Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Shigella dysenteriae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Trihexosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Globosides: Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins: N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Butyric Acid: A four carbon acid, CH3CH2CH2COOH, with an unpleasant odor that occurs in butter and animal fat as the glycerol ester.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Edema Disease of Swine: An acute disease of young pigs that is usually associated with weaning. It is characterized clinically by paresis and subcutaneous edema.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Clathrin Heavy Chains: The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.P Blood-Group System: A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.trans-Golgi Network: A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Transcytosis: The transport of materials through a cell. It includes the uptake of materials by the cell (ENDOCYTOSIS), the movement of those materials through the cell, and the subsequent secretion of those materials (EXOCYTOSIS).Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Brefeldin A: A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Immunochromatography: A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Serum Amyloid P-Component: Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.GermanyO Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Pinocytosis: The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Tosylphenylalanyl Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of Serine Endopeptidases. Acts as alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Mice, Inbred BALB CLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Toxicity Tests, Chronic: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Neutral Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Clathrin: The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cancer cells that express receptors for EGF will then experience SubAB toxicity. Vaccines Another use of AB5 toxins is using ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning ...
... to which the renal toxicity of Shiga toxin may be attributed. Gb3 is also found in central nervous system neurons and ... Shiga toxin (Stx) - true Shiga toxin - is produced by Shigella dysenteriae. Shiga-like toxins 1 and 2 (SLT-1 and 2 or Stx-1 and ... "Phylogenetic diversity and similarity of active sites of Shiga toxin (stx) in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) ... Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, expressed by genes considered to be part of ...
Alpha toxin Anthrax toxin Cyanotoxin Diphtheria toxin Exotoxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Shiga-like toxin Proft T (editor) ( ... and could pose a major biological warfare threat due to their extreme toxicity and ease of production. They also serve as ... Some bacterial toxins, such as Botulinum neurotoxins, are the most potent natural toxins known. However, microbial toxins also ... Microbial toxins are toxins produced by micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi. Microbial toxins promote infection and ...
"Production of Shiga toxin by Escherichia coli measured with reference to the membrane vesicle-associated toxins". FEMS ... Falagas ME, Kasiakou SK (February 2006). "Toxicity of polymyxins: a systematic review of the evidence from old and recent ... polymyxin is also used in clinical work to increase the release of secreted toxins, such as Shiga toxin, from Escherichia coli ...
Shiga-toxin-associated HUS (STx-HUS), which normally presents with diarrhea, and atypical HUS. The Shiga-toxin inhibits the ... and drug toxicities, e.g. calcineurin inhibitor toxicity. ... bacterial Shiga toxins or endotoxins, antibodies, and drugs; ... Generally, renal complications are particularly predominant with Shiga-toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (STx-HUS) and ... Bacterial toxins are the primary cause of one category of thrombotic microangiopathy known as HUS or hemolytic uremic syndrome ...
FSL-GB3 as a solution/gel has been used to inhibit HIV infection and to neutralise Shiga toxin. FSL blood group A as a solution ... Toxicity/vitality experiments in small laboratory animals, zebrafish, cell cultures, spermatozoa and embryos find no toxic ... Toxicity - FSL constructs are biocompatible, disperse into biological solutions without solvents, detergents. They label non- ...
Shiga toxins (Stx) are the primary virulence factors in enterohaemorrhagic E. coli but EHEC produces several other virulence ... This modification is required in all RTX toxins; however, its exact function in RTX toxicity is not understood. Members of the ... RTX-toxin family, 1.C.11.1.1) and the MARTX toxins (CCT family, 1.C.57.3.4) (multifunctional autoprocessing RTX toxins). MARTX ... RTX toxins have been found in numerous strains of Pathogenic E. coli. The prototypical RTX toxin, α-haemolysin (HlyA; TC# 1.C. ...
Median lethal dose
Shiga toxin (from dysentery) mice 2 ng/kg 0.000000002 . Tetanospasmin (tetanus toxin) mice 2 ng/kg 0.000000002 . ... "Chemical toxicity of uranium" (PDF). who.int.. *^ Hayes WJ (21 December 2013) . "Pharmacology and toxicology of DDT". In ... A lower LD50 is indicative of increased toxicity. The test was created by J.W. Trevan in 1927. The term semilethal dose is ... Botulinum toxin (Botox) human, oral, injection, inhalation 1 ng/kg (estimated) 0.000000001 . ...
... was found to inhibit the growth of a Shiga toxin-producing bacteria called Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, ... to test the toxicity of OTA in rats, a different dietary dose of OTA was administered to male Fischer rats. Only chronic ... "Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 on fungal colonies". Microbial ... Aspergillus ochraceus is a mold species in the genus Aspergillus known to produce the toxin ochratoxin A, one of the most ...
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC): Update on outbreak in the EU, 27 July 2011 Archived 4 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine ... and Solanine Toxicity (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanum lycopersicum L.)". Disease-a-Month. 55: 391-402. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth. ... "Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli in Germany (22 June 2011, 11:00)". ECDC. 22 June 2011. Archived from the original on ... Some sprouts can be cooked to remove the toxin, while others cannot. With all seeds, care should be taken that they are ...
Toxins vary greatly in their toxicity, ranging from usually minor (such as a bee sting) to almost immediately deadly (such as ... Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... "toxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Retrieved 13 ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation).. A toxin (from Ancient Greek: τοξικόν, translit. toxikon) is a poisonous substance ...
... may occur due to infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella species, causing low platelet counts, poor ... Loperamide is not recommended in children, however, as it may cross the immature blood-brain barrier and cause toxicity. ... Disease secondary to toxins may also occur. Some food-related conditions associated with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea include ... but salicylate toxicity is theoretically possible. It is estimated that there were two billion cases of gastroenteritis that ...
Toxins vary greatly in their toxicity, ranging from usually minor (such as a bee sting) to almost immediately deadly (such as ... Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... "toxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Retrieved 13 ... Environmental toxins. See also: Environmental toxicology. The term "environmental toxin" can sometimes explicitly include ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... Toxicity. Birtoxin only affects mammals. No effect is found on reptiles, insects or fish. In experiments performed on ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Possani, L.D.; Becerrill, B.; Delepierre, M.; Tytgat Hammock, J. (1999). "Scorpion toxins specific for Na+-channels". European ...
... will increase mortality by enhancing botulinum toxin's mechanism of toxicity. ... Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... Microbial toxins. References. *^ a b c d e f g Montecucco C, Molgó J (June 2005). "Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an ... Toxin production. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ...
... will increase mortality by enhancing botulinum toxin's mechanism of toxicity. With regard to detection, current[when?] ... Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... Microbial toxins. References. *^ a b c d e f g Montecucco C, Molgó J (June 2005). "Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an ... Toxin production. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ...
Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... The lipid A domain is responsible for much of the toxicity of Gram-negative bacteria. When bacterial cells are lysed by the ... "Toxins. 10 (8): 326. doi:10.3390/toxins10080326. PMC 6115757. PMID 30103489.. *^ Meseguer, Victor; Alpizar, Yeranddy A.; Luis, ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... Toxicity and predation. Like other genus Taricha members, the glands in the skin of Taricha torosa secrete the potent ... Its adult length can range from 5 to 8 in (13 to 20 cm). Its skin produces a potent toxin. ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ...
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... Toxicity. Histrionicotoxin is relatively not as toxic as other alkaloids from poison dart frogs. Preliminary tests showed ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Histrionicotoxins are a group of related toxins found in the skin of poison frogs from the family Dendrobatidae, notably ...
Shiga toxin/Verotoxin. *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin. *Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin ... Neal, G.E.; Eaton, D.L.; Judah, D.J.; Verma, A. (July 1998). "Metabolism and Toxicity of Aflatoxins M1and B1in Human-Derivedin ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Nevertheless, they appear much less capable of causing mutagenesis than the unmetabolized toxin. ...
টক্সিন - উইকিপিডিয়া
Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli). *E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin ... টক্সিন toxicityর উপর নির্ভর করে নানান ধরনের হতে পারে, যেমন সচরাচর দেখা যায় এরকম ক্ষুদ্র টক্সিন (যেমন মৌমাছির হুলের দংশন) থেকে ... ডোরল্যান্ডের চিকিৎসাশাস্ত্র অভিধানে "toxin" *↑ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary"। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ...
"Tracing seeds, in particular fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, in relation to the Shiga toxin-producing E. coli ( ... Additionally, the Carcinogenic Potency Project, which is a part of the US EPA's Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity ( ... When evaluating environmental toxins such as heavy metals, the USDA has noted that organically raised chicken may have lower ... This class of molecules includes everything likely to be considered edible, and include most pesticides and toxins too, ...
Validation of treatment strategies for enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4 induced haemolytic uraemic syndrome: case...
Quinolone antibiotics induce shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages, toxin production, and death in mice. J Infect Dis2000;181:664 ... In theory antibiotic treatment may lead to higher toxicity through an intestinal Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, with a massive ... Epidemic profile of shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany. N Engl J Med2011;365:1771-80. ... In addition, injected shiga toxin in animal models has shown a short half life in the circulation. Hence the evidence for ...
EFFECTIVE BACTERIOLYSIS OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI O157: H7 CAUSED BY SPECIFIC BACTERIOPHAGE ISOLATED FROM PIG...
EFFECTIVE BACTERIOLYSIS OF SHIGA TOXIN-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI O157: H7 CAUSED BY SPECIFIC BACTERIOPHAGE ... Comparative Toxicity of Cryoprotectants on Staphylococcus aureus at Room Temperature Rachel C. Soltys, Joany Van Balen, Armando ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) Escherichia coli are bacteria that ... Źródło izolacji Human Człowiek Milk Mleko Calf Cielę Shiga toxin Toksyna Shiga Sensitivity A Podatniość A Stx1 ++ Stx2 +++ Stx1 ...
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Reduced Toxicity of Shiga Toxin (Stx) Type 2c in Mice Compared to Stx2d Is Associated with...
... lethal dose in mice of the toxins. We found that serine 291 was associated with increased toxicity in vivo and that either ... We conclude that both amino acids at positions 291 and 297 in Stx2c contribute to its decreased stability and in vivo toxicity ... We made mutations at these two sites to create intermediate toxins between Stx2c and Stx2d, and determined the 50% cytotoxic ... Shiga toxin (Stx) is an AB5 ribotoxin made by Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). These organisms cause diarrhea, ...
Purification and Characterization of Shiga Toxin 2f, an Immunologically Unrelated Subtype of Shiga Toxin 2
Subtypes of Stx2 are diverse with respect to their sequence, toxicity, and distribution. The most diverse Stx2 subtype, Stx2f, ... Stx2f was also much more stable at low pH and high temperature compared to Stx2a, suggesting the toxin itself may survive ... Conclusions Here, we detail the purification, biochemical properties, and toxicity of Stx2f, from an E. coli strain isolated ... Background Shiga-like toxin 2 (Stx2) is one of the most important virulence factors in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. ...
Researchers shed new light on how to combat Shiga and ricin toxins
Theyve figured out how Clostridium difficiles most potent toxin gets into cells and zeroed in on the first new botulinum ... and his lab are world experts in toxins and how to combat them. ... New leads on blocking toxicity When the team compared the ... What do toxins need in a cell receptor?. Shiga and ricin toxins have a similar mechanism of action once inside our tissues, ... used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to explore what factors in cells are necessary for the toxins to get in. Shiga toxin, a widespread ...
A single-step purification and molecular characterization of functional Shiga toxin 2 variants from pathogenic Escherichia coli
A one-step affinity chromatography method was developed to purify Shiga toxin 2 variants (Stx2) Stx2a, Stx2c, Stx2d and Stx2g ... The development of a simple method for purification of Stx2 variants will enable further studies of Stx2-mediated toxicity in ... Shiga toxin 2 variants; cell-free translation assay; cytotoxicity; purification of Shiga toxins; thermal stability of Shiga ... A one-step affinity chromatography method was developed to purify Shiga toxin 2 variants (Stx2) Stx2a, Stx2c, Stx2d and Stx2g ...
Toxins | Free Full-Text | Ouabain Protects Human Renal Cells against the Cytotoxic Effects of Shiga Toxin Type 2 and Subtilase...
The majority of cases are associated with Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). In Argentina, HUS is endemic and ... HGEC and HK-2 were pretreated with OUA and then incubated with the toxins. OUA protected the HGEC viability from Stx2 and SubAB ... Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics. Next Article in Special Issue. Soluble ... Keywords: shiga toxin; subtilase cytotoxin; Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome; Ouabain; prevention shiga toxin; subtilase cytotoxin; ...
Ability of Manganese in Neutralizing Fatal Shiga Toxin, Reveals Carnegie Mellon Study
An element usually found in nature may give way to neutralize the potentially toxic effects of a compound known as Shiga toxin ... "We know the toxicity levels of manganese in humans; we know ways to administer it. While further testing is needed to determine ... Shiga toxin binds to GPP130, hitching a ride on a route that doesnt go to the lysosome. Instead, the toxin is carried to the ... "I knew that Shiga toxin was one of the key cargo molecules that bypass the lysosome as they go from the endosome to the Golgi ...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: an overview
The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of cattle in human disease due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia ... Shiga Toxins / metabolism* * Shiga Toxins / toxicity * Virulence Factors / genetics * Virulence Factors / physiology ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: an overview J Anim Sci. 2007 Mar;85(13 Suppl):E45-62. doi: 10.2527/jas.2006-508. Epub ... The objective of this review is to highlight the importance of cattle in human disease due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia ...
Mucus-Activatable Shiga Toxin Genotype stx2d in Escherichia coli O157:H7 - Volume 23, Number 8-August 2017 - Emerging...
We identified the mucus-activatable Shiga toxin genotype stx2d in the most common hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated ... This mucus-enhanced toxicity is termed "activation," and activatable Stx2d proteins are designated Stx2dact. Stx2dact ... Bonanno L, Loukiadis E, Mariani-Kurkdjian P, Oswald E, Garnier L, Michel V, et al. Diversity of Shiga toxin-producing ... The emerging clinical importance of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1587-95. DOI ...
Immunization of mice with chimeric antigens displaying selected epitopes confers protection against intestinal colonization and...
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause diarrhea and dysentery, which may progress to hemolytic uremic syndrome ( ... Exosome-associated Shiga toxin 2 is released from cells and causes severe toxicity in mice. Sci. Rep. 8, 10776 (2018). ... Lee, M. S. & Tesh, V. L. Roles of shiga toxins in immunopathology. Toxins (Basel) 11, 1-26 (2019). ... consisting of the B subunit of Shiga toxin type 2 and brucella lumazine synthase confers total protection against Shiga toxins ...
Hamabata T[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Receptor affinity, stability and binding mode of Shiga toxins are determinants of toxicity. ... Shiga toxin 2eB-transgenic lettuce vaccine is effective in protecting weaned piglets from edema disease caused by Shiga toxin- ... An orally applicable Shiga toxin neutralizer functions in the intestine to inhibit the intracellular transport of the toxin. ... Genome analysis of a novel Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1)-converting phage which is closely related to Stx2-converting phages but not to ...
Alternative Pathway Activation of Complement by Shiga Toxin Promotes Exuberant C3a Formation That Triggers Microvascular...
LPS increased the toxicity of Stx (58). Consistently, both Stx2 and LPS were required to elicit a HUS-like response in mice (16 ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Stx. Shiga toxin. TM. thrombomodulin. t-PA. tissue-plasminogen activator. VWF. von ... Effect of Shiga toxin and Shiga-like toxins on eukaryotic cells. Microbes Infect. 3: 493-507. ... Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E.coli O157:H7 has become a global threat to public health; it is a primary cause of diarrhea- ...
Frontiers | Shiga toxin 2-induced intestinal pathology in infant rabbits is A-subunit dependent and responsive to the tyrosine...
... that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb3. We also demonstrate that Shiga toxin treatment of the infant ... that of the infant rabbit expresses the Shiga toxin receptor Gb3. We also demonstrate that Shiga toxin treatment of the infant ... However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis is lacking. One of ... However, a consensus regarding the role Shiga toxins play in the onset of diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis is lacking. One of ...
Frontiers | Shiga toxin type-2 (Stx2) induces glutamate release via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in murine neurons ...
... direct toxicity to neurons by Stx has not been studied. We used murine neonatal neuron cultures to study the interaction of ... We used murine neonatal neuron cultures to study the interaction of Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) with cell surface expressed Gb3. ... The key STEC virulence factors associated with systemic illness resulting in CNS impairment are Shiga toxins (Stx). While ... The key STEC virulence factors associated with systemic illness resulting in CNS impairment are Shiga toxins (Stx). While ...
Identification of TLR4 as the Receptor That Recognizes Shiga Toxins in Human Neutrophils | The Journal of Immunology
Comparison of the relative toxicities of Shiga-like toxins type I and type II for mice. Infect. Immun. 61: 3392-3402. ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. Stx. Shiga toxin. Stx1. Shiga toxin 1. Stx2. Shiga toxin 2.. ... STEC produce two main AB5 toxin variants-Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-consisting of five B chains that are ... The interactions of human neutrophils with shiga toxins and related plant toxins: danger or safety? Toxins (Basel) 4: 157-190. ...
Gordon VM[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Comparison of the relative toxicities of Shiga-like toxins type I and type II for mice. ... Evidence that proteolytic separation of Shiga-like toxin type IIv A subunit into A1 and A2 subunits is not required for toxin ... An enzymatic mutant of Shiga-like toxin II variant is a vaccine candidate for edema disease of swine. ... Vaccination with genetically modified Shiga-like toxin IIe prevents edema disease in swine. ...
GA-10 (Clone 4) ATCC ® CRL-2393™ Homo sapiens Burkitt's lym
Humans not the major target of Shiga toxin | EurekAlert! Science News
These bacteria can produce large amounts of the Shiga toxin and release it into the surrounding environment. ... of consuming Shiga-packing E.coli in a contaminated bag of spinach -- have always had the cold comfort of being told that not ... all common bacteria make humans extremely sick, only the strains that have integrated the Shiga gene into their DNA. ... Paper titled, Shiga Toxin Toxicity and Resistance in Tetrahymena, will be presented at 12 noon to 1:30 p.m., Monday, Dec. 3. ...
Identification, Characterization, and Distribution of a Shiga Toxin 1 Gene Variant (stx1c) in Escherichia coli Strains Isolated...
Comparative toxicity and virulence of Escherichia coli clones expressing variant and chimeric Shiga-like toxin type II operons ... Nucleotide sequence analysis and comparison of the structural genes for Shiga-like toxin I and Shiga-like toxin II encoded by ... Phylogenetic diversity and similarity of active sites of Shiga toxin (Stx) in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) ... Variants of Shiga-like toxin II constitute a major toxin component in Escherichia coli O157 strains from patients with ...
Bovine Non-O157 Shiga Toxin 2-Containing Escherichia coli Isolates Commonly Possess stx2-EDL933 and/or stx2vhb Subtypes |...
Comparative toxicity and virulence of Escherichia coli clones expressing variant and chimeric Shiga-like toxin type II operons ... Bovine Non-O157 Shiga Toxin 2-Containing Escherichia coli Isolates Commonly Possess stx2-EDL933 and/or stx2vhb Subtypes. Kim N ... Detection of Shiga-like toxin (stx1 and stx2), intimin (eaeA), and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) hemolysin (EHEC ... Stx2 subtyping of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle in France: detection of a new stx2 subtype and ...
CiteSeerX - Citation Query Prospective genomic characterization of the German enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104:H4...
Purification and characterization of Shiga toxin 2f, an immunologically unrelated subtype of Shiga toxin 2 by Craig Skinner, ... Subtypes of Stx2 are diverse with respect to their sequence, toxicity, and distribution. The most diverse Stx2 subtype, Stx2f, ... Purification and Characterization of Shiga Toxin 2f, an Immunologically Unrelated Subtype of Shiga Toxin 2. PLoS ONE 8=-=(3 ... Background: Shiga-like toxin 2 (Stx2) is one of the most important virulence factors in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E ...
Serotyping, stx2 Subtyping, and Characterization of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement Island of Shiga Toxin-Producing...
The Vero cell toxicity assay was performed according to a protocol described previously (4, 5). Vero cells were cultivated in ... Multiplex PCR for detection of the heat-labile toxin gene and Shiga-like toxin I and II genes in Escherichia coli isolated from ... Human infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli other than serogroup O157 in Germany. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:635- ... Stx2 subtyping of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle in France: detection of a new Stx2 subtype and ...
Carnegie Mellon study reveals potential of manganese in neutralizing deadly S... ( PITTSBURGHCarnegie Mellon University...)
After entering the body Shiga toxin is secreted by the infecting bact...,Carnegie,Mellon,study,reveals,potential,of,manganese, ... in,neutralizing,deadly,Shiga,toxin,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device ... "We know the toxicity levels of manganese in humans; we know ways to administer it. While further testing is needed to determine ... Shiga toxin binds to GPP130, hitching a ride on a route that doesnt go to the lysosome. Instead, the toxin is carried to the ...
Direct Pathway from Early/Recycling Endosomes to the Golgi Apparatus Revealed through the Study of Shiga Toxin B-fragment...
1998) Expression of mutant dynamin inhibits toxicity and transport of endocytosed ricin to the Golgi apparatus. J Cell Biol 140 ... Other toxins such as Shiga toxin, verotoxins, Cholera toxin, and ricin do not depend on acidic pH in endosomes for intoxication ... Shiga toxin and other toxins of this family can escape the endocytic pathway and reach the Golgi apparatus. To synchronize ... 1994) Retrograde transport from the Golgi complex to the ER of both Shiga toxin and the nontoxic Shiga B-fragment is regulated ...
Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie...
Shiga Toxin. A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by ... It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1. ... Shiga Toxin 2. A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains ... This bacteria produces several toxins one of which is botulinum toxin A. This toxin causes the symptoms of food poisoning.... ... Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie ...
Tips From Other Journals - American Family Physician
Systemic spread of Shiga toxin causes renal endothelial cell toxicity and may be responsible for hemolytic uremic syndrome. ... Shiga toxin is a family of toxins produced by a variety of organisms, including Shigella dysenteriae type I and Shiga toxin- ... Identification of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains requires detection of the Shiga toxin gene by polymerase chain ... Foodborne diseases: shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC). Pediatr Infect Dis J. October 1999;18:909-10. ...
An Orally Applicable Shiga Toxin Neutralizer Functions in the Intestine To Inhibit the Intracellular Transport of the Toxin |...
Comparison of the relative toxicities of Shiga-like toxins type I and type II for mice. Infect. Immun. 61:3392-3402. ... Structure, biology, and relative toxicity of Shiga toxin family members for cells and animals, p. 121-128. In J. B. Kaper and A ... An Orally Applicable Shiga Toxin Neutralizer Functions in the Intestine To Inhibit the Intracellular Transport of the Toxin. ... An Orally Applicable Shiga Toxin Neutralizer Functions in the Intestine To Inhibit the Intracellular Transport of the Toxin ...
Shiga toxin | Infection and Immunity
Shiga Toxin Type 1a (Stx1a) Reduces the Toxicity of the More Potent Stx2a In Vivo and In Vitro Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing ... Bimodal Response to Shiga Toxin 2 Subtypes Results from Relatively Weak Binding to the Target Cell There are two major ... Protective Immunization of Mice with an Active-Site Mutant of Subtilase Cytotoxin of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 Survives within Human Macrophages: Global Gene Expression Profile and Involvement of the Shiga Toxins ...
Effects of Azithromycin on Shiga Toxin Production by Escherichia coli and Subsequent Host Inflammatory Response | Antimicrobial...
Structure, biology, and relative toxicity of Shiga toxin family members for cells and animals, p. 121-128. In J. B. Kaper and A ... Sequence of Shiga toxin 2 phage 933W from Escherichia coli O157:H7: Shiga toxin as a phage late-gene product. J. Bacteriol.181: ... Quinolone antibiotics induce Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages, toxin production, and death in mice. J. Infect. Dis.181:664- ... Evaluation of the role of Shiga and Shiga-like toxins in mediating direct damage to human vascular endothelial cells. J. Infect ...
Shiga-Like Toxin II Derived from Escherichia coli O157:H7 Modifies Renal Handling of Levofloxacin in Rats | Antimicrobial...
Bacterial endotoxin both enhances and inhibits the toxicity of Shiga-like toxin II in rabbits and mice. Infect. Immun. 57:3434- ... Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome: interleukin-1β enhancement of Shiga toxin cytotoxicity toward human vascular ... Comparison of the relative toxicities of Shiga-like toxins type I and II for mice. Infect. Immun. 61:3392-3402. ... Shiga-Like Toxin II Derived from Escherichia coli O157:H7 Modifies Renal Handling of Levofloxacin in Rats. Ying Lan Zhao, Xiao ...
In silico analysis of Shiga toxins (Stxs) to identify new potential vaccine targets for Shiga toxin-producingEscherichia coli |...
... of structurally and functionally related toxins serving as the main virulence factors for pathogenicity of the Shiga toxin- ... Do the A subunits contribute to the differences in the toxicity of Shiga toxin 1 and Shiga toxin 2? Toxins 7(5):1467-1485 ... In silico analysis of Shiga toxins (Stxs) to identify new potential vaccine targets for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli ... Shiga toxins belong to a family of structurally and functionally related toxins serving as the main virulence factors for ...
Hemolytic Uremic SBacteriaShigellaReceptorInduceBacterial toxinsGenesVeroInfectionKnown as Shiga toxinProduce Shiga toxinClostridiumRetrogradeIntestinalVariantsPathogenicityBindsSubunitsRicin toxinsPathogensStxsPotentGolgiLethalActivity of the toxinsEndothelial cellInhibitDiphtheria toxinProteinsBotulinum toxinAssaysHemorrhagic colitisAnthraxGeneMicrobial ToxinsEukaryoticCytosolTargetsProtein toxinsSensitivityEnzymeReceptorsCellularCells
Hemolytic Uremic S4
- Systemic spread of Shiga toxin causes renal endothelial cell toxicity and may be responsible for hemolytic uremic syndrome. (aafp.org)
- The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
- The toxins inhibit protein synthesis and are therefore deleterious to humans, leading to life-threating complications including hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) (Boerlin et al. (springeropen.com)
- Acquired infections that leave lasting damage, such as multiple episodes of pyelonephritis, shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. (renalandurologynews.com)
- The findings could pave the way for future research aimed at creating an inexpensive treatment for infections caused by bacteria that produce the lethal Shiga toxin. (medindia.net)
- After entering the body, Shiga toxin is secreted by the infecting bacteria. (medindia.net)
- The stx genes are encoded on temperate bacteriophages in the chromosome of the bacteria, and production and release of the toxin are highly dependent on induction of the phages. (nih.gov)
- Bacteria that carry a virus (a bacteriophage) that packs the Shiga toxin gene (Stx) may depend on it for protection from bacterial predators like the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena. (eurekalert.org)
- These bacteria can produce large amounts of the Shiga toxin and release it into the surrounding environment. (eurekalert.org)
- The lab is particularly interested in the actions of the Pertussis and Shiga Toxins encoded by the bacteria. (uc.edu)
- A paper published in the December, 2002 issue of Infection and Immunity by a research team at the Louisiana State University (LSU) Health Sciences Center in New Orleans provides clear evidence that the lethal toxins of such infectious bacteria as Pseudomonas and anthrax can be blocked by a drug developed at the LSU Health Sciences Center in New Orleans. (innovations-report.com)
- Bacteria produce a number of toxins which rapidly enter and kill cells. (innovations-report.com)
- It could also prove useful in treating infection from other viruses and bacteria whose toxins are dependent upon furin activity for activation. (innovations-report.com)
- One shiga-toxin-making bacteria is Shigella dysenteriae . (blogspot.com)
- Other examples of protein toxins made by bacteria are tetanus toxin, diphtheria toxin, and botulinum toxin. (blogspot.com)
- You're exposed to shiga from animals or people who harbor the bacteria that make it, to use the words of the CDC, "when you get tiny amounts of human or animal feces in your mouth. (blogspot.com)
- The toxins these bacteria make - shiga - are that virulent. (blogspot.com)
- Fever, abdominal pain, and bloody stools suggest an inflammatory infection with invasive bacteria or toxin-producing pathogens. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
- Microbial toxins are toxins produced by micro-organisms, including bacteria and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
- Bacteria generate toxins which can be classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
- Toxinosis is pathogenesis caused by the bacterial toxin alone, not necessarily involving bacterial infection (e.g. when the bacteria have died, but have already produced toxin, which are ingested). (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, membrane lipids may be targets/receptors of infectious agents such as bacteria and their associated toxins, viruses or parasites. (itkinhibitor.com)
- Toxins produced by plants and bacteria pose a significant threat to humans, as emphasized by the recent effects of cucumber-borne Shiga toxin in Germany. (redorbit.com)
- We investigate recent literature to highlight the latest developments in the field of glycobiology focused on inhibiting the initial steps of pathogen invasion, with examples for bacteria, toxin and virus interactions. (omicsonline.org)
- The "toxome" allows the screening of all currently known toxin genes and its variants in the whole genome sequence of the mentioned bacteria with a BLASTn algorithm. (fu-berlin.de)
- The toxins are named for Kiyoshi Shiga, who first described the bacterial origin of dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae. (wikipedia.org)
- Shiga toxin (Stx) - true Shiga toxin - is produced by Shigella dysenteriae. (wikipedia.org)
- In this study, the effects of excretion products of Shigella dysenteriae, in which Shiga toxin is present, were investigated on early larval stages of Zebrafish, an animal model with many advantages over other in vivo experimental models traditionally used. (bvsalud.org)
- En este estudio, fueron evaluados los efectos del productos de excreción de Shigella dysenteriae (PESdy), sobre estadios larvarios de pez cebra (Danio rerio), un modelo animal con muchas ventajas sobre otros modelos experimentales in vivo utilizados tradicionalmente. (bvsalud.org)
- What do toxins need in a cell receptor? (news-medical.net)
- To get in, though, they rely on different entry portals: Shiga toxins use a type of glycolipid (a fatty molecule with an attached sugar) called Gb3 as their receptor, while ricins use a variety of glycans (sugar molecules). (news-medical.net)
- This was not possible previously, because the receptor for the toxin isn't found in most cell types,' says Dong. (news-medical.net)
- It is specifically required for cells to make Gb3, the receptor used by Shiga toxin. (news-medical.net)
- Once bound, the toxin undergoes receptor-mediated endocytosis and is transported retrograde through the early endosome, the Golgi apparatus, and to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (frontiersin.org)
- While neurons express the Stx receptor globotriaosylceramide (Gb 3 ) in vivo , direct toxicity to neurons by Stx has not been studied. (frontiersin.org)
- Furin regulates both the activation of Pseudomonas exotoxin A and the Quantity of the toxin receptor expressed on target cells. (nih.gov)
- Shiga toxins (Stx) play a pivotal role in HUS by triggering endothelial damage in kidney and brain through globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer) receptor targeting. (jimmunol.org)
- The Shiga toxin kills by binding to a receptor on the surface of Tetrahymena. (eurekalert.org)
- Because they can be purified and added exogenously to cells, retrograde transport of toxin proteins is initially unidirectional, in contrast to the recycling behavior of ER residents, KDEL-receptor (KDELR), or p24 proteins, thus allowing observation of retrograde transport in the absence of concurrent anterograde transport. (rupress.org)
- Interestingly, the bacterial Shiga toxin can be used for targeted therapy of gastric cancer, because this tumor entity expresses the receptor of the Shiga toxin. (wikipedia.org)
- The glycolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) has been reported to be the receptor for both toxins. (jove.com)
- Toxicity and immunogenicity of a verotoxin 1 mutant with reduced globotriaosylceramide receptor binding in rabbits. (semanticscholar.org)
- Differentiation-associated toxin receptor modulation, cytokine production, and sensitivity to Shiga-like toxins in human monocytes and monocytic cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
- Shiga toxins use a type of glycolipid (a fatty molecule with an attached sugar) called Gb3 as their receptor, while ricins use a variety of glycans (sugar molecules). (technology.org)
- In cell cultures, manganese treatment yielded an almost 4,000-fold increase in the amount of Shiga toxin required to induce cell death. (medindia.net)
- A number of physical and chemical agents, including a variety of toxins, have been reported to induce apoptosis ( 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 14 ). (asnjournals.org)
- Numerosos estudios han demostrado que la toxina Shiga induce la apoptosis en diferentes tipos de células, sin embargo, este importante proceso ha sido poco estudiado en modelos experimentales in vivo. (bvsalud.org)
- One of the biggest challenges is to develop an effective and safe immunogen to ensure non toxicity but also a strong input to the immune system to induce long-lasting, high affinity antibodies with anti-Stx neutralizing capacity. (conicet.gov.ar)
- Photo-optical observations on the mechanism of defecation in man Shiga toxin B subunits induce VWF secretion by human endothelial cells and thrombotic microangiopathy in ADAMTS13-deficient mice. (courtfield.ml)
- Proteolytic activation of bacterial toxins by eukaryotic cells is performed by furin and by additional cellular proteases. (nih.gov)
- This latter phenomenon, termed "mosaicism," is reported with increasing frequency among bacterial toxins. (asmscience.org)
- However, a prominent theme of bacterial toxin research in the last decade is the identification of multiple patho-genetic functions for bacterial toxins. (asmscience.org)
- For example, diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease results from mucosal inflammation, exudation into the lumen, and from multiple secretagogues and bacterial toxins that affect enterocyte function. (merckmanuals.com)
- Nausea and vomiting may suggest the presence of pre-formed bacterial toxins and time of onset from ingestion or exposure can provide additional clues for the underlying etiology (e.g. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
- Some bacterial toxins, such as Botulinum neurotoxins, are the most potent natural toxins known. (wikipedia.org)
- Some bacterial toxins can be used in the treatment of tumors. (wikipedia.org)
- The screen entailed systematically deleting genes one by one in a cell line, to see if the loss of any of them prevented the toxins from entering. (news-medical.net)
- The accessory genes are highly conserved among the RTX toxins, whereas there is substantial diversity among the toxin structural genes. (asmscience.org)
- The fundamental mechanisms of bacterial evolution operate on toxin genes as they do on all genetic loci. (asmscience.org)
- The samples were probed for Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-I and SLT-II genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the results were positive. (cdc.gov)
- In theory, disrupting these proteins, or the genes that make them, could serve as a useful toxin antidote. (redorbit.com)
- Additionally, the high number of genes involved also suggests that synergistic drug therapies against these types of toxins could be designed. (redorbit.com)
- The results show that genetic variations of all 39 toxin genes are available in both databases. (fu-berlin.de)
- We made mutations at these two sites to create intermediate toxins between Stx2c and Stx2d, and determined the 50% cytotoxic dose on Vero cells before and after heat treatment, and the 50% lethal dose in mice of the toxins. (mdpi.com)
- The Vero cell toxicity assay was performed according to a protocol described previously ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
- We further identified 12 stx 1 + and stx 2 + isolates expressing little or no Shiga toxin 1 (Stx 1 ) and/or 2 (Stx 2 ) by reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and Vero cell toxicity assays. (elsevier.com)
- Because Shiga toxin was dependent on GPP130 and manganese caused loss of GPP130, Linstedt and Mukhopadhyay decided to see whether manganese would protect against Shiga toxin infection. (medindia.net)
- Contaminated food and drinks are the source of infection and how this toxin is spread. (wikipedia.org)
- Microbial toxins promote infection and disease by directly damaging host tissues and by disabling the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
Known as Shiga toxin2
- An element usually found in nature may give way to neutralize the potentially toxic effects of a compound known as Shiga toxin, was discovered by Carnegie Mellon University researchers. (medindia.net)
- PITTSBURGHCarnegie Mellon University researchers have discovered that an element commonly found in nature might provide a way to neutralize the potentially lethal effects of a compound known as Shiga toxin. (bio-medicine.org)
Produce Shiga toxin1
- They've figured out how Clostridium difficile 's most potent toxin gets into cells and zeroed in on the first new botulinum toxin identified since 1969. (news-medical.net)
- Clostridium septicum alpha toxin uses glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein receptors. (nih.gov)
- Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin is proteolytically activated by furin. (nih.gov)
- They'd previously figured out how Clostridium difficile 's most potent toxin gets into cells and zeroed in on the first new botulinum toxin identified since 1969. (technology.org)
- Clostridium tetani produces tetanus toxin (TeNT protein), which leads to a fatal condition known as tetanus in many vertebrates (including humans) and invertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
- Finally we demonstrate that the infant rabbit model may be used to test candidate therapeutics against Shiga toxin-mediated intestinal damage. (frontiersin.org)
- Therefore, we propose that this model may be useful in elucidating mechanisms by which Shiga toxins could contribute to intestinal damage in the human. (frontiersin.org)
- These toxins have a cytotoxic effect on intestinal epithelial cells that probably causes the characteristic bloody diarrhea. (aafp.org)
- In the field of studies of acute toxicity induced by bacterial agents, Shiga toxins have been relevant due to the severity of the extra-intestinal diseases they cause. (bvsalud.org)
- Stx1 encoded by these stx 1 variants differed by one and two amino acid residues in their A subunits from Stx of S. dysenteriae type 1 and from Stx1 encoded by phage 933, respectively, whereas their B subunits were identical to those of the latter two toxins ( 21 , 22 ). (asm.org)
- Binding of Pk-trisaccharide analogs of Globotriaosylceramide to Shiga toxin variants. (uc.edu)
- For toxins alone, variants have been described with respect to functional changes [44, 70, (fu-berlin.de)
- Based on of phylogenetic differences, the hypothesis of this thesis is that allelic variants of toxins differ in their biological effect with regard to their toxicity. (fu-berlin.de)
- Different variants of the Subtilase Cytotoxin SubAB were predicted and analyzed with regard to a different pathogenic potential and toxicity as was shown for the different Shiga-Toxin variants. (fu-berlin.de)
- The inclusion of the Shiga-Toxin variants [44, revealed the same results, indicating that the chosen bioinformatics methods are sound and comparable. (fu-berlin.de)
- Now, setting their sights on Shiga and ricin toxins, they've not only identified new potential lines of defense, but also shed new light on a fundamental part of cell biology: glycosylation. (news-medical.net)
- Shiga and ricin toxins have a similar mechanism of action once inside our tissues, disrupting cells' ability to make proteins. (news-medical.net)
- A research team from Harvard Medical School and Boston Children's Hospital has identified new potential lines of defense for Shiga and ricin toxins. (technology.org)
- Once inside our tissues, Shiga and ricin toxins work similarly, disrupting cells' ability to make proteins. (technology.org)
- Bustamante, A.V., & Sanso, A.M. Multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) as subtyping technique for foodborne pathogens (2018) En: Grumezescu AM & Holban AM (Eds. (gob.ar)
- Understanding the mechanisms used by pathogens and toxins to adhere and invade human cells could lead to the development of new strategies for preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases . (omicsonline.org)
- However, the Stxs are now classified as select agents, and specific rules govern the distribution of both the toxin and clones of the toxin. (asmscience.org)
- In conclusion, this study shows a unique effect of IFN- γ in the suppression of the toxicity of Stxs in a human microvascular endothelial cell model and the involvement of a novel mechanism in this suppression. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Instead, the toxin is carried to the Golgi apparatus and then to the endoplasmic reticulum, where it gets released into the cell's cytoplasm. (medindia.net)
- I knew that Shiga toxin was one of the key cargo molecules that bypass the lysosome as they go from the endosome to the Golgi apparatus, so I figured it would be a good marker to study in relation to GPP130. (medindia.net)
- Shiga toxin and other toxins of this family can escape the endocytic pathway and reach the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
- To synchronize endosome to Golgi transport, Shiga toxin B-fragment was internalized into HeLa cells at low temperatures. (rupress.org)
- Thus, we hypothesize that Shiga toxin B-fragment is transported directly from early/recycling endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. (rupress.org)
- Notably, the precise site at which Shiga toxin leaves endosomes to target the TGN/Golgi apparatus is still unknown. (rupress.org)
- Overexpression of Rab6:GDP (T27N mutant) using T7 vaccinia inhibited toxicity of Shiga holotoxin, but did not alter STB transport to the Golgi or Golgi morphology. (rupress.org)
- The toxins move from the plasma membrane through endosomes to the Golgi and ER then into the cytosol, where they exert their toxicity. (biologists.org)
- The translocated, cytosolic A chain is difficult to detect because toxin trafficking to the ER is an extremely inefficient process: most internalized toxin is routed to the lysosomes for degradation, so only a small fraction of surface-bound toxin reaches the Golgi apparatus and ER 6-12 . (jove.com)
- This technology has proven to be particularly fruitful when screening for proteins required for the uptake of lethal toxins (i.e. (asm.org)
- In anthrax, the lethal factor toxin must bind to another part of the anthrax toxin, called the PA molecule, before it can enter and destroy a cell. (innovations-report.com)
- Furin, a protein-cutting enzyme or protease, which sits on the outside of cells, cuts the PA molecule, making it small enough for the lethal factor toxin to attach. (innovations-report.com)
- therefore, without cut PA, lethal factor toxin loses the ability to bind to and enter the cell, and becomes harmless. (innovations-report.com)
- The LSUHSC scientists found that D6R was not only able to protect cells from lethal toxins, but to do so without invoking a cytokine response itself. (innovations-report.com)
Activity of the toxins2
- Once Stx reach the target organs and enter the cells, the toxins inhibit protein synthesis, leading to autophagy and apoptosis and ultimately tissue damage, which may lead to HUS 7 . (nature.com)
- Shiga toxins act to inhibit protein synthesis within target cells by a mechanism similar to that of ricin. (wikipedia.org)
- When the team compared the results of the Shiga and ricin screens, they found two factors that both toxin classes require to penetrate cells: the transmembrane proteins TMEM165 and TM9SF2. (news-medical.net)
- This mucus-enhanced toxicity is termed "activation," and activatable Stx2d proteins are designated Stx2dact. (cdc.gov)
- Shiga toxins are proteins. (blogspot.com)
- Previous research has identified some of the proteins made by our own cells that are used by the toxins. (redorbit.com)
- However, the extent to which different toxins share requirements for the host proteins they use was not clear. (redorbit.com)
- Dr. Bard and colleagues discovered that many different proteins are required for maximum toxicity of ricin and PE, and the requirements of both toxins differ significantly and at multiple levels. (redorbit.com)
- Most assays to detect toxins target one or two toxins at a time, at best. (pnnl.gov)
- There's a pressing need for assays that analyze multiple toxins simultaneously so that in case of exposure, differentiation of multiple biothreat toxins can occur early enough for appropriate care to be given,' Varnum added. (pnnl.gov)
- CONCLUSION: With advantages of rapid sample preparation procedure and transparent observation of the live heart, this model can potentially be applied to large-scale drug screening and toxicity assays for non-ischemic HF. (bvsalud.org)
- A role for PACE4 in the proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin protective antigen. (nih.gov)
- In vitro processing of anthrax toxin protective antigen by recombinant PC1 (SPC3) and bovine intermediate lobe secretory vesicle membranes. (nih.gov)
- Dr. Lindberg was recently awarded a grant by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to test D6R against anthrax toxin in both cells as well as animal models (rats and mice). (innovations-report.com)
- The typical RTX toxin is encoded by a four-gene operon comprising, in order, the modifying enzyme, the toxin structural gene, and the two components of the secretion system. (asmscience.org)
- cDNA microarray analysis of changes in gene expression associated with MPP+ toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. (bu.edu)
- To identify genetic variations of each toxin gene, the software Geneious was used, providing alignments and phylogenetic trees. (fu-berlin.de)
- We used toxins as a probe to understand a key cellular process,' Dong elaborates. (news-medical.net)
- The protozoan might make a model cellular system for Shiga detoxification, which one day might relieve some of the stress around the salad bar, say Koudelka and Hennessey. (eurekalert.org)
- Interestingly, the toxins share some genetic requirements, and exhibit similar sub-cellular localizations at various levels of their trafficking, suggesting two intertwined pathways converging and diverging at multiple levels," explains Dr. Bard. (redorbit.com)
- The study, recently published in PLOS Biology , used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to explore what factors in cells are necessary for the toxins to get in. (news-medical.net)
- Especially toxins of the latter group are thus interesting models to study transport routes in animal cells that to date are still little explored. (rupress.org)
- The strong selective pressure for cells resistant to toxin uptake enables the screening of pools of host cells, as opposed to arrayed libraries, saving in both cost and labor. (asm.org)
- The plasma membrane of toxin-treated cells is selectively permeabilized with digitonin, allowing collection of a cytosolic fraction which is subsequently perfused over an SPR sensor coated with an anti-toxin A chain antibody. (jove.com)
- Working on the theory that if the action of furin could be blocked, the toxins would not be activated and therefore unable to kill cells, the research team set out to make a peptide that would suppress furin activity. (innovations-report.com)
- All of these toxins share a similar structure and mechanism for entering targeted host cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Associated with prophage induction (caused by factors such as antibiotics) the effective production of Shiga toxin and their release after, caused by phage, lysis of bacterial cells. (docplayer.net)
- Also, the toxin uptake in the Stx-resistant phenotype was more than 100-fold greater than that of normal cells, when compared at Stx concentrations resulting in equivalent degrees of cell damage. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- This indicated that the intracellular toxin was active as an N -glycosidase, while cells were still over 60 % viable, suggesting a possible unknown cytotoxic function of Stx. (microbiologyresearch.org)