Chronic Values in Toxicity Tests with JA Zuiderveen, WJ Birge ... Development of Suitable Test Methods for Evaluating the Toxicity of Contaminated Soils to a Battery of Plant Species Relevant ... ASTM International is providing no-cost public access to important ASTM standards used in the production and testing of ... Inhibition of Photosynthesis as an Endpoint for the Photoinduced Toxicity of Intact and Photomodified PAHs ...
You may be able to spare a lot of the potential toxicity of giving immunosuppression to patients less likely to respond. ... Chronic Kidney Disease: FSGS, Genetic Testing, and APOL1 Matthew A. Sparks, MD; Kirk Campbell, MD ... Cite this: Chronic Kidney Disease: FSGS, Genetic Testing, and APOL1 - Medscape - Sep 26, 2023. ... 2001/viewarticle/innovations-pediatric-chronic-pain-management-2023a1000hkw. Innovations in Pediatric Chronic Pain Management ...
Long-term chronic toxicity tests should have been done. Three months is too short a period to assess the safety of the food ... Long-term chronic toxicity tests should have been done, he said. But the expert committee was of the opinion that the 90-day ... Tests were carried out on the toxicity of only Cry 1AC, rendering the tests invalid. It is evident that the large chunk of gene ... Tests such as DNA fingerprinting, proteomics and acute toxicity studies not carried out. Tests like proteomics (protein ...
In an acute toxicity test in mice, Polygoni perfoliati herba, formulated as capsules, did not show any obvious acute toxicity ( ... Treating Chronic Wounds Using Photoactive Metabolites: Data Mining the Chinese Pharmacopoeia for Potential Lead Species[ # ] ... performed an acute toxicity test by intraperitoneal injection on mice with an LD50 of 32 g/kg [69]. Zhu et al. determined the ... tested acute toxicity on mice, guinea pigs, and cats for C. Herba. For intragastric administration in mice, the value of LD50 ...
28-Day Repeated Oral Toxicity Study and Efficacy of a Siddha Polyherbal Formulation - Singinatha Choornam against Platelet ... Study of acute, Sub acute and chronic toxicity test. Int J Adv Res Pharm Bio Sci 2012; 2:103-29. ... OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals (No. 407, Section 4: Health Effects) Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity in ... test drug treated group. The test group was not so much significant while comparing with standard group. The histological ...
... as well as reflect on scientific advances in the use of test methods and assessment of the endocrine activity of chemicals. ... The OECD has published the Revised Guidance Document 150 on Standardised Test Guidelines for Evaluating Chemicals for Endocrine ... Disruption originally published in 2012 and updated in 2018 to reflect new and updated OECD test guidelines, ... Data and research on test guidelines including chemical testing and assessment, chemical safety, animal welfare, endocrine ...
Here, we tested acute and chronic toxicity of novel AgNPs coated with citrate and L-cysteine (AgNPcitLcys) synthesized as ... The OECD 236 Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) Test was used to determine acute toxicity of the two anticancer drugs on embryos ... Chronic Toxicity of AgNPcitLcys for Water remediation Reveals the Need to Reconsider Ecosafety Testing ... Fertilization toxicity test showed significant effects by SERT (10 - 500 ng/l) and ODV (25 - 500 ng/l); FLX and NF also had ...
Primary measurement end points for acute and chronic toxicity are organisms survival, growth and, often, reproduction. Aquatic ... 2.3 Toxicity and Ecotoxicity Assessment with Bench-Scale Tests. Bench-scale tests have already been proven to be a useful tool ... Levin BC (1992) The development of a new small-scale smoke toxicity test method and its comparison with real-scale fire tests. ... This is a promising tool that is complementary to the tube furnace as a small-scale toxicity test. Both tests have the ...
... they implemented a chronic toxicity test. Choosing CIP and SMX as the aimed antibiotics to be tested, was founded on their high ... The findings of the chronic toxicity bioassay implemented, employing the V. fischeri bacterium, illustrated that the poisoning ... 2. Effect of UV-C/H2O2 and Sunlight/H2O2 on Eliminating Antibiotics, Antibiotic Resistance Determinants and Toxicity Present in ... Ozonation and AOPs need toxicity monitoring due to probable generation of problematic oxidation reaction products; ...
In male and female rats, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of LI51202F1 was 500 mg/kg/day, the highest tested dose ... Safety assessment of a novel water-soluble extract of gum resin: acute toxicity, 90-day sub-chronic toxicity, Ames bacterial ... Safety assessment of a novel water-soluble extract of gum resin: acute toxicity, 90-day sub-chronic toxicity, Ames bacterial ... Safety assessment of a novel water-soluble extract of gum resin: acute toxicity, 90-day sub-chronic toxicity, Ames bacterial ...
The chronic toxicity testing has yet to be done. In addition, the details of the Mahyco test have not been made public. ... Only a three-month sub-acute toxicity test on some different cultivable Bt Brinjal varieties developed in India has been done ... The Mahyco Company had done 90 days test on rats but the tests were not performed according to the correct protocol. ... that neither provides the parameter to judge the longer term toxicity impact on human health nor can be applied to the four ...
Acute toxicity might result in fever, fatigue, and clinical signs of pneumonitis. Chronic exposure results in neurologic, ... Valid laboratory test. A biologic laboratory test that has been analytically, and in part, clinically validated. A test should ... Commercially available test. A test that is available to health investigators through either fee-for-service pathways or state ... A clinically compatible case in which laboratory tests have confirmed exposure. The case can be confirmed if laboratory testing ...
Results: In acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity tests, rats weight, liver, kidney and immune balances as well as these organs ... The study of biological tolerance deserves to be continued by the chronic toxicity test and appropriate clinical trials. ... Kg of body weight during 28 days for sub-chronic oral toxicity test, as recommended by the OECD. At day 0, then at day 14 for ... Ethyl acetate fraction of Psorospermum febrifugum Spach aqueous extract did not exhibit acute or sub-chronic toxicity. ...
  • Similar to shorter repeated dose toxicity study designs, the purpose of chronic and subchronic toxicity study is to further test the hypotheses regarding mode of action, predict the health effects of your therapeutic entity in human exposure, identify target organs, further characterize the dose-response relationship, and identify a dose level that does not demonstrate adverse effects with chronic or subchronic use. (altasciences.com)
  • A 90-days repeated dose toxicity study is available for a structural analogue of Delta-damascone: Alpha-iso-methylionone. (europa.eu)
  • In a 90-day repeated dose toxicity study, performed according to OECD Guideline 408 and in accordance with GLP, the substance was administrated by oral gavage at dose levels of 500, 30 and 5 mg/kg bw/day for a period of 90 consecutive days to groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats. (europa.eu)
  • Toxicity is usually divided into two types, acute or chronic, based on the number of exposures to a poison and the time it takes for toxic symptoms to develop. (ufl.edu)
  • In conclusion, a single intramuscular dose of C4 produced no acute or chronic systemic toxicity or inflammation in rats, suggesting that C4 may be toxicologically safe for clinical use in cancer brachytherapy. (hindawi.com)
  • Further, whether leakage of the C4 solution from the capsules after prostate brachytherapy would potentiate systemic inflammatory effects or produce acute or chronic toxicity is unknown. (hindawi.com)
  • Body weight showed normal increments and none of the animals had any clinical signs of toxicity. (doaj.org)
  • The 90-days sub-chronic repeated oral dose study demonstrated that the LI51202F1-treated male and female SD rats did not show signs of toxicity on their BW, food intake, organ weights, thyroid hormones, and on the clinical pathology, gross pathology, and histopathological assessments. (iasp-pain.org)
  • 1500 mg/kg per day for 90 days did not harmful to the environment than synthetic produce any signs of toxicity, mortality, insecticides, new evidence indicates that changes in tissue weight, pathology or se- these products may pose a risk to certain rum and blood parameters [ 8 ]. (who.int)
  • In addition to renal disease, cardiovascular effects, and reproductive toxicity, lead may cause irreversible neurologic damage. (cdc.gov)
  • However, Article 13 of REACH states that, in case no appropriate animal studies are available for assessment, information should be generated whenever possible by means other than vertebrate animal tests, i.e. applying alternative methods such as in vitro tests, QSARs, grouping and read-across. (europa.eu)
  • Toxicity Testing In Vitro. (springer.com)
  • Most standard animal tests were developed decades ago and have either never been validated, or have actually failed retrospective validation (for example, the Draize eye test, the Lethal Dose 50% test and carcinogenicity). (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study with Delta-damascone a systemic NOAEL of 85 mg/kg bw has been derived based on the observed hepatoxicity at the next dose level. (europa.eu)
  • No abnormalities in clinical signs, terminal body and organ weights, or hematologic and serum chemistry were noted, and no gross or histopathologic lesions of systemic tissue toxicity were found in any treatment group at any time point studied. (hindawi.com)
  • However, clinical application has been limited due to severe toxicity and the relatively low immune response rate, caused by wide distribution of cytokine receptors, systemic immune activation and short half-life of IL-15. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many factors influence the variability of toxicity, including respiratory rate, target organ sensitivity, body fat content, and general health. (cdc.gov)
  • The emulsifiers individually also displayed toxicity towards the tested organ- isms. (who.int)
  • For liver toxicity, the 3,4-epoxide are proposed intermediates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Significant elevation of renal profile parameters in both gender groups given 0.29 g/kg BW, along with liver and lipid profile elevation in some female groups of the chronic study were noted. (doaj.org)
  • Alcohol-related liver disease is the most prevalent chronic liver disease worldwide, accounting for 30% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases and HCC-specific deaths. (springer.com)
  • Early stage Huh-7 and advanced SNU449 liver cancer cell lines were subjected to chronic alcohol exposure (CAE), at different doses for 6 months followed by 1-month alcohol withdrawal period. (springer.com)
  • To test whether milk thistle could help treat chemotherapy associated liver problems, Kara Kelly, MD, of the New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center's Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center in New York City and colleagues conducted a randomized, controlled, double blind study in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), who commonly experience this side effect. (sciencedaily.com)
  • When the investigators performed liver function tests on the children at day 56 (28 days after receiving the herb or placebo), children receiving milk thistle had improvements in their liver enzymes compared with children receiving a placebo. (sciencedaily.com)
  • However, our results are promising as there are no substitute medications for treating liver toxicity. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Cirrhosis is chronic injury of the liver. (regenerativenutrition.com)
  • The principles of GLP aim to ensure and promote safety, consistency, high quality, and reliability of chemicals in the process of non-clinical and laboratory testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical knowledge and diagnostic tools (e.g., biologic laboratory tests) for detecting chemical poisoning are likely to improve over time. (cdc.gov)
  • The test results are difficult to extrapolate from laboratory conditions to real life exposure of humans. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • Other activities carried out by the IPCS include the development of know-how for coping with chemical accidents, coordination of laboratory testing and epidemiological studies, and promotion of research on the mechanisms of the biological action of chemicals. (inchem.org)
  • Laboratory testing is a very helpful tool for determining how a person's biochemical individuality may be affecting their behavior, mood and mental well-being. (myvillagegreen.com)
  • However, most of the mussel data used in the updated AWQC were generated from water-only exposures and limited information is available on the potential influence of the presence of a substrate on the response of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests. (usgs.gov)
  • Our recent study demonstrated that the acute sensitivity of mussels to ammonia was not influenced by the presence of substrate in 4-d laboratory toxicity tests. (usgs.gov)
  • The similar ChVs or EC20s between the water-only treatment and the sediment treatment indicate that the presence of sediment did not substantially influence the sensitivity of juvenile mussels to ammonia in the 28-d chronic laboratory water exposures. (usgs.gov)
  • There are no special laboratory tests needed in order to use this medication. (rxlist.com)
  • Under the direction of Lee Yoo , Laboratory Director, the lab performs complete California Title 22 drinking water analyses, wastewater analyses, microbiological coli form and heterotrophic bacteria testing, VOCs, base/neutral organic compounds, emerging contaminants, nitrosamines in water, and many others types of analysis. (thermofisher.com)
  • Since PCR is too expensive to use in routine laboratories in Sri Lanka, one center could function as a reference laboratory where clinical samples can be tested using Polymerase Chain Reaction. (who.int)
  • MRLs can be derived for acute, intermediate, and chronic duration exposures for inhalation and oral routes. (cdc.gov)
  • As an example, acute inhalation MRLs may not be protective for health effects that are delayed in development or are acquired following repeated acute insults, such as hypersensitivity reactions, asthma, or chronic bronchitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Robust good health--healthy immunity, low inflammation, low toxic burden, and freedom from stealth infection and chronic disease--is our best defense against infectious viral disease. (banksquarebooks.com)
  • In The Virus and the Host , Dr. Chlebowski succinctly describes emerging science on the virome and how toxic exposure, chronic inflammation, infections, and chronic diseases interact and predispose us to poor outcomes from acute viral infection. (banksquarebooks.com)
  • It can also cause inflammation, oxidative damage, and contribute to a variety of chronic health problems. (myvillagegreen.com)
  • This study investigates the acute, subacute and chronic effects of a commercial TA coffee in Sprague Dawley rats when given in a single, repeated and prolonged dosage. (doaj.org)
  • So, the present work investigated the subacute toxicity of SC on administering as repeated dose orally for 28 days since to rule whether it might produce toxicity on combining the each ingredient. (ijpsonline.com)
  • However, lower initial serum levels do not necessarily indicate a benign course and the patient still needs to be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of significant toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Fortunately, specific lab testing can determine copper toxicity and taking targeted nutrients can correct imbalances and provide significant improvement in symptoms. (myvillagegreen.com)
  • This is an important test to be included as biomarkers are sensitive indicators and are capable of revealing changes before visible symptoms appear" read specific recommendation 4 of the TEC. (gmwatch.org)
  • Later symptoms related to nephrocalcinosis may be associated with long-term (chronic) kidney failure . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Biodegradation is determined according to OECD test method guidelines. (givaudan.com)
  • 60% in a ready biodegradation test within 28 days and passing the 10 day window criterion following OECD 301, 310 and equivalent ISO guidelines. (givaudan.com)
  • Freshwater tests showed again an inhibition of the bioluminescence with A. fischeri together with a significant stimulation of radical apparatus elongation in two different superior plants (C. sativus and L. sativum), while S. saccharatum showed no statistically significant differences with controls, even if a biostimulation was again registered. (easychair.org)
  • Little attention has been directed to the toxicity of dietary metals to freshwater invertebrates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A draft update of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for ammonia substantially lowers the ammonia AWQC, primarily due to the inclusion of toxicity data for freshwater mussels. (usgs.gov)
  • Acute and Chronic Effects of Heavy Metals and Cyanide on 'Mysidopsis bahia' (Crustacea:Mysidacea). (epa.gov)
  • WHO is not responsible, and does not accept any liability, for the testing of pesticides for compliance with the specifications, nor for any methods recommended and/or used for testing compliance. (who.int)
  • All new pesticides are tested to establish the type of toxicity and the dose necessary to produce a measurable toxic reaction. (ufl.edu)
  • The objective of the current study was to determine the sensitivity of mussels to ammonia in chronic 28-d water exposures with the sediment present (sediment treatment) or absent (water-only treatment). (usgs.gov)
  • The chronic value (ChV, geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) was 0.36mgN/L for survival or biomass in the water-only treatment, and was 0.66mgN/L for survival and 0.20mgN/L for biomass in the sediment treatment. (usgs.gov)
  • The PEC/PNEC ratio could not be determined since no ecotoxicological test results are available. (janusinfo.se)
  • A phospholipid inflammatory mediator, 50 µl were applied intranasally in rats of test and standard groups while control groups intranasally treated with 50 µl of distilled water as single application. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In male and female rats, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of LI51202F1 was 500 mg/kg/day, the highest tested dose in the study. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Acute oral toxicity of neem oil has, (10g/L azadirachtin) exhibited toxicity to however, been documented in rats and rab- mosquito larvae as well as to certain non- bits. (who.int)
  • Almost all metals can be measured in some biologic fluid or system, although this does not always correlate either with external exposure dose or with toxicity. (cdc.gov)
  • The available biologic tests of exposure are summarized in Table I and discussed with each of the metals in the sections that follow. (cdc.gov)
  • Further, "acute and sub-chronic feeding studies for all applications including those in progress should be completed before BRLI, as also molecular analysis and allergenicity tests. (gmwatch.org)
  • The seriousness of the exposure depends upon the oral toxicity of the material and the amount swallowed. (ufl.edu)
  • Acute toxicity is due to short-term exposure and happens within a relatively short period of time, whereas chronic exposure is due to repeated or long-term exposure and happens over a longer period. (ufl.edu)
  • Although in utero exposure to carbamazepine has not been associated with adverse neuropsychological function, it has been associated with reduced verbal abilities.Therefore, a urine pregnancy test should be obtained on adolescent girls and women and if they are pregnant they should be counseled as to the possible effects of carbamazepine on the development of the fetus. (medscape.com)
  • Marine tests showed an inhibition of growth with the two different algal species (P. tricornutum and D. tertiolecta), an inhibition of bioluminescence in the bacterium A. fischeri, an alteration on the correct early development of the serpulid F. enigmaticus larvae and immobilization of the copepod A. tonsa individuals at both 24 and 48 hours of exposure. (easychair.org)
  • The acute toxicity of these compounds is generally low and may not pose a direct health hazard during exposure [ 2 ]. (springer.com)
  • These data are discussed in terms of three exposure periods: acute (14 days or less), intermediate (15-364 days), and chronic (365 days or more). (cdc.gov)
  • Chemical toxicity (poisoning) testing on animals involves subjecting animals to different levels of potentially toxic substances via different routes of exposure in order to assess how and in which way they are affected.Many products are tested to see if they will cause damage to the skin or eyes. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • Results of serologic tests for other Bartonella species and Coxiella and Chlamydia species may be elevated because of co-exposure or cross-reactivity ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Finally, survival was not affected after exposure to the selected molinate concentrations except in those daphnids from the F0 generation in which survival decreased 51% and 78% at the highest herbicide concentrations tested (9.42 and 18.85 mg/L). Our results suggest that the offspring daphnids seem to be adaptated to the herbicide molinate, showing more longevity and reproduction than their parentals. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • At Altasciences, we understand that subchronic toxicity studies provide conclusions about the long-term effects of a test substance in animals and humans. (altasciences.com)
  • Little is known about chronic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the relatively benign nature of NAC administration, and the risk of adverse effects from acetaminophen toxicity, NAC should be given even if the history is unclear but a potentially toxic acetaminophen ingestion is suspected. (medscape.com)
  • Toxicity refers to the ability of a substance to produce adverse effects. (ufl.edu)
  • Animal tests tell us little about why a substance is toxic, as the results tend to demonstrate effects rather than causes of toxicity. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • Alcohol level, if alcohol toxicity is suspected. (medscape.com)
  • Additional studies indicate Alpha Lipoic Acid may have a beneficial effect on patients with acute and chronic alcohol toxicity. (regenerativenutrition.com)
  • Because other chemical imbalances are commonly associated with elevated copper and low zinc levels, two additional tests, whole blood histamine and urine pyrrole levels are highly recommended. (myvillagegreen.com)
  • Must have had 2 negative urine or serum pregnancy tests with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU per mL before receiving the initial prescription for SORIATANE. (nih.gov)
  • The patient must have a negative result from a urine or serum pregnancy test before receiving a prescription for SORIATANE. (nih.gov)
  • Creatinine kinase, urine myoglobin: Nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis can result from severe CO toxicity and can lead to acute renal failure. (medscape.com)
  • At the conclusion of this session, the participant will be able to describe evidence for opioid prescribing risk mitigation strategies, review different opioid prescribing risk mitigation strategies, summarize steps that clinicians can take when concerning information is discovered through prescription drug monitoring program check and urine drug testing, and evaluate factors that increase risk for opioid overdose and determine when co-prescribing naloxone can be beneficial. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum drug testing should be based on the history of ingestion and/or the patient's toxidrome. (medscape.com)
  • Initial serum levels of more than 35 mg/L (127 µmol/L) suggest serious toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • The severity of toxicity is assessed on the basis of the clinical status and not only the serum carbamazepine concentration. (medscape.com)
  • The traditional use of organic solvents in various branches of industry is being rethought as these compounds very often display high volatility, toxicity and lipophilicity (related to the ability to interact with biological membranes). (easychair.org)
  • Regulatory assessments of metals in freshwaters are mostly based on dissolved metal concentrations, assuming that toxicity is caused by waterborne metal only. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The U.S. EPA , the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry , and the U.S. Dept of Human Health Services have determined that NDMA is a human carcinogen that is hazardous at low concentrations based on animal testing data. (thermofisher.com)
  • Chronic toxicity tests, using the same herbicide concentrations, were also carried out during 21 days using neonates of F1 first brood (F1-1st) and F1 third brood (F1-3rd) offspring generations from the parentals (F0) preexposed to the herbicide. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • even though IBT superficially delivered the test results their contracts with the manufacturers specified. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to compare the results of toxicity tests done in different labs, there are strict testing procedures. (ufl.edu)
  • Advantages of Using Regression Analysis to Calculate Results of Chronic Toxicity Tests. (epa.gov)
  • geac had in its agenda test results submitted by seed company Mahyco, which has developed the crop. (org.in)
  • But two independent scientists reports showed inconsistencies in Mahycos interpretation of the test results, which found their way to the January meeting. (org.in)
  • Groups opposing GM food sought an independent review when they got the companys test results through a Right to Information petition and forwarded them to the scientists. (org.in)
  • The general approach taken by the document is primarily to provide guidance on how test results might be interpreted based on the outcome of standardised assays. (oecd.org)
  • Animal toxicity tests are crude, subjectively assessed and the results can vary depending upon the species, age, sex and condition of individual animals. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • One international study that examined the results of rat and mouse LD50 (Lethal Dose 50%) tests for 50 chemicals found that these tests were able to predict toxicity in humans with only 65% accuracy. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • It is hardly surprising then to learn that results from animal tests are often difficult to apply to humans. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • This rule requires that utilities serving greater than 10,000 customers test for the 30 environmental contaminants and submit the results to a central EPA database. (thermofisher.com)
  • The reason for focusing only on the LLNA is 2-fold: first, because it is this assay that will most commonly be used to provide data that are suitable for potency ranking and classification, and second because the same general principles apply to results deriving from guinea pig tests. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study 465 clinical samples were tested using PCR and the results obtained indicates that this approach offers may advantages over conventional methods and could be used to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples. (who.int)
  • The effective treatment of chronic wounds is one of the major unmet medical needs in healthcare. (thieme-connect.de)
  • The reduced reproduction was accompanied with an elevated zinc accumulation in the 61 microg L(-1) treatment only, suggesting that total body burden is no good indicator of dietary zinc toxicity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • If the second pregnancy test is negative, initiation of treatment with SORIATANE should begin within 7 days of the specimen collection. (nih.gov)
  • Must have a pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU per mL repeated every month during treatment with SORIATANE. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluating the Impact of Oncology Care Model Reporting Requirements on Biomarker Testing and Treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Alternatives to animal testing Today, many cosmetic and household product companies have turned their backs on animal testing and begun taking advantage of the many sophisticated non-animal test methods available, which range from cell and tissue cultures to computerised "structure-activity relationship" models. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • The amplicon-based NGS test of the mitral valve tissue result, received on hospital day 36, was positive for B. rochalimae . (cdc.gov)
  • The OECD releases the Revised Guidance Document 150 on Standardised Test Guidelines for Evaluating Chemicals for Endocrine Disruption originally published in 2012 and updated in 2018 to reflect new and updated OECD test guidelines, as well as reflect on scientific advances in the use of test methods and assessment of the endocrine activity of chemicals. (oecd.org)
  • Specific objectives include providing a description of the OECD conceptual framework for evaluating chemicals for endocrine disruption, background on the standardised test methods used, and guidance for interpreting the outcome of individual tests. (oecd.org)
  • Based on scientific works and research efforts, OECD started to investigate test methods that could be standardised and used in chemicals regulations to detect and characterise hazards posed by endocrine disrupting chemicals. (oecd.org)
  • The OECD Conceptual Framework for Testing and Assessment of Endocrine Disrupters (as revised in 2012) lists the OECD Test Guidelines and standardized test methods available, under development or proposed that can be used to evaluate chemicals for endocrine disruption. (oecd.org)
  • That report also contains recommendations regarding the configuration of classification schemes based upon the use of data deriving from OECD guideline methods for skin sensitisation testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Subchronic toxicity studies vary in length, typically ranging from 3 to 12 months, and are usually conducted in one rodent and one non-rodent species. (altasciences.com)
  • The major objective of the present study was to assess the safety of a water-soluble gum resin extract (LI51202F1) in diverse models of acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation, eye irritation, and 90-day sub-chronic repeated dose toxicity studies, as well as Ames' bacterial reverse mutation assay and micronucleus assay. (iasp-pain.org)
  • It contains descriptions and evaluations of toxicological studies and epidemiological investigations and provides conclusions, where possible, on the relevance of toxicity and toxicokinetic data to public health. (cdc.gov)
  • No sub-chronic or chronic studies were available for Delta-damascone. (europa.eu)
  • It also recommended long term and inter-generational studies in rodents to be added to the tests and performed for all products whether already approved or yet to be approved. (gmwatch.org)
  • Genome-wide expression analysis in the toxicity studies of the test organism (eg. (gmwatch.org)
  • A high level of toxicity was observed, with slight differences between organisms. (who.int)
  • Following Decision C(97),186/Final of the OECD Council, data generated in the testing of chemicals in one OECD Member Country, in accordance with OECD Test Guidelines and the Principles of GLP are accepted in all other OECD Member Countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk of environmental impact cannot be excluded, due to the lack of environmental toxicity data. (janusinfo.se)
  • Chronic toxicity: No data. (janusinfo.se)
  • 1 mg/L. The only chronic data available is the algae test. (europa.eu)
  • The document is not proscriptive but provides suggestions for possible next steps in testing (if any) which might be appropriate for a regulatory authority to take, given the various data scenarios. (oecd.org)
  • All available (eco)toxicological data from standardized or non-standardized tests. (oecd.org)
  • Where the reports differ is in the details of how such classification may be achieved in practice - and specifically with regard to models based on animal test data for assigning chemical allergens to different potency categories. (cdc.gov)
  • OECD publishes OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals , which are guidelines that usually have to be followed for GLP compliance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The OECD Test Guidelines Programme develop Test Guidelines and other tools to support countries' needs related to testing and assessment of chemicals for endocrine disrupters. (oecd.org)
  • The acute dermal and eye irritation tests in New Zealand white rabbits exhibited that LI51202F1 is non-irritating to the skin and mildly irritating to the eyes, respectively. (iasp-pain.org)
  • In this study the chronic toxicity of dietary zinc to Daphnia magna was investigated. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These algae were used as a food source in chronic, 21-day bioassays with D. magna in a test medium to which no dissolved zinc was added. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Humans, obviously, cannot be used as test subjects, so toxicity testing is done with animals and plants. (ufl.edu)
  • Many substances tested safely on animals have proven to be dangerous to humans and vice versa. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • Human cell culture tests have been found to predict toxicity in humans with much greater accuracy than animal tests. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • iv) The requirement for preliminary biosafety tests prior to field trials including sub-chronic toxicity in small animals has been included. (gmwatch.org)
  • In the tests of cancer inhibition rates on mice bearing MM46 (breast cancer), they were bred for one month with foods containing 20% edible mushroom powder. (orthomolecular.org)
  • Tests like proteomics (protein profiling) and metabolic profiling are long drawn expensive procedure with little value and therefore not recommended for safety assessment of GM crops. (org.in)
  • The Conceptual Framework is intended to provide a guide to the tests available which can provide information for endocrine disrupters' assessment but is not intended to be a testing strategy. (oecd.org)
  • Safety assessment of a novel water-soluble extract of gum resin: acute toxicity, 90-day sub-chronic toxicity, Ames' bacterial reverse mutation, and micronucleus assays. (iasp-pain.org)
  • The n-hexanesoluble,acetone-soluble and water-soluble fractions obtained from the acetone extract of A. indica shoots inhibited thegermination and the growth of roots and shoots of six test plant species. (researchgate.net)
  • The experimental groups included 0.1 mL/10 g of distilled water, 1.5 mg/kg of atropine, alkaloid extract of Jatropha curcas L. seeds at doses of 500 and 1 000 mg/kg respectively, and 1 g/kg of neostigmine The statistical validation was based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ANOVA, and Tukey and Newman-Keuls test. (edu.pe)
  • The purified D-fraction extract and Maitake crude tablets were tested using mice to investigate acute and chronic toxicity. (orthomolecular.org)
  • Three groups of rat were allotted (control - distilled water 2 ml/dose, test drug - Singinatha choornam 90 mg/kg and standard - chloropheniramine maleate 1 mg/kg) and treated for 3 days. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Furthermore, 5 mg/kg of D-fraction was injected for 120 days and the toxicity was investigated in the same manner. (orthomolecular.org)
  • The second pregnancy test (a confirmation test) should be done during the first 5 days of the menstrual period immediately preceding the beginning of therapy with SORIATANE. (nih.gov)
  • For patients with amenorrhea, the second test should be done at least 11 days after the last act of unprotected sexual intercourse (without using 2 effective forms of contraception [birth control] simultaneously). (nih.gov)
  • Tuberculosis is a chronic, progressive mycobacterial infection, often with an asymptomatic latent period following initial infection. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Leprosy Leprosy is a chronic infection usually caused by the acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium leprae or the closely related organism M. lepromatosis . (merckmanuals.com)
  • Acute Toxicity of Triphenyltin Hydroxide to Three Cladoceran Species. (epa.gov)
  • We performed serologic tests for Bartonella , Brucella , Chlamydia , and Coxiella species ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Walsh's extensive research has found that these lab tests can help to identify the most prevalent nutrient imbalances found in individuals with mental health issues. (myvillagegreen.com)
  • The government-appointed expert committee did not find any discrepancy with Mahycos tests, brushed aside concerns raised by the scientists and said further tests were not required to establish the safety of GM food (see table). (org.in)
  • Manufacturers are simply asked to conduct whatever tests are appropriate, in their opinion, to establish that their cosmetics or household products are safe. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • from physio-chemical properties through acute to chronic toxicity tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Industrial BioTest Labs (IBT) was the most notable case, where thousands of safety tests for chemical manufacturers were falsely claimed to have been performed or were so poor that police investigators could not piece together what work had been done. (wikipedia.org)
  • With acute carbamazepine toxicity, ultrasonography may reveal chemical pancreatitis. (medscape.com)
  • The document is intended to provide guidance for evaluating chemical using standardised test guidelines. (oecd.org)
  • This approach to chemical testing, which uses animals and is mainly observational, subjective and descriptive, is extremely crude. (choosecrueltyfree.org.au)
  • Millions of people have elevated copper levels and are not aware of it because most doctors do not test for copper toxicity. (myvillagegreen.com)
  • The most common of these is N -nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) with a high chronic and acute toxicity. (thermofisher.com)