Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of mid-term (a few months) exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a short-term (a few weeks) exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
Tests or bioassays that measure the skin sensitization potential of various chemicals.
An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being not consonant with apparent stimuli or events; usually of psychologic origin, but also seen in organic brain disease and toxic states.
An N-substituted amphetamine analog. It is a widely abused drug classified as a hallucinogen and causes marked, long-lasting changes in brain serotonergic systems. It is commonly referred to as MDMA or ecstasy.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
Drugs used for their effects on serotonergic systems. Among these are drugs that affect serotonin receptors, the life cycle of serotonin, and the survival of serotonergic neurons.
A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.
Analogs or derivatives of AMPHETAMINE. Many are sympathomimetics and central nervous system stimulators causing excitation, vasopressin, bronchodilation, and to varying degrees, anorexia, analepsis, nasal decongestion, and some smooth muscle relaxation.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to reduce the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes by, defining how environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and age interact to affect an individual's health. It was established in 1969.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.
A worm-like blind tube extension from the CECUM.
Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.

Preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products. (1/1374)

Human gene therapy products include naked DNA and viral as well as non-viral vectors containing nucleic acids. There is limited experience on the preclinical toxicity studies necessary for the safety evaluation of these products, which have been outlined in several recently released guidelines. Requirements for the preclinical safety evaluation of human gene therapy products are both specific and non-specific. All key preclinical studies should be performed in compliance with Good Laboratory Practices. Non-specific requirements are in fact common to all pharmaceutical products. Critical specific issues to be addressed are: the safety evaluation of the vector and the toxicity of the expressed protein(s), which are the two components of gene therapy products, the quality of the test article, the selection of animal species, and the verification that the administration method successfully transports the gene of interest, with the vector, to the target site(s). The treatment schedule should mimic the intended human therapeutic design. The host's immune response against the gene therapy product has to be evaluated to detect possible adverse effects and immune neutralization by antibodies. The biodistribution of the gene of interest is also essential and can be evaluated by molecular biology techniques, such as PCR. Specific confinement is required for the safe manipulation of viral vectors.  (+info)

The contribution of acute toxicity in animals to occupational exposure limits of chemical substances. (2/1374)

The correlations of lethal doses of various industrial chemicals for rats and mice with occupational exposure limit values were investigated. 50% lethal dose (LD50) values obtained by oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values obtained by inhalation exposure were collected from Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS). Threshold Limit Value (Time-Weighted Average) (TLVs-TWA) and Threshold Limit Value (Short Term Exposure Limit) (TLVs-STEL) recommended by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) were used as exposure limits. TLVs-TWA or TLVs-STEL and LD50 or LC50 values obtained for the rats were plotted on logarithmic scales on the ordinate and abscissa, respectively. High correlations were obtained between these parameters. The order of correlations was: TLVs-STEL vs. LC50s > TLVs-TWA vs. LC50s > TLVs-TWA vs. LD50s i.p. > TLVs vs. LD50s p.o. The same calculations for the relationship between TLVs and lethal doses in mice were also performed. The order of the three types of correlations was same as that of the rats; however, correlation coefficients for TLVs-STEL vs. LC50s and for TLVs-TWA vs. LC50s obtained in mice were smaller than those in rats. TLVs-TWA are, therefore, well correlated with LC50 values rather than LD50 values, particularly with those in rats. High correlations between TLVs-STEL vs. LC50s were also obtained, as had been expected before calculation. The equation: TLV-TWA = 10b x (LC50)a can be obtained from these plottings, where the values a and b are taken from each linear regression line. TLV-TWA for each chemical can be calculated by using LC50 and the equation. The upper and lower 95% confidence limits for calculated TLV-TWA were TLV-TWA (calculated from LC50) x 22.9 and TLV-TWA (calculated)/22.9, respectively, where LC50 for rats expressed in ppm x hr was used.  (+info)

The marginalization of hormesis. (3/1374)

Despite the substantial development and publication of highly reproducible toxicological data, the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships was never integrated into the mainstream of toxicological thought. Review of the historical foundations of the interpretation of the bioassay and assessment of competitive theories of dose-response relationships lead to the conclusion that multiple factors contributed to the marginalization of hormesis during the middle and subsequent decades of the 20th Century. These factors include the following: (a) the close association of hormesis with homeopathy, which led to the hostility of modern medicine toward homeopathy, thereby creating a guilt-by-association framework, and the carryover influence of that hostility toward hormesis in the judgements of medically based pharmacologists/toxicologists; (b) the emphasis of high-dose effects linked with a lack of appreciation of the significance of the implications of low-dose stimulatory effects; (c) the lack of an evolution-based mechanism(s) to account for hormetic effects; and (d) lack of appropriate scientific advocates to counter aggressive and intellectually powerful critics of the hormetic perspective.  (+info)

Chemical hormesis: its historical foundations as a biological hypothesis. (4/1374)

Despite the long history of hormesis-related experimental research, no systematic effort to describe its early history has been undertaken. The present paper attempts to reconstruct and assess the early history of such research and to evaluate how advances in related scientific fields affected the course of hormesis-related research. The purpose of this paper is not only to satisfy this gap in current knowledge but also to provide a foundation for the assessment of how the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships may have affected the nature of the bioassay, especially with respect to hazard assessment practices within a modern risk assessment framework.  (+info)

Serum vitellogenin levels and reproductive impairment of male Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to 4-tert-octylphenol. (5/1374)

The induction of synthesis of the "female" yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (VTG) in male fish by estrogenic chemicals in the environment has been demonstrated in many recent reports. However, little is known about the organismal and biological significance of this phenomenon. To examine the relationship between VTG production in male fish and reproductive impairment, adult male medaka were exposed to 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), a known environmental estrogen, in concentrations ranging from 20 to 230 ppb for 21 days, under flow-through conditions. Following exposure, male fish were mated, in the absence of OP, with unexposed females. Breeding groups composed of exposed males and control females produced about 50% fewer eggs than control groups. VTG levels in serum of male fish increased with increasing OP exposure concentration and decreased after OP exposure was discontinued. Nevertheless, significant correlations (p<0.01) were observed between VTG levels in exposed male fish and 1) OP exposure concentrations, 2) percent of fertilized eggs, and 3) survival of embryos. OP-induced VTG synthesis and reproductive impairment appear to be closely linked phenomena. Histological examination indicated spermatogenesis in OP-exposed fish was inhibited, and some exposed fish had oocytes in their testes. Finally, OP caused a significant increase in the number of abnormally developing embryos, suggesting that OP may be genotoxic as well as estrogenic.  (+info)

Demonstration of the pathogenic effect of point mutated keratin 9 in vivo. (6/1374)

A wild type keratin 9 (K9) cDNA and a point mutated keratin 9 cDNA were injected subcutaneously into mouse skin. The hemagglutinin tag staining of the wild type K9 cDNA injected specimens mainly showed a homogeneous pattern, whereas the point mutated K9 cDNA injected specimens mainly showed a granular pattern in the suprabasal cells. Double staining of K9 and the endogenous keratin revealed the incorporation of de novo synthesized K9 into the keratin network. These results demonstrate that (1) a naked DNA transfection into mouse skin can detect the pathogenic changes of point mutated keratin in vivo and (2) the keratin 9 mutation disrupts the keratin network formation in the suprabasal cells in vivo.  (+info)

Changes in thyroid gland morphology after acute acrylamide exposure. (7/1374)

High exposure to the acrylamide monomer has been associated with neuropathy and neurotoxic effects. Chronic lower exposure causes endocrine disruption associated with thyroid, testicular, and mammary tumors. To investigate mechanisms of endocrine disruption, short-term, low-level oral dosing studies were conducted. Weanling female Fischer 344 rats were acclimatized for two weeks before dosing. Controls were given distilled water by gavage and rats in other groups were given acrylamide at doses of 2 mg/kg/day and 15 mg/kg/day for 2 or 7 days by gavage. Twenty-four h after the last dose, the rats were killed by decapitation. Trunk blood was collected for hormone analyses and tissues for histopathological examination. There were no toxicity-related deaths, no clinical signs of toxicity, and no significant difference in the mean body weight of animal groups. Histopathological examination of select tissues showed no lesions of pathologic significance. Plasma thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), and pituitary TSH and PRL analyses did not reveal significant changes between control vs. treated rats. In the 7-day study, however, there was a slight dose-dependent increase in plasma T4 and a slight dose-dependent decrease in plasma TSH. Thyroid gland morphometry showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the colloid area and a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the follicular cell height of treated rats as compared to controls. The follicular area shrinkage was similar in both studies. These results show a very early endocrine response to very low levels of toxic insult and opens other venues to further investigate the mechanisms of endocrine disruption by acrylamide.  (+info)

Effects of acute exposure to PCBs 126 and 153 on anterior pituitary and thyroid hormones and FSH isoforms in adult Sprague Dawley male rats. (8/1374)

3,3'4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) were administered to adult male rats in order to identify sensitive indicators of endocrine disruption. We tested the hypothesis that PCB exposure modifies follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) pituitary isoforms, as well as the pituitary and serum concentrations of FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Effects on serum levels of thyroxine (T4) and testosterone (T), and prostate androgen receptor content, were also tested. In one experiment, 5 groups of 8 rats each received two i.p. injections, one day apart, of either corn oil or 6.25, 25, 100 or 400 micrograms/kg/day of PCB 126. Decreases (p < 0.05) in the serum concentrations of T4 and LH started at doses of 25 and 100 micrograms/kg/day, respectively. Serum FSH concentrations were reduced (p = 0.07) in the highest dose group. In contrast, pituitary content of FSH and LH increased with PCB-126 doses (p = 0.004, p = 0.002, respectively). Despite changes in reproductive hormones, PCB-126 had no effect on the androgen receptor content of the prostate. The effect of PCB-126 was tested in the hemicastrated rat, and suggested adverse effects on testosterone secretion. To test the effects of PCB exposure on FSH pituitary isoforms, 4 groups of 10 male rats received two i.p. injections, one day apart, of either corn oil, PCB 153 (25 mg/kg/day), estradiol-17 beta (E2; 20 micrograms/kg/day), or PCB 126 (0.1 mg/kg/day). Serum T4 levels were higher (p < 0.01) in the E2 and PCB 153 groups, and slightly reduced in the PCB 126-treated groups, compared to controls. Simultaneous purification of pituitary FSH and TSH isoforms was performed by HPLC, using two chromatofocusing columns in series. In contrast to TSH isoforms, the distribution of FSH isoforms over the chromatography run differed slightly between treatment groups; the amounts of FSH isoform eluted during the pH gradient were lower (p < 0.05) in E2 and PCB 153-treated rats than in control or PCB 126-treated rats. The similarity between the effects of E2 and PCB 153 on T4 and FSH isoforms supports the contention that PCB 153 possesses estrogenic properties. Serum LH and T4 concentrations were the most sensitive and practical endocrine indicators of PCBs 126 and 153 exposure in male rats.  (+info)

This statistic shows the production volume of unsaturated polyester resins for fiber glass reinforced plastics in Japan from 2012 to 2019.
Human health: In vitro data were found in the Toxcast database of which 49 assays relate to EATS endpoints. For estrogen activity 23 results are available, for androgen activity 9, for thyroid activity 15 and for steroidogenesis 2. All assays were negative when including those where cytotoxicity was exceeding the activity concentration (7 assays). Beside cytotoxicity, 5 assays showed additional flags on which basis the active result was concluded to be negative as well. Several in vivo repeated dose and reproductive toxicity assays are available: 28-and 90-day studies (OECD TG 407 and 408); 38 to 60-days repeated dose toxicity information from the dose range finder (DRF, eq to OECD TG 421) for the Extended One Generation Reproductive Toxicity test (EOGRT, OECD TG 443), the EOGRT study itself and the developmental toxicity studies (OECD TG 414). On fertility there are the DRF for the EOGRT and the main EOGRT itself. For developmental toxicity, studies in rat and rabbit are available. In all these ...
Partly cited from SIAR for SIAM 23 (Jeju, Korea, October 17-20, 2006): Studies in Animals No studies have been performed to explicitly address the question of reproductive effects in animals caused by 3-isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexyl isocyanate. However, relevant information can be found in studies on different endpoints. Histopathological results of a subacute 28-day inhalation study in rats according to OECD TG 412 (adjusted to fulfill both the TSCA § 798.2250 as well as EU Guideline 92/69/EEC) showed no effects on the reproductive organs (ovaries, oviducts and testes) at tested concentrations of up to 4.1 mg/m3. Testes and ovary weights were also not affected. The NOAEC for general toxicity is 0.24 mg/m3. For further details on general toxicity see chapter 7.5.3 (Bayer AG, 2003). Based on the results there are no indications for specific adverse effects on the reproductive organs following 28-day treatment with up to 4.1 mg/m3despite the fact that already at 1.05 mg/m3the ...
Under section 8 in the Annexes of the information, required Toxicological Information is outlined. In section 8.4, Mutagenicity testing assays are listed, which call for a tiered approach to toxicological assessment of substances. Further, under section 8.5 and 8.6 Acute Toxicity and Repeated Dose Toxicity assays are noted. Although the approach and procedures for testing are outlined, the interpretation of results and navigation of testing options requires expertise and experience. BioReliance has assembled the foremost collection of scientists available anywhere and thus you can rely on us to assist in your REACH testing needs ...
PMIScience.com is operated by Philip Morris International for the purpose of publishing and disseminating scientific information about Philip Morris Internationals efforts to develop and assess products that have the potential to reduce individual risk and population harm associated with tobacco use. This site is for use by scientists, the public health and regulatory communities, and other stakeholders with an interest in tobacco policy. The purpose of this site is not for advertising or marketing. It is not intended for use by consumers ...
Read chapter 9 Effects of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 on Reproduction and Development: This report provides a critical review of toxicologic, epidemiologic, an...
Development of a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for toxicity assessment of commonly used nanoparticles is urgently needed for the sustainable development of nanotechnology. A neural cell with high sensitivity and conductivity has become a potential candidate for a cell chip to investigate toxicity of environmental influences. A neural cell immobilized on a conductive surface has become a potential tool for the assessment of nanotoxicity based on electrochemical methods. The effective electrochemical monitoring largely depends on the adequate attachment of a neural cell on the chip surfaces. Recently, establishment of integrin receptor specific ligand molecules arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) or its several modifications RGD-Multi Armed Peptide terminated with cysteine (RGD-MAP-C), C(RGD)4 ensure farm attachment of neural cell on the electrode surfaces either in their two dimensional (dot) or three dimensional (rod or pillar) like nano-scale arrangement. A three dimensional RGD modified
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
A disk-shaped thin plate or a long-sized thin plate having a roll appearance housed in a casing in which openings for penetration of test substance are formed and on which diffusion-limiting membranes are adhered to cover each openings. Also a driving mechanism for moving the thin plate is provided with the casing. The casing thus houses the thin plate and is provided with the driving mechanism and is positioned in a test apparatus body having a concentration measuring electrode therein. Multiple measurments of concentration of a test substance are carried out by moving the thin plate by the driving mechanism to position the diffusion-limiting membrane having the test solution deposited thereon to the position available to contact with the concentration measuring electrode, while keeping the casing placed in the test apparatus body. As a result, a plurality of measurements of concentration of the test substance is carried out easily.
I have been working with a team of EPA colleagues to create an on-line tool, Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS), that will help both researchers and regulators readily use available protein sequence and structural knowledge to extrapolate chemical toxicity information across species. When complete, this innovative research tool will help predict potential chemical susceptibility to wildlife, including plants and animals.. Through the years, scientists have come to understand that the sensitivity of a species to a chemical is determined by a number of factors including chemical exposure, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and the organisms life-history. Additionally, an important consideration for species susceptibility is the presence or absence of proteins that interact with chemicals. Those that interact can be referred to as protein targets. Researchers take advantage of such protein targets to develop or improve drugs and/or pesticides, ...
Currently, products made with nanomaterials are used widely, especially in biology, bio-technologies, and medical areas. different NPs), and each of the NPs were characterized by numerous techniques, for example, zeta potentials, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Evaluation of the no observed adverse effect level and systemic toxicities of all NPs were performed by thorough evaluation steps and the toxicokinetics step, which included in vivo studies with zinc oxide and silica NPs. A peer review committee was structured to evaluate and verify the reliability of toxicity checks, and the risk communication step was also needed to convey the current findings to academia, industry, and consumers. Several limitations were experienced in the RT-NASA project, and they are discussed for thought for improvements in future studies. Keywords: nanomaterials, nanotoxicity, toxicokinetics, physicochemical house, peer review Intro Nanoparticles (NPs) refer to compounds or ...
As science progresses, new methods are developed to accomplish tasks. Some help medical and agricultural science work faster, others allow completely news ways of doing things. In the business of promoting new crop traits, CRISPR is one example of a revolutionary new technology that opens up new avenues. But it isnt the only one. In […]. ...
Description. The goal of 3.044 is to teach cost-effective and sustainable production of solid material with a desired geometry, structure or distribution of structures, and production volume. Toward this end, it is organized around different types of phase transformations which determine the structure in various processes for making materials, in roughly increasing order of entropy change during those transformations: solid heat treatment, liquid-solid processing, fluid behavior, deformation processing, and vapor-solid processing. The course ends with several lectures that place the subject in the context of society at large. The goal of 3.044 is to teach cost-effective and sustainable production of solid material with a desired geometry, structure or distribution of structures, and production volume. Toward this end, it is organized around different types of phase transformations which determine the structure in various processes for making materials, in roughly increasing order of entropy ...
Volume weighed percent positive (VWPP) - The VWPP for a specific product-pathogen pair is calculated by combining the production volumes (production volume can be defined as the amount (weight or numbers of head) of product produced per year) for establishments with their sampling results. This provides a more accurate estimation than a percent positive, but the data do not meet the statistical requirements to make a prevalence estimate. VWPP is more public health focused than PP, in that weighting results by volume reflects exposure of the public to specific pathogens ...
BMWs new era of sports cars will commence in June when the $135,700 BMW i8 plug-in hybrid goes on sale.. The launch date was announced with minimal fanfare on the BMW USA website, and while examples of the 362hp carbon fiber car will touch down in BMW dealerships, they wont stay for long as every one is allegedly already spoken for.. Production volumes will be modest for 2014, wi More. BMWs new era of sports cars will commence in June when the $135,700 BMW i8 plug-in hybrid goes on sale.. The launch date was announced with minimal fanfare on the BMW USA website, and while examples of the 362hp carbon fiber car will touch down in BMW dealerships, they wont stay for long as every one is allegedly already spoken for.. Production volumes will be modest for 2014, wi More. […]. ...
The objectives of the Human Health Exposure Assessment include 1 estimate the type and magnitude of exposures to contaminants 2 Identify contaminants of concern 3 Identify sites for remedial action 4 Recommend sites for the no action remedial alternative and 5 Provide a basis for detailed characterization of the risk associated with all sites. This document consists of the following An executive summary. Vol I - Land use and exposed population evaluations. Vol. II III - Toxicity assessment includes army and shell toxicity profiles. Vol. IV - PPLV Methodology. Vol. V - PPLV calculations. Vol. VI - Study area exposure analysis a introduction, B Western study ares, C Southern study area, D northern Central study area, E Central study area, F Eastern study area, G South plants study area, and H North plants study area. Vol. VII - Summary exposure assessment. Vol. VIII.
ACToR was developed to support the ToxCast program of the EPA National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT). ToxCast develops faster methods to evaluate the potential toxicity for thousands of chemicals using computer modeling and advanced molecular biology techniques. ACToR was used to analyze toxicity information on almost 10,000 chemicals regulated by EPA and to identify data gaps to be addressed by ToxCast, which will greatly help EPA prioritize future testing of chemicals. Key findings are that while acute toxicity data is available for 59 percent of the surveyed chemicals, detailed testing information is much more limited. Twenty-six percent of the 10,000 chemicals have carcinogenicity testing data, 29 percent have developmental toxicity testing data, and 11 percent have complete reproductive toxicity test results ...
... BEIJING April 18 /- BioDuro & The National Center fo...Dean Rodwell BioDuros Vice-President of Toxicology stated Although...Dr. Li Bo from the National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutica...The Centers main tasks are to carry out the toxicological tests andp...,BioDuro,&,The,National,Center,for,Safety,Evaluation,of,Drugs,Received,Full,AAALAC,Accreditation,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Washington, D.C. - Riding the wave of the future, EPAs ToxCastTM program looks to revolutionize the agencys chemical toxicity evaluation procedures.  ...
The aim of this Challenge was to develop and characterise non-mammalian assays to provide an indication of developmental and reproductive toxicity potential to mammals, including man, in order to reduce and refine in vivo mammalian testing. To address this Challenge, the team at the Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences/ Toxicology, led by Professor Raymond Pieters, have formed a company called Vivaltes that offers a service pipeline for toxicological assessments using non-mammalian species.
Newcells Biotech Ltd has developed an in vitro model of the retinal pigmented epithelium, to assess the safety and efficacy of novel ocular compounds. This technology could better predict the outcome in the human eye and reduce the number of animals used to assess the toxicity of ocular drugs. An end-user pharmaceutical company, able to provide access to ocular compounds and data with known in vivo/in vitro toxicity profiles, is sought to validate the model.
How to use a panel of response element vectors targeting the key pathways involved in the cellular stress response. These vectors can be incorporated into diverse cell model systems to predict specific target site toxicities and create chemical stress signatures for specific classes of compounds.
The medieval physician Paracelsus said: Poison is in everything, and no thing is without poison. The dosage makes it either a poison or a remedy. Often quoted in paraphrase as the dose makes the poison, this truism has dominated
The therapy has already produced encouraging results in pre-clinical studies and regulatory toxicology tests in preparation for first-in-human clinical trials. - News - PharmaTimes
Driven by wide recognition that target tissue (or cell) dose is the most appropriate metric of dose for risk and safety assessment, there has been continued growth in the development of computational tools for estimating target tissue dose in vivo for a wide range of materials: volatile and non-volatile materials [42-44] organic chemicals [45, 46], pharmaceuticals [47, 48], and particulates and ultrafine particulates [49-53]. It is surprising, then, given the growing importance of in vitro studies to chemical and particle risk assessment [10] that few efforts [43, 54-56] have been directed at developing computational models of dosimetry for in vitro systems. In part, this oversight may be the result of the incorrect belief that in contrast to in vivo, there are no important kinetic or other processes to consider when addressing the issue of target tissue dose in vitro. We have shown this assumption is not universally true for chemicals [54] and particulates, including nanomaterials [12]. Thus, ...
Injection molding is best suited for large production volumes. It is a high investment cost with a complex processing method, typically producing excess scrap.
trina allmax 255w Trina ALLMAX 255W Solar Module, model TSM-PD05.05, provides exceptional value for residential grid-tie & off-grid projects. One of the most versatile solar modules available, and in a power range & size that makes it easy to build systems with all the popular BOS components. Trina is also one of the top-ranked manufacturers in terms of both production volume, price, and ethics.
Our world-leading experts in fire chemistry, toxicity, and human behaviour are at the forefront of the development of National and International standards in the field ...
Scientists are now closer to having the ability to determine what a safe dose of nanomaterials is to humans, thanks to a comprehensive study completed at PNNL.
A probabilistic ecological hazard assessment technique, chemical toxicity distributions, was used to examine the relative sensitivities of in vitro and in vivo assays for detecting estrogenicity, and to assess the hazards ...
Toxicological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Food Ingredients - Chapter IV.C.3.a. Short-Term Toxicity Studies with Rodents
Clinical trial for Coronary Artery Lesions , XIENCE 90: A Safety Evaluation of 3-month DAPT After XIENCE Implantation for HBR Patients.
Desenvolvimento folicular in vitro Efeito de fatores de crescimento (NGF e FGF-10) e hormônio insulina no cultivo in vitro de folículos ovarianos caprinos. Állatgyógyszerészet Novas Edições Acadêmicas (09.02.2015) - ISBN-13: 978-3-639-74377-7 ...
Powered by Permasure® ; Simple to use toxicity modeller app offering instant safe-use times accounting for temperature and chemical toxicity for over 4000…
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Toxicity Identification (TI)/Reduction Evaluations (RE) Service by AquaTox Testing & Consulting Inc.. AquaTox uses the Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) ...
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All about Principles for the Toxicological Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Food: Environmental Health Criteria Series 104 by ILO. LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers
This paper aimed to evaluate the test results of acute toxicity on effluent samples which were exempted from applying of ecotoxicity criteria. Total 316 effluent samples which were free from controlling of ecotoxicity regulation, were tested. Ratio of effluent samples which were exceeded the ecotoxicity criteria (TU > 1) indicated 23.7%. This ratio was a little bit higher than previous study (22.7%) on effluent samples which were controlled under ecotoxicity criteria. These results mean that our ecotoxicity management system is not appropriate and applying of ecotoxicity criteria to all effluent samples (82 industry categories) were needed in order to improve our ecotoxicity system. In addition, the same numeric criteria (TU 1 or 2) for all industry categories were proposed in consideration of these results. Ratio of effluent samples which exceeded the ecotoxicity criteria (TU > 1) with D. magna indicated 23.7%. However V. fischeri showed 14.6%. As a acute toxicity test organism, D. magna seemed ...
The regulatory evaluation of ecotoxicity studies for environmental risk and/or hazard assessment of chemicals is often performed using the method established by Klimisch and colleagues in 1997. The method was, at that time, an important step toward improved evaluation of study reliability, but lately it has been criticized for lack of detail and guidance, and for not ensuring sufficient consistency among risk assessors. A new evaluation method was thus developed: Criteria for Reporting and Evaluating ecotoxicity Data (CRED). The CRED evaluation method aims at strengthening consistency and transparency of hazard and risk assessment of chemicals by providing criteria and guidance for reliability and relevance evaluation of aquatic ecotoxicity studies. A two-phased ring test was conducted to compare and characterize the differences between the CRED and Klimisch evaluation methods. A total of 75 risk assessors from 12 countries participated. Results show that the CRED evaluation method provides a more
A 4-week Repeated dose Oral Toxicity Study of Mecasin in Sprague-Dawley Rats to Determine the Appropriate Doses for a 13-week, Repeated Toxicity Test - four week repeated toxicity test;gami jakyak gamcho buja decoction (mecasin);herbal medicine;sprague-dawley rat;
A 4-week Repeated dose Oral Toxicity Study of Mecasin in Sprague-Dawley Rats to Determine the Appropriate Doses for a 13-week, Repeated Toxicity Test;kpubs;kpubs.org
While direct toxicity assessment (DTA) is now widely recognised as a useful tool for environmental risk assessment, many existing tests fail to meet end-user needs. This article describes the significant progress made to the MICREDOX® DTA assay, developed at Lincoln Ventures Ltd, brought about by miniaturising this assay to a multi-well plate format combined with limiting current microelectrode transduction. The benefits have been reduced: preparation time, reduced assay time, lower material costs and a higher level of replication achieved. To validate the precision of the miniaturised format, the concentrations required to cause a 50% decrease in signal (EC50) by an archetypal group of toxicants, the chlorophenols, were determined using two terrestrial bacterial strains, Escherichia coli K12 and Klebsiella oxytoca 13183. The assay time was then reduced by stepwise adjustment of the incubation time, from 60 down to 5 min, and the EC50s reported by E. coli to each of the toxicants after 45, 30, ...
The need for alternative approaches to the use of vertebrate animals for hazard assessment of chemicals and pollutants has become of increasing importance. It is now the first consideration when initiating a vertebrate ecotoxicity test, to ensure that unnecessary use of vertebrate organisms is minimized wherever possible. For some regulatory purposes, the use of vertebrate organisms for environmental risk assessments has been banned; in other situations, the number of organisms tested has been dramatically reduced or the severity of the procedure refined. However, there is still a long way to go to achieve a complete replacement of vertebrate organisms to generate environmental hazard data. The development of animal alternatives is based not just on ethical considerations but also on reducing the cost of performing vertebrate ecotoxicity tests and in some cases on providing better information aimed at improving environmental risk assessments. The present Focus article provides an overview of the ...
Neurodegenerative properties of acrylamide were studied in vitro by exposure of differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells for 72 h. The number of neurites per cell and the total cellular protein content were determined every 24 h throughout the exposure and the subsequent 96-h recovery period. Using kinetic data on the metabolism of acrylamide in rat, a biokinetic model was constructed in which the in vitro toxicity data were integrated. Using this model, we estimated the acute and subchronic toxicity of acrylamide for the rat in vivo. These estimations were compared to experimentally derived lowest observed effect doses (LOEDs) for daily intraperitoneal exposure (1, 10, 30, and 90 days) to acrylamide. The estimated LOEDs differed maximally twofold from the experimental LOEDs, and the nonlinear response to acrylamide exposure over time was simulated correctly. It is concluded that the integration of the present in vitro toxicity data with kinetic data gives adequate estimates of acute and ...
According to „Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment Part B: Hazard assessment derivation of DNELs is not necessary if no adverse effects have been observed in studies at the highest recommended concentrations/doses tested. In all available acute toxicity tests Acetoguanamine is reported to cause no adverse effects at the highest recommended dose. Therefore no acute DNELs could be derived. No data from repeated dose toxicity studies, reproductive studies (including developmental toxicity) and carcinogenity studies are available for Acetoguanamine. These studies are necessary to evaluate possible long term effects and derive long term DNELs on the basis of a reliable dose descriptor N(L)OAEL, benchmark dose etc. Because of this reason the registrant will derive long term DNELs for Acetoguanamine in case that adverse effects should appear in the proposed repeated dose studies. ...
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Cell Culture Methods for in vitro Toxicology introduces the reader to a range of techniques involved in the use of in vitro cell culture in toxicological studies. It deals with major cell types studie
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ASTM E724 : Standard Guide for Conducting Static Acute Toxicity Tests Starting with Embryos of Four Species of Saltwater Bivalve Molluscs
The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsfords assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal
1. Relevant Toxicology Data, exposure pattern and route The calculation of the DNEL is based on the results of a 28 day repeated dose toxicity study in rats (OECD 407). The oral administration of the test material resulted in microscopic changes in the mid- and high-dose groups in the adrenals, kidneys, and stomach/forestomach. The effects on the adrenals were accompanied by an increased organ weight. The FOB (functional observational battery) identified decreased landing foot splay in the mid- and high-dose females, and also decreased rectal temperature in the high-dose females. A NOAEL for systemic toxicity was established at 150 mg/kg bw. 2. Mode of action No non-threshold mode of action is associated with this substance, in particular, the test substance has no genotoxic potential. 3. Correction of dose descriptor NOAEL (oral) is converted into a NOAEL(corrected) in accordance to Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R.8: Characterization of dose ...
Companies develop a budget based on their expectations for their most likely level of sales and expenses. Often, a company can expect that their production and sales volume will vary from budget period to budget period. They can use their various expected levels of production to create a flexible budget that includes these different levels of production. Then, they can modify the flexible budget when they have their actual production volume and compare it to the flexible budget for the same production volume. A flexible budget is more complicated, requires a solid understanding of a companys fixed and variable expenses, and allows for greater control over changes that occur throughout the year. For example, suppose a proposed sale of items does not occur because the expected client opted to go with another supplier. In a static budget situation, this would result in large variances in many accounts due to the static budget being set based on sales that included the potential large client. A ...
Daqo New Energy provides non-GAAP gross profit, non-GAAP gross margin, EBITDA and EBITDA margin on a non-GAAP basis to provide supplemental information regarding its operating performance. For more information on these non-GAAP financial measures, please see the section captioned Non-GAAP Financial Measures and the tables captioned Reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures to comparable US GAAP measures set forth at the end of this press release.. ** Production cost and cash cost only refer to production in our Xinjiang polysilicon facilities. Production cost is calculated by the inventoriable costs relating to production of polysilicon in Xinjiang divided by the production volume in the quarter. Cash cost is calculated by the inventoriable costs relating to production of polysilicon excluding depreciation expense of Xinjiang divided by the production volume in the quarter.. We are proud that the Company continues to deliver excellent performances in the second quarter of 2014 and ...
The Brazilian sugar and alcohol sector will grind a record-breaking volume of sugarcane this year according to results of a second national crop survey, released last week by Conab. The results show that the total harvest is expected to reach 629.02 million tons, a 10% increase over 2008. The growth is a result of better distribution of rainfall and expanded planted area, which reached 7.74 million hectares.
Video created by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for the course Managerial Accounting: Tools for Facilitating and Guiding Business Decisions. After establishing goals, setting targets, and the budget, upper management uses variance ...
A reliable oral Combined Repeated Dose Toxicity Study with the Reproduction/Developmental Toxicity Screening Test withN-(2-(4-amino-N-ethyl-m-toluidino)ethyl)methanesulphonamide sesquisulphate (CAS 25646-71-3) is available and was performed according to OECD 422 (van Otterdijk, 2018) and in compliance with GLP. Groups of 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats were exposed to the test substance at dose levels of 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg bw/day by oral gavage once daily for 7 days/week. Males were treated for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, and up to termination (for 29 days). Females that delivered offspring were treated for 2 weeks prior to mating, during mating, during gestation, and at least 13-15 days of lactation (for 50-56 days). One female, which failed to deliver, was treated for 41 days. Control animals (10 per sex and dose) received the concurrent vehicle, water, only. Dose levels in this study were based on the results of a dose range finding study. In this range finding study, rats ...
Aquatic toxicity tests were originally designed for individual compounds that are soluble and stable in water. For sparingly soluble substances that are not toxic at the solubility limit, the issue is whether tests should be performed with insoluble test substance present. Based on a literature evaluation of the physiology of uptake, it was concluded that only the dissolved fraction is available for uptake and that the insoluble test substance may introduce artifacts that aggravate data interpretation. Therefore, toxicity tests should be conducted only up to the solubility limit. Testing of volatile, unstable, or adsorptive substances is complicated by the ability to keep exposure concentrations relatively constant. For these, appropriate test protocols including adequate design of the dosing systems must be employed. For test medium preparation, physical methods and, where necessary, use of low concentrations of certain solvents are recommended to support handling and speed of dissolution. ...
Eve Mourier, Christophe Richard, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer. The use of in vivo imaging to study pregnancy in non-rodent animals. 6. International Scientific Meeting - Days of Veterinary Medicine 2015, Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO). BEL., Sep 2015, Struga, Macedonia. 67 p., ⟨10.14432/j.macvetrev.2015.09.056⟩. ⟨hal-02741591⟩ ...
Plasma samples (5animals/sex/group) were collected from 100, 200 and 2000 ppm diphenyl sulphone dosed treatment groups, including control groups, after 1 and 12 weeks of treatment (this study was part of the 90 -day toxicity study in rats; ICI, 1981). These samples were then stored at -20° C whilst a reverse phase HPLC method was developed and validated . Pooled samples were then analysed for test article using this analytical procedure. The plasma diphenyl sulphone levels of treated animals showed a positive but non-linear correlation with dose. Circulating levels of diphenyl sulphone were comparable at the week 1 and 12 investigations for the 100 and 200 ppm dosed group. However, during week 12 group 2000 ppm dosed males showed a fall in plasma level when compared to week 1, whilst the plasma diphenyl sulphone level of 2000 ppm dosed females rose against the week 1 value. Consequently, on this occasion the plasma concentration shown by females was some four times higher than that of the ...
Preclinical toxicity studies have demonstrated that exposure of laboratory animals to liver enzyme inducers during preclinical safety assessment results in a signature of toxicological changes characterized by an increase in liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, cell proliferation, and, frequently in long-term (life-time) studies, hepatocarcinogenesis.
An anterolateral view (left side) of the blood supply of the male reproductive organs and lower limbs relative to the skeleton. The surface anatomy of the body is semi-transparent and tinted red. - Stock Image F002/2443
An anterior view of the blood supply of the male reproductive organs and lower limbs relative to the skeleton. The surface anatomy of the body is semi-transparent and tinted turquoise. - Stock Image F002/2809
The Tox21 partner agencies work together to develop, validate, and translate innovative in vitro HTS methods to characterize the impact of chemicals on key steps in toxicity pathways.. Data collected in the Tox21 initiative has been used to prioritize uncharacterized compounds for regulatory testing using both traditional and novel test methods. To more broadly address challenges in the field of toxicology, in 2018 Tox21 released a new strategic and operational plan (Thomas et al. 2018) that expands the focus of its research activities. New focus areas include expanding its portfolio of alternative test systems, addressing technical limitations of in vitro test systems, curating legacy in vivo toxicity testing data, establishing scientific confidence in in vitro test systems, and refining alternative methods for characterizing pharmacokinetics and in vitro assay disposition. The eventual goal of Tox21 is to use HTS methods to generate data that will allow risk assessors to more accurately ...
The resource Dermal Absorption and Toxicity evaluation provides a state of the art evaluation of the dermal absorption method, and is split into six good equipped sections. Written by way of across the world famous specialists within the box, this moment variation is an entire revised and up-to-date textual content, overlaying the big variety of equipment used to evaluate pores and skin absorption and some of the governmental and business courses fascinated by pores and skin permeation and toxicity. those contain replacement in silico, in vitro, and in vivo ideas to behavior reports for regulatory standards. To make room for this new elevated content material, the editors are publishing a concurrent textual content entitled: Dermatological and beauty improvement with a focus on matters serious about dermatological and beauty ...
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Citation: NIEHS Technical Report on the Reproductive, Developmental, and General Toxicity Study of 3-Azido-3-deoxythymidine (AZT) and Rifabutin Combinations (CASRNs 30516-87-1 and 72559-06-9) Administered by Gavage to Swiss (CD-1®) ...
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2014;68:275-296. Thousands of man-made chemicals in use today may enter the food chain. Some of these may result in human exposure, while no toxicological data may be available. The present manuscript illustrates a decision tree for risk assessors and managers to establish fast and reliable safety levels of concern associated with dietary exposures.. Thousands of man-made chemicals are in use today. Many of these compounds may enter the food chain and result in human exposure. Since toxicological information is limited or lacking for the vast majority of these chemicals, the assessment of their health significance is therefore difficult, but envisaged.. A decision tree has been developed taking into account practical application of in silico methods. Basic concepts of classical risk assessment have been integrated: 1) exposure assessment 2) hazard identification 3) hazard characterization and 4) risk characterization.. The present work indicates that if ...
Decreased performance on neurocognitive tests Acute cholinergic toxicity; Dose-dependent accumulation in cortex, midbrain, and ... Chemical toxicity[edit]. The chemical toxicity of depleted uranium is identical to that of natural uranium and about a million ... Epidemiological studies and toxicological tests on laboratory animals point to it as being immunotoxic,[96] teratogenic,[97][98 ... After testing various metals, ordnance researchers settled on depleted uranium. The US and NATO militaries used DU penetrator ...
Toxicities[edit]. Related to cannabinoids[edit]. No fatal overdoses with cannabis use have been reported as of 2006.[24] A ... long-term users can produce positive tests for two to three months after ceasing cannabis use (see drug test).[23] ... "Chemicals known to the state to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity" (PDF). ca.gov. 2012-07-20. Archived from the original ( ... THC, the principal psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, has an extremely low toxicity and the amount that can enter ...
No tests have been performed on cardiovascular toxicity.[1][12][13][14][15][16][17] ... August 2016). "Emerging toxicity of 5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane (MDAI): Pharmacokinetics, behaviour, thermoregulation and ... toxicity: a brief overview and update". Human Psychopharmacology. 28 (4): 345-55. doi:10.1002/hup.2298. PMID 23881883.. ...
Gallagher, Megan Erin (2003). Toxicity Testing Requirements, Methods and Proposed Alternatives (PDF). Environs. 26. p. 253.. ... These tests not only reduce animal testing, but are more precise and accurate at protecting humans from toxic substances.[10] ... Products tested on animals are not considered cruelty-free, since these tests are often painful and cause the suffering and ... Other methods replace the Draize eye test by using in vitro (test-tube) human tissue. Computer-based systems allow for ...
Main article: Doubly labeled water test. Heavy water is employed as part of a mixture with H218O for a common and safe test of ... Toxicity in humans[edit]. Because it would take a very large amount of heavy water to replace 25% to 50% of a human being's ... See doubly labeled water testing. Since one in about every 6,400 hydrogen atoms is deuterium, a 50 kg human containing 32 kg of ... The quantity of heavy water involved was far below levels that could induce heavy water toxicity, but several employees ...
... has had extensive use as a test organism and in some circumstances is an acceptable alternative to the toxicity testing of ... Toxicity testEdit. Artemia found favor as a model organism for use in toxicological assays, despite the recognition that it is ... L. Lewan; M. Anderrson & P. Morales-Gomez (1992). "The use of Artemia salina in toxicity testing". Alternatives to Laboratory ... makes them ideal animals running biological toxicity assays and it has become a model organism used to test the toxicity of ...
... are used in various aquatic bioassays., (also called toxicity tests). [8] Because of their wide distribution, ... "Use of the amphipod crustacean Hyalella azteca in freshwater and estuarine sediment toxicity tests". EPA Science Inventory. ... "Use of the amphipod crustacean Hyalella azteca in freshwater and estuarine sediment toxicity tests". EPA Science Inventory. ... 2020). Testing the bioaccumulation potential of manufactured nanomaterials in the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. ...
"Toxicity Testing of Dispersants , EPA Response to BP Spill in the Gulf of Mexico , US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-01. " ... "Unified Command for the BP Oil Spill , NOAA Conducts Tests to Determine Fate of Whale Found Dead in Gulf of Mexico". ... "EPA's results indicated that none of the eight dispersants tested, including the product in use in the Gulf, displayed ... BP announces plans to have the well testing vessel Toisa Pisces replace the Discoverer Enterprise for bringing oil to the ...
"Toxicity Testing of Dispersants , EPA Response to BP Spill in the Gulf of Mexico , US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-03. " ... "Comparative Toxicity of Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Test Species ... "EPA Releases Second Phase of Toxicity Testing Data for Eight Oil Dispersants , Restore the Gulf". App.restorethegulf.gov. ... BP exec Doug Suttles says he would eat seafood from the Gulf saying, "There's been a tremendous amount of testing done by NOAA ...
"Toxicity Testing of Dispersants , EPA Response to BP Spill in the Gulf of Mexico , US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved August 3, 2010 ... Conducting the test would have taken 9-12 hours and $128,000. By canceling the cement test BP paid only $10,000. Crew leaves on ... "EPA Releases Second Phase of Toxicity Testing Data for Eight Oil Dispersants , Restore the Gulf". App.restorethegulf.gov. ... Tests begin on testing well integrity. Salazar issues a new moratorium until November 30 on deepwater wells that use a blowout ...
"Nonclinical Juvenile Toxicity Testing". In Hood, R.D. (ed.). Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology: A Practical Approach, ... Early in Holson's career, while at NCTR, he led studies that assessed the developmental toxicity of FD&C Red No. 2, an amaranth ... Holson, J. F.; Stump, D. G.; Pearce, L. B.; Watson, R. E.; DeSesso, J. M. (2015-04-01). "Absence of developmental toxicity in a ... Stump, D. G.; Holson, J. F.; Harris, C.; Pearce, L. B.; Watson, R. E.; DeSesso, J. M. (2015-04-01). "Developmental toxicity in ...
Toxicity[edit]. As of 1994, limited information existed on the acute toxicity of carbonyl sulfide in humans and in animals.[3] ... In tests with rats, 50% animals died when exposed to 6997140000000000000♠1400 ppm of COS for 90 minutes, or at ...
Blaise, C.; Férard, J-F. (2005). Small-scale Freshwater Toxicity Investigations: Toxicity Test Methods. Springer. p. 398. ISBN ...
"Nano World: Nanoparticle toxicity tests". Physorg.com. 5 April 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2010. "Titanium dioxide" (PDF). 93. ... Koleske, J. V. (1995). Paint and Coating Testing Manual. ASTM International. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-8031-2060-0. Koleske, J. V. ( ... In 2016 Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) tests concluded that the use of nano Titanium Dioxide (95%-100% rutile ... These studies were later refuted, when it was discovered that the testing methodology couldn't differentiate between penetrated ...
Animal tests indicate low toxicity. Little is known about chronic effects. For liver toxicity, the 3,4-epoxide are proposed ...
Types of toxicityEdit. *Acute toxicity occurs over a period of hours or a few days, and is less of a problem than chronic ... blood test for vitamin A. Relevance of blood testsEdit. Retinol concentrations are nonsensitive indicatorsEdit. Assessing ... Sources of toxicityEdit. *Diet - liver is high in vitamin A. The liver of certain animals - including the polar bear, bearded ... Vitamin A toxicity has long been known to the Inuit and has been known by Europeans since at least 1597 when Gerrit de Veer ...
I. Acute toxicity to some freshwater fish and invertebrates in laboratory tests". Aquatic Toxicology. 2 (3): 175-185. doi: ...
A few challenges this program faces are transforming toxicity testing, screening pesticides for endocrine disruptors, and ... In 1996, the EPA proposed updating the Federal Testing Procedures[81] to add a new higher-speed test (US06) and an air- ... The EPA conducts fuel economy tests on very few vehicles. "Just 18 of the EPA's 17,000 employees work in the automobile-testing ... "SAB Pushes To Advise EPA To Conduct Toxicity Tests In Fracking Study". InsideEPA. Inside Washington Publishers. (subscription ...
"SAB Pushes To Advise EPA To Conduct Toxicity Tests In Fracking Study". InsideEPA. Inside Washington Publishers. (subscription ... In 1996, the EPA proposed updating the Federal Testing Procedures[46] to add a new higher-speed test (US06) and an air- ... The EPA conducts fuel economy tests on very few vehicles. "Just 18 of the EPA's 17,000 employees work in the automobile-testing ... Later road tests found better, but inconclusive, results.[112][113] Mercury emissions, 2005[edit]. In March 2005, nine states ( ...
Toxicity S 2. Interaction S 3. Allergy S 4. Addiction (dependence) S 5. Other side effects S 6. Contraindication S 7. ... Complementary test for treatment control N 7. Administrative activity N 8. On patient request (fears, doubts, wants). S 0. ...
"Southeast Asian experiences with the coliphage test". Toxicity Assessment. 3 (5): 551-564. doi:10.1002/tox.2540030510. Archived ... Variants of this test has been used for potable water across the globe, for example by the Cree community of Split Lake, ... "Portable Water-testing Kit: International Development Research Centre". Archived from the original on December 4, 2007. CS1 ... Gently heat until completely dissolved and distribute 9 ml into test tubes with an inverted Durham tube. Sterilize in an ...
"Performance Verification Testing; Rapid Toxicity Monitoring and Detection Systems; Overview and Analysis". Washington, DC: US ... An ATP test is the process of rapidly measuring active microorganisms in water through detection adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ... Second generation ATP tests are specifically designed for water, wastewater and industrial applications where, for the most ... Approved CWA Microbiological Test Methods. EPA. October 2002. EPA 821-R-02-026. Hanaor, Dorian A. H.; Sorrell, Charles C. (2014 ...
Nimmo, D. R.; Hamaker, T. L. (1982). "Mysids in toxicity testing - a review". Hydrobiologia. 93 (1-2): 171-178. doi:10.1007/ ... Americamysis bahia and Americamysis almyra are frequently used to test for pesticides and other toxic substances, with A. bahia ...
Marshall, E. (1983). "The murky world of toxicity testing". Science. 220 (4602): 1130-1132. Bibcode:1983Sci...220.1130M. doi: ... Bowman tested the new seeds, and found that, as he had expected, some were resistant to glyphosate. He intentionally replanted ... "Mass Roundup Settlement Could Test the Limits of Tort Law". Walden Consultants LLC. 2019-05-24. Retrieved 2019-12-18. "Bayer's ... Schneider, Keith "Faking it: The Case against Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories", Amicus Journal, Spring 1983. Novak, Roger A. ( ...
Toxicity Tests for Novarseno-benzene (Neosalvarsan). London, Medical Research Council Special Report No. 128 Hurst, C. C. ( ...
Blood and Biochemical Test Manual; Dermal Toxicity Test Standard Operating Manual";"Genetic Toxicology Testing Standard ... For over 20 years, Wang has researched drug and toxicity testing and has experience in new drug development. Since 2001, he has ... Long-Term Toxicity Test Standard Operating Manual; Common Instruments Using Standard Operating Manual; Animal Husbandry ... He has developed test methods, several of which are included in Pharmacology Research Methodology (Peoples Health Press, 2nd ...
High-Throughput Screening Methods in Toxicity Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 107-127. doi:10.1002/9781118538203.ch5. ISBN ... These techniques can be used to assess the success of cell culture techniques, cryopreservation techniques, the toxicity of ... Wusteman MC, Pegg DE, Robinson MP, Wang LH, Fitch P (February 2002). "Vitrification media: toxicity, permeability, and ... but its test cells are diluted in liquid and then kept in liquid through the examination process. The "tadpoling" method can be ...
It is classified in toxicity class III. It shows some evidence of toxicity to dogs and cats, such as changes in body weight and ... Tests of carcinogenicity in this range yielded differing results. It is moderately toxic to fish. "Extension Toxicology Network ...
Marshall, Eliot (1983-06-10). "The murky world of toxicity testing" (PDF). Science. 220 (4602): 1130-1132. Bibcode:1983Sci... ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "The Scandal in Chemical Testing". The New York Times. 1983-05-16. Retrieved 2012-07-27 ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Merrell, Paul (Winter 1981). "The Industrial Bio-Test Caper" (PDF). NCAP News. 2 (3): 2 ... naproxen largely led to the Food and Drug Administration's uncovering of extensive scientific misconduct by Industrial Bio-Test ...
"Nano World: Nanoparticle toxicity tests". Physorg.com. 5 April 2006. Retrieved 12 April 2010.. ... Koleske, J. V. (1995). Paint and Coating Testing Manual. ASTM International. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-8031-2060-0. .. ... Koleske, J. V. (1995). Paint and Coating Testing Manual. ASTM International. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-8031-2060-0. .. ...
ToxicityEdit. Although it is difficult to generalize on the toxicity of such a broad class of compounds, simple ketones are, in ... Qualitative organic testsEdit. Ketones give positive results in Brady's test, the reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to ... Methyl ketones give positive results for the iodoform test.[8] Ketones also give positive results when treated with ...
They started to test L-735,524 on animals a couple months later and found that it was safe for animals. Consequently, the ... However, it failed safety assessments because of its toxicity.[11] Seeing that the research on their drug was heading in the ... "High bilirubin levels: Meaning, symptoms, and tests". Medical News Today. Retrieved 2018-10-21 ...
... "set of practices that cannot be tested, refuse to be tested, or consistently fail tests."[192] Dawkins argued that if a ... Dasgupta, Amitava; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine A (2011). Herbal Supplements: Efficacy, Toxicity, Interactions with Western Drugs ... There are also reasons why a placebo treatment group may outperform a "no-treatment" group in a test which are not related to a ... A 2015 study of users in the United States also found elevated blood lead levels in 40 percent of those tested. Other concerns ...
Madan RK, Levitt J (April 2014). "A review of toxicity from topical salicylic acid preparations". Journal of the American ... she must have a confirmed negative pregnancy test and use an effective form of birth control.[20] In 2008, the United States ... flutamide has a risk of serious liver toxicity, and cases of death in women taking even low doses of the medication to treat ... iPledge requires the woman to have two negative pregnancy tests and to use two types of birth control for at least one month ...
People who would like to be tested for a specific family member or friend without joining any of the bone marrow registry data ... The injury of the mucosal lining of the mouth and throat is a common regimen-related toxicity following ablative HSCT regimens ... A compatible donor is found by doing additional HLA-testing from the blood of potential donors. The HLA genes fall in two ... banks may contact a private HLA testing laboratory and be tested with a mouth swab to see if they are a potential match.[20] A ...
... it is recommended that their TSH and free T4 levels be tested after six weeks to check that they are within normal range.[11] ... and tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants increase its toxicity. On the other hand, lithium can cause hyperthyroidism (but ... Repeat thyroid function tests should be done five weeks after the dosage is increased.[11] ... "Toxicity, Thyroid Hormone". WebMd. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 31 October 2010 ...
Laboratory testing[edit]. Tests for antibodies in the blood by ELISA and Western blot is the most widely used method for Lyme ... Dymond NL, Swift IM (June 2008). "Permethrin toxicity in cats: a retrospective study of 20 cases". Aust Vet J. 86 (6): 219-23. ... As all people with later-stage infection will have a positive antibody test, simple blood tests can exclude Lyme disease as a ... The CDC does not recommend urine antigen tests, PCR tests on urine, immunofluorescent staining for cell-wall-deficient forms of ...
Examples include pulmonary function testing (e.g. nitrogen washout test, diffusion capacity testing (carbon monoxide, helium, ...
Various tests eliminated the possibility of the unknown element being thorium, radium, lead, bismuth, or thallium. The new ... Johnson, Garland T.; Lewis, Trent R.; Wagner, D. Wagner (1975). "Acute toxicity of cesium and rubidium compounds". Toxicology ... Flame test colour. Principal emission/absorption wavelength (nm) Crimson. 670.8. Yellow. 589.2. Violet. 766.5. Red-violet. ... Indeed, these flame test colours are the most common way of identifying them since all their salts with common ions are soluble ...
Research is being done testing various activated carbons' ability to store natural gas[1][2] and hydrogen gas.[1][2] The porous ... Tests of adsorption behaviour are usually done with nitrogen gas at 77 K under high vacuum, but in everyday terms activated ... The iodine capacity, mg/g, (ASTM D28 Standard Method test) may be used as an indication of total surface area. ... ASTM (D2866 Standard Method test) is used to determine the ash content of activated carbon. ...
Low toxicity and environmental impact of raw materials[edit]. The non-recycled components of cellulose insulation are still ... Fire Resistance Tests on Cellulose and Glass Fiber Insulated Wood Stud Shear Walls, Kodur, V.K.R.; Sultan, M.A.; Latour, J.C.; ... Once tested, registration with the EPA as a pesticide is required before a product may be touted as having pesticidal ... Proper testing of products containing borates must be performed in order to determine whether dosage and presentation are ...
Chronic toxicity: In an 18-months-study in rats with 10 mg/kg no signs of chronic toxicity were noted, with 50 mg/kg and 250 mg ... A dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and plasma and urine methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) test can be used to estimate who ... Studies in dogs revealed no toxicity relevant for humans. No evidence for a possible hepatic or cardiovascular toxicity was ... it was then tested for anti-cholinergic properties to see if it was a possible antidepressant but these tests also proved ...
Toxicity[edit]. Main article: Methanol Toxicity. Methanol occurs naturally in the human body and in some fruits, but is ... following a pilot test set up by a group of scientists involving blending gasoline with methanol between 1989 and 1992. The ... While methanol offers somewhat different toxicity exposure pathways, the effective toxicity is no worse than those of benzene ... However, for optimizing engine performance, fuel availability, toxicity and political advantage, a blend of ethanol, methanol ...
... also provides a test for theories in condensed matter physics. ... "Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles: Sources and Toxicity". Biointerphases. 2 (4): MR17-MR71. arXiv:0801.3280. doi:10.1116/ ...
... toxicity, monitoring and impacts on ecosystem health". Harmful Algae. 14: 271-300. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2011.10.025. hdl:1912/5118 ... whereby ships loaded with cargo when they reached the Seaway were not tested because their ballast water tanks were empty. ... and possible heavy metal toxicity. Plant populations on these soils tend to show low density, but goatgrass can form dense ...
A 2008 study tested the effect of using gene therapy to help restore the sight of patients with a rare form of inherited ... and the onset of toxicity is delayed. Methanol is commonly found in methylated spirits, denatured ethyl alcohol, to avoid ... A typical Snellen chart that is frequently used for visual acuity testing. ...
zinc toxicity Manganese 00002.3002.3 11; NE Trace A cofactor in enzyme functions Grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, leafy vegetables ... Reference ranges for blood tests, sorted logarithmically by mass above the scale and by molarity below. ... Chromium toxicity Molybdenum 00000.0450.045 2; 0.6 Trace The oxidases xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase[ ... molybdenum toxicity[32] Selenium 00000.0550.055 0.4; 0.3 Trace Essential to activity of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione ...
It can be used in photography and to test for certain metals. It can be used to treat wood. ... It can be reacted with iron(II) sulfate to detoxify (remove the toxicity of) it. ...
During NEEMO missions in Aquarius, the aquanauts are able to simulate living on a spacecraft and test spacewalk techniques for ... Oxygen toxicity. *Seasickness. *Uncontrolled decompression. *Diver behaviour and competence *Lack of competence ...
If you go into a hospital and have a blood test which measures viral proteins, cancer proteins, hormones, vitamins, bacterial ... As well as possibly warning predators about their toxicity, it is thought the main purpose of their flashing abdomen is to ...
Si H, Xu C, Zhang J, Zhang X, et al «Licochalcone A: An effective and low-toxicity compound against Toxoplasma gondii in vitro ... Reiter-Owona I, Petersen E, Joynson D, Aspöck H, et al «The past and present role of the Sabin-Feldman dye test in the ... Lykins J, Li X, Levigne P, Zhou Y, et al «Rapid, inexpensive, fingerstick, whole-blood, sensitive, specific, point-of-care test ... S'ha assajat un nou test que utilitza la tècnica d'immunocromatrografia de flux lateral per identificar d'una forma ràpida, ...
Related tests[edit]. Spirometry can also be part of a bronchial challenge test, used to determine bronchial hyperresponsiveness ... This is commonly referred to as a reversibility test, or a post bronchodilator test (Post BD), and is an important part in ... The tracer gas is analyzed simultaneously with CO to determine the distribution of the test gas mixture. This test will pick up ... During the test the person inhales a test gas mixture that consisting of regular air that includes a inert tracer gas and CO, ...
... s' aquatic toxicity is as severe as or more so than many current solvents.[62][63][64] Mortality isn't necessarily ... Some ionic liquids have been shown to reduce friction and wear in basic tribological testing,[57][58][59][60] and their polar ... D. Zhao; Y. Liao & Z. Zhang (2007). "Toxicity of Ionic Liquids". CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water. 35 (1): 42-48. doi:10.1002/clen. ... C Pretti; C Chiappe; D Pieraccini; M Gregori; F Abramo; G Monni & L Intorre (2006). "Acute toxicity of ionic liquids to the ...
It can act as a stimulant, much like caffeine, and is on the list of substances tested for doping in sports.[2] It was used as ... Because of its high toxicity and tendency to cause convulsions, the use of strychnine in medicine was eventually abandoned once ...
... liver function test (LFT) - long terminal repeat sequence (LTR) - long-term nonprogressors - LTR - lumbar - lumbar puncture - ... mitochondrial toxicity - molecule - molluscum contagiosum - monocyte - mononeuritis multiplex (MM) - monovalent vaccine - ... histocompatibility testing - histoplasmosis - HIV disease - HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) - HIV set point - HIV vaccine ... PPD test - pre-conception counseling - preclinical - precursor cells - prevalence - primary HIV infection - primary isolate - ...
Neutropenia can be acquired or intrinsic.[16] A decrease in levels of neutrophils on lab tests is due to either decreased ... so an individual may have symptoms of medication overdose or toxicity. Treatment is also aimed at the underlying cause of the ... Reference ranges for blood tests specify the typical counts in healthy people. ...
"Yohimbine Test Ligand Search". PDSP Ki Database.. *^ a b Arthur JM, Casañas SJ, Raymond JR (June 1993). "Partial agonist ... especially regarding subchronic toxicity, genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity. ... "Drug Testing and Analysis. 8 (3-4): 357-69. doi:10.1002/dta.1849. PMID 26391406.. ... Drug Testing and Analysis. 8 (3-4): 357-69. doi:10.1002/dta.1849. PMID 26391406.. ...
Test articles passing muster in vitro can be evaluated in a number of in vivo models (usually in mice) of ALI including ... The direct toxicity to the cells leads to an increase in capillary permeability. Furthermore, when phosgene hydrolyzes it forms ... 2007) Breath tests and airway gas exchange. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 20:112-7. Luh SP, Chiang CH. (2007) Acute lung injury/acute ... 2011) Sulfur mustard toxicity: history, chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. Crit Rev Toxicol. 41:384-403. ...
2,4,5-T - Identification, toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity and regulatory information ... early production facilities lacked proper temperature controls and individual batches tested later were found to have as much ... starting in the late 1970s due to toxicity concerns. Agent Orange, a defoliant used by the British in the Malayan Emergency and ...
Drugs & Diseases , Emergency Medicine , Vitamin Toxicity Q&A What tests are performed in the workup of vitamin toxicity?. ... Vitamin D Toxicity in Young Breastfed Infants: Report of 2 Cases. Glob Pediatr Health. 2017. 4:2333794X17731695. [Medline]. [ ... Miksad R, de Lédinghen V, McDougall C, Fiel I, Rosenberg H. Hepatic hydrothorax associated with vitamin a toxicity. J Clin ... On the association between low resting heart rate and chronic aggression: retinoid toxicity hypothesis. Prog ...
Pulmonary function tests.. Other tests and procedures that are sometimes used to diagnose asbestos-associated diseases by ... Screening Pulmonary Function Tests. Screening pulmonary function tests are useful for finding restrictive deficits most ... Pulmonary Function Test Results Associated with Asbestos-related Diseases. Asbestos-Associated Disease. Findings. ... Other tests that can be useful include BAL, lung biopsy, and colon cancer screening. ...
Methamphetamine Toxicity Workup. Updated: Dec 26, 2017 * Author: John R Richards, MD, FAAEM; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) ... Methamphetamine toxicity and messengers of death. Brain Res Rev. 2009 May. 60(2):379-407. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... Other Tests. Obtain an electrocardiogram for patients with chest pain, altered mental status, and tachycardia. ... Methamphetamine toxicity: treatment with a benzodiazepine versus a butyrophenone. Eur J Emerg Med. 1997 Sep. 4(3):130-5. [ ...
MDMA Toxicity Workup. Updated: Dec 20, 2017 * Author: In-Hei Hahn, MD, FACEP, FACMT; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor ... Send cultures of blood and urine for testing if signs of infection and fever are present. Consider lumbar puncture to exclude ... Burgess C, ODonohoe A, Gill M. Agony and ecstasy: a review of MDMA effects and toxicity. Eur Psychiatry. 2000 Aug. 15(5):287- ... encoded search term (MDMA%20Toxicity) and MDMA Toxicity What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape Consult. ...
... there are medical tests that can measure exposure and cadmium body burden as well as standard and specialized clinical tests to ... Tests that should be performed if cadmium inhalation is suspected.. *Chest X-ray - looking for chemical pneumonitis and ... he following tests have been used to screen for renal damage in workers occupationally exposed to high cadmium levels and, ... Evaluation for chronic cadmium exposure may also include a complete blood count to check for anemia and liver function tests. ...
... anitako at tpts1.seed.net.tw anitako at tpts1.seed.net.tw Tue Apr 25 23:34:21 EST 1995 * ... Dear Reader: I need some Market Research about toxicant testing. Where could I get the imformation (Internet,gopher.....)? The ...
Standard tests and customized tests are available to help our clients meet their needs. For questions about this testing, ... We offer smoke and toxicity tests in accordance with a variety of standard procedures. ... We offer smoke and toxicity tests in accordance with a variety of standard procedures. Standard and customized tests are ... Smoke & Toxicity Test Capabilities. *Smoke density (specific optical density, DS) and mass loss measurements ...
... a lawsuit has been filed in France because oncologists did not test for an enzyme deficiency before starting treatment. We ask ... No Testing in US So for now, it would seem that in the United States, there is no routine DPD testing, and the experts ... While a laboratory test is available to determine the UGT1A1 status of patients, "no one does that test either or very few ... Cite this: After Fatal Toxicity, Questions Over DPD Testing Before Chemo - Medscape - Mar 13, 2019. ...
... and Ecotoxicity Testing New Approaches and Alternatives for Toxicity, Fate and Transport, and Ecotoxicity Testing ... Session I - Toxicity Testing Strategies and Model Systems. May 14, 2018 • 1:00 - 3:00 p.m. EDT. To view an archive, visit EPAs ... In the first session, speakers provided an overview of toxicity testing strategies to advance the use of 21st-century science ... discussed the use of zebrafish for toxicity testing and its ability to help advance 21st-century science. She presented a ...
Toxicological testing. Filed under: Toxicity testing*. Toxicity Testing: Strategies to Determine Needs and Priorities. , by ... Filed under: Toxicity testing -- United States*. Toxicity Testing: Strategies to Determine Needs and Priorities. , by National ... Toxicity testing (Include extended shelves). You can also browse an alphabetical list from this subject or from: Toxicity ... Filed under: Alternative toxicity testing -- Moral and ethical aspects*. Science, Medicine, and Animals: A Circle of Discovery ...
New Tox21 Robot Will Test Chemical Toxicity. March 11, 2011. March 11, 2011. by Paul Nastu. ... Testing results will provide information useful for evaluating if these chemicals have the potential to disrupt human body ... In November, it was announced that the U.S. EPA ToxCast screening program had screened 1,000 chemicals for potential toxicity ... agencies have unveiled a new high-speed robot screening system that will test 10,000 different chemicals for potential toxicity ...
A method for the investigation of the acute toxicity of an unknown chemical substance, with an estimation on the LD50, is ... Bass R, Günzel P, Henschler D, König J, Lorke D, Neubert D, Schütz E, Schuppan D, Zbinden G (1982) LD50 Versus Acute Toxicity, ... A method for the investigation of the acute toxicity of an unknown chemical substance, with an estimation on the LD50, is ... Trevan JW (1927) The error of determination of toxicity. Proc R Soc (London) Ser. B. 101: 483-514Google Scholar ...
... and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic ... Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I) showed the highest antioxidant activity ... extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The ,i,Pilea microphylla ... A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and ...
Find toxicity test kit articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information ... toxicity test kit Articles. Related terms for "toxicity test kit ": toxicity test articles , test kit articles , acute toxicity ... The proposed toxicity test is based on the respirometric characteristics of the bacteria according to the principals of ... Development of Water Quality Test Kit Based on Substrate Utilization and Toxicity Resistance in River Microbial Communities ...
Find genetic toxicity test articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... genetic toxicity test Articles. Related terms for "genetic toxicity test ": toxicity test articles , genetic toxicity articles ... Optimization of culturing conditions for toxicity testing with the alga Oophila sp. (Chlorophyceae), an amphibian endosymbiont ... The strain of Hyalella azteca (Saussure: Amphipoda) commonly used for aquatic toxicity testing in the US has been shown to ...
Pyrogen Tests Ocular Toxicity Test Method Evaluations. Ocular toxicity testing, one of the four most commonly conducted product ... OptiSafe Test Method. OptiSafe is an in vitro test method in which a test substance is applied to a semipermeable membrane. ... Short Time Exposure Test The short time exposure (STE) test is an in vitro test proposed for identifying ocular irritants. ... Despite progress in alternative ocular toxicity test method development, no alternative test method has been adopted by ...
When it comes to testing their potential to cause reproductive and developmental harm, oligonucleotide-based therapeutics ... Drug Toxicity. Drug toxicity is an adverse reaction of the body towards a drug that results as a side effect of a drug, ... New consensus guidelines for toxicity testing that take into consideration the combined chemical and biological characteristics ... When it comes to testing their potential to cause reproductive and developmental harm, oligonucleotide-based therapeutics ...
CN Bio to Provide Drug Metabolism and Safety Toxicity Testing Services Extended range of services supports accelerated drug ... Through our enhanced drug metabolism and safety toxicity testing services, we enable scientists to take a step beyond what is ... today announced the commercial launch of its Drug Metabolism and Safety Toxicity Testing Services. Liver toxicity is a ... and safety toxicity testing, to provide in-depth analysis of acute or chronic drug-induced liver injury using a wide range of ...
The test was meant to be an acute exposure toxicity test in which rats were given RoundUp by mouth for several days, and ... Monsanto Hides Toxicity Test Results on RoundUp, Calling them Commercial Secret. Talking about Monsantos latest attempt to ... Meanwhile, additional toxicity tests conducted on glyphosate - the main ingredient in RoundUp - have been conducted in Europe, ... Furthermore, why would China give Monsanto permission to export RoundUp into their country based on toxicity tests that only ...
"Toxicity Tests" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Toxicity Tests" was a major or minor topic of ... An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods ... "Toxicity Tests" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Toxicity Tests" by people in Profiles. ...
... today signed a memorandum of cooperation that could reduce the number of animals required for consumer product safety testing ... and reduced-animal toxicity testing methods. If the toxicity testing methods are shown to be reproducible based on strong ... Alternative test methods are those that accomplish one or more of the 3Rs - reducing the number of animals used in testing, or ... Countries Unite to Reduce Animal Testing for Product Toxicity. By National Institutes of Health ...
... is requesting public comment on possible toxicity testing and environmental sampling to study BPAs potential environmental ... EPA Considering New Toxicity Testing for BPA. *Jul 27, 2011. Following a BPA Action Plan announced in March 2010, the U.S. ... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is requesting public comment on possible toxicity testing and environmental sampling to ... "The data collected under the testing EPA is considering would help EPA better understand and address the potential ...
... monitoring and testing) articles , the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource. ... The acute toxicity of major ion salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. Influence of background water chemistry The ions Na+, K+, Ca2+ ... Toxicity and biofilm-based selection for methyl tert-butyl ether bioremediation technology Extractive membrane biofilm reactor ... Effects of silver nanoparticles to the freshwater snail Physa acuta: The role of test media and snails life cycle stage Silver ...
Currently accepted guidelines for inhalation toxicity tests share core principles. These inform both essential testing needs to ... Acute systemic toxicity tests identify chemicals that could cause illness or death after a single exposure. Webinars in this ... Additivity approaches may be useful for estimating toxicity of mixtures.. *A variety of available alternative test methods can ... Alternative approaches for acute inhalation toxicity testing to address global regulatory and non-regulatory data requirements ...
Tags : acute toxicity tests, Additive, Antagonism, Aquatic organisms, baseline toxicity, chemical mixtures, chemical monitoring ... TR 080 - Aquatic Toxicity of Mixtures. TR 080 : Aquatic Toxicity of Mixtures , July 2001 The inherent toxicity of a substance ... ecosystems, Ecotoxicology, inherent toxicity, metal toxicity, Mixtures, model ecosystems, narcosis, physical chemical, PNEC, ...
Level II testing consists of toxicity tests that are intermediate between acute tests and subahronic feeding studies, whereas ... short-term test; LT = long-term test. 338 ST Low exposure and low toxicity Anything but low exposure and low toxicity ST LT ... Medium toxicity; ST or low toxicity and medium exposure Low toxicity None and low exposu re Low High Dossier High toxicity LT ... High toxicity; or LT high exposure and medium toxicity Otherwise ST High toxicity; or LT high exposure and medium toxicity ...
... a workshop on chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles was held in Chapel Hill, ... On May 8-10, 1995, a workshop on chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles was ... Workshop report: chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles.. ... For instance, it was recommended that along with other information (decrease in body weight, systemic toxicity, etc.), data ...
... where the toxicity of the compounds present in the test product is evaluated. Different tests are conducted to check the ... Some tests are also useful to check if the entity has toxic ... Early toxicity testing is used during clinical trials, ... Early toxicity testing is used during clinical trials, where the toxicity of the compounds present in the test product is ... However, limited awareness about the benefits of early toxicity testing and limitations of preclinical testing are expected to ...
John M. DeSesso recently authored an opinion that explores the future of developmental toxicity testing and how this will ... To this end, the standard safety test design for this type of endpoint was developed in the mid-1960s and has changed little ... John M. DeSesso recently authored an opinion that explores the future of developmental toxicity testing and how this will ... As a result, for at least the next few decades, the pregnant mammal will remain the final linchpin in teratology testing.. How ...
  • Several federal agencies have unveiled a new high-speed robot screening system that will test 10,000 different chemicals for potential toxicity. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Tox21 has already screened more than 2,500 chemicals for potential toxicity using robots and other chemical screening technologies. (environmentalleader.com)
  • In November, it was announced that the U.S. EPA ToxCast screening program had screened 1,000 chemicals for potential toxicity to people and the environment. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Screening for potential toxicity as early as possible may help you select the relevant lead candidates to advance in the drug development process. (stemcell.com)
  • Produced using time-lapse photography, this video shows a new high-speed robot screening system being built that will test 10,000 different chemicals for potential toxicity. (genome.gov)
  • Bethesda, Md. , Thurs., March 10, 2011 - Several federal agencies, including the National Institutes of Health, today unveiled a new high-speed robot screening system that will test 10,000 different chemicals for potential toxicity. (genome.gov)
  • Identifying potential toxicity at an early stage during drug discovery can save both time and development costs and, most importantly, reduce the likelihood of late stage failure. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The fact is that today there is no obligation to assess the potential toxicity of volatile products (deodorant, fragrance, etc…), and when testing is done, it usually involves laboratory animals whose respiratory system is far different from the human one. (proanima.fr)
  • To assess the potential toxicity of airborne particles, progress has been made to develop air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure systems 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 . (jove.com)
  • In addition to laboratory studies, imaging and electrocardiographic studies can be used in the assessment of patients with vitamin toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • For further assessment of whether a patient has a restrictive abnormality and asbestosis, additional, more specialized tests may be required. (cdc.gov)
  • The study evaluated the safety of reclaimed water using health risk assessment and biotoxicity tests. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The present study examined how transcriptomics tools can be included in a Triad‐based soil quality assessment to assess the toxicity of soils from river banks polluted by metals. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The authors summarize the findings of the Reproductive Subcommittee of the Oligonucleotide Safety Working Group (OSWG) in the article "Considerations for Assessment of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Oligonucleotide-Based Therapeutics. (medindia.net)
  • Meanwhile, additional toxicity tests conducted on glyphosate - the main ingredient in RoundUp - have been conducted in Europe, and by the Brussels-based advisor to NGOs on toxicity and risk assessment issues, Tony Tweedale has asked the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to disclose two more of these studies to the general public. (infowars.com)
  • Integrated approaches to testing and assessment will be needed to use these systems in ways that address the breadth of mechanisms, ensure good coverage of the relevant chemical landscape, and leverage the collective strengths of these methods and complementary non-testing approaches. (nih.gov)
  • This includes interpreting study data relative to children's health and developmental and reproductive toxicity for standard-setting and risk/safety assessment, screening assays for endocrine disruptors, quantitative benchmark dose analysis and risk assessment, and designing and interpreting mechanistic studies to address potential susceptibility in human fetuses and infants. (exponent.com)
  • Large-Scale Assessment of the Zebrafish Embryo as a Possible Predictive Model in Toxicity Testing. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • ZeGlobalTox have created a new genetically modified line of zebrafish to drive the expression of unique fluorescent proteins in the three main organs (brain, heart and liver) enabling assessment of acute multi-organ toxicity and teratogenicity in the same animal. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Assessment of acute toxicity, i.e. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Over the years, researchers have attempted to use in vitro assessment of nanomaterial toxicity to predict in vivo outcomes. (nanowerk.com)
  • The forensic toxicologists at The Forensic Panel possess the expertise from years of experience and leadership in their forensic science fields to examine the methodology of drug and chemical assessment and toxicity testing. (forensicpanel.com)
  • The long-term vision is to include this in vitro test in a battery of in silico and in vitro assays that can be used in an integrated testing strategy, providing comprehensive information on biological endpoints relevant to inhalation exposure to nanomaterials to be used in the hazard ranking of substances in the risk-assessment process. (nanowerk.com)
  • However, all toxicity-testing procedures have certain limitations that must be considered in developing the methodology and applications of toxicity testing in any large-scale water-quality-assessment program. (usgs.gov)
  • The safety assessment processes require the toxicity data of chemicals in multiple test species and thus, emphasize the need for computational methods capable of toxicity prediction in multiple test species. (rsc.org)
  • Environmental toxicity information serves two roles in the assessment of a substance for environmental safety and regulatory requirements. (cefic-lri.org)
  • For conventional risk assessment of single substances, these PECs would be compared to PNECs based on aquatic toxicity testing. (cefic-lri.org)
  • The recent RIFM/ECETOC UVCB Workshop ( 02-04 November 2016, Florida, USA) highlighted the need to account for complex substance exposure and fate in order to perform more relevant toxicity testing, and raised questions on the impact this type of testing would have on risk assessment outcomes (Salvito and Galay-Burgos, 2017). (cefic-lri.org)
  • Further development and validation of such test systems are crucial for evidence based safety evaluation and risk assessment of inhaled materials, nanomaterials and therapeutic products. (edu.au)
  • Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The vision of the H2020-supported EU-ToxRisk project is to drive the required paradigm shift in toxicological testing away from 'black box' animal testing towards a toxicological assessment based on human cell responses and a comprehensive mechanistic understanding of cause-consequence relationships of chemical adverse effects. (ifado.de)
  • This allows the capture of relevant pharmacokinetics during the preclinical stages of testing, saving both time and resources by enabling the assessment of physiologically relevant human data early on. (ddw-online.com)
  • Using a number of effective assessment tools, such as porter's five forces and value chain analysis, it performs in-depth analyses of the production and supply as well as the demand and sales of China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017 and provides deep insights into the future prospects of this market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The issue of endocrine disruption has, in view of human risk assessment, raised the question on whether more sensitive test methods are needed to detect the reproductive toxic properties of xenobiotic compounds with endocrine properties. (openrepository.com)
  • Acute systemic toxicity tests identify chemicals that could cause illness or death after a single exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Webinars in this 2016 series explored and discussed alternative approaches that could replace, reduce, or refine the use of animals for identifying chemicals that may cause acute systemic toxicity when inhaled. (nih.gov)
  • A variety of available alternative test methods can reliably identify potential cytotoxicants, but none can single-handedly assess the multiple mechanisms of acute systemic toxicity following inhalation exposure. (nih.gov)
  • For instance, it was recommended that along with other information (decrease in body weight, systemic toxicity, etc.), data should be obtained on lung burdens and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis to assist in establishing the chronic exposure levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Some tests are also useful to check if the entity has toxic potentials such as genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, and systemic toxicity. (medgadget.com)
  • Cosmetics and household products segment is the highest revenue contributor to this market owing to increase in adoption in various applications, such as to detect dermal toxicity, systemic toxicity, and ocular toxicity. (medgadget.com)
  • Building upon 2015 workshops on inhalation toxicity testing of nanomaterials and acute systemic toxicity testing, the PETA International Science Consortium and the US NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods co-hosted a meeting and webinar series to address current practices for acute inhalation toxicity testing. (norecopa.no)
  • The application segments are systemic toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitization and irritation, neurotoxicity, dermal toxicity, ocular toxicity and organ toxicity The method segments includes biochemical, in silico methods and ex vivo model. (sbwire.com)
  • The strain of Hyalella azteca (Saussure: Amphipoda) commonly used for aquatic toxicity testing in the US has been shown to perform poorly in some standardized reconstituted waters frequently used for other test species. (environmental-expert.com)
  • 5.3 Toxicity tests with rotifers of the genus Brachionus are more easily performed than with many other aquatic animals because of their rapid reproduction, short generation times, sensitivity ( 34 ) , and the commercial availability of rotifer cysts. (astm.org)
  • Obtaining test animals from cysts greatly reduces some of the major problems in routine aquatic toxicological testing such as the limited availability of test animals and the inconsistency of sensitivity over time. (astm.org)
  • The convenience of an off-the-shelf source of test animals that require no pre-conditioning is likely to permit new applications of aquatic toxicity tests. (astm.org)
  • A Task Force set up by the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) has provided new insights into scientific testing for the impact of undissolved particles in the aquatic environment. (bionity.com)
  • There are few studies known about the toxicity of acrylamide to aquatic organisms which have shown evidence of a number of histopathological effects. (scirp.org)
  • 5.8 Results of three-brood toxicity tests with C. dubia might be an important consideration when assessing the hazards of materials to aquatic organisms (see Guide E1023 ), or when deriving water quality criteria for aquatic organisms. (astm.org)
  • The primary goal of WET testing is to ensure that wastewater effluent discharged into Wisconsin surface waters do not negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. (wisc.edu)
  • Receiving water (the water which the effluent is discharged into) is used as the dilution water in WET tests in order to simulate what actually happens in the aquatic environment when the effluent is introduced. (wisc.edu)
  • Chronic tests estimate the concentration of effluent that interferes with the growth, development, and reproductive potential of aquatic organisms. (wisc.edu)
  • Chronic tests predict the concentrations that interfere with normal growth, development and reproductive potential of these aquatic organisms. (wisc.edu)
  • In this study, we have established local and global QSTR (quantitative structure-toxicity relationship) and ISC QSAAR (interspecies correlation quantitative structure activity-activity relationship) models for predicting the toxicities of pesticides in multiple aquatic test species using the toxicity data in crustacean ( Daphnia magna , Americamysis bahia , Gammarus fasciatus , and Penaeus duorarum ) and fish ( Oncorhynchus mykiss and Lepomis macrochirus ) species in accordance with the OECD guidelines. (rsc.org)
  • The results suggest for the appropriateness of the developed QSTR/QSAAR models to reliably predict the aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse pesticides in multiple test species and can be used for the screening and prioritization of new pesticides. (rsc.org)
  • Aquatic toxicity data for UVCBs can be generated from testing known individual components or testing water accommodated fractions (WAFs) generated from the whole substance. (cefic-lri.org)
  • The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) method provides a framework for interpreting toxicity data in soil, sediment, and aquatic exposures. (cefic-lri.org)
  • Application of EqP framework to extrapolate from aquatic toxicity data to the sediment compartment for very hydrophobic chemicals is limited by the lack of reliable empirical sediment toxicity data to validate this approach. (cefic-lri.org)
  • Ocular toxicity testing, one of the four most commonly conducted product safety tests, is conducted to identify ocular corrosives (substances that cause permanent eye tissue damage) and ocular irritants (substances that cause temporary eye tissue damage). (nih.gov)
  • NICEATM reviewed a validation study conducted by the OptiSafe test method developer, Lebrun Labs, and concluded that the study data indicated that the OptiSafe method compared favorably to other in vitro ocular toxicity testing methods. (nih.gov)
  • In 2012, ICCVAM recommended a procedure based on this analysis that uses 50% to 83% fewer animals than accepted testing procedures and harmonizes the number of animals used for ocular toxicity testing across U.S. regulatory agencies and international test guidelines. (nih.gov)
  • The workshop identified best practices for chemical and product ocular toxicity testing using methods and approaches that replace, reduce, and refine animal use. (nih.gov)
  • Despite progress in alternative ocular toxicity test method development, no alternative test method has been adopted by regulatory authorities as a complete replacement for the in vivo rabbit eye test. (nih.gov)
  • Testing results will provide information useful for evaluating if these chemicals have the potential to disrupt human body processes enough to lead to adverse health effects. (environmentalleader.com)
  • Methods for measuring toxicity or respiratory activity of microbial cultures can be used as tools for assessing the presence of chemicals and their impact on the streams. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The center is integrating computing and information technologies with clinical and pathological endpoints to create a systems-modeling approach to predict toxicity of new chemicals and nanomaterials. (uml.edu)
  • 1.1 This guide describes procedures for obtaining laboratory data concerning the acute toxicity of chemicals and aqueous effluents released into fresh, estuarine, or marine waters. (astm.org)
  • Because natural conditions in the environment, such as temperature, can significantly affect the toxicity of pollutant chemicals on living organisms, the effects of pollutants can differ according to region. (enviweb.cz)
  • The analysis demonstrated that interactions between pollutants and environmental conditions were widespread, but affected the toxicity of chemicals in unpredictable ways. (enviweb.cz)
  • Which means that many chemicals which are now considered to be "non-toxic", in various regards, may have effects completely undetected by the most-commonly used toxicity tests. (planetsave.com)
  • Abstract Toxicity testing is essential for the protection of human health from exposure to toxic environmental chemicals. (bionity.com)
  • The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals is a collection of about 150 of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to identify and characterise potential hazards of chemicals. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
  • A major task of the forensic toxicologist is toxicity testing and the identification of toxicants, such as chemicals, drugs, and poisons, in biological material. (forensicpanel.com)
  • The system marks the beginning of a new phase of an ongoing collaboration, referred to as Tox21, that is working to protect human health by improving how chemicals are tested in the United States. (genome.gov)
  • Tox21 merges existing agency resources (research, funding, and testing tools) to develop ways to more effectively predict how chemicals will affect human health and the environment. (genome.gov)
  • A thorough analysis and prioritization process from more than 200 public databases of chemicals and drugs used in the United States and abroad was conducted to select the initial 10,000 chemicals for testing. (genome.gov)
  • The addition of this new robot system will allow the National Toxicology Program to advance its mission of testing chemicals smarter, better, and faster," said Linda Birnbaum, Ph.D., NIEHS and NTP director. (genome.gov)
  • In a TIE, effluent samples are manipulated to remove suspect chemicals and then re-tested to see if toxicity remains. (wisc.edu)
  • To test whether chemicals are toxic to humans, researchers need to use liver cells that have been freshly harvested from mice or other mammals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • They write: "We believe that the MMH-GH cell lines provide a cheap, reproducible, rapid, reliable and ethically acceptable tool," for assessing the toxicity of chemicals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • These low concentrations of the chemicals would not have been picked up by current toxicity-testing methods, which brand a chemical as 'toxic' only if it kills liver cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Recent innovations in human cell culture exposure and test systems has allowed the development ofin vitro assay systems that are predictive, representative and suitable for toxicity screening of a diverse range of chemicals including airborne materials and nanomaterials (NMs). (edu.au)
  • Sediment toxicity testing is often required under international chemicals management regulations, but it is challenging to select appropriate test methodologies/parameters to obtain reliable and meaningful results for very hydrophobic chemicals. (cefic-lri.org)
  • Tests are usually performed at very elevated concentrations exceeding the sorptive capacity of the media and without proper equilibration of dosed sediment phase and water phase, and it is difficult to obtain homogeneous distribution of the tested chemicals in sediment. (cefic-lri.org)
  • The objective of this project is to develop additional guidance on sediment toxicity testing methods for very hydrophobic chemicals in sediments that ensure reproducibility and realism in the test results to support product risk assessments [ 2 ]. (cefic-lri.org)
  • Testing should characterise the impact of study design parameters on toxicity results for very hydrophobic chemicals. (cefic-lri.org)
  • Corrosive chemicals possess physical toxicity because they destroy tissues, but they're not directly poisonous unless they interfere directly with biological activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the type of assay used, in vitro technique is further divided into enzyme toxicity assays, bacterial toxicity assays, cell-based ELISA and western blots, tissues culture assays, receptor binding assays, and other assays. (medgadget.com)
  • The new strategy for chemical toxicity testing and modeling is to use in vitro human cell-based assays in conjunction with quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) technology, to identify molecular mechanisms and predict in vivo responses. (bionity.com)
  • This type of lineage-specific toxicity cannot be determined using in vitro assays, such as the colony-forming unit granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay. (taconic.com)
  • Although single organ specific toxicity assays have already been commercialised, it is not yet possible to assess toxicity in the three main organs (brain, heart and liver) in the same animal. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • In this webinar, you'll learn from hematopoietic expert Dr. Jackie Damen about the importance of hematotoxicity testing in drug development and how hematopoietic colony forming unit (CFU) assays can be applied in toxicity testing to assist in the successful screening of your small molecule compounds and biologics. (stemcell.com)
  • Addition of a preservative before freezing is recommended, when feasible, for specimens being tested for vitamin C. However, storage and transport requirements differ between laboratories and assays. (arupconsult.com)
  • Many commonly used laboratory tests (including thyroid hormone assays and other immunoassays) make use of biotin-streptavidin technology. (arupconsult.com)
  • High biotin intake, such as from biotin supplements, may interfere with these assays, leading to inaccurate test results. (arupconsult.com)
  • They pin big hopes on high-throughput human cell-based assays that would replace slow and costly in vivo animal studies for evaluating chemical toxicity. (acs.org)
  • The assays segment is further classified as a cell based ELISA and western blots, bacterial toxicity assay, enzyme toxicity assay, receptor binding assay and tissue culture assay. (sbwire.com)
  • Hepatocytes are used in plated formats when drugs are poorly metabolised in short-term suspension assays, or when mechanistic data regarding drug-drug interactions and mechanistic toxicity is needed. (ddw-online.com)
  • Despite a strong need both from authorities and consumers, to date there is no efficient assays to evaluate the short and long term toxicity of the electronic cigarette (e‑cigarette). (proanima.fr)
  • In the recent times, the global market for China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017 has surfaced as one of the most promising markets in the pharmaceutical industry, thanks to the significant rise in research and development activities by leading vendors of China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017 across the world. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Manufacturers have turned to technological innovations and data-driven customization to satisfy the augmenting consumer demand for efficiency and more accuracy in results, leading to an increased usage of technology in the China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017 production processes, which is also reflecting positively on the growth of this market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The research report on the China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017 is an analytical study which comprehensively analyzes the competitive framework of this market. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The study begins with a detailed overview of the market for China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017, including the definition, classification, and industry chain structure of China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017, and move forward to cover every aspect of this market, counting several criteria based on which the market is classified. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • With chemical industry undergoing a phase of technological disruption, innovations in products are likely to shape the future of the China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • Further, it offers an estimation of the market size in terms of value (US$) and in volume (kilo tons) and talks about the key segments and the geographical subdivisions of the market for China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017 in details. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • It provides in-depth information on the development trends and the policies and regulations, concerning China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017, implemented in each of the geographical segments. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • The predominant applications of the China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017 have also been discussed at length in this research study. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • With all these analyses and information, this report can act as a valuable guide to readers looking to gain a clear understanding of all the factors that are influencing the market for China in vitro toxicity testing market research report 2017 at present and are projected to remain doing so over the forecast period. (qyresearchreports.com)
  • A test method protocol describing specific procedures to prevent or minimize animal pain and distress is included in the ICCVAM report evaluating the use of anesthetics, analgesics, and humane endpoints during the in vivo eye test. (nih.gov)
  • CN Bio's extended portfolio of services offers solutions to many existing workflow challenges including: drug metabolism testing, to study the human metabolism of lead candidates, identify metabolites and correlation with cell health - even for low clearance compounds, and safety toxicity testing, to provide in-depth analysis of acute or chronic drug-induced liver injury using a wide range of endpoints to determine causality and mechanism of toxicity. (businesswire.com)
  • Then the possible impacts of the test chemical on the following measurement endpoints are assessed under controlled conditions: sex and total number of emerged adult flies, retardation of emergence indicated by the developmental rate and morphological change. (oecd.org)
  • The goal of the workshop was to make specific recommendations on the design of this in vitro test, including cell types, endpoints, exposure systems, and dosimetry considerations required to develop the in vitro model. (nanowerk.com)
  • Newer paradigms and metrics are evolving to bypass animal testing, while maintaining the concept of toxicity endpoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • Representatives from four international agencies, including the director of the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP), today signed a memorandum of cooperation that could reduce the number of animals required for consumer product safety testing worldwide. (opposingviews.com)
  • Applications for humanized mice in preclinical toxicology testing are gaining traction, in particular for hematoxicity and cytokine release syndrome. (taconic.com)
  • See Emergency Toxicology as an additional resource for testing information. (arupconsult.com)
  • This 48-well microtiter plate assay, developed by the Environmental Toxicology staff, determines the short-term chronic toxicity of effluents to the freshwater alga Selenastrum capricornutum. (wisc.edu)
  • The "product" is a package of services for: (1) testing and monitoring of nanomaterials that are discharged into the environment, (2) screening of new compounds before they are produced by industry, and (3) basic toxicology research. (epa.gov)
  • Moreover, due to increase in the focus on reduction of drug development cost, ADME-Toxicology testing is projected to grow in the coming years. (sbwire.com)
  • We are working on in vitro -systems to reduce animal testing", says Dr. Raymond Reif, leader of the 'Visualizing Toxicology' junior group at the IfADo. (ifado.de)
  • All together, that project should result in the replacement of animals for e‑cigarette testing, and ultimately reduce the numbers of animals used for inhalation toxicology. (proanima.fr)
  • We studied six known and alleged endocrine disruptors in an existing reproductive toxicology screening test to see if this test would score these compounds as reproductive toxicants. (openrepository.com)
  • Examples of applied research include testing disease treatments, breeding, defense research and toxicology, including cosmetics testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Workshop report: chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles. (cdc.gov)
  • On May 8-10, 1995, a workshop on chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity testing of respirable fibrous particles was held in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. (cdc.gov)
  • Meanwhile, several short-termin vitroandin vivostudies that may be useful to assess the relative potential of fibrous substances to cause lung toxicity/carcinogenicity have been identified. (cdc.gov)
  • Tests for chronic toxicity, including cumulative effects and for evidence of potential carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity. (oup.com)
  • Sohal IS, O'Fallon KS, Gaines P, Demokritou P, Bello D. Ingested engineered nanomaterials: state of science in nanotoxicity testing and future research needs. (harvard.edu)
  • With little known about the toxicity of nanomaterials, predicting how particles might affect human health and the environment is necessary for the safe development of nano products. (uml.edu)
  • The current infrastructure and funding for animal testing is insufficient to support the evaluation of all nanomaterials currently in existence, let alone those that will be developed in the near future. (nanowerk.com)
  • One of the most common practices is to use the toxicity of nanomaterials in isolated cell cultures as a predictor of toxicity in similar cell types in the body. (nanowerk.com)
  • Nanowerk News ) Today, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd. put out a request for proposal (RFP) to identify facilities that can develop an in vitro test that, when used in an integrated approach, has the potential to replace the current test conducted on animals to assess the inhalation toxicity of nanomaterials. (nanowerk.com)
  • This is an important development, and we believe microarrays and associated data analysis can be developed into the testing method for nanomaterials that the EPA seeks. (epa.gov)
  • Therefore, there are medical tests that can measure exposure and cadmium body burden as well as standard and specialized clinical tests to measure the health effects of cadmium exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Evaluation for chronic cadmium exposure may also include a complete blood count to check for anemia and liver function tests. (cdc.gov)
  • Urinary cadmium levels do not rise significantly after acute exposure and are not useful for testing in the acute setting. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of the potential for sample contamination, hair levels are not reliable either as predictors of toxicity or as indicators of occupational exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The short time exposure (STE) test is an in vitro test proposed for identifying ocular irritants. (nih.gov)
  • The test was meant to be an acute exposure toxicity test in which rats were given RoundUp by mouth for several days, and rabbits were exposed to RoundUp by skin. (infowars.com)
  • One was a test by German regulatory agencies in which they measured an 'Acceptable Daily Intake' (ADI) of the chemical, and another measured chronic toxicity based on exposure. (infowars.com)
  • Ecotoxicological testing should therefore include exposure of organisms to a variety of environmental conditions to fully represent conditions found in the natural environment. (enviweb.cz)
  • The slow starvation effect observed under constant exposure to low levels of neonicotinoids is not detected by conventional toxicity tests, as they are not carried out over a period of several weeks. (planetsave.com)
  • This method provides information on health hazard likely to arise from exposure to test substance via oral administration. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
  • Signs and symptoms of toxicity correlate with route of exposure, specific element forms, and type of exposure, whether acute or chronic. (arupconsult.com)
  • ARUP Laboratories offers element exposure testing for a variety of specimen types, as well as panel testing for common heavy metals. (arupconsult.com)
  • At 500 mg/L, the highest test concentration, the survival of embryos was greatly reduced within 24 hrs of exposure. (scirp.org)
  • Ambient testing, whereby the test organism is exposed to naturally occurring substances that contain toxicant mixtures in an organic or inorganic matrix, is more likely to meet these needs than are procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. (usgs.gov)
  • Toxic Gas Exposure Screenining Tests. (inspectapedia.com)
  • A three-brood toxicity test is conducted to help determine changes in survival and the number of neonates produced that result from exposure to the test material. (astm.org)
  • 5.3 Results of three-brood toxicity tests with C. dubia might be used to predict chronic or partial chronic effects on species in field situations as a result of exposure under comparable conditions. (astm.org)
  • 1.1 This guide describes procedures for obtaining data concerning the adverse effects of an effluent or a test material (added to dilution water, but not to food) on Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard 1894, during continuous exposure throughout a portion of the organism's life. (astm.org)
  • The objective of an acute test is to determine the concentration of test material that produces lethality during a short-term exposure (48 or 96 hours). (wisc.edu)
  • The objective of an acute WET test is to determine the concentration of effluent that causes 50% lethality (LC50) during a short-term exposure under controlled conditions. (wisc.edu)
  • Standardised protocols for sediment testing, for example adapted spiking protocols and the use of passive sampling techniques to quantify exposure concentrations and account for bioavailability, could potentially help in the improved design, conduct and interpretation of sediment toxicity testing with these substances. (cefic-lri.org)
  • Described is the cell culture and exposure method of an in vitro bronchial model for realistic, repeated inhalation exposure to particles for toxicity testing. (jove.com)
  • For toxicity testing of airborne particles, air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure systems have been developed for in vitro tests in order to mimic realistic exposure conditions. (jove.com)
  • In addition, this bronchial model is suitable for testing the effects of repeated exposures to low, realistic concentrations of airborne particles using an ALI exposure system. (jove.com)
  • Taken together, this bronchial model, in combination with the continuous flow exposure system, is able to mimic realistic, repeated inhalation exposure conditions that can be used for toxicity testing. (jove.com)
  • Validation of the dynamic direct exposure method for toxicity testing " by Lucky Joeng, Amanda Hayes et al. (edu.au)
  • The results suggest that the dynamic direct exposure method has the potential to be implemented for both laboratory- and field-based in vitro toxicity studies of diesel exhaust emissions. (edu.au)
  • Therefore, apart from ethynylestradiol all compounds were tested at dosages much higher than any likely exposure to be expected in humans. (openrepository.com)
  • The toxic gas yields were also used to calculate a toxicity index (TI) parameter to assess the potential gas toxicity of belt materials during a fire. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, the TI and the mass loss burning rate values were used to calculate a toxicity hazard (TH) parameter to estimate the toxic gas hazard produced by a burning belt in a ventilated system. (cdc.gov)
  • Testing for presence of toxic compounds is an important step during the development of new products such as drugs, cosmetics, and food additives, which can save both time and developmental costs as well as reduce the probability of failure during later stages. (medgadget.com)
  • In vitro toxicity testing is a procedure that helps examine the presence of these toxic compounds over an isolated part of the organism. (medgadget.com)
  • Toxicity testing is one type of biological monitoring that can be used to identify possible effects of toxic contaminants. (usgs.gov)
  • Indoor air quality testing for toxic gases - level of toxicity of gases. (inspectapedia.com)
  • Mmechanical systems such as heating system-produced carbon monoxide or flue gases, fire damage, or contamination from nearby industrial, beauty parlor, dry cleaning, or other activities which often produce noxious or toxic odors and gases are also tested. (inspectapedia.com)
  • To test their system the researchers added toxic arsenic and cadmium compounds to the cells and then looked for human growth hormone in the culture media. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To determine the potential risks involved, screening tests are needed to monitor wastewater for potential toxic contaminants. (scielo.org.za)
  • Toxicity of sediment extracts and sediment was predicted using toxic unit (TU) approach and persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) ranking. (chemaxon.com)
  • Predicted toxicity of sediment extracts (TUext) was similar to the results obtained by ZET and associated histopathology with Rugvica sediment being the most toxic, followed by Jesenice, Lukavec and Galdovo. (chemaxon.com)
  • chemical, biological, physical, radiation and behavioural toxicity: Disease-causing microorganisms and parasites are toxic in a broad sense but are generally called pathogens rather than toxicants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because individuals typically have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxic substance, a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pesticide Action Network (PAN) Europe previously asked the German regulatory agencies to release the full range of long-term toxicity studies on glyphosate. (infowars.com)
  • McKim, J.M. (1977) Evaluation of Tests with Early Life Stages of Fish for Predicting Long-Term Toxicity. (scirp.org)
  • Ultimate goals of this center are to eliminate the need for use of animals in the evaluation of chemical and nanomaterial toxicity and to help create a road map to responsible nanomanufacturing," says Rogers. (uml.edu)
  • Currently, small animal models are the gold standard for nanomaterial toxicity testing. (nanowerk.com)
  • This is creating a growing deficit in our understanding of nanomaterial toxicity, which fuels public apprehension towards nanotechnology. (nanowerk.com)
  • Dr. André Nel and his coworkers at the California NanoSystems Institute (CNSI) and the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) are taking a fundamentally different approach to nanomaterial toxicity testing. (nanowerk.com)
  • Early toxicity testing is used during clinical trials, where the toxicity of the compounds present in the test product is evaluated. (medgadget.com)
  • Usually, the tests are conducted for single chemical compounds. (enviweb.cz)
  • Therefore, prediction of potential toxicities of candidate compounds is of great importance for successful drug development. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Get high-throughput multiplexed data that gives you mechanistic insight into the toxicity of your compounds. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Although the general toxicity of these compounds is well known because they are routinely used in cosmetic and food industry, their specific toxicity associated with inhalation is poorly studied. (proanima.fr)
  • The toxicity of the model compounds was determined by using the Hydractinia echinata (Hydrozoa) test system. (ad-astra.ro)
  • Compounds tested were the contraceptive Ethynylestradiol, the phytoestrogen Coumestrol, the surfactant 4-Tert-octylphenol, the plastic monomer Bisphenol A, the fungicide Vinclozolin, and the plasticizer Butylbenzylphthalate. (openrepository.com)
  • Endocrine properties of xenobiotic compounds, assessed at the hormone receptor level, should be combined with in vivo data on their reproductive and general toxicity for proper risk evaluation and risk management of these compounds. (openrepository.com)
  • In addition to the tests listed above, laboratory studies for altered mental status may include serum osmolality, alcohol, and ketones. (medscape.com)
  • The big picture here is to be able to use laboratory-based high throughput screening methods to predict material and chemical toxicity," says Prof. Eugene Rogers, chair of the Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nutritional Sciences. (uml.edu)
  • We've developed a laboratory method that provides quick and accurate results for use by nanomaterial manufacturers that may reduce the need for animal testing," says Rogers. (uml.edu)
  • The EPA has recognized that the data produced by our laboratory is valuable and useful in their CompTox program efforts and will be used to develop predictive toxicity approaches. (uml.edu)
  • Assessing the risk of pollutants to animal organisms is typically based on laboratory tests. (enviweb.cz)
  • In reality, conditions in nature vary widely, leading to inconsistencies between laboratory tests and how organisms are affected by pollutants in the natural environment. (enviweb.cz)
  • Standard laboratory testing would detect no harm, but there could be ecological disruption in fields because of the effects on reproduction. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Current tests for liver toxicity require multiple steps, such as freezing and grinding tissue in a laboratory, which usually take days and require the use of laboratory equipment. (straitstimes.com)
  • A new Good Laboratory Practice compliant rat subcutaneous repeat dose toxicity study to evaluate a higher clinical dose and modified posology (once every 2 weeks for 13 weeks) showed no signs of toxicity. (medworm.com)
  • Laboratory testing is used to assess the nutritional status (deficiency, sufficiency, and toxicity) of particular vitamins, including status in response to therapeutic supplementation. (arupconsult.com)
  • When should laboratory testing for vitamins be performed rather than, or in addition to, supplementation? (arupconsult.com)
  • Refer to your laboratory for specimen type, storage, and transport instructions when ordering simultaneous vitamin tests. (arupconsult.com)
  • What effect does biotin (vitamin B7) have on other laboratory tests? (arupconsult.com)
  • This book focuses on efficacy, toxicity, drug interactions, and abnormal clinical laboratory tests resulting from the use of herbal remedies. (ovid.com)
  • Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked ― and in some cases, prohibitive ― logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. (all-creatures.org)
  • To promote the microfluidic technology moving from the laboratory to the clinic, we developed a microfluidic-based perivascular tumor model that makes it possible to assess drug sensitivity in 3D cultured tumor spheroids and toxicity in endothelium in parallel. (rsc.org)
  • EA is also an approved laboratory for Dredged Material Toxicity Testing for USACE New England District. (eaest.com)
  • Abstract Currently, toxicological testing of food contact materials (FCMs) is focused on single substances and their genotoxicity. (bionity.com)
  • Raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents were screened for cytotoxicity using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cells as biomarker, for neurotoxicity using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and for genotoxicity using the Save Our Soul (SOS) test. (scielo.org.za)
  • Raw wastewater from all sewage treatment plants tested positive for genotoxicity. (scielo.org.za)
  • In vitro methods for mechanistic genotoxicity screening could offer major advantages in identifying the toxicity profile of a compound. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Patients can be tested for DPD deficiency using a functional enzymatic assay that Mayo Clinic researchers have also developed. (medscape.com)
  • There also wouldn't be enough time or laboratories in the United States to begin to test all prospective 5-FU/capecitabine patients using their functional assay, he added. (medscape.com)
  • Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. (hindawi.com)
  • However, this assay does not recapitulate the intricacies of hematopoiesis in vivo , nor does it replace in vivo testing in mice. (taconic.com)
  • Thus, the in vitro test may not correlate with your animal test, meaning that you cannot make appropriate inferences from the cell death assay. (nanowerk.com)
  • The Aflatoxin B1 Food ELISA Kit is a quantitative test based on the principle of the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. (rapidtest.com)
  • In this webinar, Miltenyi Biotec and Toxys introduce the ToxTracker® assay, an early-stage, high-content, mechanism-based in vitro assay which can speed up drug development and reduce animal testing requirements. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Glyphosate testing is conducted via the ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) method, which utilizes an antibody specific for glyphosate. (enviroscienceinc.com)
  • The early toxicity testing market experienced moderate growth in the recent years due to the replacement of in vivo models by in vitro models and technological advancement in in vitro and in silico techniques. (medgadget.com)
  • There is increasing recognition that new approaches are needed to bridge the gap between preclinical in vitro and in vivo testing to reduce costly late-stage attrition of new drugs. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • You need to align what you test at a cellular level with what you want to know at the in vivo ' says Nel. (nanowerk.com)
  • Stem cell derived in vivo-like human cardiac bodies in a microfluidic device for toxicity testing by beating frequency imaging. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Beating in vivo-like human cardiac bodies (CBs) were used in a microfluidic device for testing cardiotoxicity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • in vivo studies require a large number of expensive, time consuming and in some cases non humane tests in animal species. (edu.au)
  • Compared to in vivo studies, in vitro toxicity testing is believed to be more useful at an early stage of drug development due to short turnaround times and relatively low cost. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in experiments that seek to control the variables that affect the behavior or biological system under study. (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms animal testing, animal experimentation, animal research, in vivo testing, and vivisection have similar denotations but different connotations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first session, speakers provided an overview of toxicity testing strategies to advance the use of 21st-century science in chemical safety evaluation. (nih.gov)
  • Zbinden G, Flury-Roversi M (1981) Significance of the LD 50 -Test for the toxicological evaluation of chemical substances. (springer.com)
  • Evaluation of test methods that reliably identify ocular corrosives and irritants while replacing, reducing, and refining animal use is a high priority for NICEATM and ICCVAM. (nih.gov)
  • The 2010 report on the ICCVAM evaluation of these test methods includes recommendations for future studies that could potentially improve these methods. (nih.gov)
  • The memorandum covers three critical areas of test method evaluation: validation studies, independent scientific peer review meetings and reports, and development of test method recommendations for regulatory consideration," said Marilyn Wind, Ph.D., chair of the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods and a scientist at the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). (opposingviews.com)
  • Spheroids are one example of these, and are typically used to assess the chemical toxicity and evaluation of environmental samples in biological and ecotoxological studies. (eurekalert.org)
  • They are a set of tools for professionals, used primarily in regulatory safety testing and subsequent chemical and chemical product notification, chemical registration and in chemical evaluation. (oecd-ilibrary.org)
  • This partnership builds upon FDA's commitment to developing new methods to evaluate the toxicity of the substances that we regulate," said Janet Woodcock, M.D., director of the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (genome.gov)
  • A TRE is a systematic evaluation of the wastewater treatment plant or industrial facility effluent to determine sources of toxicity and ultimately uncover how to control toxicity. (wisc.edu)
  • TREs may include chemical screening, process reviews, evaluation of treatment plant performance and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE). (wisc.edu)
  • Dr. Hajjar will be speaking about innovative approaches to preventing cardiac toxicity in new drugs at the World Pharmaceutical Congress in Philadelphia on May 12, 2008 when he gives a presentation entitled: "Evaluation of Cardiotoxicity of Novel Molecular Therapies. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Multicenter Prospective Evaluation of a Predictive Test of Late Toxicities After Radiotherapy by the Rate of Radiation Induced CD8 T-Lymphocyte Apoptosis: Application to Breast and Prostate Cancers. (knowcancer.com)
  • Toxicity evaluation of the sediment extracts from four locations (Jesenice, Rugvica, Galdovo and Lukavec) using zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) accompanied with semi-quantitative histopathological analyses exhibited correlation with cumulative number and concentrations of OCs at the investigated sites (10.05, 15.22, 1.25, and 9.13 μg/g respectively). (chemaxon.com)
  • These data suggest that endocrine disruptors are likely to be effective in existing reproductive toxicity test systems used for human risk evaluation. (openrepository.com)
  • The NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP) hosted a webinar series highlighting research that may be useful as new approaches and methodologies for toxicity testing. (nih.gov)
  • Our collaboration will help to identify and embrace scientifically sound and robust new testing approaches, ensuring that safety assessments are never compromised, while at the same time reduce the need for animal testing. (opposingviews.com)
  • 2018. Alternative approaches for acute inhalation toxicity testing to address global regulatory and non-regulatory data requirements: An international workshop report. (nih.gov)
  • More than 40 scientists from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry attended a workshop organized to develop recommendations for advancing new approaches for acute inhalation toxicity testing. (nih.gov)
  • These inform both essential testing needs to be addressed by alternative approaches and opportunities for existing information to enable waivers of required testing. (nih.gov)
  • Additivity approaches may be useful for estimating toxicity of mixtures. (nih.gov)
  • Originally, there was not enough consideration of what approaches were chosen to assess toxicity in vitro . (nanowerk.com)
  • Toxicity-test approaches vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. (usgs.gov)
  • One of the most informative approaches to toxicity testing is to combine biochemical tests with other test methods in a 'battery of tests' that is diversified enough to characterize different types of toxicants and different trophic levels. (usgs.gov)
  • The result is a collection that reveals the properties, strengths, and weaknesses that exist in the various approaches to bench test problems. (lovereading.co.uk)
  • Here we discuss how new in vitro approaches in both ADME and toxicity testing can be leveraged to increase efficiencies within the drug discovery pipeline to help companies take new drugs to the market in a faster manner, and potentially reducing costs. (ddw-online.com)
  • Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water-quality assessments. (usgs.gov)
  • In addition to conducting an acute test with unfed C. dubia , it might also be desirable to conduct an acute test in which the organisms are fed the same as in the three-brood test, to see if the presence of that concentration of that food affects the results of the acute test and the acute chronic ratio (see 10.4.1 ). (astm.org)
  • 5.7 Results of three-brood toxicity tests with C. dubia can vary with temperature, quality and quantity of food, quality of the dilution water, condition of the test organisms, and other factors. (astm.org)
  • In whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests, organisms are exposed to various effluent concentrations for a specific time period in order to estimate the effluent's toxicity. (wisc.edu)
  • The most commonly used organisms in WET tests, and the ones required by the WDNR, are the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and an invertebrate (Ceriodaphnia dubia). (wisc.edu)
  • During a chronic test, the organisms are continuously exposed to the test material at various concentrations. (wisc.edu)
  • Tests are designed to encompass the entire life cycle or most sensitive life stage of the organisms. (wisc.edu)
  • The IC25 value is a statistical calculation of the effluent concentration which causes a 25% reduction in growth or reproduction of test organisms. (wisc.edu)
  • ICCVAM concluded that the performance of the other four test methods must be improved before they can be used in regulatory safety testing to identify substances that may cause nonsevere eye injuries or that do not require eye irritation hazard labeling. (nih.gov)
  • Indoor Air Investigation Tests for substances in gas form. (inspectapedia.com)
  • Gas detector tubes , used with a special calibrated Sensidyn™ or Drager™ pump [3] provide specific, accurate tests for the presence of target substances at the moment of testing. (inspectapedia.com)
  • Ten of these gases and substances produced by burning common materials found in buildings are addressed by the Draeger Simultaneous Test Sets I and II. (inspectapedia.com)
  • The Draeger Simultaneous Test Sets screen for these specific substances in the immediate vicinity. (inspectapedia.com)
  • It is known that UVCB substances cannot be sufficiently identified by their chemical composition, which creates the complications for testing using standard guideline methodologies. (cefic-lri.org)
  • This book works with four bench test problems that were taken from real bioassay data for hazardous substances currently under study by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (lovereading.co.uk)
  • With the help of those systems Reif tries to identify hepatotoxic substances without animal testing. (ifado.de)
  • In addition, water solubility limits (in sediment pore-water) for hydrophobic substances might be reached at relatively low test concentrations, thereby hampering the determination of reliable concentration response curves. (cefic-lri.org)
  • Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, in 2018, the French Group on Clinical Pharmacology in Oncology recommended that physicians screen all patients for potential DPD deficiency to "red flag" those at potential risk for severe 5-FU toxicity. (medscape.com)
  • Liver toxicity is a principal safety concern during drug discovery and development, with the potential to terminate expensive clinical trials already underway. (businesswire.com)
  • These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants. (harvard.edu)
  • It is ready to be used in the clinical setting now, and, as both CD4 and CD8 showed similar results, we need test for CD8 only. (eurekalert.org)
  • Through CRACK IT Solutions, ZeClinics are collaborated with two companies, Noldus and Pivot Park Screening Centre and were awarded Solutions funding to validate the platform against compound sets with known preclinical and clinical toxicity data and are seeking to automate the complete procedure. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • With the Solutions funding awarded the consortium validated the ZeGlobalTox platform against compound sets with known preclinical and clinical toxicity data. (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Previous non ‐clinical safety testing, including rat repeat dose toxicity in adult and juvenile animals, rat reproductive toxicity and rabbit local tolerance studies showed no safety findings of concern. (medworm.com)
  • The failure of safety prediction was pointed to species specificity issues, lack of mechanistic toxicity data and inadequate clinical trials. (rutgers.edu)
  • Greater commitment to their development and implementation is necessary, however, to efficiently meet the needs of high-throughput chemical testing programmes, important emerging testing needs, and the ongoing development of human clinical interventions. (all-creatures.org)
  • If ARUP Consult does not answer your test selection and interpretation questions, or if you'd like to suggest ways to improve content or usability, please leave a message for the ARUP clinical content team. (arupconsult.com)
  • A drug sensitivity test prior to clinical treatment is necessary for individualized cancer therapy. (rsc.org)
  • This study demonstrated that the microfluidic model might be a useful platform for individual drug tests prior to clinical treatment. (rsc.org)
  • Understanding the ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) and toxicity of new drugs are key parts of the compound testing process, during preclinical and clinical trials, providing insights into the disposition of a pharmaceutical compound, including its safety and efficacy. (ddw-online.com)
  • In recent years, advances in the understanding of hepatocyte function, cell signalling, liver toxicity mechanisms and cell culture techniques have led to numerous advances in compound testing for both preclinical and clinical trial purposes. (ddw-online.com)
  • DTI redefines drug toxicity, identifies hepatotoxic drugs, gives mechanistic insights, predicts clinical outcomes and has potential as a screening tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are a critical component of Wisconsin Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (WPDES) permits. (wisc.edu)
  • Sediment tests have had limited application, but they are useful because most toxicants tend to accumulate in sediments and many test species either inhabit the sediments or are in frequent contact with them. (usgs.gov)
  • in pore water in replicate 96-h and 10-d sediment toxicity tests. (usgs.gov)
  • Testing at elevated concentrations may introduce neat substance into the sediment exposures that may confound interpretation of test results due to physical effects. (cefic-lri.org)
  • Results suggest that comprehensive in silico sediment toxicity predictions advocate providing equal attention to organic contaminants with either very low or very high log K. (chemaxon.com)
  • To assess the effects of acrylamide to freshwater fish, Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to serial concentrations of acrylamide (0, 100, 300, and 500 mg/L) to investigate the acute toxicity effects on teleost embryogenesis. (scirp.org)
  • The lower test, 100 mg/L, produced a significant number of developmental anomalies to the Zebrafish that included dorsal tail flexure, severe pericardial edema, facial and cranial defects and decreased heartrate (40 bpm). (scirp.org)
  • These results indicate that acrylamide is teratogenic and provide support for sub-lethal toxicity testing using Zebrafish embryos. (scirp.org)
  • Describe pulmonary function test findings associated with asbestosis. (cdc.gov)
  • It is nonspecific, and positive test findings only indicate presence of an amphetamine drug class. (medscape.com)
  • Confirmation by means of gas chromatography and/or mass spectrometry is strongly recommended when test findings are positive for amphetamines. (medscape.com)
  • An important aspect of the interpretation of toxicity test findings is the quantity of the chemical present in terms of tissue concentration or blood level. (forensicpanel.com)
  • However, later toxicity tests posed different findings. (enviroscienceinc.com)
  • He continued: "To our knowledge, this is the first rapid predictive test based on lymphocyte apoptosis confirmed prospectively in a large number of patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • They have moved from predominantly observational science at the level of disease-specific testing to more predictive models focused on target-specific, mechanism-based biological observations. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The effects of an effluent in chronic toxicity tests are estimated based on the calculation of the IC25. (wisc.edu)
  • chronic toxicity tests' can also refer to. (oup.com)
  • When it comes to testing their potential to cause reproductive and developmental harm, oligonucleotide-based therapeutics present unique challenges. (medindia.net)
  • Dr. John M. DeSesso recently authored an opinion that explores the future of developmental toxicity testing and how this will impact safety testing. (exponent.com)
  • Exponent toxicologists have extensive experience in planning, conducting and coordinating regulatory guideline-based toxicity studies and investigative mechanistic studies to address potential developmental and reproductive issues. (exponent.com)
  • This Test Guideline describes a method to estimate the developmental toxicity of a test chemical to the dung dwelling life stages of dung-dependent dipteran species. (oecd.org)
  • Familiarity with non-animal methods for acute inhalation toxicity testing. (norecopa.no)
  • Although hair and saliva analysis may be obtained, most toxicological monitoring or testing is performed with urine and blood samples. (medscape.com)
  • By using an in vitro HT screening approach, comprehensive toxicological testing of a nanomaterial can be performed in a matter of days. (nanowerk.com)
  • Animal welfare will also be improved by the national and international acceptance of alternative test methods that reduce, refine, and replace the use of animals. (opposingviews.com)
  • What tests are performed in the workup of vitamin toxicity? (medscape.com)
  • Early Toxicity Testing Market is anticipated to reach $1,012 million by 2022, registering a CAGR of 7.3% during the forecast period, 2016 to 2022, according to a new report published by Allied Market Research. (medgadget.com)
  • A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family) and including toxicity test. (hindawi.com)
  • The dynamism of the company can be seen from their constant challenging of the status quo to see if new and improved methods of water testing are possible. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The endorsement of several alternative testing methods by Federal agencies has provided regulated industries with important new tools for assessing potential eye injury hazards. (nih.gov)
  • The new test methods were the topic of a 2011 workshop organized by NICEATM and ICCVAM. (nih.gov)
  • In 2010, ICCVAM evaluated and developed recommendations for five in vitro test methods used to identify ocular irritants. (nih.gov)
  • The agreement between the United States, Canada, Japan and the European Union will yield globally coordinated scientific recommendations on alternative toxicity testing methods that should speed their adoption in each of these countries, thus reducing the number of animals needed for product safety testing. (opposingviews.com)
  • The agreement promotes enhanced international cooperation and coordination on the scientific validation of non- and reduced-animal toxicity testing methods. (opposingviews.com)
  • If the toxicity testing methods are shown to be reproducible based on strong scientific information, and able to accurately identify product related health hazards, the tests are more readily accepted by regulatory agencies. (opposingviews.com)
  • It will speed the adoption of new test methods based on advances in science and technology that will provide more accurate predictions of safety or hazard. (opposingviews.com)
  • ICCVAM is working to promote the development and validation of alternative test methods. (opposingviews.com)
  • Alternative test methods are those that accomplish one or more of the 3Rs - reducing the number of animals used in testing, or refining procedures so animals experience less pain and distress, or replacing animals with non-animal systems. (opposingviews.com)
  • The authors of the article, Jonathan G. Lundgren and Jian J. Duan of the USDA Agricultural Research Service, argue that pesticides and insect-resistant crops based on RNA interference, now in exploratory development, may have to be tested under elaborate procedures that assess effects on animals' whole life cycles, rather than by methods that look for short-term toxicity. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A wide variety of toxicity-test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. (usgs.gov)
  • The methods differ primarily in the selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoint (acute or chronic), (3) test-enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. (usgs.gov)
  • Biochemical testing methods, which have been developing rapidly in recent years, are likely to be among the most useful procedures for large-scale water-quality assessments. (usgs.gov)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass., May 8 /PRNewswire/ -- In response to ever increasing cardiac toxicity found in market drugs, Gwathmey Preclinical Testing Services, Inc. today announced the launch of new Cardionomics(TM) services and the formation of its Cardionomics(TM) Advisory Board to provide new methods and technologies to improve cardiac safety of drug candidates. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The objectives of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity of two bacterial tests commonly used in metal toxicity screening - the Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test and the Pseudomonas putida growth inhibition test - in comparison to the standard acute Daphnia magna test, and to estimate applicability of the selected methods to the toxicity testing of environmental samples. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. (harvard.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to validate and use screening tests to determine the toxicity of raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from 3 sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • However, primary cells differ from batch to batch, are more difficult to maintain, and are more expensive compared to cell lines, which makes them less suitable for toxicity testing and screening. (jove.com)
  • Acute toxicity is measured by exposing Brachionus newly hatched from cysts to a series of toxicant concentrations under controlled conditions. (astm.org)
  • If the toxicity of the chemical is unknown, five nominal test concentrations should be conducted. (oecd.org)
  • 5.5.1 A 48 or 96-h EC50 or LC50 can sometimes be obtained from a three-brood toxicity test with a known test material, but often all the concentrations in the test will be below the EC50 or LC50. (astm.org)
  • In addition, it is usually desirable to know the EC50 or LC50 before beginning the three-brood test, as a means to determine the concentrations for use in the chronic test (see 10.4.1 ). (astm.org)
  • A combination of low concentrations of these drugs presented a good curative effect on tumor cells and low toxicity to the HUVEC layer. (rsc.org)
  • Further, such tests may not be considered appropriate given the estimated environmental concentrations following emissions from typical use patterns. (cefic-lri.org)
  • Hunter WJ, Lingk W, Recht R (1979) Intercomparison study on the determination of single administration toxicity in rats. (springer.com)
  • To this end, the standard safety test design for this type of endpoint was developed in the mid-1960's and has changed little in the ensuing half-century. (exponent.com)
  • 0.826, respectively between the measured and model predicted endpoint toxicity values in the test data. (rsc.org)
  • It can predict significantly the differences in radiation-induced late toxicity between patients, and could be used as a rapid screen for genetically hypersensitive patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • Animal rights organizations-such as PETA and BUAV-question the need for and legitimacy of animal testing, arguing that it is cruel and poorly regulated, that medical progress is actually held back by misleading animal models that cannot reliably predict effects in humans, that some of the tests are outdated, that the costs outweigh the benefits, or that animals have the intrinsic right not to be used or harmed in experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • With appropriate modifications these procedures can be used to conduct tests on temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and on such materials as aqueous effluents (see also Guide E1192 ), leachates, oils, particulate matter, sediments (see also Guide E1383 ), and surface waters. (astm.org)
  • SINGAPORE - Scientists here have developed a way of testing for liver toxicity in just an hour, shortening the wait for results that usually take days. (straitstimes.com)
  • When rolled out clinically, this could benefit cancer patients by quickly detecting liver toxicity, a common side effect of chemotherapy. (straitstimes.com)
  • They use biomarkers (genes) for liver toxicity. (straitstimes.com)
  • The scientists have successfully used both these chips to detect liver toxicity. (straitstimes.com)
  • Our new method significantly reduces time, manpower and costs and yet has the same accurate results as the gold standards of current liver toxicity tests. (straitstimes.com)
  • The biological toxicity of pathogens can be difficult to measure because the "threshold dose" may be a single organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In silico method and In vitro models has been observed as a recent trends in the In vitro toxicity testing market which are expected to witness substantial growth in the near future, due to their rapid adoption and technological advancement. (sbwire.com)
  • A method for the investigation of the acute toxicity of an unknown chemical substance, with an estimation on the LD 50 , is described. (springer.com)
  • New consensus guidelines for toxicity testing that take into consideration the combined chemical and biological characteristics of these novel biopharmaceuticals are presented in Nucleic Acid Therapeutics , a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers. (medindia.net)
  • The oxygen content of water affected chemical toxicity in 7 studies. (enviweb.cz)
  • Using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) oximetry, scientists assessed the gradient of oxygen concentration within spheroids, 3D cell cultures typically used for testing the chemical toxicity within liver and tumour models. (eurekalert.org)
  • The test chemical is mixed with bovine faeces, to which either 10 eggs of Scathophaga stercoraria or 10 larvae of Musca autumnalis are added. (oecd.org)
  • Toxicity-test results are most effective when used as a complement to chemical analyses, hydrologic measurements, and other biological monitoring. (usgs.gov)
  • However, meaningful interpretation of ambient test results depends on the existence of accompanying chemical analysis of the ambient media. (usgs.gov)
  • Introduced for use in effluent and ambient water evaluations, Ceriodaphnia have also been a valuable addition to single chemical test procedures. (astm.org)
  • Drug toxicity is an adverse reaction of the body towards a drug that results as a side effect of a drug, reaction to a drug or drug abuse. (medindia.net)
  • Considering the limitations of this dose-response concept, a novel Drug Toxicity Index (DTI) has been proposed recently. (wikipedia.org)